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International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th 15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceeding - ME

An experimental study of air temperature profile in an air-conditioned room


Yogesh Shantaram Fulpagare
yogeshsfulpagare@gmail.com

Dr. Neeraj Agrawal


neeraj.titan@gmail.com Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, 402 013, Maharashtra state, India

Mukesh Gulab Patil


mukeshgpatil@gmail.com Abstract - The experiments were performed in a small air conditioned room to study the characteristics of airflow pattern for four different room conditions. These conditions are decided by changing the operating modes of air conditioner and ceiling fan. Distribution of temperature is presented for each case. The result shows that air conditioner operating with fan gives uniform distribution of cooled air for better comfort condition.
Keywords CFD, room air flow

I. INTRODUCTION Space air diffusion distributes the conditioned air containing outdoor air to the occupied zone (or a given enclosure) in a conditioned space according to the occupants requirements. Satisfactory space air diffusion evenly distributes the conditioned and outdoor air to provide a healthful, and comfortable indoor environment for the occupants, or the appropriate environment for a specific manufacturing process, at optimum cost. Air flow pattern determines the performance of space air diffusion in the occupied zone of commercial buildings or in the working area of a factory. The optimum air flow pattern for an occupied zone depends mainly on Indoor temperature, Relative humidity, indoor air quality requirements, outdoor air supply characteristics of the building. A significant amount of work has been done in the field of air distribution system and in airflow pattern. In air conditioning spaces, the air velocity field and the air temperature distribution are not uniform, with implications on thermal comfort and energy consumption. It is reported that though computational fluid dynamics (CFD) may predict the temperature distribution and the velocity field, the computational time is prohibitive for real-time applications [1]. A methodology for obtaining reduced order models for temperature distribution in air conditioned rooms was developed and analysed to test the feasibility of the approach [2]. Pallier et al. has established a simplified relationship to enable study of the temperature distribution using reduced scale model [3]. Foster et al. presented experimental study of temperature control and the overall economics of food storage of air infiltration through the doorways of food storage rooms [4]. Therdthai et al. [5] carried out in a three-dimensional CFD modeling and simulation of the temperature profiles and airflow patterns of an industrial continuous baking process. It was found that

the temperature stratification could be maintained at an acceptable comfort level by designing the supply air conditions properly and a clearance zone is suggested as a design consideration for locating the fads and occupants to avoid undesirable draught discomfort to the occupants [6]. A numerical model is presented to investigate the influence of different factors on the thermal comfort and the energy consumption by studying air-flow and temperature field inside a passenger compartment by using commercial software FLUENT to simulate 3-D temperature distributions and flow field in a compartment with or without passengers Zhang et al. [7]. Indoor environment of a mechanically ventilated room, overall ventilation effectiveness of air distribution systems and air temperature stratification in a room were predicted by employing Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) [8-9]. It is observed that most of the studies of room air flow pattern are based on the CFD simulation, relatively experimental study is less available in open literature. Room air flow pattern of an air-conditioned room is experimentally simulated and presented here. II. EXPERIMENTATION The schematic layout of the air conditioned room which is chosen for experimentation is shown in Fig. 1. The room is located at ground floor. Table 1 summaries the instruments used for experiments.

Figure 1.Schematic diagram of test Room

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India

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International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th 15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceeding - ME

TABLE 1: INSTRUMENTS LIST

Instruments 1.Thermocouple (T-type) 2. PVC pipe 3.Multipoint temperature indicator 4. Pipe stand 5. Humidity Indicator

Quantity 50 meters 4 meter 1 1 1


Figure 4. Room Grid Points

Test room specifications are as follows: L H W= 143 96 13, Location: Ground floor. It can be seen that a 1.5 TR split air Conditioner (A/C) is located on north facing wall which consists two windows also (Fig 2). Location of the ceiling fan is shown in Fig 3. To measure the temperature at different location inside the test room, the floor of the room is divided by forming 78 metrics in x-y plane with 56 points of 2 2 distance [Fig 4] while in z direction, temperature is measured at each 1 foot distance starting from floor. To facilitate the temperature measurement, a PVC pipe (1 inch diameter) with 8 holes, 1foot apart with thermocouple sensors is used as shown in Fig. 5. Each thermocouple is connected to multipoint temperature indicator [Fig 5.].

