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Unit 1: Sustaining arth's


cosystems
Lionel Sandner
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
Glen Fatkin
^orth Surrey Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
Donald Lacy
Stellys Secondary School
Saanichton, British Columbia
Josef Martha
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
James Milross
Fraser Heights Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
Karen Naso
David ompson Secondary School
Vancouver, British Columbia
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York
St. Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London
City Milan New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei
ii
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Study Tips for Provincial Exam Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
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Chapter 1 8iomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Biomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Chapter 2 nergy 0ow and nutrient cycIes support Iife in ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2 Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3 Eects of Bioaccumulation on Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Chapter 3 cosystems continuaIIy change over time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.1 How Changes Occur Naturally in Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 How Humans Infuence Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.3 How Introduced Species Aect Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Processes of Science VocabuIary 7erms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Unit 1 CIossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
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Introduction
is guide is designed to help you study for the BC Science 10 provincial exam. Completing all the questions in
this Study Guide will not guarantee that you will pass the exam, but it will help prepare you for success.
Each unit in this Study Guide matches up to a unit in your BC Science 10 student book. Each Study Guide unit
begins with a checklist of what you should be able to do by the end of that unit. You can use this checklist to
help you fgure out which concepts you already know and which concepts you need to study further. Each Study
Guide unit ends with a checklist of Processes of Science Vocabulary Terms that you should know and a Glossary
of terms from the unit that you should understand.
Each section in the Study Guide has the following features.
- Summary of Key Points-you must know each of these key points for the exam
- Study Notes-these are the key points expanded to include details that may be on the exam
- Quick Check-these are questions to check your understanding of the Study Notes. If you cannot answer
Quick Check questions, review the material in your student book or talk to your teacher.
- Sample Exam Questions Explained-this feature explains in detail the right and wrong answers for questions
that are similar in style to the questions that will be on the provincial exam. e feature also describes why
each question was asked and where you can get additional help if you did not understand the question.
One strategy to help you study is to cover up the right-hand column in the question and try to answer the
question frst. en, uncover the column to check your answer or to fgure out why an answer is wrong.
Figuring out why you got an answer wrong can help you to learn the concept.
- Practice Questions-these are questions that are similar in style to the questions that will be on the
provincial exam. ere are 10 Practice Questions at the end of each section.
Support for Studying
When you study for the provincial exam, you should have the following materials. If you are missing any of the
items below, please see your teacher.
- #$4DJFODF student book Your student book covers the same curriculum that the provincial exam was
developed for. It is an excellent source of information for studying.
- Your notes Your teacher has worked the whole semester or school year with you to help you develop the
right knowledge, skills, and attitudes. A key part of this work is the notes you have created. Remember to
review these notes while you study.
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Data Pages It is very important that you understand the parts of the
Provincial Exam Data Pages and how to use them. Your teacher can answer your questions about these
pages.
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Vocabulary List You should know the meaning of each of these terms. If
you are unsure of any of the terms, check the Glossary at the end of each Study Guide unit or at the back of
your student book.
- e BC Science 10 website You can fnd practice questions and web links that will help you study the
material you have covered in Science 10 this year. Visit www.bcscience10.ca.
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Getting Help
When you study for a year-end test like the provincial exam, it is not uncommon to get stuck on concepts or
have questions on material you have previously covered in class. If you are unsure about a concept or something
covered in class, check with a classmate frst. If both of you cannot fgure out the answer, visit your teacher
together.
Tips from Experts
Study experts have a common list of hints they provide to people of all ages. Research has shown that these tips
help you study.
- Have a positive attitude.
- Be motivated and take responsibility for your learning.
- Attend class so you do not miss key points about what you are learning. Your friend's notes are not a
replacement for being present in class and learning the concepts while they are being taught.
- Study regularly to help you identify areas where you need extra help.
- Get help when you need it, and do not be afraid to ask questions. ere are no bad questions when it
comes to fguring something out.
- Be a good test taker. Have a good sleep the night before the test and be sure to eat a nutritious breakfast the
day of the test. During the test, read each question carefully before selecting your answer.
Here is a list of common hints that science teachers in British Columbia have shared with their students.
- Know how to use your Data Pages.
- Practise reading graphs.
- Practise interpreting illustrations.
- Do not spend extra time studying what you already know.
- When you are writing the exam, read the question frst, then read the possible answers. If you do not know
the answer, then look at the picture (if there is a picture).
- Take your time when you write the exam. Answer the questions you know frst, and then go back to
questions that you are not sure of.
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By the end of this unit you should be
able to:
1. Explain the interaction of abiotic and biotic
factors within an ecosystem
is includes being able to:
defne abiotic, biotic, biome, and
ecosystem
identify distinctive plants, animals, and
climatic characteristics of Canadian
biomes (tundra, boreal forest, temperate
deciduous forest, temperate rainforest,
grasslands)
identify biotic and abiotic factors in a
given scenario or diagram
describe the relationships between
abiotic and biotic elements within an
ecosystem, including
- air, water, soil, light, temperature
(abiotic)
- bacteria, plants, animals (biotic)
design and analyse experiments on the
eectiveness of altering biotic or abiotic
factors (e.g., nutrients in soil: compare
two plant types with the same nutrients,
compare one plant type with dierent
nutrients)
explain various relationships with respect
to food chains, food webs, and food
pyramids, including
- producer
- consumer (herbivore, carnivore,
omnivore)
- predation (predator-prey cycle)
- decomposers
- symbiosis (mutualism,
commensalism, parasitism)
illustrate the cycling of matter through
abiotic and biotic components of an
ecosystem by tracking
- carbon (with reference to carbon
dioxide-CO
2
, carbonate-CO
3
2-
,
oxygen-O
2
, photosynthesis,
respiration, decomposition, volcanic
activity, carbonate formation,
greenhouse gases from human
activity (combustion)
- nitrogen (with reference to nitrate-
NO
3
-
, nitrite-NO
2
-
, ammonium-
NH
4
+
, nitrogen gas-N
2
, nitrogen
fxation, bacteria, lightning,
nitrifcation, denitrifcation,
decomposition)
- phosphorus (with reference to
phosphate-PO
4
3-
, weathering,
sedimentation, geological upli)
identify factors that aect the global
distribution of the following biomes:
tropical rainforest, temperate rainforest,
temperate deciduous forest, boreal forest,
grasslands, desert, tundra,
polar ice (permanent ice)
using examples, explain why ecosystems
with similar characteristics can exist in
dierent geographical locations (i.e.,
signifcance of abiotic factors)
identify the eects on living things
within an ecosystem resulting from
changes in abiotic factors, including
- climate change (drought, fooding,
changes in ocean current patterns,
extreme weather)
- water contamination
- soil degradation and deforestation
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2. Assess the potential impacts of
bioaccumulation
is includes being able to:
defne, using examples, the terms
bioaccumulation, parts per million (ppm),
biodegradation, and trophic levels (with
reference to producers and to primary,
secondary, and tertiary consumers)
identify a variety of contaminants that
can bioaccumulate (e.g., pesticides, heavy
metals, PCBs)
describe the mechanisms and possible
impacts of bioaccumulation (e.g.,
eradication of keystone species,
reproductive impacts)
compare the impact of bioaccumulation
on consumers at dierent trophic levels
(e.g., red tide in oysters and humans;
heavy metals in fsh and humans; PCBs
in fsh, birds, whales)
research and analyze articles on the
causes and eects of bioaccumulation
(e.g., mercury contamination in Inuit
communities and the Grassy Narrows
First Nation community)
3. Explain various ways in which natural
populations are altered or kept in
equilibrium
is includes being able to:
explain how species adapt or fail to
adapt to environmental conditions, with
reference to the following:
- natural selection
- proliferation
- predator-prey cycle
- ecological succession
- climax community
- extinction
- adaptive radiation
describe the impact of natural
phenomena (e.g., drought, fre,
temperature change, fooding, tsunamis,
infestations-pine beetle, volcanic
eruptions) on ecosystems
give examples of how foreign species
can aect an ecosystem (e.g., Eurasian
milfoil, purple loosestrife, Scotch broom,
American bullfrog, European starling in
B.C.)
give examples of how traditional
ecological knowledge (TEK) can aect
biodiversity
(e.g., spring burning by Cree in northern
Alberta)
research and report on situations
in which disease, pollution, habitat
destruction, and exploitation of
resources aect ecosystems
By the end of this unit, you should understand the following key ideas:
1. Biomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere.
2. Energy fow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems.
3. Ecosystems continually change over time.
To help you study you should have the following:
- BC Science 10 student book, pages 2 to 161. Note the practice exam questions on page 138 to 161.
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Data Pages, pages 3, 6, 8, and 9
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Vocabulary List, page 1
- Access to www.bcscience10.ca
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Chapter 1 8iomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere.
l.l 8lomes
I. Summary of Key Points
- Biomes are the largest divisions of the biosphere.
- e large regions within biomes have similar biotic and abiotic components.
- e interaction of these components determines the characteristics of biomes.
- Temperature and precipitation are the main abiotic factors that infuence the distribution of biomes and
the organisms within them.
- Organisms have adaptations for survival in the specifc environmental conditions of their biome.
II. Study Notes
What Is a Biome:
1. e biosphere is the thin layer of air, land, and water at Earth's surface where living things exist.
2. A biome is a large area of the biosphere that has characteristic climate (long-term weather conditions in
an area, including rainfall and temperature), plants, animals, and soil.
3. Examples of biomes include aquatic (related to water) biomes, such as the tropical ocean, and terrestrial
(related to land) biomes, such as desert, tropical rainforest, and permanent ice.
4. Biomes are classifed based on many qualities, such as water availability, temperature, and interactions
between biotic and abiotic factors.
- Biotic factors are all organisms in the environment, including bacteria, plants, and animals.
- Abiotic factors are all non-living parts of the environment, such as air, water, soil, light, and
temperature.
3. e interactions between biotic and abiotic factors determine what characteristics a biome will have.
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lJent|ly eoch ol the lollow|n os e|thet o o|ot|c ot on oo|ot|c loctot.
l. (a) crab ___________________
(b) ocean temperature ___________________
(c) lake water ___________________
(d) dlssolved oxygen ___________________
(e) tldes ___________________
(f ) seaweed ___________________
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Introducing the Biomes of the World
1. One way of classifying the biomes of the world is shown on page 6 of your Data Pages, which shows
the following terrestrial (related to the land) biomes: boreal forest, desert, grassland, permanent ice,
temperate deciduous forest, temperate rainforest, tropical rainforest, and tundra.
2. Similar biomes can exist far apart.
3. Tropical rainforests are found near the equator and have temperatures of 20C to 23C year-round,
receive about 230 cm of rainfall per year, have a dark forest foor that limits plant growth there, and have
plants and animals that survive in warm, wet environments.
4. Hot deserts are found on every continent at about 30 north and south latitude and have hot days with
cold nights; receive less than 23 cm of precipitation per year, have soil that is salty, and have plants and
animals that are able to live there because they can prevent water loss through their leaves or skin.
3. Permanent ice biomes are found near the poles and have very strong winds, receive less than 30 cm of
precipitation a year, have very cold winter temperatures, and have plants that can tolerate drought and
animals that have thick coats and fat layers for warmth.
Factors that Inuence the Characteristics and Distribution of Biomes
1. Annual (yearly) temperature and precipitation (rainfall, snow, mist, and fog) are two of the most
important abiotic factors that infuence which biome will be in an area.
2. Other important abiotic factors include:
- Latitude-the distance north and south from the equator. Latitude infuences both temperature and
precipitation. e tropical zone has very warm temperatures and high precipitation.
- Elevation-the height above sea level. Higher elevations have less air, so retain less heat. Windward
sides of mountains are wet, leeward sides are very dry.
- Ocean currents carry warmth and moisture to coastal areas. Temperate biomes are found where
warm currents meet land.
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5YMGO'LIGO
use the ltec||tot|on onJ 7emetotute Ctoh to onswet the lollow|n quest|ons.
l. (a) what ls the hlghest average annual temperature that would be found ln a grassland
blome! __________
(b) what ls the range (lowest and hlghest) of annual average temperatures for a temperate
declduous forest blome! Hlghest __________ Lowest __________
(c) what ls the lowest average annual preclpltatlon ln a troplcal ralnforest blome! __________
(d) what ls the range (lowest and hlghest) of annual average preclpltatlon ln a boreal
forest blome! Hlghest __________ Lowest __________
(e) what ls the hlghest average annual preclpltatlon and temperature ln a desert blome!
Preclpltatlon __________ Temperature __________
(f ) whlch blomes can have both an annual average ralnfall of less than 25 cm preclpltatlon and a
temperature below 0C! ________________ ________________ ________________
use the 8|omes ol the wotlJ mo on oe 6 ol yout 0oto loes to onswet quest|ons 2 onJ 3.
2. whlch factor, latltude or elevatlon, ls llkely more responslble for the locatlons of the
permanent lce blome! ________________
3. whlch factor, latltude or preclpltatlon, ls llkely more responslble for the locatlons of the
desert blome! ________________
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Climatographs
1. You can compare biomes using the information shown in climatographs.
2. A climatograph shows the average temperature and precipitation for a location over a period of 30 years
or more.
3. e bars on the graph show the average precipitation.
4. e line on the graph shows the average temperature.
5YMGO'LIGO
lxom|ne the J|hetences oetween the cl|mototohs lot 7ohno onJ Osoyoos.

