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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 6545(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)

ISSN 0976 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 124-130 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJEET
IAEME

A REALISTIC ESTIMATION OF ENERGY SAVING WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DOMESTIC SECTOR
A.Srinivasa Rao1, S.V. L. Narasimham2 and B.Suresh Kumar3
1

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam530045, India 2 Department of Information Technology, JNT University, Hyderabad-500085, India 3 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam530045, India

ABSTRACT Electrical energy is the unchallenged prime mover of the modern human life. The demand for the energy is constantly increasing in developing countries like India, where the generation of power is predominantly by fossil fuels. Because of the various disadvantages associated with fossil fuels besides the economic constraints, it is becoming mandatory to switch to alternative sources for energy. In this paper an attempt has been made to use non conventional energy sources at the domestic level that supplements the regular power supply. The houses are trifurcated into low, middle and high income groups based on energy consumption. Solar and wind energies are considered as they are available in plenty in most of the regions in India, and can be installed easily at the consumers premises. Key words: renewable energy, photo voltaic energy, wind energy, Micro Power Generation 1. INTRODUCTION India stands fifth in the world with respect to energy consumption with an installed capacity of about 210.936GW [1]. This is still far behind relative to the developed countries around the globe. The demand/supply gap is around 8.2% in India [2], which is hampering the growth of industrial sector and becoming an impediment to the progress of economy. India heavily depends on the import of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas which results in heavy loss of foreign exchange. These sources are fast depleting and hence the prices are
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME

shooting up affecting the countrys economy adversely. Hence it is essential to vet alternate energy technologies to tackle the energy crisis. Kennedy et al [4] gave a generic approach to calculate long term costs and benefits of renewable energy generation. However this limits to impact on two different units rather than system as a whole. Bergmann et al [5] estimated the costs of renewable technologies and no approach was made to quantify the costs G. Young et al [6] indicated that photovoltaic generation is cost effective if we wish to power a home which is more than 2 miles from nearest power line. This literature survey prompted the authors to think about effective generation for domestic applications using renewable energy sources. The Indian Renewable Energy Program is well established under the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) [3] which is promoting R&D, demonstration projects, subsidy programs etc. in the area of renewable energy sources along with Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA). The key factors that force usage of renewable energy are: Demand- supply gap Economic and environment and energy security concerns Huge untapped potential of renewable energy and reducing cost of generation Feasibility particularly for domestic and rural electrification
This paper addresses the need for usage of available renewable energy sources at the domestic level and associated savings achieved. 2. MICRO GENERATION Micro generation refers to the production of low carbon electrical power by domestic consumers to meet their own requirements. Micro generation technologies include solar based photovoltaic systems and small wind turbines which can be installed easily at the premises of the consumer to supplement the regular grid supply. 3. FOCUS ON SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY India receives a good amount of solar radiation as it is located between the equator and tropic of cancer in the Northern hemisphere. The daily incident solar energy ranges from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 based on location with about 1500 to 2000 sunshine hours per year [7]. Wind energy depends indirectly on solar radiation as the circulation of air is caused by non uniform heating of earths surface. 4. PROBLEM FORMULATION In the present paper a case study is presented to exploit and effectively utilize the renewable energy sources at domestic level to reduce the energy demand from grid, which in turn minimizes the adverse environmental impact. The houses are classified into three types namely lower class(class A), middle class(class B) and higher class( class C) taking the average consumption into account and load tables are prepared which are shown in Appendix A. The hours of usage is estimated based on the sample survey on one feeder in Visakhapatnam. The monthly and hourly solar and wind energy data is also shown in appendix B which is taken from [8]. Depending on month and time the consumer should connect his loads to the available solar panel and/or wind generator and remaining loads will be connected to the grid. The bill has been calculated when loads are connected to renewable energy sources (solar and wind). The bill when loads are connected to renewable energy sources is savings obtained in the month. The savings are calculated for the three classes individually.
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME
Appendix A CLASS WISE LOAD TABLES CLASS A
TIME 18-22 18-24 1-6 10-12 17-21 18-24 1-6 18-21 18-22 LABLE L1 F1 F1 TV TV BL1 BL1 L2 L3 WATTAGE 40 60 60 100 100 10 10 40 40 MONTH 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12

CLASS B
ROOM Bed room TIME 18-21 18-24,1-6 22-24,1-6 10-13,16-22 10-13,16-22 18-22 6-9,12-13,18-21 8-9,12-13,20-21 7-8 6-7,16-17 6-8,18-22 18-22 22-24,1-6 LABLE L1 F1 BL1 TV F2 L2 L3 F3 MIX M L4 L5 BL2 WATTAGE 40 60 10 100 60 40 40 60 450 750 40 40 10 MONTH 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12