Figure 5. Temperature measurement facility

Figure 2. Elevation

The experiments are carried out at four different conditions. Condition No.1: A/C and Fan both were OFF Condition No.2: A/C ON and Fan OFF Condition No.3: A/C and Fan both were ON Condition No.4: A/C OFF and Fan ON The temperature readings are taken at eight levels designated as T1, T2, T3 .T8 from floor at the noon time. The readings are taken along Y-axis from a1-a8, b1-b8... g1 g8 as per the grids shown in Fig.5. As mentioned earlier temperature is measured by the K type of thermocouple placed on a single grid point and recorder directly by multipoint temperature indicator. Atmospheric temperature and humidity is measured at the start and end of the measurement. a) Condition No. 1: A/C Position: OFF, Fan position: OFF Start Time: 1:20 p.m. End Time: 2:30 p.m., Atmospheric Temperature (0C) varies 37.5 to 38.2, and Atmospheric Humidity (%) varies 51 to 55. The recorded temperature of the room is tabulated in table 2.
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Figure 3. Plan

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India

International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th 15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceeding - ME

TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE AT CONDITION NO. 1

d6 T7 32.4 32.4 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.7 32.7 32.6 32.7 32.7 32.9 32.9 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.1 33.1 33.1 33.2 33.1 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.5 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.6 T8 32.2 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.4 32.5 32.4 32.5 32.5 32.7 32.7 32.8 32.8 32.8 32.8 32.9 32.9 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.1 33.5 33.1 33.2 33.1 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.4 33.4 33.4 e6 f6 g6 a7 b7 c7 d7 e7 f7 g7 a8 b8 c8 d8 e8 f8 g8

35.0 35.0 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.0 35.0 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.2 35.2 35.2 35.2 35.1

34.7 34.8 34.4 34.8 34.9 34.9 34.8 34.8 34.8 34.8 34.8 34.9 34.9 34.9 35.0 35.0 35.0 34.7

34.3 34.4 34.0 34.4 34.4 34.5 34.4 34.3 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.6 34.6 34.6 34.2

33.9 34.0 33.9 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 33.9 33.9 34.0 34.0 34.1 34.0 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.2 34.3

33.8 33.8 33.8 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 33.9 33.9 34.1 34.1 34.2 34.2 34.1 34.2 34.2 34.3 34.1

33.7 33.8 33.8 33.9 33.9 33.9 33.8 33.8 33.8 34.0 34.0 34.1 34.0 34.1 34.0 34.0 34.1 34.0

33.7 33.7 33.5 33.8 33.8 33.8 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.9 33.9 34.0 33.9 33.9 33.9 34.0 34.0 33.7

33.5 33.5 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.5 33.7 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.7 33.6 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.7

T1 a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 f1 g1 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 a6 b6 c6 33.9 34.0 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.3 34.3 34.5 34.5 34.6 34.6 34.6 34.6 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.1 34.7 34.8 34.7 34.8 34.8 34.8 34.9 34.9 34.9 34.9

T2 33.7 33.8 33.8 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.4 34.4 34.4 34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.6 34.5 34.5 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7

T3 33.4 33.9 33.4 33.6 33.6 33.7 33.7 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.9 33.9 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.0 34.1 34.7 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.2 34.2 34.3 34.3 34.3

T4 32.8 32.9 32.9 33.1 33.1 33.2 33.2 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.5 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.7 34.7 33.6 33.7 33.7 33.6 33.6 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.7 33.8 33.8 33.9 33.9 33.9

T5 32.3 32.4 32.4 32.6 32.6 32.7 32.7 32.6 32.7 32.8 32.9 33 33.0 33.1 33.1 33.1 33.1 33.1 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.5 33.5 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.7 33.7 33.7

T6 32.3 32.4 32.4 32.6 32.6 32.7 32.7 32.6 32.7 32.8 32.9 33 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.1 33.1 33.2 33.2 33.1 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.6 33.7 33.7

b) Condition No. 2: A/C Position: ON, Fan position: OFF, Set temperature of A/C: 20 0C, Start Time: 1:45 p.m. End Time: 3:00 p.m., Atmospheric Temperature (0C): 38.0 to 38.8, Atmospheric Humidity (%): 57 to 59. c) Condition No. 3: A/C Position: ON, Fan position: ON, Set temperature of A/C: 20 0C, Start Time: 1:30 p.m., End Time: 2:50 p.m. Atmospheric Temperature (0C): 37.5 to 38.2, Atmospheric Humidity (%): 58 to 60. d) Condition No. 4: A/C Position: OFF, Fan position: ON, Set temperature of A/C: 20 0C, Start Time: 12:00 p.m., End Time: 1:00 p.m. Atmospheric Temperature (0C): 36.0 to 37.00, Atmospheric Humidity (%): 57 to 60

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION To analyze the experiment results, contour surface graphs are plotted using software ORIGION 6.1. Variation of temperature in XY plane is plotted at different heights shown in Figs. 6 14.