l. (a) what does the horlzontal axls of a cllmatograph show! _______________
(b) Does the llne connectlng the dots show temperature or preclpltatlon! _______________
(c) what does the rlght vertlcal axls on a cllmatograph show! _________________________
(d) what ls the average temperature of Tono ln October! _______________
(e) what ls the average temperature of Osoyoos ln 1uly! _______________
(f ) |n whlch month does Tono have the lowest average temperature! _______________
(g) what does the left vertlcal axls on a cllmatograph show! ______________________________
(h) what ls the average preclpltatlon ln Tono ln August! _______________
(l) How much preclpltatlon ls recelved ln Osoyoos durlng lts drlest month! _______________
([) How do the average temperatures compare for the two locatlons ln October! _____________
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Adaptations and Biomes
1. Biomes are oen identifed with characteristic biotic factors, such as cactus in the desert or caribou on
the tundra.
2. Many characteristic biotic factors have special adaptations for that biome. An adaptation is a
characteristic that allows an organism to better survive and reproduce.
3. ere are three types of adaptations:
- Structural adaptation-a physical feature that helps an organism survive. For example, a wolf has
large paws to help it run in snow.
- Physiological adaptation-a physical or chemical event inside the body of an organism that allows it
to survive. For example, a wolf maintains a constant body temperature.
- Behavioural adaptation-a behaviour that helps an organism to survive. For example, wolves hunt in
packs to capture large prey.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. whot |s meont oy the tetm oJotot|on/ _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. lJent|ly eoch ol the lollow|n chotoctet|st|cs ol the common sotteJ owl os o sttuctutol, hys|olo|col,
ot oehov|outol oJotot|on.
(a) |ts feathers have whlte spots on a brown background. ___________________
(b) |t malntalns constant blood sugar levels. ___________________
(c) |t llnes lts nest wlth grass. ___________________
(d) |ts eyes face front to glve depth perceptlon. ___________________
(e) |t places cow dung at the front of lts nest to hlde from predators. ___________________
A Survey of Biomes of Canada
e main biomes of Canada are shown in the map below (Figure 1.1).
. A map of Canadlan blomes
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1. Tundra (Figure 1.2)
- Location: 60 to 70 north latitude
- Climate: less than 23 cm precipitation annually
Summer temperatures: 3C to 12C
Winter temperatures: -20C to -30C
- Physical Features: fat layer of permafrost (permanently frozen
soil); poor drainage; marshy in summer; 24 h daylight in brief
summer; cold and dark in long winter
- Plant Adaptations: no trees due to permafrost; plants grow
close to ground so they can absorb warmth and be sheltered;
some plants have fuzzy coverings to protect them from
wind; shrubs fower quickly; some plants keep old leaves for
protection and to conserve nutrients
- Animal Adaptations: animals may grow more slowly and
reproduce less oen; Arctic foxes and hares have compact
bodies and shorter legs and ears to reduce heat loss; the snowy
owl has white colouring to blend in with surroundings; birds
migrate here in summer to eat the many insects; caribou
migrate away in winter to fnd food sources
. Alert, Nunavut, 82.5N
2. Boreal Forest (Figure 1.3)
- Location: 43 to 63 north latitude
- Climate: precipitation, mostly snow, is 30 cm to 83 cm annually;
temperatures are below freezing half the year
- Physical Features: short summer growing season; terrain is rough,
soil is wet; many marshes, shallow lakes, and wetlands
- Plant Adaptations: trees are mostly coniferous, including spruce, and
their waxy needles resist water loss and allow snow to slide o; little
light reaches forest foor
- Animal Adaptations: insect-eating birds migrate south in fall, seed-
eaters stay year-round; mammals have thick insulating coats; insects
multiply rapidly; reptiles and amphibians are rare; snowshoe hares
change fur from summer brown to winter white . Port Nelson, 8rltlsh
Columbla, 59N
3. Temperate Deciduous Forest (Figure 1.4)
- Location: eastern Canada, above 23.3 north latitude
- Climate: annual precipitation is 73 cm to 180 cm; temperatures
range from 30C winter to 30C summer
- Physical Features: four distinct seasons; long, warm growing season;
soil is enriched by fallen leaves; large seasonal changes between
summer and winter
- Plant Adaptations: plants grow in four to fve layers, with tall trees
(maple, oak, and birch) in canopy layer, shorter trees in second
layer, shrubs in third layer, berries in fourth layer, and ferns, herbs,
and mosses on forest foor; deciduous trees shed leaves in winter to
prevent water loss and reduce breakage of limbs with heavy snow
- Animal Adaptations: many animals live in the dierent layers of
forest; some mammals hibernate; many birds migrate away in winter;
chipmunks and blue jays store nuts and seeds in tree hollows
. Toronto, Ontarlo, 44N
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4. Temperate Rainforest (Figure 1.3)
- Location: 38 to 61 north latitude, along coast of
British Columbia
- Climate: more than 200 cm precipitation per year; average
temperatures 3C to 23C
- Physical Features: biome occurs in narrow strips along
coastlines backed by mountains where ocean winds drop
large amounts of moisture on windward side of mountains
- Plant Adaptations: trees, such as Sitka spruce and Douglas
fr, grow very tall; mosses on trees; ferns, mosses, and fungi
on forest foor
- Animal Adaptations: most animals live on or near forest
foor; many birds and small mammals eat seeds that fall on
forest foor; many insects live in tree bark, and birds with
long beaks and amphibians with sticky tongues eat those
insects
. Pachena Polnt, 8rltlsh Columbla,
48N
5. Grasslands (Figure 1.6)
- Also called temperate grasslands or prairies.
- Location: above 23.3 north latitude
- Climate: 23 cm to 100 cm precipitation annually; hot summers
of 30C and cold winters below -10C
- Physical Features: land is mainly fat and soil is very rich
and fertile; strong winds may cause soil erosion; precipitation
usually occurs in late spring and early summer followed by an
extended dry period
- Plant Adaptations: trees are scarce due to limited rainfall;
grazing animals (animals that eat plants, such as grasses) and
fre may kill seedlings; some grasses have sharp edges or are
too bitter for grazing; grasses are adapted for drought and fre
by having deep roots; grasses can bend without breaking in
wind; many wildfowers pollinated by insects
- Animal Adaptations: large grazing mammals, such as
antelope, have fat teeth that grind plant material; animals such
as mice, rabbits, gophers, and snakes burrow to escape fre,
predators, or extreme weather
. Manyberrles, Alberta, 49N
12 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
5YMGO'LIGO
l. use the cl|mototohs, o|ome mo, onJ |nlotmot|on ooove to onswet the lollow|n quest|ons.
(a) whlch blome has the most constant temperature over the course of a year!
_________________
(b) whlch blome has the greatest range ln monthly temperatures over the course of a year!
_________________
(c) whlch blome has the greatest range ln monthly preclpltatlon over the course of a year!
_________________
(d) |n whlch blome does preclpltatlon exceed l00 mm ln a slngle month! _________________
(e) Por how many months of the year ls the average temperature below freezlng (0C) ln a
grassland blome! _________________
2. use the ooove Joto to comote on|mol oJotot|ons.
(a) whlch blome has large grazlng anlmals as well as predators of the grazers!
_________________
(b) |n whlch blome do many anlmals llve ln dlnerent layers of the forest! _________________
(c) |n whlch blome do lnsect-eatlng blrds mlgrate south ln the fall, whlle seed-eatlng blrds
stay year-round! _________________
3. use the ooove Joto to comote lont oJotot|ons.
(a) |n whlch blome do the trees grow very tall! _________________
(b) |n whlch blome are trees present but scarce due to llmlted ralnfall! _________________
(c) whlch blome ls barren of trees! _________________
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
An ecologist gathers information about a forest of oak
trees on a hillside characterized by mild, wet winters
and hot, dry summers. Which of the following is a
biotic factor:
A. the rate of rainfall
B. the temperature in winter
C. the spacing of the trees
D. mineral deposits in the area
A. Rainfall is an abiotic factor.
B. Temperature is an abiotic factor.
C. is answer is correct.
D. Minerals are an abiotic factor.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use page 9 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
You may wish to use the Biomes of the World map
on page 6 of your Data Pages to help you answer
the following question.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the
temperate rainforest:
A. Trees grow very tall. A. is answer is correct.
B. Trees are mainly maple, oak, and birch. B. Maple, oak, and birch trees are found in
temperate deciduous forests.
C. It is found on every continent except Antarctica. C. Temperate rainforests are not found in
Africa or Antarctica.
D. e soil is rich and fertile. D. is is a characteristic of grassland.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you distinguish the dierent biomes from each other based on
important defning characteristics.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 20 to 23 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
14 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 14 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 1.1
Biomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere: Biomes
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which biome is not found in Canada:
A. boreal forest
B. temperate deciduous forest
C. temperate rainforest
D. tropical rainforest
2. Students made lists of the biotic and abiotic
components of their neighbourhood. Which
of the following lists describes only abiotic
components of their neighbourhood:
A. fungi, fower, water
B. temperature, latitude, soil
C. sunlight, moisture, bacteria
D. grass, precipitation, latitude
3. Snowshoe hares of the boreal forest have fur that
changes from summer brown to winter white to
camoufage them from predators. What kind of
adaptation is this an example of:
A. chemical adaptation
B. structural adaptation
C. behavioural adaptation
D. physiological adaptation
Use the following climatograph of Taber, Alberta,
to answer question 4.
4. In which biome is Taber, Alberta, located:
A. temperate deciduous forest
B. boreal forest
C. grassland
D. desert
3. Which feature below is not a biotic component of
a boreal forest biome:
A. mammals with thick, insulating coats
B. many marshes, shallow lakes, and wetlands
C. coniferous trees with waxy needles to resist
water loss
D. small mammals that burrow in the ground to
stay warm
6. Which combination of abiotic factors best
explains why the regions along the equator
receive the greatest amount of precipitation:
A. sunlight and latitude
B. sunlight and elevation
C. latitude and ocean currents
D. ocean currents and elevation
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Use the following graph to identify the biome
described in question 7.
7. Which region has high average annual
precipitation and an average temperature
between 13C and 30C:
A. temperate deciduous forest
B. temperate rainforest
C. tropical rainforest
D. desert
8. Which of the following animal and plant
adaptations is a physiological adaptation:
A. Caribou of the tundra biome migrate to food
sources in winter.
B. Arctic foxes of the tundra biome have
compact bodies and shorter legs and ears,
which reduce heat loss.
C. Grasses of the grassland biome have deep
roots that form dense mats to collect water
when it is available.
D. Plants in the desert biome produce
chemicals that protect them from being
eaten by animals.
9. No trees grow above the tree line in the tundra
biome of northern Canada. Which combination
of abiotic factors of the tundra biome can best
explain the absence of trees:
A. soil, sunlight, temperature
B. soil, moisture, ocean currents
C. root growth, sunlight, temperature
D. precipitation, elevation, temperature
10. Which kind of biome would you expect to fnd in
an area with the characteristics listed below:
- very tall trees
- along the coastline
- bordered by mountains on one side
- average temperature range from 3C to 23C
A. tropical grassland
B. tropical rainforest
C. temperate rainforest
D. temperate deciduous forest
16 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
l.2 Lcosystems
I. Summary of Key Points
- e abiotic components of an ecosystem support the life functions of the biotic components
of the ecosystem.
- Organisms within communities constantly interact to obtain resources such as food, water, sunlight,
or habitat.
- Examples of these interactions in ecosystems include commensalism, mutualism, parasitism,
competition, and predation.
- Every organism has a special role, or niche, within an ecosystem.
II. Study Notes
Parts of an Ecosystem
1. Within biomes are dierent ecosystems.
2. An ecosystem is a network of interactions linking biotic factors (organisms) and abiotic factors (air, water,
soil, etc.).
3. Ecosystems can take up many hectares of land, such as the antelope brush grasslands of South Okanagan
Valley, or can be small, such as a rotting log.
4. Within ecosystems are dierent habitats.
3. A habitat is where an organism lives, such as between the rocks at the bottom of a tidepool or in the bark of
a rotting log.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Put the followlng dlvlslons of llfe on Larth ln order from the smallest to the largest:
blome, blosphere, ecosystem, habltat
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
Abiotic Interactions in Ecosystems
1. Abiotic components of ecosystems include the following.
- Oxygen is produced by the green plants and certain micro-organisms and is used by animals and most
other micro-organisms.
- Without water, no organism would survive. e cells of most living things contain between 30 and 90
percent water. Water carries nutrients from one place to another in an ecosystem.
r /VUSJFOUT, such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, are materials that organisms need to live and grow.
- Light is required for photosynthesis, a chemical reaction that converts solar energy into chemical energy
usable by plants. Photosynthesis provides energy to the ecosystem. e forest canopy receives more light
than the forest foor; deep water receives less light than surface water.
- Soil not only contains water and nutrients but also is home to many plants and animals.
17 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Ecological Hierarchy
1. Ecology is the study of the relation of organisms to their environment and to each other.
2. A species is a group of closely related organisms that can reproduce with one another.
3. e biotic interactions in an ecosystem can be arranged into an ecological hierarchy. (Figure 1.7
- An ecological hierarchy is the order of relationships in an ecosystem: organism, population,
community, and ecosystem.
organism
population A population includes all members
of a species within the ecosystem.
community A community includes all
populations of different species
that interact in the ecosystem.
ecosystem
. Lcologlcal hlerarchy
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls ecology!
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
2. what ls the term for the order of relatlonshlps that go from organlsm to populatlon to communlty to
ecosystem! ______________________________
3. what term refers to how many organlsms of a partlcular specles llve ln an ecosystem!
______________________________
4. what term refers to all the dlnerent klnds of specles present ln an ecosystem!
______________________________
Biotic Interactions in Ecosystems and Symbiotic Relationships
1. Symbiosis is a relationship in which two dierent organisms live together in a close association.
2. Examples of symbiotic relationships include the following.
- Commensalism-one organism benefts and the other organism is not aected, such as the barnacles
on a whale
- Mutualism-both organisms beneft, such as a bee gathering nectar from a fower
- Parasitism-one organism benefts and the other organism is harmed, such as mountain pine beetles
destroying a lodgepole pine forest
- A host is the organism that a parasite lives in or on.
18 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Niches, Competition, and Predation
1. A niche refers to the role an organism has within an ecosystem, which means how an organism fts into and
contributes to its environment physically, chemically, and biologically.
2. Competition is an interaction that occurs between two or more organisms when they need the same
resource (such as food) in the same location at the same time.
- For example, coyotes will compete with each other in areas where only smaller animals, such as mice, are
available for food. However, they will cooperate with each and hunt in packs if larger animals, such as
deer, are available for food.
- Competition can limit the size of a population because organisms need energy to compete as well as to
grow and reproduce.
3. Predation is the relationship where one organism (the predator) kills and consumes another organism
(the prey).
- Predators have adaptations to help them catch their prey, such as sharp teeth or good eyesight.
- Prey have adaptations, such as spines, shells, camoufage, and mimicry, to help avoid predators.
- e numbers of predators and prey infuence each other.
- e prey population grows when there are few predators.
- e prey population shrinks when there are many predators.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Spanlsh moss grows on cedar trees ln the temperate ralnforests of 8rltlsh Columbla. The moss
benets from the physlcal support that a cedar tree provldes. The cedar tree ls not benetted by
the moss, but nor ls lt harmed. what relatlonshlp exlsts between the Spanlsh moss and the cedar
tree!
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. The hookworm uses lts teeth to attach to the wall of a dog's lntestlne so that lt can feed on the
dog's blood. Lxplaln why the hookworm ls consldered a paraslte.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. The great blue heron feeds on sh whlle standlng ln water. |ts speclal role ls to stand and sh ln
deep water where other specles of herons wlth shorter legs cannot sh. what term best descrlbes
the great blue heron's speclal place wlthln lts ecosystem! _______________________________
4. A plant called spotted knapweed grows wlld across the rangelands of 8rltlsh Columbla. |t ls able
to release chemlcals lnto the soll that prevent the growth of other types of plants. Does thls klnd
of lnteractlon demonstrate competltlon, mutuallsm, predator/prey lnteractlon, or symblosls!
_________________________________________
19 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
5YMGO'LIGO
use the lollow|n toh to onswet quest|on 1.
l. The lynx ls a predator and the snowshoe hare ls a prey. |n whlch years dld the predator populatlon
decrease, llkely due to a decrease ln the prey populatlon!
______________________________________________________________________
Biodiversity in Ecosystems
1. Biodiversity is the variety of all living species of plants, animals, and micro-organisms.
2. Each ecosystem, such as a forest or a wetland, has unique biotic and abiotic components that contribute to
the availability of food, water, and nutrients for all organisms.
- For example, forest ecosystems prevent soil erosion, store nutrients, control climate, provide habitats
for mammals, birds, fsh, and amphibians, and provide timber and medicines.
3. Healthy ecosystems generally have high biodiversity.
4. Most biodiversity losses occur from the loss of habitat.
3. Humans oen have a negative impact on biodiversity, such as by cutting forests and building cities.
6. Many eorts are now made to lessen human impact in order to maintain biodiversity.
7. Ecological management programs try to balance human progress with maintaining biodiversity.
20 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which of the following is an example of parasitism:
A. Aphids are tiny insects that produce a secretion
called honeydew that is benefcial to ants. Ants use
the honeydew and in return provide the aphids
with protection from predators.
A. Both organisms beneft from the
relationship, so this is called mutualism.
B. Lichens, found everywhere on Earth, are a
combination of an alga, which produces sugars
through photosynthesis, and a fungus, which
provides minerals, water, and protection. Both
organisms beneft from these processes.
B. Both organisms beneft from the
relationship, so this is called mutualism.
C. e mountain pine beetle burrows into pine trees,
lays eggs, and feeds on the tree, damaging or
killing the tree.
C. is answer is correct because one
organism benefts while the other is
harmed.
D. An insect called a millipede attaches to a bird,
which fies unharmed by the millipede. e
millipede benefts by being transported to new
habitats.
D. e millipede benefts, but the bird neither
benefts nor is harmed. is is called
commensalism.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand symbiotic relationships. Symbiosis refers to the
interaction between the members of two dierent species. ree important symbiotic relationships are
commensalism (one benefts, the other neither benefts nor is harmed), mutualism (both beneft), and
parasitism (one benefts, the other is harmed).
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 40 to 43 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
21 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
e Chemainus River ecosystem on Vancouver Island
includes bears, eagles, deer, elk, and foxes. What term
best describes the grouping of all these types of animals:
A. population A. A population refers only to the animals of
one species.
B. community B. is answer is correct because a
community refers to all the populations
of dierent species that interact in an
ecosystem or area.
C. species C. A species is a group of animals that are
similar enough to mate and produce
ospring capable of reproducing.
D. habitat D. A habitat is the place where an organism
lives.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the biotic interactions (also called the ecological
hierarchy) within an ecosystem. A hierarchy is a kind of structure in which various components are
related. In an ecological hierarchy, the interactions are ordered as organism, population, community, and
ecosystem.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 36 to 39 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
22 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 22 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 1.2
Biomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere: Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. What is the best reason to explain why fewer
plants can grow in deep water than can grow in
shallow water in a marine ecosystem:
A. ere are more predators in deep water.
B. e temperature of the water is colder at
deep levels.
C. Water pollution is more concentrated at deep
levels than at shallow water levels.
D. e amount of light available for
photosynthesis is less in deep water than in
shallow water.
2. What is the largest division of the biosphere:
A. biome
B. habitat
C. ecosystem
D. population
3. Barnacles attach to whales and are transported
to new locations in the ocean to fnd new food
sources. Whales are not harmed in this process.
What type of symbiotic relationship is this an
example of:
A. parasitism
B. mutualism
C. interaction
D. commensalism
4. What is the correct order of the ecological
hierarchy, from smallest to largest:
A. ecosystem, population, community,
organism
B. organism, community, population,
ecosystem
C. organism, population, community,
ecosystem
D. population, ecosystem, organism,
community
3. Which of the following statements about
mutualism is false:
A. Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in
which both organisms beneft.
B. In some mutualistic relationships, two
species are unable to survive without each
other.
C. In one type of mutualism, one species
defends another species against attacks in
return for food and shelter.
D. One species protects another species from
predators by camoufage. e host species is
not harmed in the relationship.
6. Use this graph of the population of moose and
wolf to answer the question below.

Isle Royale in Lake Superior has been designated
an International Biosphere Reserve. e wolves
of Isle Royale have no natural predators and
primarily hunt and eat moose. In what years
did the prey population increase likely due to a
decline in the predator population:
A. 19631966
B. 19831988
C. 19781981
D. 20032006
23 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 23 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
7. A crab lives on a beach, which is where the crab
fnds food, shelter and a space to live. For the
crab, the beach is an example of what division of
the biosphere:
A. niche
B. habitat
C. ecosystem
D. community
8. Which of the following statements about water is
not true:
A. Water anchors plants in place.
B. Without water, no organism would survive.
C. Water carries nutrients from one place to
another in an ecosystem.
D. e cells of most living organisms contain
between 30 and 90 percent water.
9. A biologist wants to introduce a new species
(species A) into an ecosystem. Species B already
lives in the ecosystem and occupies the same
niche as species A. What will be the likely
outcome if species A is introduced into the
ecosystem:
A. mutualism between the two species
B. parasitism of species B by species A
C. commensalism between the two species
D. competition between species A and species B
10. Which of the following characteristics are
common adaptations of predators:
I good eyesight
II mimicry
III sharp, pointed teeth
A. I only
B. I and III only
C. I, II, and III
D. II and III only
24 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

Chapter 2 nergy 0ow and nutrient cycIes support Iife in ecosystems.


2.l Lnergy Plow ln Lcosystems
I. Summary of Key Points
% In an ecosystem, energy fows from producers (plants) to primary consumers (herbivores) to secondary
and tertiary consumers (carnivores).
% Food chains and food webs model this energy fow and these feeding relationships.
% Each step on a food chain is called a trophic level.
% Food pyramids model how energy is lost at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
II. Study Notes
How Energy Flows in Ecosystems
1. Within an organism's niche, the organism interacts with the ecosystem by:
% obtaining food from the ecosystem
% contributing energy to the ecosystem
2. e fow of energy from an ecosystem to an organism and from one organism to another is called
energy fow.
3. Plants are called producers because they produce food in the form of carbohydrates during
photosynthesis.
4. Organisms that feed on other organisms are called consumers.
% A consumer may also be an energy source if it is eaten by another consumer.
3. Organisms contribute to energy fow even aer they die.
% Biodegradation is the process by which dead organic matter is broken down naturally by biological
agents, especially bacteria.
% Decomposers are organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that change wastes and dead organisms into
usable nutrients for other organisms in soil and water.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Plants use sunllght and nutrlents to produce carbohydrates. what lt the term that descrlbes
the role of plants ln an ecosystem! __________________________
2. what does the term enety how descrlbe about an ecosystem! ___________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls the role of a decomposer ln an ecosystem! _____________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
4. Descrlbe each of the followlng as a producer, consumer, or decomposer (more than one
may apply).
(a) breaks down fallen leaves ______________________________________________________
(b) does not need to consume other organlsms to llve __________________________________
(c) asslsts wlth blodegradatlon _____________________________________________________
(d) ls the rst step ln energy now through an ecosystem ________________________________
(e) may consume another consumer ________________________________________________
23 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Energy Flow and Energy Loss in Ecosystems
1. Food chains show the fow of energy in an ecosystem from producer to consumer and from consumer to
consumer.
2. Consumers in a food chain can be classifed as:
% Detrivores-consumers that eat dead organisms and waste matter.
Examples: beetle, earthworm
- Detrivores are an important energy source for consumers such as birds.
% Herbivores-consumers that eat only plants
Examples: deer, grasshopper
% Carnivores-consumers that eat animals
Examples: frog, hawk
% Omnivores-consumers that eat both plants and animals
Examples: human, black bear
3. A trophic level is the number of energy transfers an organism is from the original solar energy entering the
food chain.
4. Each step in a food chain is a trophic level (Figure 2.1).
. A terrestrlal food chaln and an aquatlc food chaln show the now of energy up the trophlc levels.
26 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Draw a food chaln that contalns the followlng ve organlsms: grass, black bear, earthworm,
cougar, rabblt. Label the grass as producer, and label each of the other organlsms accordlng
to the klnd of consumer that they are.
2. A fox's dlet can contaln beetles, eggs, berrles, sh, and mlce. what klnd of consumer ls a fox!
______________________
3. whlch ls most llkely to occupy the second trophlc level ln a food chaln: a potato, a worm that
eats the potato, a blrd that eats the worm, or a fox that eats the blrd!
__________________________
27 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

Food Webs
1. Most organisms are part of many food chains.
2. You can show the interconnections of food chains by using a food web (Figure 2.2).
3. A food web is a model of the feeding relationship in an ecosystem.
4. Arrows in a food web represent the fow of energy and nutrients.
3. Following the arrows in a food web leads to the top carnivore(s).
. A food web ln a terrestrlal ecosystem.