Hall

Kitchen

Motor Bath Room Surroundings

CLASS C
ROOM Bed Room1 TIME 18-21 18-22 18-24.1-6 18-24,1-6 18-22 18-24,1-6 14-15,20-24 1-4 18-24,1-6 18-24,1-6 16-21 16-21 18-21 10-13,16-22 18-22 18-22 12-14,18-22 8-9,20-22 7-8,18-22 7-8 1-24 LABLE L1 L2 F1 BL1 L3 F3 AC1 AC1 BL2 L4 F4 L5 L6 F5 L7 L8 TV F6 L9 MIX Fr WATTAGE 40 40 60 10 40 60 2400 2400 10 40 60 40 40 60 40 40 100 60 40 450 1000 MONTH 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12 1-12

Bed Room2

Verandah Guest Room

Hall

Kitchen

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME

Appendix B WIND TABLE


Month Wattage/Hour Jan 207 Feb 230 March 227 Apr 165 May 348 June 563 July 668 Aug 461 Sep 358 Oct 185 Nov 282 Dec 340

SUN TABLE: Wattage available Month/Time January February March April May June July August September October November December 6 0 0 0 25 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 25 25 25 50 50 50 25 25 25 15 15 15 8 75 75 75 125 125 125 75 75 75 25 25 25 9 225 225 225 275 275 275 225 225 225 75 75 75 10 300 300 300 375 375 375 300 300 300 150 150 150 11 350 350 350 450 450 450 350 350 350 250 250 250 12 400 400 400 500 500 500 400 400 400 350 350 350 13 375 375 375 450 450 450 375 375 375 300 300 300 14 350 350 350 400 400 400 350 350 350 250 250 250 15 275 275 275 350 350 350 275 275 275 200 200 200 16 125 125 125 250 250 250 125 125 125 100 100 100 17 25 25 25 100 100 100 25 25 25 50 50 50 18 0 0 0 25 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0

UNIT COST TABLE Units per month 0-50 51-100 101-200 201-300 301-500 >500 Unit cost (Rs) 1.45 2.80 3.60 5.75 6.75 7.25

The algorithm for proposed method: 1. Input choice of Class of Load. 2. Input Load data, Wind energy data, solar energy data and cost per unit. 3. Calculate Gi= Wi + Si Where Gi = Renewable energy generation at ith hour, Wi = Wind energy generation at ith hour, Si = Solar energy generation at ith hour. 4. If Li < Gi , Energy saving is Li kwh. Where Li = Load at ith hour. 5. Calculate Cost of Energy saving Ci = Li * (Cost/unit) Where Ci = Cost of Energy saving at ith hour. 6. If Gi < Li , Energy saving is Gi kwh. 7. Calculate Cost of Energy saving Ci = Gi * (Cost/unit). 8. Plot graph for Load curve, Energy savings in Kwh and Cost of Energy savings in Rs. 127

International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME

5. RESULTS A software has been developed using MATLAB for calculating the savings obtained by use of renewable energy sources in a given month. The load curves are plotted based on the classification of houses. Table 1 gives the energy savings estimated with the use of renewable energy. Graphs are also plotted for every month with respect to savings in KWH and saving in INR for each classification. Figure 1, 2 and 3 presents the typical load curve, energy and cost savings of class A, B and C houses respectively. The accuracy of the estimation solely depends on the data assumed and hence the method is highly flexible and can be tailored to suit any local conditions. Table 1: Energy savings with renewable generation Type of House Energy consumption per year (KWH) 686.2 1974.7 18721 Energy generated by renewable sources (KWH) 645.8470 1392.9 3873.5 % Energy Saving Cost saving

(INR) 94.11 70.53 20.69 1010.2 3276.4 20032

Class A Class B Class C

Figure 1: Load and saving of Class A house

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME

Figure 2: Load and saving of Class B house

Figure 3: Load and saving of Class C house

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), IAEME

6. CONCLUSION It is observed that the percentage energy savings with the available solar and wind powers is 94.11, 70.53 and 20.69 in the case of Class A, class B and Class C houses respectively. The authors feel that by shifting partially to renewable energy sources will make India to attract foreign investments to herald green energy revolution in India. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Electricity sector in India: Wikipedia A report by central electricity authority, India in April 2012 www.mnre.gov.in Kennedy,2005, wind power planning: assessing long term costs and benefits, energy policy 33, 1661-1675 Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., Wright, R., 2006. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments. Energy Policy 34, 10041014. G.Young et.al Cost effectiveness of photovoltaics renewable electricity solutions. www. Renewable electricity.com Solar power in India: Wikipedia Surface meteorology and Solar Energy, A renewable energy resource web site (release 6.0) sponsored by NASA Avneet Hira, Vandana Kansal, TK Jindal, Jimmy Kansal and Ashwagosha Ganju, Harnessing Wind Energy In Cryospheric Regions International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 313 - 319, Published by IAEME. Mr. Laith O. Maheemed, D.S. Bankar and Dr. D.B. Talange, Power Quality Improvement Of Wind Energy Conversion System Using Unified Power Quality Conditioner International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 288 - 302, Published by IAEME. Dr.S.M.Ali, K.K.Rout and Bijayini Mohanty , Application Of Renewable Energy Sources For Effective Energy Management International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 18 - 31, Published by IAEME.

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