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India

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International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th 15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceeding - ME

Figure 6.Variation of T1 in XY plane

Figure 9.Variation of T4 in XY plane

Figure 7.Variation of T2 in XY plane

Figure 10.Variation of T5 in XY plane

Figure 11.Variation of T6 in XY plane Figure 8.Variation of T3 in XY plane

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India

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International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th 15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceeding - ME

TABLE 7: AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AT DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

Natural T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
. Figure 12.Variation of T7 in XY plane

A/C ON 24.818 23.602 23.389 22.993 22.635 22.571 22.187 21.882

A/C and Fan ON 25.416 25.135 25.028 24.810 24.246 24.301 24.141 23.905

Only Fan ON 28.803 28.730 28.493 28.338 27.944 28.001 28.030 28.919

34.734 34.530 34.115 31.695 33.414 33.352 33.262 33.112

T7 T8

The average temperatures at various XY plane is tabulated in Table 3 and plotted to get the variation of average temperature from floor to ceiling. The average temperature contour is shown in Fig 14. The variation of average temperature with the height of the room is depicted in Fig.15. Variation of room temperature with and without fan is same. However, fan reduces the average temperature almost by 5 to 6 0C. Minimum temperature is obtained with air-conditioned alone. The temperature of the room increases slightly by putting on the fan. However, temperature variation becomes more uniform as shown in Fig. 15.
Figure 13.Variation of T8 in XY plane

Figure 15.Variation of Average Temperature along the room height

Figure 14.Variation of Average Temperature in XY plane

The general observations are as follows: In all test conditions there is decrease in temperature along the height of room; around 2 0C variations is observed

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International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th 15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceeding - ME

The temperature varies from low temperature at side wall 3 to high temperature at side wall 4 in condition 1.This pattern of temperature distribution remains constant at all heights. When A.C. is ON there is a relatively high temperature zone forming. In this case the temperature distribution did not remains the constant throughout the height, also the relatively high temperature zones get reduced from bottom to top. In case of third condition i.e. both A.C. and fan are ON, the average temperature of room increases around 2.5 0C but more uniform distribution of is occurred. The pattern is somewhat non uniform when observed throughout the height of room. In this case also the relatively high temperature zone is forming below the fan position. In condition no.4 the temperature of room reduced around 6 0C compare to atmospheric temperature. The pattern remains almost unchanged only the absolute values are increasing in bottom to top direction. Also in this case the pattern is quite similar to the condition no. 1. In both A.C. operating conditions there is almost 10C increase from height of 5 feet to 6 feet but in other cases it is relatively negligible

It is not only good for comfort but also saves energy since the air-conditioner runs at lower capacity. VI. REFERENCES
[1] O. Yongson, I. Badruddin, Z. Zainal and P. Narayana. Air flow analysis in air conditioned room, Building and Environment; 43 (2007) 1531-1537 A. Sempey, C. Inard, C. Ghiaus, and C. Allery. Fast simulation of temperature distribution in air conditioned rooms by using proper orthogonal decomposition, Building and Environment; 44 (2009) 280-289. J. M. Pallier, R. Yezou and J. Brau. Temperature Distribution in air conditioned room, Applied Energy; 14 (1983) 49-64. M .Foster, R. Barrett, S. James, M. Swain. Measurement and prediction of air movement through doorways in refrigerated rooms, Int. J. Refrigeration; 25 (2002) 11021109. N. Therdthai, W. Zhou and T. Adamczak. Three-dimensional CFD modelling and simulation of the temperature profiles and airflow patterns during a continuous industrial baking process, J. Food Engineering; 65 (2004) 599-608. C. Chao M. Wan. Airflow and air temperature distribution in the occupied region of an underfloor ventilation system, Building and Environment; (2004) 749-762. H. Zhang, L. Dai, G. Xu, Y. Li, W. Chen W. Q. Tao. Studies of air-flow and temperature field inside a passenger compartment for improving thermal comfort and saving energy, App. Thermal Engg; 29 (2009) 2022202. Q. Kong B. Yu. Numerical study on temperature stratification in a room with underfloor air distribution system, Energy and Buildings; 40 (2008) 495502. G. Gan. Evaluation of room air distribution systems using computational fluid dynamics, Energy and Buildings; 23 (1995) 83-93.

[2]

[3] [4] [5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

IV. CONCLUSIONS The results from experimental study provide an insightful understanding of air flow pattern in a room at different conditions. More uniform temperature is observed in an air-conditioned room when fan is kept ON at relatively low speed.

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