5YMGO'LIGO
l. whlch two members of the food web above are omnlvores!
___________________ ____________________
2. whlch two members of the food web above are tertlary consumers!
___________________ ____________________
28 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

Food Pyramids
1. Food pyramids, also called ecological pyramids, show the changes in available energy from one trophic
level to another in a food chain.
2. Energy enters at the frst tropic level (producers), where there is a large amount of biomass.
3. Biomass is the total mass of all living things in a given area.
4. Lower trophic levels have much larger populations than upper levels.
3. It takes large quantities of organisms in one tropic level to meet the energy needs of the next trophic level.
Energy Loss in Ecological Pyramids
1. Each trophic level of an ecological pyramid loses large amounts of the energy it gathers through basic
processes of living.
2. Approximately 90 percent of energy taken in by consumers is used in chemical reactions in the body and is
lost as heat energy.
% ere is very little energy le over for growth or increase in biomass.
Types of Ecological Pyramids
1. Types of ecological pyramids include the following.
% A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organisms at each trophic level.
% A pyramid of biomass shows the number of organisms at each trophic level multiplied by their mass,
which compensates for dierences in size among organisms.
% A pyramid of energy shows the amount of energy that is available at each trophic level.
2. e amount of life an ecosystem can contain is based on the bottom level of the ecological pyramid, where
producers capture energy from the Sun.
3. It is very important to maintain biodiversity and large populations at the lowest levels of the ecological
pyramid.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what type of ecologlcal pyramld ls shown here! ___________________
2. Approxlmately how much energy ls lost from producers to secondary consumers!
_______________________
29 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Use the following food chain to answer the next
question.
Wolves eagles pheasants
Which of the following is likely to happen if a large
number of mice are removed from the area:
A. an increase in the rabbit population A. e rabbit population will decrease as
wolves are not able to eat as many mice.
B. an increase in the eagle population B. e eagle population will stay the same or
decrease since there are fewer mice to eat.
C. a decrease in the squirrel population C. is answer is correct because with fewer
mice to eat, wolves will prey on squirrels
more.
D. a decrease in the populations of grasses,
seeds, and nuts
D. ese populations of plants will likely
increase since there will be fewer mice
feeding on them.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the dierent relationships within a food web
(including producers, herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers and detrivores).
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 60 to 62 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
30 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Use the following food web to answer the
next question.
Identify a tertiary consumer from the food
web above.
A. elk A. An elk is a primary consumer (since it is a
herbivore).
B. mouse B. A mouse is a primary consumer (since it is a
herbivore).
C. bird C. A bird is a secondary consumer because it is a
carnivore that itself can get eaten.
D. lynx D. Lynx is the correct answer because a lynx eats
secondary consumers.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the dierent relationships within a food web
(including producers, consumers, herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers and detrivores).
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 60 to 62 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
31 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 31 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 2.1
Energy ow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems: Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following statements about biomass
is true:
A. Food webs are used to show the available
biomass in an ecosystem.
B. Biomass is usually expressed in units of
metres per gram or kilogram.
C. Biomass is the total mass of living plants,
animals, fungi, and bacteria in a particular
area.
D. e biomass of animals on Earth is over 100
times greater than the biomass of plants.
2. A feld of wheat is an example of which member
of a food chain:
A. decomposer
B. biodegrader
C. consumer
D. producer
Use this picture of a food web to answer question 3.
3. Which is the best description for the role of the
grizzly bear in this food web:
A. detrivore
B. omnivore
C. carnivore
D. herbivore
Use this picture of a food web to answer questions
4 and 5.
4. Which organisms in this food web are the
primary consumers:
A. owl and fox
B. rabbit and fox
C. acorns and grass
D. rabbit and mouse
3. At which trophic level is the fox in this food web:
A. frst
B. second
C. third
D. fourth
32 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 32 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Use this picture of a food web to answer question 6.
6. Which is the best description for the role of the
wolf in this food web:
A. herbivore
B. omnivore
C. carnivore
D. top carnivore
7. What is the best example of a detrivore from the
list below:
A. earthworm
B. green algae
C. grasshopper
D. spotted frog
8. Your teacher asks you to design a diagram to
show the models of feeding relationships within
an ecosystem. Which type of model should you
choose:
A. food web
B. food chain
C. food pyramid
D. ecological pyramid
9. What is the best reason for why an ecosystem
supports fewer organisms at higher trophic levels
than at lower trophic levels:
A. Competition among organisms is more
intense at higher trophic levels.
B. Most of the food energy consumed is used
for growth and to increase biomass.
C. Animals are part of more than one food
chain and eat more than one kind of food.
D. ere is a huge decrease in energy from
lower trophic levels to higher trophic levels.
10. At the producer level of a food pyramid, there is
433 000 kcal/m
2
of energy available. If there is a
90 percent energy loss at each level, how many
kilocalories will be incorporated into the bodies
of the secondary consumers:
A. 433 kcal/m
2
B. 4330 kcal/m
2
C. 43 300 kcal/m
2
D. 300 300 kcal/m
2
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

2.2 Nutrlent Cycles ln Lcosystems


I. Summary of Key Points
% Earth's biosphere is like a sealed terrarium in which all nutrients that support life and all wastes that are
produced are constantly recycled within its boundaries.
% e carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and phosphorus cycle move nutrients into and out of terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystems.
% Human activities such as land clearing, agriculture, industry, and motorized transportation can aect
nutrient cycles.
II. Study Notes
e Cycling of Nutrients in the Biosphere and the Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycles
1. Nutrients are chemicals that are required for plant and animal growth and other life processes.
% All the nutrients that support life and all the wastes that are produced recycle through the biosphere.
2. Nutrients move through the biosphere in nutrient cycles, or exchanges.
3. Nutrients are accumulated in stores" for short or long periods in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land
masses.
4. Without interference, the amount of nutrients fowing into a store generally equals the amount of nutrients
fowing out.
3. Human activities can upset the natural balance of nutrient cycles.
Example: Clearing forest land for agriculture, roads, and cities reduces the total amount of carbon (in the
form of carbon dioxide) taken from the atmosphere by plants.
6. Land clearing, agriculture, urban expansion, mining, industry, and motorized transportation can all increase
the levels of nutrients more quickly than the stores can absorb them.
7. Four essential chemical nutrients are:
% carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, which cycle between organisms and the atmosphere, and are found in
proteins and DNA in every living organism
% phosphorus, which cycles in from sedimentary rock
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what does "nutrlent mean! ________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what ls an example of human actlvlty that can decrease the amount of carbon taken from
the atmosphere by plants! ________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. Llst four chemlcal elements that move through the blosphere as part of nutrlent cycles.
______________________________________ ______________________________________
______________________________________ ______________________________________
34 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 34 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

How Carbon Is Stored


1. A carbon store, also called a carbon sink, is a short- or long-term accumulation of carbon.
2. Carbon is an essential part of the chemical reactions that sustain life.
% All living things contain billions of carbon atoms in their cells.
3. Short-term shortage of carbon is found in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and in carbon dioxide (CO
2
) in
the atmosphere and top layers of the ocean.
4. Longer-term storage is found in middle and lower ocean layers as dissolved CO
2
, and in coal, oil, and gas
deposits in land and ocean sediments.
3. e main carbon stores are shown in Table 2.1.
. Lstlmated Ma[or Stores of Carbon on Larth
Carbon Store Amount of Carbon (gT)
Marine sediments and sedimentary rock 68 000 000 to 100 000 000
Oceans (intermediate and deep water) 38 000 to 40 000
Coal deposits 3000
Soil and organic matter 1300 to 1600
Atmosphere 730
Terrestrial vegetation 340 to 610
Oil and gas deposits 300
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls another term that means a carbon store! ______________________________________
2. Pefer to Table 2.l to answer the followlng questlons.
(a) |s more carbon stored ln the atmosphere or ln oll and gas deposlts! ___________________
(b) |s the second-largest store of carbon a short-term or a long-term store! ________________
(c) |s more carbon stored ln plants or ln the soll that they grow ln! _______________________
(d) whlch carbon store ls larger than all the other carbon stores comblned! _______________
How Carbon Is Cycled through Ecosystems
1. Carbon exchange or the carbon cycle describes how carbon is moved through terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems.
Find each of the processes below in e Carbon Cycle, page 3 of your Data Pages.
2. Photosynthesis During photosynthesis, carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, enters the leaves of plants and
reacts with water in the presence of sunlight to produce energy-rich carbohydrates and oxygen.
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy (sunlight) A C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
- Photosynthesis also occurs in cyanobacteria (blue-green unicellular organisms) and algae (simple
unicellular or multicellular organisms) in oceans.
3. $FMMVMBSSFTQJSBUJPO is the process in which both plants and animals release carbon dioxide back into the
atmosphere by converting carbohydrates and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water.
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
A 6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy
- e energy released is used for growth, repair, and other life processes.
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

4. Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi, convert cellulose (carbohydrates in plants) back into carbon
dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere.
3. Carbonate formation Carbon and oxygen dissolved in ocean water combine to form carbonate (CO
3
2
).
- Carbonate is found in the shells of marine organisms.
- When these organisms die, their shells can accumulate and gradually become limestone, which is a
sedimentary rock.
6. Volcanic activity Sedimentary rock can be subducted and melted, and its carbon dioxide can be released in
volcanic eruptions.
7. Ocean mixing involves the circulation of intermediate and deep waters in the ocean.
- Ocean mixing absorbs CO
2
from the atmosphere at high latitudes and releases CO
2
to the atmosphere at
tropical latitudes.
Human Activities and the Carbon Cycle
1. e amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere has increased by about 30 percent over the last 160
years.
- is increase is due to human activities that involve burning fossil fuels, such as oil, gas, and coal, which
releases carbon that was stored deep in Earth a long time ago.
5YMGO'LIGO
kelet to 7he Cotoon Cycle, oe 5 ol yout 0oto loes, to onswet these quest|ons.
l. How many glgatonnes of carbon are stored ln each of the followlng locatlons!
(a) the atmosphere ____________
(b) dlssolved as organlc carbon ln the upper levels of the ocean ____________
(c) organlc matter ln the soll ____________
2. Lxamlne the carbon exchange values to answer the followlng questlons.
(a) |s carbon movlng faster lnto the oceans or out of the oceans! ____________
(b) Does agrlculture move more carbon lnto the alr or out of the alr! ____________
(c) why does the exchange data for the fossll fuel combustlon show carbon movlng lnto the
atmosphere but none movlng out of the atmosphere! ______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. How do volcanoes anect the amount of carbon ln the atmosphere! ____________
Nitrogen
1. Nitrogen is used to structure DNA and proteins, which are vital for muscle function in animals.
% In plants, nitrogen is important for growth.
2. e largest store of nitrogen is in the atmosphere, where it exists in the form N
2
.
3. Approximately 78 percent of Earth's atmosphere is N
2
gas, but most organisms cannot use this form of
nitrogen.
4. Nitrogen is also stored in oceans and as organic matter in soil.
3. Smaller nitrogen stores are found in terrestrial ecosystems and waterways.
36 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

e Nitrogen Cycle
Find each of the processes below in the ^itrogen Cycle illustration, page 9 of your Data Pages.
1. ^itrogen fxation is the conversion of N
2
gas into compounds containing nitrate (NO
3
-
) and ammonium
(NH
4
+
), which are usable by plants.
2. Nitrogen fxation occurs:
% In the atmosphere-lightning (an atmospheric discharge of electricity) provides the energy for N
2
gas to
react with O
2
gas to form nitrate and ammonium ions.
- Compounds formed by these ions then enter the soil via precipitation.
- is provides only a small amount of nitrogen fxation.
% In the soil-nitrogen-fxing bacteria like Rhizobium convert N
2
gas into ammonium ions.
- ese bacteria grow on the root nodules of legumes, which are plants such as peas, beans, alfalfa, and
clover that can fx atmospheric nitrogen.
- e plants provide sugars, while bacteria provide nitrogen ions.
% In the water-some cyanobacteria convert N
2
into ammonium during photosynthesis.
3. /JUSJDBUJPOis a two-step processthat occurs when certain nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium into
nitrite (NO
2
-
). A dierent species of nitrifying bacteria converts the nitrite (NO
2
-
) into nitrate (NO
3
-
).
4. Decomposer bacteria and fungi convert the nitrogen trapped in the cells of dead organisms and convert it
into ammonium (NH
4
+
).
3. Nitrates enter plant roots through the process of uptake.
% ese nitrogen compounds compose plant proteins.
% Herbivores eat the plants and use nitrogen for DNA and protein synthesis.
5YMGO'LIGO
use the lollow|n |llusttot|on to onswet the next quest|on.
l. Through Process A and Process 8, nltrogen (N
2
) moves from the atmosphere and becomes avallable
to plants as a nutrlent. what term ldentles Process A! _____________________
2. what term ldentles Process 8! ______________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
37 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

How Nitrogen Is Returned to the Atmosphere and Removed from Ecosystems


1. Denitrihcation is the process through which nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere.
2. In a series of chemical reactions, denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate (NO
3
-
) back into nitrogen gas (N
2
).
3. N
2
is also returned to the atmosphere through volcanic eruptions.
4. Excess nitrogen dissolves in water, enters the waterways, and washes into lakes and oceans.
3. Nitrogen compounds eventually become trapped in sedimentary rocks and are not released until the rocks
weather.
Human Activities and the Nitrogen Cycle
1. Human activities have doubled the amount of available nitrogen in the biosphere in the last 30 years. is
increase has been due to the following:
% Burning fossil fuels and treating sewage releases nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO
2
).
% Burning also releases nitrogen compounds that increase acid precipitation in the form of nitric acid
(HNO
3
).
- Acid precipitation has a lower pH (higher acidity) than precipitation that does not contain
pollutants.
- pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
- Acid precipitation has negative eects on forests, soils, and freshwater and the organisms living in
those ecosystems.
% Agricultural practices oen use large amounts of nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
2. Excess nitrogen is washed away or leaches into the waterways.
% Excess nitrogen promotes huge growth called blooms" in aquatic algae.
% Algal blooms use up CO
2
and O
2
and block sunlight, killing many aquatic organisms.
% Algal blooms can also produce neurotoxins that poison animals.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. How ls the process of denltrlcatlon dlnerent from nltrogen xatlon and nltrlcatlon! _________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Llst three human actlvltles that lncrease the amount of avallable nltrogen ln the blosphere.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Lxcess nltrogen ln the ecosystem lncreases the amount of algal blooms. Llst two negatlve
enects of algal blooms. ___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
38 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

e Phosphorus Cycle
Find each of the processes mentioned below in the Phosphorus Cycle illustration, page 8 of your Data Pages.
1. Phosphorus is a chemical element that is essential for life processes in plants and animals.
% Phosphorus is a part of the molecule that carries energy in living cells.
% Phosphorus promotes root growth, stem strength, and seed production.
% In animals, phosphorus is important for strong bones.
2. Phosphorus is not stored in the atmosphere.
3. Phosphorus is trapped in phosphates (PO
4
3-
) found in rocks and in the sediments on the ocean foor.
4. Weathering releases these phosphates when geologic upli exposes the rocks.
% Geologic upli refers to the process of mountain building in which Earth's crust folds and deeply buried
rock layers rise and are exposed.
% Chemical weathering releases phosphates via acid precipitation or lichens.
% Physical weathering releases phosphates through wind, water, and freezing.
3. Phosphates are absorbed by plants, which are then eaten by animals.
Human Activities and the Phosphorus Cycle
1. Humans add excess phosphorus to the environment through commercial fertilizers, detergents, livestock
farming, and industrial and human wastes.
2. Humans can also reduce phosphorus supplies.
- Slash-and-burning of forests removes phosphorus from trees, and the phosphorus is then deposited as
ash in waterways.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Unllke carbon and nltrogen, phosphorus ls not stored ln the atmosphere. where ls lt stored!
______________________
2. Geologlc upllft ls the process ln whlch mountalns form as they are pushed up from below.
How does geologlc upllft relate to the phosphorus cycle! _______________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. How do phosphates that are present ln rocks eventually make thelr way lnto anlmals! _______
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How do humans add excess phosphorus lnto the envlronment! __________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
How Changes in Nutrient Cycles Aect Biodiversity
1. Any signifcant changes to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, or phosphorus can greatly aect biodiversity.
% Carbon cycle changes are linked to climate change and global warming.
% Increased levels of nitrogen can allow certain plant species to outcompete other species, decreasing the
resources for every species in those food webs.
% Decreased levels of phosphorus can inhibit the growth of algal species, which are very important
producers in many food chains.
2. Slight temperature fuctuations and changes in water levels can drastically change ecosystems.
3. Changes infuence every other organism in those food webs.
39 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
What is nitrogen fxation:
A. the application of nitrogen compounds to soil A. Adding compounds or other materials to
improve soil quality is called fertilization.
B. the removal of waste nitrogen from an
ecosystem
B. e process of removing nitrogen from the soil
and returning it to the atmosphere as nitrogen
gas (N
2
) is called denitrifcation. Nitrogen
compounds can also be washed out of soil with
rainwater in a process called leaching.
C. the conversion of nitrogen gas (N
2
) into
nitrogen containing compounds
C. is answer is correct. Fixing nitrogen means
converting it from nitrogen gas into other
chemical forms that can be used by plants
and animals. e most important forms
are as nitrates (NO
3

), nitrites (NO
2

), and
ammonium (NH
4
+
)
D. the release of nitrogen oxides from the exhaust
of automobiles
D. Automobiles release nitrogen oxides, which
are present in the air as smog. However, these
are not useful ways to provide nitrogen to
ecosystems. In fact, they combine with water
to make acid precipitation, which is very
harmful to the environment.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand that the nitrogen in the atmosphere is not usable
by most organisms and that nitrogen fxation is a process that makes it useful. Nitrogen must frst be
chemically converted or fxed" by certain bacteria. Processes such as denitrifcation (turning nitrogen
back into unusable nitrogen gas) and leaching (the washing away of nitrogen compounds with water)
remove usable nitrogen from ecosystems.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 78 to 83 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
40 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Refer to e Carbon Cycle on page 5 of your
Data Pages to answer this question.
Where is carbon stored in the greatest amount, as
measured in gigatonnes:
A. terrestrial vegetation A. e data table gives a value of 340 to 610 gT.
B. coal, oil, and gas deposits B. e data table gives a value of 300 gT.
C. the atmosphere C. e data table gives a value of 730 gT.
D. sedimentary rocks and marine sediments D. is answer is correct. e data table gives a
value of 68 000 000 to 100 000 000 gT.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how to use the data table showing the carbon
cycle, including reading values for the amounts of carbon (as gigatonnes) stored in dierent parts of the
biosphere.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 71 to 77 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which of the following nutrients
is not stored in the atmosphere:
A. carbon A. Carbon is present in the atmosphere primarily as carbon
dioxide (CO
2
).
B. nitrogen B. Nitrogen is present in the atmosphere primarily as nitrogen gas
(N
2
).
C. oxygen C. e oxygen we breathe is present in the air (about 21 percent).
D. phosphorus D. is answer is correct. Phosphorus is trapped in compounds
that make up phosphate rock and the sediments of ocean
foors.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand dierent properties of important elements
(C, N, O, and P) in the biosphere and where they are located.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 84 and 83 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
41 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 41 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 2.2
Energy ow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems: Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
Use this diagram of the nutrient cycle to answer question 1.
1. e eective cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem
primarily depends on which of the following
conditions:
A. rapid return of nutrients to deep stores
B. rapid rates of decomposition of organic
matter
C. abundant resources of nutrients in the
atmosphere
D. balanced rates of production, consumption,
and decomposition
2. Which of the following chemical nutrients is
not cycled between living organisms and the
atmosphere:
A. phosphorus
B. nitrogen
C. carbon
D. oxygen
3. Where is the largest store of carbon found on
Earth:
A. in coal deposits
B. in terrestrial vegetation
C. in soil and organic matter
D. in marine sediments and sedimentary rock
4. Which of the following processes does not
increase the amount of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) in
the atmosphere:
A. forest fres
B. photosynthesis
C. cellular respiration
D. decomposing trees
42 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 42 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
3. Listed below are chemical compounds matched
with a location where they can be found
on Earth. Which of the pairs of chemical
compounds and locations is incorrect:
A. nitrate (NO
3
<
): water
B. nitrogen (N
2
): atmosphere
C. carbonate (CO
3
2<
): atmosphere
D. phosphate (PO
4
3<
): sedimentary rock
6. Which term describes the process of converting
nitrogen gas (N
2
) into nitrate (NO
3
<
) or
ammonium (NH
4
+
):
A. uptake
B. nitrifcation
C. denitrifcation
D. nitrogen fxation
7. Biologists doing a yearly fsh count in a small
lake notice that the number of fsh in the
lake is dramatically less than the year before.
ey observe the bodies of dead fsh near the
shoreline. Aer testing a sample of the water,
the biologists realize that the level of dissolved
nitrogen has increased dramatically. What else
might the biologists notice about the lake:
A. increased oxygen
B. increased algae production
C. decreased lake temperature
D. decreased algae production
8. How do carnivorous animals obtain the
phosphorus that they need for growth and
development:
A. Plants produce phosphorus through cellular
respiration and make it available to animals.
B. Bacteria break down the phosphorus in the
soil and make it available to animals.
C. e animals eat other consumers that have
obtained phosphorus from plants.
D. e animals eat plants, which have absorbed
phosphorus through the soil.
9. Which of the following relationships between
human activities and nutrient cycles is not true:
A. e clearing and burning of forests increases
the amount of phosphate (PO
4
3<
) available to
organisms.
B. e burning of fossil fuels for industry
increases the amount of nitrogen oxide (NO)
in the atmosphere.
C. e use of fertilizers for agriculture increases
the amounts of nitrate (NO
3
<
) and phosphate
(PO
4
3<
) in water systems.
D. e use of motorized vehicles increases
the amount of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) in the
atmosphere.
10. Which of the following processes makes nitrogen
available to plants and animals:
I Nitrogen-fxing bacteria in the soil
II Nitrogen-fxing cyanobacteria in the water
III Decomposer bacteria and fungi in the soil
IV Nitrifying bacteria in the soil
A. I and IV only
B. I, II, and III only
C. I, III, and IV only
D. I, II, III, and IV
43 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

2.3 Lnects of 8loaccumulatlon on Lcosystems


I. Summary of Key Points
% Synthetic chemicals enter the environment in air, water, and soil.
% Plants take up some of these chemicals and the chemicals bioaccumulate in the fat tissues of herbivores
and carnivores.
% Synthetic chemicals become biomagnifed in food pyramids and harm organisms.
% Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury also bioaccumulate in the environment and
negatively aect organisms.
% Scientists are working to fnd ways to remove harmful environmental chemicals.
% In bioremediation, oganisms are used to help clean up chemical pollution.
II. Study Notes
Bioaccumulation
1. One of the biggest changes humans have made to the environment is the introduction of synthetic
(human-made) chemicals.
2. Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic (poisonous) chemical, in various
tissues of a living organism.
% Many harmful chemicals cannot be decomposed naturally.
% ese chemicals can be eaten or absorbed and sometimes cannot be removed from the body of the
organism eectively.
3. Keystone species are species that can greatly aect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem.
Example: Salmon are a keystone species in many British Columbia forest ecosystems.
% Salmon are an important food source for many animals, and their decaying bodies are a rich source of
nitrogen for trees.
% Salmon retain harmful chemicals in their body fat and transfer these chemicals to the other organisms.
4. Biomagnihcation is the process in which chemicals not only accumulate but become more concentrated at
each trophic level.
% At each level of the food pyramid, chemicals that do not get broken down build up in organisms.
% When the consumer in the next trophic level eats organisms with a chemical accumulation, they receive
a huge dose of the chemical(s).
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls bloaccumulatlon! _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. (a) How can the low-level presence of a harmful chemlcal stored ln the body fat of salmons
result ln dangerously hlgh levels of that same chemlcal ln bears! ______________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) what ls thls process called! ____________________
3. 8ears prey on salmon. The bears take salmon out of the water and lnto the forest. |t has been
estlmated that bears leave half of the salmon that they catch on the forest noor. Lxplaln why
bears are a keystone specles ln 8rltlsh Columbla. ______________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
44 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

PCBs and the Orca


1. An example of bioaccumulation in British Columbia is the eect of PCBs on the orca.
% PCBs are compounds that are produced by replacing hydrogen atoms in biphenyl with chlorine.
% PCBs are poisonous environmental pollutants that tend to accumulate in animal tissues.
% PCBs were used for many industrial and electrical applications but were banned in 1977 because of their
environmental impact.
% PCBs stay in organisms and the environment for a very long time, suppressing the immune system,
probably causing cancer in humans, and interfering with the reproductive success of the orca.
% e PCB load of orcas is much higher than that of any other animal in the world.
5YMGO'LIGO
mlcroscoplc plants and algae
4550 kg
small lnvertebrates
450 kg
small sh
50 kg
salmon
orca
5 kg
l. The lllustratlon above shows blomagnlcatlons through an aquatlc ecosystem from producers
through prlmary and secondary consumers and nally to the orca, whlch ls the tertlary consumer.
Lxplaln why, ln the entlre food chaln, that lt ls the orca ls at greatest rlsk from PC8 polsonlng.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Persistent Organic Pollutants
1. DDT is a pesticide introduced in 1941 to control mosquito populations and is still used in some places.
% A pesticide is a substance used to control populations of plant and animal pests.
2. DDT binds strongly to soil, bioaccumulates in plants, and then bioaccumulates in the fatty tissue of the fsh,
birds, and mammals that eat the plants.
3. Chemical accumulation is measured in parts per million (ppm).
% One ppm means one particle of a given substance mixed with 999 999 other particles.
4. Even at low levels of 3 ppm, DDT can cause nervous, immune, and reproductive system disorders.
43 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

5YMGO'LIGO
use th|s toole to onswet quest|ons 1 onJ 2.
. 8loaccumulatlon of DDT ln a Pood Chaln
Consumer Bioaccumulation (ppm)
Plankton 0.04
Minnow 0.94
Adult fsh 2.07
Heron 3.37
Osprey 13.80
Cormorant 26.40
l. Approxlmately how many tlmes more concentrated ls DDT ln herons than lt ls ln mlnnows!
_________________
2. Lxplaln why the concentratlon of the pestlclde DDT ls less ln plankton than ln cormorants.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Heavy Metals: Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury
1. Heavy metals are metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, which have no known vital or benefcial eect
on organisms, and their accumulation over time in the bodies of mammals can cause serious illness.
2. Lead is not considered safe at any level.
% Many electronics contain lead and must be recycled carefully.
% Lead can cause anemia (a blood condition) and nervous and reproductive system damage.
% Lead is harmful if it is absorbed through the skin, inhaled, or ingested (eaten).
3. Cadmium is used in the manufacture of plastics and nickel-cadmium batteries.
% Cadmium is toxic to earthworms and causes many health problems in fsh.
% In humans, the main source of cadmium is exposure to cigarette smoke.
% Cadmium causes lung diseases, cancer, and nervous and immune system damage.
4. Mercury has entered ecosystems through the burning of fossil fuels, waste incineration, mining, and the
manufacture of items like batteries.
% Coal burning adds 40 percent of the mercury released into the atmosphere.
% Mercury bioaccumulates in the brain, heart, and kidneys of many animals.
% Fish bioaccumulate methylmercury compounds, adding risk for any organisms that eat the fsh,
including humans.
Reducing the Eects of Chemical Pollution
1. If chemicals are trapped in the soil, they cannot enter the food chains as easily.
2. Bioremediation is the use of micro-organisms or plants to help clean up chemical pollution.
Example: e oil industry sometimes uses bacteria to eat" oil spills.
46 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Llst three heavy metals known to be dangerous when released lnto the envlronment.
__________________________ ________________________ _________________________
2. Poplar trees are sometlmes planted ln soll contamlnated wlth chemlcals. The poplar trees are
not harmed by the chemlcals, and as they grow they remove the chemlcals from the soll and change
them lnto other non-toxlc chemlcals. what ls the term that descrlbes thls process!
________________________________
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which type of organism in the food chain is
at greatest risk from bioaccumulation of the
synthetic chemical PCB:
microscopic pIants

smaII invertebrates

smaII sh

saImon
A. microscopic plants A. Plants have the lowest risk. ey live short lives, and
PCBs are at very low concentrations in the water.
B. small invertebrates B. Small invertebrates have an increased risk
over plants because they eat many plants and
accumulate PCBs from the plants.
C. small fsh C. Small fsh are at greater risk than small invert-
ebrates because they eat many invertebrates and
accumulate the PCBs from them.
D. salmon D. is answer is correct. Salmon live two to seven
years, during which time they eat many small fsh,
concentrating the PCBs from the small fsh.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand bioaccumulation. In bioaccumulation, some
pesticides and other long-lasting toxins, such as PCBs, can become more concentrated (biomagnifed)
with each higher trophic level. For example, if a large fsh eats 100 smaller fsh, then most of the toxins
from each of the smaller fsh end up in the larger fsh. ese chemicals stay with the larger fsh until it
dies or is eaten by another organism.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 92 to 96 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
47 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which of the following is an example of
bioremediation:
A. Bacteria feed on persistent organic pollutants and
change them to non-toxic forms.
A. is answer is correct. Bio-" refers to living
things, and remediation" means to remedy,
or to make better. Bioremediation is the
use of living organisms to clean up toxins
through biodegradation, the process of
converting the toxins to harmless forms.
B. Electronic wastes are gathered and recycled to
prevent the entry of lead into the environment.
B. is excellent recycling activity keeps toxins
out of the environment, avoiding the need
for cleanup later, but does not involve the
process of bioremediation.
C. PCBs, which are toxins, degrade in the
environment over time, eventually converting to
non-toxic forms.
C. PCBs can degrade over time.
Bioremediation can speed up this natural
process.
D. DDT, a pesticide, accumulates in the fatty tissues
of animals.
D. is is biomagnifcation, which is the
opposite of bioremediation.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand that, in some circumstances, living organisms can
be employed to clean up or remove toxins from an ecosystem. Bioremediation is the use of organisms in
this way. Biodegradation is the chemical process in which toxins are converted to less harmful forms.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use page 99 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
48 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which of the following heavy metals is not
considered toxic in small concentrations in the
environment:
A. cadmium A. Cadmium is highly toxic to soil organisms,
such as worms, as well as to fsh.
B. iron B. is answer is correct. Iron is essential to
human life and is present in the environment
in amounts that are usually harmless.
C. lead C. Lead is highly toxic and can cause anemia,
nervous system damage, impaired mental
development, and kidney failure in humans
and animals.
D. mercury D. Mercury is highly toxic and can cause damage
to nerve cells, the heart, and the kidneys and
also suppresses the immune system.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand that certain heavy metals (in particular lead,
cadmium, and mercury) can be very toxic even at low concentrations.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 97 and 98 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
49 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 49 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 2.3
Energy ow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems: Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which is the best reason to explain why some
synthetic and organic chemicals accumulate in
the environment:
A. Synthetic chemicals are metabolized by
organisms.
B. Organisms secrete synthetic chemicals as a
waste product.
C. e increase in ultraviolet radiation causes
chemicals to accumulate in organisms.
D. Synthetic chemicals that cannot be broken
down by decomposers will build up in living
organisms.
2. In which part of an animal would you expect to
fnd the highest level of a synthetic chemical like
PCB:
A. brain
B. fat storage
C. lung tissue
D. blood system
3. A biologist studied a sample taken from a
squid in a marine food web. She found that
the concentration of DDT in this sample was
2.0 ppm. What does a concentration of
2.0 ppm mean:
A. ere are 20 particles of DDT mixed with
999 980 other particles.
B. ere are two particles of DDT mixed with
999 999 other particles.
C. ere are two particles of DDT mixed with
999 998 other particles.
D. ere are two particles of DDT mixed with
1 000 000 other particles.
4. Sea otters that live o the west coast of Canada
primarily eat sea urchins. e sea urchins are
one of the main consumers of algae such as kelp.
Toxic levels of synthetic chemicals in the sea
otter population prevented the sea otters from
reproducing, and the population of sea otters
began to decrease signifcantly. As a result, the
sea urchins and other herbivores quickly severely
reduced the kelp, allowing barnacles and mussels
to fourish at the cost of other species in the
ecosystemWhich is the best description for the
role of the sea otter in this marine ecosystem:
A. keystone species
B. indicator species
C. top carnivore
D. niche species
3. Which of the following statements about PCB
contamination and orcas is not true:
A. Orcas retain high levels of PCBs in their
bodies because PCBs have a long half-life.
B. e presence of high amounts of PCBs in
orcas is an example of biomagnifcation.
C. PCB-contaminated orcas usually give birth
to calves that have no PCB contamination.
D. PCBs are synthetic chemicals that were
widely used in industrial products.
30 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 30 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Use the following picture of a marine food web to
answer question 6.
6. e squid in this food web was tested and
found to have a DDT concentration of 2.0 ppm.
Which organism would you expect to have a
concentration of 16.0 ppm:
A. cod
B. krill
C. zooplankton
D. orca
7. Which of the following contaminants have these
four characteristics in common:
% potential to bioaccumulate within organisms
% naturally present on Earth
% binds to soil particles
% toxic to animals
A. lead and PCBs
B. DDT and PCBs
C. lead, cadmium, and mercury
D. cadmium, mercury, and DDT
8. Aer an oil spill near Vancouver Island, the oil
company decided to use bacteria to clean up
the pollution created by the spill. What type of
process is this an example of:
A. biocleaning
B. bioremediation
C. bioaccumulation
D. biomagnifcation
9. Which of the following is not an example of
how humans can be exposed to heavy metal
poisoning:
A. smoking cigarettes
B. ingestion of methylmercury
C. skin absorption due to direct contact
D. eating shellfsh contaminated by a red tide
10. Which of the following are natural sources of
heavy metals on Earth:
I volcanic eruptions
II geothermal springs
III battery manufacturing
IV rock weathering
A. I and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I, II, and IV only
D. I, II, III, and IV
31 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Chapter 3 cosystems continuaIIy change over time.
3.l How Changes Occur Naturally ln Lcosystems
I. Summary of Key Points
- Over time, living organisms have changed as the abiotic and biotic factors in their environments have
changed.
- e process that makes change in living things possible is called natural selection.
- In natural selection, the best-adapted members of a species will survive and reproduce.
- Changes also take place in ecosystems.
- Ecological succession refers to changes that take place over time in the types of organisms inhabiting an
area.
- ere are two types of ecological succession: primary succession and secondary succession.
II. Study Notes
How Organisms Adapt to Change
1. Natural selection is the process, proposed by Darwin, where environmental factors favour the selection
of ft individuals.
2. Sometimes, organisms are born with unique characteristics that give them an advantage within their
niche.
- A salmon with a slightly larger tail may be able to swim faster or farther in a river.
3. Individuals with advantages are better able to reproduce and pass along their traits.
4. Individuals with unfavourable characteristics have less chance to reproduce and pass along their traits.
- A salmon with a smaller tail may never have a chance to spawn because it cannot swim to the correct
location.
3. An example of natural selection is the Galapagos fnch.
- ere are thirteen species of fnches on the Galapagos Islands that developed from a single species on
the mainland. Four species are shown in Figure 3.1.
- Each species has unique characteristics, such as dierently sized beaks, which allow it to thrive in its
own niche and not compete with other fnches for resources.
6. Adaptive radiation is the process by which members of a species adapt to a variety of habitats.
. |llustratlon of beak dlnerences ln four Galapagos nches
32 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls natural selectlon! _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. How mlght random varlatlons ln the slze of salmon talls cause natural selectlon to occur! _____
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls adaptlve radlatlon! ________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How does adaptlve radlatlon make lt posslble for several dlnerent specles of nch to llve
together ln the same locatlon wlthout havlng to compete wlth each other for food! __________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
How Ecosystems Change Over Time
1. Ecological succession is the process of gradual change that occurs when organisms colonize a habitat,
modify it, and are forced out by a new species better adapted to the now altered environment.
2. ere are two types of ecological succession: primary succession and secondary succession.
3. Primary succession occurs in an area where no soil exists, such as on bare rock exposed aer a glacier
retreats or formed when lava cools.
4. e frst organisms to survive and reproduce are called pioneer species.
3. Pioneer species alter the abiotic and biotic environment so that other organisms can survive there.
- Wind carries spores of lichens and organisms that can survive and eventually, combined with the
weathering of rock, they help form soil.
- Lichens are examples of a mutualistic relationship between fungus and algae or cyanobacteria. e
fungus provides minerals, water, and protection, and the algae or cyanobacteria provide sugars
through photosynthesis.
6. e soil improves, plants are able to grow, and animals begin to appear.
7. Eventually, seeds of trees germinate and the frst trees, such as deciduous trees, create shade, further
changing the abiotic conditions.
8. As more niches are created, there is greater diversity of animals and more complex food webs.
9. e process of primary succession can last for hundreds of years.
10. Secondary succession occurs aer a major disturbance, such as a forest fre, in an area that already has
soil and once had living organisms.
- e soil contains seeds, micro-organisms, earthworms, and insects.
- Secondary succession is much more rapid than primary succession.
11. Eventually, coniferous forests form in northern latitudes, deciduous forests form in temperate zones, and
tropical forests form in tropical zones.
12. e fnal stage of succession is a climax community (also called mature community), where a stable
group of two or more species is able to survive and reproduce indefnitely in the same habitat.
- Ecological stability in a community means that populations are able to return to their previous state
when disturbed.
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

How Natural Events Aect Ecosystems


1. Terrestrial climax communities continue to change with changes in climate or other factors, such as
fooding, drought, and insect infestations.
- Marine climax communities can be aected by changes in ocean current patterns and extreme
weather.
2. Flooding occurs in locations where water levels can change rapidly.
- Flooding can result in soil erosion, as well as the spread of pollutants and harmful bacteria associated
with wastes.
- Climate change and global warming may be increasing incidents of fooding.
- When a tsunami occurs, huge waves, from large earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, can food coastal
areas.
3. Drought occurs when an area receives a lower than average amount of rainfall over a long period of
time.
- Prolonged drought can destroy habitats and kill organisms.
4. Insect infestations
- Many insects play important roles in their ecosystems.
- Even insects that appear destructive, such as the mountain pine beetle, actually play a role in the
renewal of the forest.
- e mountain pine beetles have a symbiotic relationship with a species of fungus that inhibits the
trees' ability to use resin for protection.
- When normal conditions are changed, infestations can occur.
- Older, weaker trees and trees stressed from overcrowding, drought, or animal grazing do not
produce enough resin to trap and resist the insects as eectively.
- A warmer climate and lack of forest fres allow the insects to spread more eectively.
- Not only are the trees aected, but so is the entire forest ecosystem, as well as any human industries
relying on the forest.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls ecologlcal successlon! _____________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. |n prlmary successlon, organlsms such as llchen, whlch can grow dlrectly on rock, form the rst
populatlons ln an area. what ls the general term for these rst organlsms!
________________________________
3. what ls the dlnerence between prlmary and secondary successlon! ______________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. what ls the term glven to all the populatlons that lnhablt an area ln the nal stage of successlon!
________________________________
5. what are four examples of factors that can cause a cllmax communlty to change! ___________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
34 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Six species of cichlid fsh living in Lake
Victoria in Africa have all evolved
from a common ancestor, allowing
each to occupy a slightly dierent
niche. What is this process called:
A. primary succession A. Primary succession is a term that refers to the frst life
forms to occupy a newly created region, such as volcanic
ash or the rock beneath a retreating glacier.
B. adaptive radiation B. is answer is correct. Radiation refers to many species
evolving from one species, like the spokes of a wheel
radiating out from a common centre. An adaptation is
a characteristic of an organism that has been favoured
through evolution because it increases an organism's chance
for survival.
C. extinction C. Extinction is the dying out of a species rather than its
adaptation into other forms. Adaptive radiation does not
necessarily mean the common ancestor has disappeared.
D. ecological succession D. Ecological succession is the process in which changes take
place over time in the types of organisms that live in an
area.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine your understanding of how organisms change over time due to
the process of natural selection. Adaptive radiation describes the change from a common ancestor into a
number of dierent species that radiate out" to inhabit dierent niches.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 108 to 110 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Consider the following stages of succession.
I A new plant species replaces the frst plant
species.
II A community with a wide variety of species
and a complex food web is established.
III Pioneer species become established.
IV A climax mature community is established.
What is the correct order of these stages:
A. I, II, III, IV A. New plant species arrive aer pioneer species.
B. IV, III, II, I B. e climax community is the last to be
established.
C. III, I, II, IV C. is answer is correct. In primary succession,
pioneer species are the frst to arrive and
reproduce. Eventually, other species replace
them, followed by an increasingly complex
community, culminating in a climax
community.
D. II, IV, III, I D. A complex food web comes aer several species
have established themselves.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the sequence of events that occur in
establishing an ecosystem beginning with a barren landscape. In primary succession, pioneer species
are the frst species of plants and they begin the conversion of barren rock and other abiotic components
into material that will support other life forms. Later, animals and new species of plants begin to take
hold. e pioneer plants may reduce in number or be eliminated altogether. As time passes, the
ecosystem may support more species and a complex food web. A mature community ultimately forms,
such as boreal forest, grassland, or desert.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 111 to 114 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
36 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Over many years, a pond gradually
flls in with silt and plants. New
animals begin to arrive in the area, and
eventually, the pond is completely flled
in with soil. Bushes and small trees begin
to grow. What biological process does
this illustrate:
A. bioremediation A. Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to clean
up or restore habitats that have been damaged through
exposure to toxic substances.
B. evolution B. Evolution is the gradual appearance of new species
where they did not exist before, due to changes in
existing species. In this illustration, one species is not
evolving into others. e new species are moving in
from other areas.
C. ecological succession C. is answer is correct. Ecological succession describes
the changes that take place over time in the types of
organisms that live in an area.
D. adaptive radiation D. Adaptive radiation is the term used to describe the
change from a common ancestor into a number of
dierent species that radiate out" to inhabit dierent
niches.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand that mature ecosystems are produced over
time from aer pioneer species take hold and begin to modify the biotic and abiotic components of the
ecosystem, creating habitats for other succeeding species.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 110 to 114 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
37 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 37 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 3.1
Ecosystems continually change over time: How Changes Occur Naturally in Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Marsupials are mammals that have a pouch in
which females raise their young through early
infancy. Many marsupials, such as kangaroos and
koala bears, live in Australia, where it is believed
that they all evolved from a common ancestor.
Each species occupies its own ecological niche
within Australia. is an example of which type
of process:
A. artifcial selection
B. adaptive radiation
C. primary succession
D. ecological succession
2. Which of the following statements about natural
selection is not true:
A. e fnches of the Galapagos Islands are an
example of natural selection.
B. e development of antibiotic-resistant
bacteria is an example of natural selection.
C. Natural selection occurs when an
organism tries to change and adapt to new
surroundings.
D. In natural selection, members of a species
who have a favourable trait will be more
likely to reproduce.
3. What do the following events have in common:
- fooding
- tsunami
- drought
- insect infestation
A. ey occur only in coastal areas.
B. ey result in primary succession.
C. ey aect biotic and abiotic factors of
mature communities.
D. ey have all increased in frequency because
of climate change.
4. Which of the following statements regarding
pioneer species is not true:
A. Galapagos fnches are an example of a
pioneer species.
B. Pioneer species change the biotic and abiotic
environment in a variety of ways.
C. Pioneer species are the frst organisms that
survive and reproduce in an area.
D. Lichens that grow on rock in areas where
glaciers have retreated are an example of a
pioneer species.
3. An example of natural selection is the increase in
the population of dark-coloured moths during
the Industrial Revolution in England. During
this time, large amounts of ash and soot released
into the atmosphere blackened the trees and
vegetation near industrial areas, which was
the habitat of the moth. Before the Industrial
Revolution altered the environment, the light-
coloured moth population was much higher than
the dark-coloured moth population. Which of
the following reasons best explains the increase
in the dark-coloured moth population:
A. e colour of the moths alternates every few
years between light and dark.
B. e dark-coloured moths were better able to
avoid predators through camoufage against
the dark-coloured trees.
C. e dark-coloured moths were the moths
that were more exposed to pollution, which
changed their pigmentation.
D. e light-coloured moths were more
susceptible to the environmental impact of
the ash and soot in their environment.
38 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 38 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
6. Vegetation gradually takes hold on bare rock
formed by cooling lava. What kind of ecological
process is happening:
A. secondary succession
B. primary succession
C. adaptive radiation
D. natural selection
7. In which of the following locations would you
expect the process of secondary succession to
occur:
A. on lava aer a volcanic eruption
B. in a rocky landscape in the Arctic
C. in an area le from a retreating glacier
D. in an empty feld where crops were once
grown
8. Which of the following statements about fooding
is not true:
A. Flooding can cause tsunamis.
B. Flooding can cause widespread disease
among humans.
C. Flooding can be part of the normal cycle of
an ecosystem.
D. Climate change may have caused an increase
in fooding.
9. Which of the following statements regarding the
mountain pine beetle are true:
I
Pine beetles have a symbiotic
relationship with a fungus.
II
Pine beetles only attack older, weaker
pine trees.
III
e spread of the pine beetle in British
Columbia has decreased spruce, fr, and
younger pine populations.
IV Tree resin can trap beetles.
A. I and II only
B. III and IV only
C. I, III, and IV only
D. I, II, III, and IV
10. What is the correct order for the following stages
of primary succession, from earliest to latest:
I A mature community develops.
II
e decay of pioneer species creates
soil.
III
Lichens begin breaking down rocks and
forming soil.
IV
Micro-organisms and insects begin to
occupy the area.
V Sun-tolerant trees begin to grow.
A. II, III, V, IV, I
B. III, II, IV, V, I
C. III, II, V, I, IV
D. IV, II, III, I, V
39 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

3.2 How Humans |nnuence Lcosystems


I. Summary of Key Points
- A sustainable ecosystem provides economic opportunities today while maintaining biodiversity and
ecosystem health for the future.
- Economic sustainability is threatened by habitat loss that results from human activities, such as urban
development and deforestation.
- Other human activities, such as certain agricultural practices and overfshing, also change ecosystems,
decrease biodiversity, and aect ecosystem health.
- Better resource management practices in activities such as forestry, agriculture, and mining can help
sustain ecosystems.
II. Study Notes
Understanding Sustainability
1. A sustainable ecosystem provides economic opportunities today while maintaining biodiversity and
ecosystem health for the future.
2. Human expansion into ecosystems has resulted in the destruction or fragmentation of habitats.
3. Aquatic ecosystems, such as wetlands and estuaries, include unique populations of plants, animals,
and micro-organisms that are threatened by human expansion and the release of toxins (poisons) far
upstream.
- Estuaries are coastal bodies of water where rivers or streams (freshwater) meet the ocean (salt water).
- Micro-organisms aected by human expansion include phytoplankton (plant-like micro-organisms)
and zooplankton (animal-like micro-organisms), which are the basis of many aquatic ecosystem
food chains.
e Eects of Land and Resource Use, Habitat Loss, and the Eects of Deforestation
1. Deforestation is the practice in which forests are logged or cleared for human use and are not replanted.
- Deforestation of tropical rainforests continues at an alarming rate.
- Deforestation reduces the number of plants and animals in an ecosystem and results in soil
degradation.
2. Soil degradation, which means the soil becomes less healthy and less able to support life, occurs when
water and wind erosion removes topsoil from bare land.
- Topsoil, the upper layer of soil, is where most of the nutrients, water, and air are found for plant
growth.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what does "sustalnable ecosystem mean! ____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Deforestatlon of troplcal ralnforests contlnues to occur. Glve two negatlve enects of
deforestatlon. ___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls soll degradatlon! __________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
60 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 60 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

e Eects of Agriculture
1. If felds are le exposed during non-planting seasons, water and wind erosion can occur.
2. Farm vehicles and grazing animals can cause soil compaction, which means that soil particles are
squeezed together.
- Compaction reduces the movement of air, water, and soil organisms between the particles, all of
which are essential for soil health.
3. When soil is compacted, water and air cannot enter, so water runs o instead of soaking in.
- Run-o can add excess nitrogen and pollutants, such as pesticides, to the environment.
e Eects of Resource Exploitation
1. Resource exploitation, also called resource use, includes such activities as harvesting fsh and timber,
mining coal and minerals, and extracting oil and gas.
2. Humans depend on resource exploitation for jobs, materials, food, shelter, and energy.
3. Resource exploitation can lead to habitat loss, soil degradation, and contamination of water supplies.
- Contamination is the introduction of harmful chemicals or micro-organisms into the environment.
4. Many mining and resource exploitations need reclamation eorts to restore the land and must develop
water treatment facilities to remove heavy metals.
- Reclamation oen involves use of plants to restore the land and decontaminate soil and water.
3. Overexploitation is the use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted.
- Overexploitation can aect the interactions in food webs for decades to come.
- Overexploitation can cause populations to become less resistant to disease and less able to adapt to
changes in their environment.
- Overexploitation can result in extinction, the dying out of a species.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Name two negatlve enects of poor agrlcultural practlces on soll. __________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Llst three klnds of human actlvltles that are types of resource exploltatlon. _________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Llst ve ways humans depend on resource exploltatlon. _________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Llst three ways that resource exploltatlon can harm the envlronment. _____________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. what does "overexploltatlon mean! _________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. what ls extlnctlon! _______________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
61 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 61 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

Resource Management and Traditional Ecological Knowledge


1. In Aboriginal cultures, traditional ecological knowledge is passed down from generation to generation.
2. is knowledge reveals what past conditions were like and how the ecosystem and humans interact.
3. Knowledge is found in stories, songs, cultural beliefs, rituals, community laws, and traditional practices.
4. Current ecological restoration and usage guidelines oen involve traditional knowledge from Aboriginal
representatives.
3. Traditions such as the spring burn" allow for ecological renewal.
- Burning improves the growth of berry plants, which attracts more animals.
- Burning recycles nutrients, creates more diversity, reduces forest litter, and opens the canopy to allow
more sunlight to reach the plants.
- Fire suppression, enforced in British Columbia for over 100 years, has led to recent issues like the
mountain pine beetle infestation and huge wildfre losses.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what practlces have Aborlglnal peoples used to pass ecologlcal knowledge from generatlon to
generatlon! _____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. |n some areas, a tradltlon called the sprlng burn has been used. what posltlve ecologlcal results can
occur from a sprlng burn! _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Identify which term best matches this description:
Society's demand on nature is in balance with
nature's ability to meet that demand."
A. ecology A. Ecology is the study of the interactions and
relationships between organisms and their
environment.
B. sustainability B. is answer is correct.
C. ecological succession C. Ecological succession describes changes that
take place over time in the types of organisms
that live in an area.
D. bioremediation D. Bioremediation is the use of living organisms
to improve or detoxify an ecosystem.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the relationship between sustainability and
ecosystems. Sustainability refers to the ability of an ecosystem to sustain biological processes.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 123 to 134 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
62 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
A four-lane divided highway is built
through the middle of a wilderness area.
Which of these threats to the environment
does the highway introduce:
I habitat loss
II deforestation
III extinction of species
IV habitat fragmentation
A. I only A. Habitat loss will occur, partly because of the construction
of the road, but also because the existence of a road
could lead to increased human access to wilderness
areas.
B. I and IV only B. Habitat fragmentation is the division of habitats into
smaller, isolated fragments. e highway can aect
migration, access to food and water supply, and the
ability of animals to fnd a mate.
C. I, II, and III only C. Extinction of some species is a possibility if the eect of
habitat loss and fragmentation is severe enough.
D. I, II, III, and IV D. is answer is correct. e existence of the highway may
produce all the listed eects.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine your understanding of the negative eects of land and resource
use including loss of habitat and habitat fragmentation.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 126 to 129 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
63 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 63 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
IV. Practice Questions
Section 3.2
Ecosystems continually change over time: How Humans Inuence Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
Use the following information to answer questions
1 and 2.
A large moss-covered rock provides a habitat for
a community of organisms. Algae, bacteria, fungi,
and insects live on the rock. In an experiment,
researchers scraped most of the moss o of the rock.
ey le one large patch of moss in one region of the
rock. ey also le six much smaller patches close
together in another region of the rock. ey repeated
the same procedure on six dierent rocks. Aer six
months, the patches were analyzed and researchers
counted the number of distinct species living in each
region.
1. What do the two regions represent in the
experiment:
A. Larger patch: control
Six smaller patches: habitat loss
B. Larger patch: control
Six smaller patches: habitat fragmentation
C. Larger patch: habitat fragmentation
Six smaller patches: control
D. Larger patch: habitat loss
Six smaller patches: control
2. Across all six rocks, an average of 40 percent of
the species became extinct in the smaller patches.
What could the researchers conclude from this
experiment:
A. is experiment shows how to create a
sustainable ecosystem.
B. Habitat loss does not aect the biodiversity
of the rock ecosystem.
C. Many of the species living on the rock were
aected by habitat fragmentation.
D. e species were able to move among the
smaller patches to obtain the nutrients they
needed.
3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a
sustainable ecosystem:
A. biodiversity
B. no resource use
C. responsible land use
D. ability to sustain ecological process
4. Which of the following is an example of a
sustainable land use approach in British
Columbia:
A. grassland management plans
B. urban expansion into farmlands
C. cutting large areas of forest
D. draining and drying out wetlands
3. Which of the following statements about
deforestation are true:
I
Deforestation is a problem only in
tropical rainforests.
II
Deforestation reduces the number
of plants and animals living in an
ecosystem.
III Deforestation can cause soil erosion.
A. I and II only
B. I, II, and III
C. II only
D. II and III only
6. Which of the following statements about land use
is not true:
A. Bare felds can cause topsoil erosion.
B. e use of tractors can cause soil
compaction.
C. Mine reclamation can cause water
contamination.
D. Road construction can cause habitat
fragmentation.
64 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 64 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Use this picture of an open-pit copper mine,
similar to those found in British Columbia, to
answer question 8.
7. Which of the following practices is likely to
happen aer the mine closes:
A. use of plants to decontaminate soil
B. use of topsoil to fll in the open pit
C. resource exploitation
D. destruction of habitat
8. Which of the following is a likely outcome of
overexploitation:
A. biodiversity
B. extinction
C. sustainability
D. ecological succession
9. Which of the following is an example of
traditional ecological knowledge:
A. soil compaction of agricultural lands
B. the introduction of non-native plant species
C. the overexploitation of the salmon fshery
D. the spring burning of prairie grasslands in
Alberta
10. Which of the following statements about forest
fres is not true:
A. Secondary succession can occur aer a forest
fre.
B. Forest fres are an example of resource
exploitation.
C. Controlled burns of forest fres can improve
the diversity of the forest.
D. Forest fre suppression practices have
resulted in large numbers of dead or diseased
trees.
63 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

3.3 How |ntroduced Specles Anect Lcosystems


I. Summary of Key Points
- Native species are organisms that naturally inhabit an area.
- Introduced species are introduced into an ecosystem and are usually benefcial or harmless.
- Some introduced species are invasive and can destroy ecosystems.
- ese species reproduce rapidly and are oen aggressive.
- Lacking natural predators, they easily outcompete native species and alter habitats.
II. Study Notes
Native Species and Foreign Species
1. Native species are plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area.
2. Foreign species are organisms that people intentionally or accidentally have introduced into regions
where they did not exist previously.
- Foreign species are also called introduced species.
- Many foreign species are harmless or even may be benefcial.
3. Invasive species are organisms that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies,
weakening their immune systems.
Example: Purple loosestrife was brought to North America several hundred years ago and has
destroyed wetlands because it quickly reproduces and chokes out other plants.
- Introduced invasive species in British Columbia include Eurasian milfoil, Norway rat, American
bullfrog, and European starling.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the dlnerence between a natlve specles and a forelgn specles! _____________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. what ls the denltlon of an lnvaslve specles! __________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
e Impact of Introduced Invasive Species
1. e rapid spread of introduced invasive species is a major cause of global biodiversity loss.
2. Invasive species oen have high reproduction rates, are aggressive competitors, and lack natural
predators in new habitats.
3. Invasive species oen take advantage of their new habitat, resulting in their proliferation.
- Proliferation means to grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissues, cells, or ospring.
4. Foreign species can aect native species through:
- Competition. Native species have an established balance in the competition for food and habitat, and
the invasive species disturbs this balance. e European starling outcompetes British Columbia's
western bluebird for nesting habitat.
- Predation. If the invasive species is a predator, it may have a huge advantage since the native species
may have no methods to survive against it. e Norway rat preys on British Columbia's ground-
nesting birds, and the American bullfrog preys on British Columbia's native frogs.
- Disease and Parasitism. By weakening certain species, a micro-organism invading an ecosystem can
drastically alter the entire ecosystem and the niches within it.
- Habitat Alteration. Some invasive species can change the physical structure of the ecosystem by
digging, burrowing, blocking sunlight, or changing the ecosystem's chemistry. Eurasian milfoil
forms wide, dense mats at lake surfaces, cutting o sunlight to organisms below. It grows from plant
fragments, which are oen spread by boats.
66 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l

Saving an Ecosystem Under Siege


1. e Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (GOERT) is working to save one of the most biologically rich
ecosystems in the province, which is also one of the most threatened.
- e team is a partnership of governments, First Nations, conservationists, scientists, and businesses.
2. Ninety-fve percent of the original ecosystem has been lost to urban development, and the remaining
3 percent is threatened by foreign species, including Scotch broom, English ivy, invasive grasses, grey
squirrels, and gypsy moths.
- Scotch broom is a bushy shrub that replaces native shrubs, ruins the habitat for native birds and
butterfies, and fxes nitrogen in the soil, creating an overload of nitrogen.
- e grey squirrels outcompete the native red squirrel for acorns and are larger and stronger.
- e gypsy moth larvae strip oak trees of their leaves, making the trees vulnerable to infections and
unable to perform photosynthesis.
3. Garry oak ecosystems may be the forests of the future because they are better able to withstand drought
than Douglas fr forests.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what does prollferatlon mean! _____________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. what are four ways ln whlch lntroduced specles can anect ecosystems! ____________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls the ma[or threat to the Garry oak ecosystem today! ______________________________
4. How do gypsy moths harm the Garry oak ecosystem! __________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
67 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
III. Sample Exam Questions Explained
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Scotch broom is a plant that was brought from
Europe to Vancouver Island in 1830. It has since
spread widely to the Pacifc coastal regions of
North America, where it has a negative eect on
other plant species such as Garry oak. Which term
best describes the role of Scotch broom in North
America:
A. deforestation A. Deforestation does not occur even though
Scotch broom threatens the habitat of some
species of trees.
B. resource exploitation B. Resource exploitation is the over use or
incorrect use of a resource. It was a misuse to
bring Scotch broom to North America, but this
is because it was an invasive species.
C. introduced species C. is answer is correct. e Scotch broom was
introduced and dominated its new habitats.
By spreading widely on its own, it can also be
classifed as an invasive species.
D. pollution D. Pollution is the addition of harmful chemicals
to the environment.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the role of habitat alteration in the health of
ecosystems.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 138 to 142 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
68 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 68 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
e Question Why It Is Right /Why It Is Wrong
e Norway rat was introduced in the
Queen Charlotte Islands/Haida Gwaii by
early European explorers. e female rat can
produce up to 72 young per year. e young
feed on ground-nesting sea birds by eating
their eggs and young. e rats eat almost any
food source, including meat, grains, seeds,
fsh, and birds. What is the likely cause for the
decline in the population of ground-nesting
birds:
A. competition A. Competition would refer to the need for the
ground-nesting birds to compete for the same
resources as the rat.
B. predation B. is answer is correct. e rats attack nests and eat
eggs or young birds.
C. disease and parasites C. Although rats can carry disease, it is their appetite
for birds that is causing the problem.
D. habitat alteration D. Rats do not signifcantly alter the habitat.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how introduced species can change an
ecosystem through competition, predation, disease and parasites, and habitat alteration.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 138 to 142 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
69 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 69 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
1. Which of the following characteristics accurately
describe most invasive species:
I aggressive competitors
II low reproduction rates
III lack natural predators in new habitats
IV contribute to biodiversity loss
A. I and II only
B. I, II, III, and IV
C. I, III, and IV only
D. III and IV only
2. An invasive predator species is introduced into a
new environment. e predator is quickly able to
fnd suitable prey. In a short period of time, the
prey population has been dramatically reduced
by the new predator. Which of the following best
explains how the predator was able to do this:
A. e prey population began to occupy a new
niche.
B. e prey population had a high reproduction
rate.
C. e invasive predator became a parasite on
the prey species.
D. e prey population probably did not have
adaptations to escape or fght the new
predator.
3. What type of impact has the European starling
had on native birds in British Columbia:
A. predation
B. competition
C. habitat alteration
D. disease and parasites
4. Which of the following species have these three
characteristics in common:
- invasive species
- outcompete native species
- found in British Columbia
A. gypsy moth and grey squirrels
B. grey squirrels and American bullfrog
C. gypsy moth and American bullfrog
D. grey squirrels and red squirrels
3. Which of the following statements accurately
describes introduced species:
A. ey naturally inhabit the new environment.
B. Native species is another name for
introduced species.
C. Many are harmless or benefcial in their new
environment.
D. ey are always intentionally introduced into
a new environment.
6. Which of the following are reasons why there has
been an increase in invasive introduced species:
I creation of new niches in ecosystems
II increased international air travel
III increase in biodiversity of ecosystems
IV climate change
A. I, II, and III only
B. II and IV only
C. III and IV only
D. I, II, III, and IV
IV. Practice Questions
Section 3.3
Ecosystems continually change over time: How Introduced Species Aect Ecosystems
Circle the letter of the best answer.
70 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l 70 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Use this picture to answer question 7.
7. e purpose of this sign is to prevent the spread
of which species:
A. English ivy
B. Scotch broom
C. Eurasian milfoil
D. purple loosestrife
8. Which of the following examples of how Scotch
broom alters the habitat in the Garry oak
ecosystem is false:
A. interferes with the growth of native species
by altering the nutrients in the soil
B. ruins habitat for native birds and butterfies
by replacing native shrubs
C. makes trees more vulnerable to infections
D. fxes nitrogen in the soil
Use the following information to answer questions
9 and 10.
Rabbits were introduced to Australia by European
settlers. e rabbits quickly multiplied and spread
throughout the country, feeding on the native
vegetation and destroying food and habitat for many
native species. e Australian government decided to
use myxoma virus to eradicate the rabbit population.
e myxoma virus is from Uruguay, and it causes the
fatal disease myxomatosis. It is usually transmitted
by mosquitoes or feas.
9. Which of the following best summarizes the
actions of the Australian government:
A. the use of an introduced species to control
an invasive population
B. the use of a native species to control an
invasive population
C. the use of an invasive species to control a
native population
D. the use of a foreign species to control a
native population
10. Initially, the virus killed 90 percent of the rabbit
population. In more recent years, the rabbit
population has begun to grow again even though
the virus is still present in the environment and
continues to kill up to 30 percent of the rabbit
population annually. What is the best explanation
for why the virus currently kills only half of the
rabbit population:
A. e rabbit population became a native
species.
B. e rabbit population found a new niche to
occupy.
C. e rabbit population learned to hide from
the virus.
D. Natural selection favoured virus-resistant
rabbits that were able to survive and
reproduce.
71 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Processes of Sclence vocabulary Terms
You may encounter the following Processes of Science vocabulary terms on the exam.
accuracy the dierence between a measurement and its accepted value
conclusion the explanation of the results of an experiment as they apply to the hypothesis being tested
control a test you carry out with no independent variables so you can observe whether your independent
variable in an experiment does indeed cause a change
controlled experiment an investigation in which only one variable is changed, and the resulting eect on
another variable is observed, while all other variables are held constant
dependent variable in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to a change in the independent
variable; also called the responding variable
extrapolation a prediction that is out of the range of the collected data
hypothesis a testable proposal used to explain an observation or to predict the outcome of an experiment;
oen expressed in the form of an If ..., then ..." statement
independent variable in an experiment, the factor that is selected or adjusted to see what eect the change
will have on the dependent variable; also called the manipulated variable
interpolation a prediction that is within the range of collected data
observation information gathered through one or more senses, including hearing, touch, sight, taste, and
smell
precision a measure of the detail, such as the number of digits, with which a quantity is expressed
prediction a forecast about what you expect to observe when you do an investigation
principle a fundamental law, assumption, or fact
procedure a specifc set of actions which if executed in the same manner under the same circumstances will
yield the same results
scale ratio between a single unit of distance, such as on a map, model, or drawing, and the corresponding
distance in reality
scientihc literacy an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary
to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, to become lifelong learners, and to
maintain a sense of wonder about the world
slope the direction of a line on a graph, which may be horizontal (zero), slanting up (positive), or slanting
down (negative). Slope is calculated by determining the ratio of rise/run.
uncertainty a lack of certainty; having limited knowledge to describe a state or outcome, oen where more
than one outcome is possible
validity the degree to which a conclusion is likely to be true
variable a factor that can infuence the outcome of an experiment
Venn diagram a type of graphic organizer that can be used to compare and contrast two or more concepts
or objects by using two or more intersecting circles
72 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Unlt l Glossary
abiotic the non-living parts of the environment, such as air, water, soil, light, and temperature
acid precipitation/rain precipitation that has a lower pH (higher acidity) than precipitation that does not
contain pollutants
adaptation a characteristic that allows an organism to better survive and reproduce
adaptive radiation the process by which members of a species adapt to a variety of habitats
algae simple unicellular or multicellular organisms
annual precipitation total yearly average rainfall, snow, mist, and fog
annual temperature average yearly temperature
aquatic related to water
bacteria unicellular micro-organisms that do not have a nucleus surrounded by a membrane
bioaccumulation the accumulation of a substance, such as a chemical, in various tissues of a living organism
biodegradation the process by which dead organic matter is broken down naturally by biological agents,
especially bacteria
biodiversity the variety of all living species of plants, animals, and micro-organisms
biomagnihcation the process in which chemicals not only accumulate but become more concentrated at each
trophic level
biome a large area of the biosphere that has characteristic climate, plants, animals, and soil
biosphere the thin layer of air, land, and water at Earth's surface where living things exist
biotic the organisms in the environment, including bacteria, plants, and animals
carbon exchange how carbon is moved through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; also called the carbon cycle
carbon sink a short- or long-term accumulation of carbon
carbon store See carbon sink
carbonate a combination of carbon and oxygen (CO
3
2
) that is dissolved in ocean water
carnivore a consumer that eats animals
cellular respiration the process in which both plants and animals release carbon dioxide back into the
atmosphere by converting carbohydrates and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water; represented by the
chemical equation C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
[INSERT ARROW] 6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy
climate long-term weather conditions in an area, including rainfall and temperature
climatograph a graph that shows the average temperature and precipitation for a location over a period of 30
years or more
climax community the fnal stage of ecological succession where a stable group of two or more species is able
to survive and reproduce indefnitely in the same habitat; also called mature community
commensalism a relationship in which one organism benefts and the other organism is not aected, such as
barnacles on a whale
community all populations of dierent species that interact in an ecosystem
competition an interaction that occurs between two or more organisms when they need the same resource in
the same location at the same time
consumers (primary, secondary, tertiary) organisms that feed on other organisms: primary consumers in the
second trophic level obtain their energy by eating producers; secondary consumers in the third trophic
level obtain their energy by eating primary consumers; tertiary consumers in the fourth trophic level
obtain their energy by eating secondary consumers
73 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
DDT a pesticide introduced to control mosquito populations and which is banned in many countries;
abbreviation for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane
decomposers organisms such as bacteria and fungi that change wastes and dead organisms into usable
nutrients for other organisms in soil and water
deforestation the practice in which forests are logged or cleared for human use and are not replanted
denitrihcation the process through which nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere
detrivore a consumer that eats dead organisms and waste matter
ecological hierarchy (organism, population, community, ecosystem) the order of relationships in an
ecosystem
ecological pyramid (pyramid of biomass, pyramid of energy, pyramid of numbers) model that shows the
changes in available energy from one trophic level to another in a food chain: a pyramid of numbers shows
the number of organisms at each trophic level; a pyramid of biomass shows the number of organisms at
each trophic level multiplied by their mass; and a pyramid of energy shows the amount of energy that is
available at each trophic level
ecological succession (primary, secondary) the process of gradual change that occurs when organisms
colonize a habitat, modify it, and are forced out by a new species better adapted to the now altered
environment; primary succession occurs in an area where no soil exists, secondary succession occurs aer
a major disturbance, such as a forest fre, in an area that already has soil and once had living organisms
ecology the study of the relation of organisms to the environment and to each other
ecosystem a network of interactions linking biotic factors (organisms) and abiotic factors (air, water, soil, etc.)
elevation height above sea level
estuary coastal body of water where a river or stream (freshwater) meets the ocean (salt water)
extinction the dying out of a species
food chains series of organisms that represent the fow of energy in an ecosystem from producer to consumer
and from consumer to consumer
food pyramids See ecological pyramids
food web a model of the feeding relationship in an ecosystem
foreign species organisms that people have introduced into area where they did not exist previously
fossil fuels non-renewable sources of energy, such as oil, gas, and coal, formed by plants and animals that lived
millions of years ago
grazing feeding method of animals such as deer and antelope that have fat teeth to grind plant materials
habitat where an organism lives
heavy metals metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, which have no known vital or benefcial eect on
organisms; their accumulation over time in the bodies of mammals can cause serious illness
herbivore a consumer that eats only plants
host the organism that a parasite lives in or on
keystone species species that can greatly aect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem
latitude the distance north and south from the equator
legumes plants such as peas, beans, alfalfa, and clover that can fx atmospheric nitrogen
lichen organism formed through a mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria
lightning an atmospheric discharge of electricity
mutualism a relationship in which both organisms beneft, such as a bee gathering nectar from a fower
native species plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area
natural selection the process, proposed by Darwin, where environmental factors favour the selection of ft
individuals
74 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
niche the role an organism has within an ecosystem; how an organism fts into and contributes to its
environment physically, chemically, and biologically
nitrihcation a two-step process that occurs when certain nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium into nitrite
(NO
2

)
nutrients materials that an organism needs to live and grow
omnivore a consumer that eats both plants and animals
parasitism a relationship in which one organism benefts and the other organism is harmed, such as mountain
pine beetles destroying a pine forest
PCBs compounds that are produced by replacing hydrogen atoms in biphenyl with chlorine; an abbreviation
for polychlorinated biphenyls
pesticide a substance used to control populations of plant and animal pests
pH a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
phosphorus a chemical element that is essential for life processes in plants and animals
photosynthesis a chemical reaction that coverts solar energy into chemical energy usable by plants; during
photosynthesis, carbon in the form of carbon dioxide enters the leaves of plants and reacts with water in
the presence of sunlight to produce energy-rich carbohydrates and oxygen; represented by the chemical
equation: 6CO
2
+ H
2
O + energy (sunlight) C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2

phytoplankton plant-like micro-organisms
pioneer species organisms such as lichens and other plants that are the frst organisms in an area to survive and
reproduce; these organisms change the abiotic and biotic conditions of an area so that other organisms can
survive there
ppm one particle of a given substance mixed with 999 999 other particles; an abbreviation for parts per million
predation the relationship where one organism (the predator) kills and consumes another organism (the prey)
producer organisms that produce food in the form of carbohydrates during photosynthesis
proliferation to grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissues, cells, or ospring
soil degradation the process in which soil becomes less healthy and less able to support life
stability in a community, aer populations are able to return to their previous state aer a disturbance
symbiosis a relationship in which two dierent organisms live together in a close association
terrestrial related to land
top consumer/predator/carnivore organisms in the fourth trophic level (e.g., hawks and sea otters), which
obtain their energy by eating secondary consumers
toxin poison
trophic level the number of energy transfers an organism is away from the original solar energy entering the
food chain
zooplankton animal-like micro-organisms
73 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Chapter 1
Quick Check Answers
page 5
1. (a) Biotic
(b) Abiotic
(c) Abiotic
(d) Abiotic
(e) Abiotic
(f) Biotic
page 7
1. (a) 31C
(b) 0C to 22C
(c) 130 cm
(d) 20 cm to 203 cm
(e) 20 cm and 32C
(f) Permanent ice, tundra, boreal forest, and
grassland
2. Latitude
3. Latitude
page 8
1. (a) Time in months
(b) Temperature
(c) Average temperature in degrees Celsius
(d) 10C
(e) 22C
(f) January
(g) Average precipitation in millimetres
(h) 100 mm
(i) 10 mm
(j) ey are the same.
page 9
1. An adaptation is a characteristic that enables
an organism to better survive and reproduce.
Adaptations can be structural, physiological, or
behavioural.
2. (a) Structural
(b) Physiological
(c) Behavioural
(d) Structural
(e) Behavioural
page 12
1. (a) Temperate rainforest
(b) Boreal forest
(c) Temperate rainforest
(d) Temperate rainforest
(e) 3
2. (a) Grassland
(b) Temperate deciduous forest
(c) Boreal forest
3. (a) Temperate rainforest
(b) Grassland
(c) Tundra
page 1
1. Habitat, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
page 17
1. Ecology is the study of the relation of organisms
to their environment and to each other.
2. Ecological hierarchy
3. Population
4. Community
page 18
1. Commensalism
2. e hookworm benefts but the dog is harmed.
3. Niche
4. Competition
page 19
1. Approximately 11-13, 2123, 32-34, 4343
Practice Questions Answers
Section 1.1
1. D
2. B
3. B
4. C
3. B
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. C
1BSU$o6OJU"OTXFS,FZ
76 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
Section 1.2
1. D
2. A
3. D
4. C
3. D
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. B
Chapter 2
Quick Check Answers
page 24
1. Producers
2. Energy fow describes the fow of energy from the
ecosystem to an organism and from one organism
to another.
3. Decomposers are organisms such as bacteria and
fungi that change wastes and dead organisms into
usable nutrients for other organisms in soil and
water.
4. (a) Decomposer
(b) Producer
(c) Decomposer
(d) Producer
(e) Consumer, decomposer
page 2
1. Grass (producer) rabbit (herbivore)
cougar (carnivore) bear (omnivore)
earthworm (detrivore)
2. Omnivore
3. Worm
page 27
1. Grizzly bear, grouse
2. Grizzly bear, red-tailed hawk
page 28
1. Pyramid of energy
2. 99 percent is lost.
page 33
1. A nutrient is a chemical that is required for plant
and animal growth and other life processes.
2. Deforestation (clearing of land)
3. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus
page 34
1. Carbon sink
2. (a) Atmosphere
(b) Long-term (intermediate and deep water)
(c) More is stored in the soil
(d) Marine sediments and sedimentary rock
page 35
1. (a) 730
(b) 700
(c) 1600
2. (a) Faster into the oceans
(b) Into the air
(c) Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide,
which remains in the air.
3. Volcanoes put carbon into the atmosphere.
page 3
1. Nitrogen fxation
2. Nitrifcation
page 37
1. Denitrifcation returns nitrogen to the
atmosphere, while nitrogen fxation and
nitrifcation take nitrogen from the atmosphere
and make it available to plants for use.
2. Burning fossil fuels, treating sewage, and
fertilizing for agriculture
3. Kill aquatic organisms by using up CO2
and oxygen and blocking sunlight; produce
neurotoxins
page 38
1. In rocks and sediments on the ocean foor in
compounds that contain phosphate (PO
4
3-
)
2. Geologic upli brings phosphorus-containing
rocks to the surface and exposes them to
weathering processes such as chemical (lichens
feeding on the rocks) and physical (erosion,
freezing and cracking).
3. Plants grow in phosphate-containing rocks and
soils. Animals obtain phosphate by eating the
plants.
4. Mining for fertilizer components
page 43
1. Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of a
substance, such as a toxic (poisonous)
chemical, in various tissues of a living organism.
2. (a) When a bear eats many salmon, the chemical
builds up to high levels in the bear.
(b) Biomagnifcation
77 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
3. Keystone species are species that can greatly
aect population numbers and the health of an
ecosystem. e health of the forest depends on
it receiving nutrients. By moving salmon from
the water to the forest, they transfer essential
nutrients to the forest. is makes the bears
extremely important for the forest-which is why
they are a keystone species.
page 44
1. e orca is at the top of the food chain and
receives all the PCBs that were present in 4330
kg of microscopic plants and algae. is means
that the PCB levels are greater in the orca than
at any trophic level beneath it. In general, the
tertiary consumer is always at greater risk than
the producers or primary consumers.
page 45
1. About 3 to 4 times more concentrated
(3.8)
2. Biomagnifcation causes the concentration of
DDT to increase at each trophic level. Plankton is
a producer and takes on the same concentration
as is present in the environment. Cormorants
are secondary or tertiary consumers and contain
DDT that was in many times their body weight
worth of plankton.
page 4
1. Lead, mercury, cadmium
2. Bioremediation
Practice Questions Answers
Section 2.1
1. A
2. D
3. B
4. D
3. C
6. D
7. A
8. A
9. D
10. B
Section 2.2
1. D
2. A
3. D
4. B
3. C
6. D
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. D
Section 2.3
1. D
2. B
3. C
4. A
3. C
6. D
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. C
Chapter 3
Quick Check Answers
page 52
1. Natural selection is the process, proposed by
Darwin, where the environment acts to select ft
individuals.
2. Salmon that have slightly larger or more ecient
tails may be able to catch prey or escape from
predators better than other salmon. is gives
them a better chance to reproduce.
3. Adaptive radiation is the process by which
members of a species adapt to a variety of
habitats.
4. Each species of fnch has a dierently sized beak
that allows it to eat only certain kinds of food.
Finches with dierently shaped beaks eat dierent
food. Each species has its own niche within the
same habitat.
page 53
1. Ecological succession is the process of gradual
change that occurs when organisms colonize
a habitat, modify it, and are forced out by a
new species better adapted to the now altered
environment.
2. Pioneer species
3. In primary succession, no soil exists, such as aer
a glacier retreats or when lava cools. Secondary
succession occurs aer a major disturbance, such
as a forest fre or a food.
78 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt l
4. Climax community (or mature community)
3. Changes in climate, fooding, drought, and insect
infestations (also correct: changes in ocean
patterns, extreme weather)
page 59
1. A sustainable ecosystem provides economic
opportunities today while maintaining
biodiversity and ecosystem health for the future.
2. Deforestation reduces the number of plants
and animals in an ecosystem and results in soil
degradation.
3. Soil degradation occurs when water and wind
erosion removes topsoil from bare land.
page 0
1. Soil erosion and soil compaction
2. Harvesting fsh and timber, mining coal and
minerals, and extracting oil and gas
3. Jobs, materials, food, shelter, and energy
4. Habitat loss, soil degradation, and contamination
of water supplies
3. Overexploitation is the use or extraction of a
resource until it is depleted.
6. Extinction is the dying out of a species.
page 1
1. Stories, songs, cultural beliefs, rituals, community
laws, and traditional practices
2. Burning improves the growth of berry plants,
which attracts more animals. Burning recycles
nutrients, creates more diversity, reduces forest
litter, and opens the canopy to allow more
sunlight to reach the plants.
page 5
1. Native species are plants and animals that
naturally inhabit an area. Foreign species
are organisms that people intentionally or
accidentally have introduced into regions where
they did not exist previously.
2. Invasive species are organisms that can take
over the habitat of native species or invade their
bodies, weakening their immune systems.
page
1. Proliferation means to grow or multiply by
rapidly producing new tissues, cells, or ospring.
2. Competition, predation, disease and parasitism,
habitat alteration
3. Foreign species (introduced species)
4. e gypsy moth larvae strip oak trees of their
leaves, making the trees vulnerable to infections
and unable to perform photosynthesis.
Practice Questions Answers
Section 3.1
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. A
3. B
6. B
7. D
8. A
9. C
10. B
Section 3.2
1. B
2. C
3. B
4. A
3. D
6. C
7. A
8. B
9. D
10. B
Section 3.3
1. C
2. D
3. B
4. B
3. C
6. B
7. C
8. C
9. A
10. D
1SPWJODJBM&YBN4UVEZ(VJEF
6OJU$IFNJDBM3FBDUJPOT
BOE3BEJPBDUJWJUZ
-JPOFM4BOEOFS
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
(MFO'BULJO
^orth Surrey Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
%POBME-BDZ
Stellys Secondary School
Saanichton, British Columbia
+PTFG.BSUIB
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
+BNFT.JMSPTT
Fraser Heights Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
,BSFO/BTP
David ompson Secondary School
Vancouver, British Columbia
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York
St. Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London
City Milan New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei
3 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
6OJU $IFNJDBM3FBDUJPOTBOE3BEJPBDUJWJUZ
#ZUIFFOEPGUIJTVOJUZPVTIPVMECF
BCMFUP
1. Dierentiate between atoms, ions, and
molecules using knowledge of their structure
and components
is includes being able to:
demonstrate knowledge of the three
subatomic particles, their properties, and
their location within the atom (e.g., by
creating models)
defne and give examples of JPOJDCPOEJOH
(e.g., metal and non-metal) and DPWBMFOU
CPOEJOH(e.g., two non-metals, diatomic
elements)
with reference to elements 1 to 20 on the
periodic table, draw and interpret Bohr
models, including protons, neutrons, and
electrons, of
- atoms (neutral)
- ions (charged)
- molecules-covalent bonding
(e.g., O
2
, CH
4
)
- ionic compounds (e.g., CaCl
2
)
identify valence electrons using the
periodic table (excluding lanthanides and
actinides)
distinguish between paired and unpaired
electrons for a single atom
draw and interpret Lewis diagrams
showing single bonds for simple ionic
compounds (e.g., NaCl, MgO, BaBr
2
)
and covalent molecules (e.g., H
2
O, CH
4
,
NH
3
)
distinguish between lone pairs and
bonding pairs of electrons and molecules
2. Classify substances as acids, bases, or salts,
based on their characteristics, name, and
formula
is includes being able to:
identify acids and bases using indicators
(e.g., methyl orange, bromothymol blue,
litmus, phenolphthalein, indigo carmine)
explain the signifcance of the pH scale,
with reference to common substances
dierentiate between acids, bases, and
salts with respect to chemical formulas
and properties
recognize the names and formulas
of common acids (e.g., hydrochloric,
sulfuric, nitric, acetic)
use the periodic table to
- explain the classifcation of elements
as metals and non-metals
- identify the relative reactivity of
elements in the alkali metal, alkaline
metal, halogen, and noble gas groups
- distinguish between metal oxide
solutions (basic) and non-metal
oxide solutions (acidic)
use the periodic table and a list of ions
(including polyatomic ions) to name and
write chemical formulas for common
ionic compounds, using appropriate
terminology (e.g., Roman numerals)
convert names to formulas and formulas
to names for covalent compounds, using
prefxes up to deca"
3. Distinguish between organic and inorganic
compounds
is includes being able to:
defne PSHBOJDDPNQPVOET and JOPSHBOJD
DPNQPVOET
1BSU# 6OJU4UVEZ/PUFTBOE&YBN2VFTUJPOT
4 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
distinguish between organic and
inorganic compounds, based on their
chemical structures
recognize a compound as organic
or inorganic from its name, from its
chemical formula, or from a diagram or
model
4. Analyze chemical reactions, including
reference to conservation of mass and rate of
reaction
is includes being able to:
defne and explain the law of
conservation of mass
represent chemical reactions and the
conservation of atoms, using molecular
models
write and balance (using the lowest
whole number coecients) chemical
equations from formulae, word
equations, or descriptions of experiments
identify, give evidence for, predict
products of, and classify the following
types of chemical reactions:
- synthesis (combination)
- decomposition
- single and double replacement
- neutralization (acid-base)
- combustion
explain how factors such as temperature,
concentration, presence of a catalyst,
and surface area can aect the rate of
chemical reactions
3. Explain radioactivity using modern atomic
theory
% defne JTPUPQF in terms of atomic number
and mass number, recognizing how these
are communicated in standard atomic
notation (e.g., uranium-238:

U)
% relate radioactivity decay (e.g., alpha-_,
beta-, gamma-a) to changes in the
nucleus
% relate the following subatomic particles
to radioactive decay:
- proton (

Q)
- neutron (

O)
- electron (

-
F)
- alpha particle (


_) (

He)
- beta particle (

-

)
explain half-life with reference to rates of
radioactive decay
compare fssion and fusion
complete and balance nuclear equations
to illustrate radioactive decay, fssion,
and fusion
#ZUIFFOEPGUIJTVOJUZPVTIPVMEVOEFSTUBOEUIFGPMMPXJOHLFZJEFBT
1. Atomic theory explains the formation of compounds.
2. Compounds are classifed in dierent ways.
3. Chemical reactions occur in predictable ways.
4. e atomic theory explains radioactivity.
5PIFMQZPVTUVEZZPVTIPVMEIBWFUIFGPMMPXJOH
% #$4DJFODF student book, pages 163 to 337. Note the practice exam questions on pages 336 and 337.
% BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Data Pages, pages 1 to 4.
% BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Vocabulary List, page 2
% Access to www.bcscience10.ca.
3 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
$IBQUFS "UPNJDUIFPSZFYQMBJOTUIFGPSNBUJPOPGDPNQPVOET
4.l Atomlc Theory and 8ondlng
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Atoms are composed of protons and neutrons, which make up the nucleus, and electrons, which
surround the nucleus in patterns.
% Bohr diagrams show the arrangement of protons, neutrons, and electrons in atoms and also in ions.
% Ions are formed from atoms that have lost or gained electrons.
% Compounds can be ionic or covalent.
% Lewis diagrams show the arrangement of bonds within compounds.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
"UPNJDFPSZ
1. AnBUPN is the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.
2. An element is a pure substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances.
Example: Oxygen (O) is an element.
3. A DPNQPVOE is a pure substance that is made up of two or more dierent elements that have been
combined in a specifc way.
Example: H
2
O is a compound made of the elements hydrogen and oxygen.
4. An atom includes smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons
% 1SPUPOTare subatomic particles that have a 1+ (positive) charge.
% /FVUSPOT are subatomic particles that do not have an electric charge.
% &MFDUSPOT are subatomic particles that have a 1 (negative) electric charge.
F/VDMFVT
1. e nucleus is at the centre of an atom (Figure 4.1).
% e nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons.
% Electrons exist in the area surrounding the nucleus.
2. e number of protons = the number of electrons in every atom
3. e nuclear charge = the electric charge on the nucleus = the number of protons
4. e BUPNJDOVNCFS = the number of protons = the number of electrons
nucleus
electron
neutron
proton
. A model of an atom
6 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Lxplaln how an atom, an element, and a compound are dlnerent from each other.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. what are the electrlcal propertles of the followlng partlcles!
(a) protons _____________________________________________________________________
(b) neutrons ____________________________________________________________________
(c) electrons ____________________________________________________________________
3. where ls each partlcle located ln an atom!
(a) proton ______________________________________________________________________
(b) neutron _____________________________________________________________________
(c) electron _____________________________________________________________________
4. what does "atomlc number mean!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
0SHBOJ[BUJPOPGUIF1FSJPEJD5BCMF
Refer to the Periodic Table of the Elements on page 2 of your Data Pages.
1. e periodic table organizes all known elements in order by atomic number.
2. Rows of elements (across) are called QFSJPET.
3. Columns of elements (down) are called DIFNJDBMGBNJMJFT or HSPVQT.
% All elements in a family have similar properties and bond with other elements in similar ways.
% Group 1 = alkali metals
Group 2 = alkaline earth metals
Group 17 = halogens
Group 18 = noble gases
4. Metals are on the le side of the table, non-metals are on the right side, and the metalloids form a
staircase" toward the right side.
F1FSJPEJD5BCMFBOE*PO'PSNBUJPO
1. Atoms gain and lose electrons to form bonds.
% When atoms gain or lose electrons, they become electrically charged particles called JPOT.
2. Metals lose electrons and become positive ions.
% Some metals are multivalent, which means they lose electrons in dierent ways (Figure 4.2).
- Iron (Fe) loses either two electrons (Fe
2+
) or three electrons (Fe
3+
) as shown in the periodic table.
. |ron ls a multlvalent element.
3. Non-metals gain electrons and become negative ions.
7 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the dlnerence between a chemlcal famlly and a perlod ln the perlodlc table!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Llst the name and group number of four famllles of elements.
_______________________________________ ____________________________________
_______________________________________ ____________________________________
3. How does an atom become an lon! _________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How do metals become posltlve lons! _______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. How do non-metals become negatlve lons! ___________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
#PIS%JBHSBNT
1. A #PISEJBHSBN is a model of the atom that describes the arrangement of an element's subatomic
particles: neutrons and protons in the nucleus and electrons in electron shells (Figure 4.3).
% Electron TIFMMT are regular patterns or energy levels around the nucleus.
% ere is a maximum of two electrons in the frst shell, eight electrons in the second shell, and eight
electrons in the third shell.
% Electrons in the outermost shell are called WBMFODFFMFDUSPOT.
. 8ohr dlagrams for potasslum
2. Patterns of electron arrangements in periods:
% e period number equals the number of shells in the atom.
% e valence electrons are in the same shell for all elements in a period.
Example: e valence electrons for Period 2 elements are found in the second shell for each element.
3. Patterns of electron arrangements in groups:
% Except for the transition elements (Groups 3-12), the last digit of the group number equals the
number of electrons in the valence shell.
Examples: Group 1 = 1 valence electron, Group 13 = 3 valence electrons
8 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
4. By losing or gaining electrons, atoms can have the same number of valence electrons as the nearest
noble gas.
% e noble gas elements have full electron shells and are very stable.
3. Electrons can exist singly as VOQBJSFEFMFDUSPOT, or they can be in pairs, called QBJSFEFMFDUSPOT.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. where are valence electrons found! _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. How many electrons can be ln each of the rst three shells ln a 8ohr model of an atom!
Shell l: ________________ Shell 2: _________________ Shell 3: __________________
3. Draw a 8ohr dlagram showlng the number of protons and electrons ln an atom of:
(a) carbon (b) chlorlne (c) alumlnum
4. Draw a 8ohr dlagram showlng the number of protons and electrons ln each of the followlng lons.
(a) P
-
(b) Na
+
(c) Al
3+
'PSNJOH$PNQPVOET
1. A compound can be formed when the valence electrons of two atoms interact and form a low-energy
bond.
% e most stable (lowest energy) state of a compound occurs when the atoms in the compound have
achieved full valence shells.
% A pair of electrons in the valence shell that is not used in bonding is sometimes called a MPOFQBJS.
2. In JPOJDCPOEJOH, the bond forms as a result of the attraction between positively charged ions and
negatively charged ions.
% Metals lose electrons and non-metals gain electrons when forming ions (Figure 4.4).
. Sodlum (metal) transfers an electron to chlorlne (non-metal) to
form an lonlc bond ln the compound sodlum chlorlde, NaCl.
9 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
3. In a Bohr diagram of an ionic compound, large square brackets are placed around the diagram with the
ion charge shown just outside the end bracket (Figure 4.3).

. 8ohr dlagram of lonlc bondlng of sodlum chlorlde
4. In DPWBMFOUCPOEJOH, the bond forms through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons.
% Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between two non-metals.
% e pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond is sometimes called the CPOEJOHQBJS.
% Electrons are not transferred, but their outer shells overlap.
Example: Hydrogen and fuorine share valence electrons to form hydrogen fuoride, HF (Figure 4.6).
. 8ohr dlagram of covalent bondlng of hydrogen nuorlde
3. A NPMFDVMF is a group of atoms in which the atoms are bound together by sharing one or more pairs of
electrons.
6. In EJBUPNJDFMFNFOUT, pairs of electrons are joined by covalent bonds because the two-atom molecules
are more stable than the individual atoms.
% Diatomic elements include hydrogen (H
2
), nitrogen (N
2
), oxygen (O
2
), fuorine (F
2
), chlorine (Cl
2
),
bromine (Br
2
), and iodine (I
2
).
-FXJT%JBHSBNT
1. -FXJTEJBHSBNT represent the atom of an element by showing only the outer valence electrons.
% Dots representing electrons are placed around the element symbols at the points of the compass
(north, east, south, and west).
% Electron dots are placed singly until the fh electron is reached, then they are paired.
2. Lewis diagrams of ionic bonding:
% For positive ions, one electron dot is removed from the valence shell for each positive charge.
% For negative ions, one electron dot is added to each valence shell for each negative charge of the ion.
% Square brackets are placed around each ion to indicate transfer of electrons (Figure 4.7).
. Lewls dlagram of lonlc bondlng of sodlum chlorlde
10 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

3. Lewis diagrams of covalent bonding:


% Valence electrons are drawn to show sharing of electrons.
% e shared pairs of electrons are usually drawn as a straight line (Figure 4.8).
. Lewls dlagram of covalent bondlng of hydrogen nuorlde
5YMGO'LIGO
l. whlch comblnatlons of elements form lonlc bonds ln compounds!
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. whlch comblnatlons of elements form covalent bonds!
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Name seven dlatomlc elements.
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________
4. Draw Lewls dlagrams for the followlng atoms.
(a) O (b) P (c) Na
5. Draw Lewls dlagrams for the followlng compounds.
(a) H
2
O (b) NH
3

11 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
***4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Which of the following is an ionic compound:
A. N
2
A. is is an element, not a compound. A compound
must contain two or more elements chemically
bonded.
B. CH
4
B. is is a compound, but it is not ionic. It is a
covalent compound because it does not contain a
metal in its formula.
C. NH
4
+
C. is is ammonium, a positive ion. It is not a
compound, even though it possesses more than
one element, because it has an overall electric
charge. Compounds have an overall charge of zero.
D. Na
3
PO
4
D. Correct. is is a compound because it contains
more than one element and is electrically neutral.
It is ionic because of the presence of the metal
sodium (Na) in the formula.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the dierences among elements, ions, and
compounds. e question requires you to distinguish between ionic and covalent compounds by
examining their formulas. Ionic compounds contain more than one element, one of which must be a
metal (or the ammonium ion, NH
4
+
), whereas covalent compounds have formulas that contain only
non-metals.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 168 to 197 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
12 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Use the Bohr diagram below to answer this
question.
How many valence electrons are shown in this
Bohr diagram:
A. 1 A. You may have been counting the number of
unpaired electrons. is is not the number of
valence electrons.
B. 2 B. You may have been counting the electrons in the
innermost electron shell. ese are not valence
electrons.
C. 7 C. is answer is correct. Valence electrons are the
electrons in the outermost occupied electron
shell.
D. 17 D. is is the total number of electrons in the atom,
not the number of valence electrons.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how electrons are arranged in the shells
surrounding the nucleus, including the meaning of terms such as valence electrons, inner electrons,
paired electrons, and unpaired electrons.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 170 to 173 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
How many bonding pairs and lone pairs of
electrons surround the central nitrogen atom in this
Lewis structure of ammonia:
A. 1 lone pair and 1 bonding pair A. Each pair of dots represents a lone (non-
bonding) pair of electrons. Each line
represents a pair of bonding electrons.
B. 2 lone pairs and 3 bonding pairs B. Each pair of dots represents a lone (non-
bonding) pair of electrons. Each line
represents a pair of bonding electrons.
C. 1 lone pair and 3 bonding pairs C. is answer is correct. Each line represents a
pair of bonding electrons. Each pair of dots
represents a lone pair.
D. 3 lone pairs and 1 bonding pair D. You may have reversed the count of bonding
pairs and lone pairs.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how electrons are arranged in covalent bonds in
which the bonding is aected by the number of shared electrons as well as unshared electrons.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 178 to 180 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
14 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*71SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 4.1
Atomic theory explains the formation of compounds: Atomic eory and Bonding
Circle the letter of the best answer. You can use the Periodic Table of the Elements on page 2 of your Data Pages
to help you.
1. Which subatomic particles are found in the
nucleus of atoms:
A only protons
B. only electrons
C. protons and neutrons
D. protons and electrons
2. When forming ions, elements on the le side of
the periodic table tend to behave in which of the
following ways:
A. lose protons
B. gain protons
C. lose electrons
D. gain electrons
3. What is the name of the reactive family of
elements that form 1 ions:
A. halogens
B. noble gases
C. alkali metals
D. alkaline earth metals
4. What is the atomic number of an atom with
19 protons, 19 electrons, and 21 neutrons:
A. 19
B. 21
C. 38
D. 39
3. Which of the following describes an ion of
chlorine:
A. 20 neutrons and 17 electrons
B. 20 neutrons and 18 electrons
C. 37 neutrons and 17 electrons
D. 37 neutrons and 18 electrons
6. Identify the atom shown in the Bohr diagram
above.
A. gallium
B. sulfur
C. oxygen
D. phosphorus
7. How many lone pairs and bonding pairs of
electrons appear in the Lewis diagram shown
below of water:
A. two lone pairs and no bonding pairs
B. two lone pairs and two bonding pairs
C. no lone pairs and two bonding pairs
D. four lone pairs and four bonding pairs
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
8. Which of the following Lewis diagrams
represents an oxygen atom:
A. I
B. II
C. III
D. IV
9. Which of the following Lewis diagrams
represents KCl:
A. I
B. II
C. III
D. IV
10. E and G represent unknown elements from the
periodic table. What product could be formed
from the two molecules shown below:
A. water
B. krypton gas
C. hydrogen chloride
D. sodium chloride
16 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
4.2 Names and Pormulas of Compounds
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Compounds can be represented with both a name and a chemical formula.
% In an ionic compound, the frst part of the name indicates the positive ion and the second part indicates
the negative ion.
% In the formula of an ionic compound, the subscripts indicate the ratio in which the positive ions and
negative ions are present together in the compound.
% In a binary compound, both the name and the formula indicate the number of each type of atom present
in the compound.
**4UVEZ/PUFT
F$IFNJDBM/BNFPGBO*POJD$PNQPVOE
1. e name of an ionic compound always has two parts, one for each type of ion in it.
% e name of an ionic compound = positive ion + negative ion + JEF
Example: NBHOFTJVN (positive ion) + PYygen (negative ion) + JEF
magnesium oxide
2. Ionic formulas are based on the ions of the atoms involved.
Example: What is the name of Ca
3
N
2
:
Ca, the positive ion, is calcium
N, the negative ion, is nitrogen
Drop the end of the negative ion and add JEF
calcium nitride
F$IFNJDBM'PSNVMBPGBO*POJD$PNQPVOE
1. In an ionic compound, the positive charges balance out the negatives.
2. e subscript gives the ratio of each type of ion in the compound.
3. e ratio of positive to negative charges gives the proper formula.
4. e ratio is always written in reduced form.
Example: What is the formula for magnesium phosphide:
Magnesium is Mg
2+

Phosphorous is P
3-
Lowest common multiple of 2 and 3 is 6
3 Mg
2+
ions and 2 P
3-
ions

Mg
3
P
2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Name the followlng lonlc compounds.
(a) Ll
3
P ________________________________________________________________________
(b) CaCl
2
_______________________________________________________________________
(c) ZnO ________________________________________________________________________
2. wrlte the formulas of the followlng lonlc compounds.
(a) sodlum sulde _______________________________________________________________
(b) magneslum lodlde ____________________________________________________________
(c) alumlnum oxlde ______________________________________________________________
17 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
/BNFTBOE'PSNVMBTPG$PNQPVOET$POUBJOJOHB.VMUJWBMFOU.FUBM
1. Some metals are multivalent, which means they have more than one ion form.
2. On the periodic table, the most common form of the ion is listed at the top of the element's box.
3. In the name of the compound, Roman numerals are used following the positive ion to indicate which
ion was used (Table 4.1).
Example: What is the formula for manganese(III) sulfde:
Manganese (III) is Mn
3+
Sulfur is S
2-
Lowest common multiple of 3 and 2 is 6
2 Mn
3+
ions and 3 S
2-
ions

Mn
2
S
3

. Metal |on Charge and Poman Numeral
.FUBM*PO
$IBSHF
3PNBO
/VNFSBM
1+ I
2+ II
3+ III
4+ IV
3+ V
6+ VI
7+ VII
5YMGO'LIGO
l. wrlte the formulas of the followlng lonlc compounds.
(a) copper(|) oxlde _______________________________________________________________
(b) lead(|v) lodlde _______________________________________________________________
(c) lead(||) chlorlde ______________________________________________________________
(d) gold(|||) sulphlde _____________________________________________________________
2. Name the followlng lonlc compounds contalnlng a multlvalent metal lon. Use a Poman numeral
ln the metal lon's name.
(a) Cr
3
P
2
_______________________________________________________________________
(b) MnCl
2
______________________________________________________________________
(c) Co
2
O
3
______________________________________________________________________
(d) PeN ________________________________________________________________________
18 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
1PMZBUPNJD*POT
Refer to Names, Formulae, and Charges of Some Polyatomic Ions, on page 4 of your Data Pages.
1. 1PMZBUPNJD ions are ions composed of more than one type of atom joined together by covalent bonds.
% e whole group has a + or - charge, not individual atoms.
Example 1: What is the formula of sodium sulfate:
Na
+
and SO
4
2
Na
2
SO
4
Example 2: What is the name of the compound KClO:
K
+
= potassium
ClO

= hypochorite
potassium hypochlorite
5YMGO'LIGO
kelet to Nomes, lotmuloe, onJ Chotes ol 5ome lolyotom|c lons, on oe 4 ol yout 0oto loes.
l. wrlte the formulas of the followlng lonlc compounds contalnlng polyatomlc lons.
(a) ceslum sulphate ______________________________________________________________
(b) tltanlum(|v) hydrogen carbonate ________________________________________________
(c) ammonlum sulphlde __________________________________________________________
(d) ammonlum dlchromate ________________________________________________________
2. Name the followlng lonlc compounds contalnlng polyatomlc lons. The metal lon may need to be
wrltten uslng a Poman numeral.
(a) NaClO
4
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) Mg
3
(PO
4
)
2
___________________________________________________________________
(c) (NH
4
)
2
SO
3
___________________________________________________________________
(d) CuSO
4
______________________________________________________________________
3. Glve the number of each type of atom lndlcated by the formula, as well as the total number of
atoms. (e.g., MgP
2
has one Mg and two P for a total of three atoms)
(a) K
3
PO
4
______________________________________________________________________
(b) (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
___________________________________________________________________
(c) nlckel(|||) carbonate ___________________________________________________________
(d) molybdenum(||) nltrate ________________________________________________________
19 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
/BNFTBOE'PSNVMBTPG$PWBMFOU$PNQPVOETand/BNJOH#JOBSZ$PWBMFOU$PNQPVOET
1. Covalent compounds are made up of two or more non-metals, and they may have many or few atoms
sharing electrons.
% e name of a covalent compound may reveal the components, but oen it does not.
2. Covalent molecules have subscripts that show the actual number of atoms in the molecule.
3. e names of binary covalent compounds (two non-metal atoms) use a system of prefxes.
% Prefxes are oen used before the atom name to indicate the number of atoms in the molecule.
(See page 4 of your Data Pages for a list of prefxes.)
Examples: CO = carbon NPOoxide, CO
2
= carbon EJoxide
4. To name a binary covalent compound:
% Write the most metallic atom (farthest le in the periodic table) frst, and then add -JEF to the end of
the second atom's name.
Example: What is the name of the molecule N
2
O
4
:
ere are two (di-) nitrogen atoms and four (tetra-) oxygen atoms.
dinitrogen tetraoxide
5YMGO'LIGO
l. wrlte the formula of each covalent compound.
(a) sulfur trloxlde ________________________________________________________________
(b) dlnltrogen monoxlde __________________________________________________________
(c) tetraphosphorus decasulde ___________________________________________________
(d) phosphorus pentachlorlde _____________________________________________________
2. wrlte the name of each covalent compound
(a) P8r
3
________________________________________________________________________
(b) N
2
S
3
________________________________________________________________________
(c) N
2
O
4
_______________________________________________________________________
(d) OP
2
________________________________________________________________________
20 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
$PNQBSJOH*POJD$PNQPVOETBOE$PWBMFOU$PNQPVOET
To determine whether a compound is ionic or covalent:
1. Examine the formula.
% Ionic compounds start with a metal or the ammonium ion (NH
4
+
).
% Covalent compounds start with a non-metal.
2. If the compound is covalent, use the prefx system of naming if the compound is binary and does not
start with hydrogen.
% If there are more than two dierent elements, or it starts with H, there is probably a dierent, simpler
name for the covalent molecule.
3. If the compound is ionic, check to see if the metal is multivalent and add a Roman numeral if it is
multivalent.
% e name starts with the name of the metal atom.
% If the compound ends with a single non-metal, the name will end in mJEF
% If the compound ends in a polyatomic ion, refer to Names, Formulae, and Charges of Some
Polyatomic Ions, on page 4 of your Data Pages.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. |dentlfy each of the followlng compounds as elther lonlc or covalent, and name them.
(a) (NH
4
)
3
P ________________________________ ___________________________________
(b) O8r
2
__________________________________ ___________________________________
(c) PeP
3
__________________________________ ___________________________________
(d) SnS
2
__________________________________ ___________________________________
2. The compounds below have slmllar-looklng formulas but may have very dlnerent names. Classlfy
each compound as lonlc or covalent, and then name each compound.
(a) PbO
2
__________________________________ ___________________________________
(b) NO
2
___________________________________ ___________________________________
(c) SO
2
___________________________________ ___________________________________
(d) SnO
2
__________________________________ ___________________________________
21 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
How many atoms of each of the following elements
are present in the compound iron(III) nitrate:
A. 1 iron, 1 nitrogen, and 3 oxygen A. e formula is Fe(NO
3
)
3
derived from Fe
3+

and NO
3

. ere is one iron(III) ion and


three nitrate ions, for a total of 1 Fe, and 3
N, and 9 O.
B. 3 iron, 1 nitrogen, and 3 oxygen B. e formula is Fe(NO
3
)
3
derived from Fe
3+

and NO
3

. ere is one iron(III) ion and


three nitrate ions, for a total of 1 Fe, and 3
N, and 9 O.
C. 3 iron, 1 nitrogen, and 0 oxygen C. e formula is Fe(NO
3
)
3
derived from Fe
3+

and NO
3

. ere is one iron(III) ion and


three nitrate ions, for a total of 1 Fe, and 3
N, and 9 O.
D. 1 iron, 3 nitrogen, and 9 oxygen D. is is the correct answer. e formula is
Fe(NO
3
)
3
derived from Fe
3+
and NO
3

.
ere is one iron(III) ion and three nitrate
ions, for a total of 1 Fe, and 3 N, and 9 O.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can derive a chemical formula for an ionic compound
from its name and then count the number of each kind of atom in the compound.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 184 to 197 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
22 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What is the name of the compound PbS
2
:
A. lead sulfde A. Lead is multivalent with a charge of 4+. is makes
the lead ion's name lead(IV).
B. lead(II) sulfde B. Lead is multivalent with a charge of 4+. is makes
the lead ion's name lead(IV).
C. lead(IV) sulfde C. is answer is correct. Lead is multivalent with
a charge of 4+. is makes the lead ion's name
lead(IV).
D. phosphorus boron sulfde D. e symbol for boron is B," not b." Pb is the
symbol for a single element.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how ionic compounds are named, given their
chemical formula.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 184 to 193 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What is the chemical formula for
dinitrogen trioxide:
A. NO A. is formula does not take into account the
prefxes di- (two) and tri- (three).
B. N
2
O
3
B. is answer is correct. Two nitrogen atoms
and three oxygen atoms make up the
formula.
C. N
3
O
2
C. e subscripts are reversed. Dinitrogen
means two nitrogens.
D. (NO
3
)
2
D. Di- refers to two nitrogens, not to two
nitrogen trioxides.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can write the formula of a covalent compound given the
chemical name.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 193 to 196 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
23 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 4.2
Atomic theory explains the formation of compounds: Names and Formulas of Compounds
Circle the letter of the best answer. You can use the Periodic Table of the Elements on page 2 of your Data
Pages to help you.
1. What is the formula for aluminum sulfde:
A. AlS
B. AlS
3
C. Al
3
S
2
D. Al
2
S
3
2. What is the ionic charge of lead in PbO
2
:
A. +1
B. +2
C. +3
D. +4
3. Which of the following is the correct name for
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
:
A. iron(II) sulfate
B. iron(II) sulfde
C. iron(III) sulfate
D. iron(III) sulfde
4. Which statement best describes the compound
N
2
O
3
:
A. It is the ionic compound nitrogen oxide.
B. It is the covalent compound nitrogen oxide.
C. It is the ionic compound dinitrogen trioxide.
D. It is the covalent compound dinitrogen
trioxide.
3. Which of the following is the correct bond type
and name for (NH
4
)
2
S:
A. ionic, ammonium sulfde
B. ionic, nitrogen hydrogen sulfde
C. covalent, ammonium sulfde
D. covalent, dinitrogen monohydrogen sulfde
6. What is the formula for diphosphorus
pentachloride:
A. PCl
B. PCl
3
C. P
2
Cl
3
D. P
3
Cl
2
7. Which of the following is the correct name for
SrCl
2
:
A. strontium chloride
B. strontium dichloride
C. strontium(II) chloride
D. monostrontium dichloride
8. What is the name for AuBr
3
:
A. gold bromide
B. gold tribromide
C. gold(III) bromide
D. gold(III) bromine
9. How many atoms of each of the following
elements are present in nickel(III) sulfate:
A. nickel = 2, sulfur = 3
B. nickel = 1, sulfur = 1, oxygen = 4
C. nickel = 3, sulfur = 1, oxygen = 4
D. nickel = 2, sulfur = 3, oxygen = 12
10. What is the formula for manganese(II) chloride:
A. MnCl
B. MnCl
2
C. Mn
2
Cl
D. MgCl
2
24 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
4.3 Chemlcal Lquatlons
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% A chemical change is a change in the arrangements and connections between ions and atoms.
% One or more chemical changes that occur at the same time are called a chemical reaction.
% Chemical reactions can be represented using a chemical equation.
% A chemical equation may be written in words or in chemical symbols.
% In a chemical reaction, the reactants are written to the le of an arrow and the products are written to
the right.
% e symbols for states of matter may be used to show whether each reactant or product is solid, liquid,
gas, or aqueous.
% Chemical reactions obey the law of conservation of mass, and atoms are neither created nor produced in
a chemical reaction.
% Chemical equations are balanced using the lowest whole number coe cients, which are numbers written
in front of the pure substances in the reaction.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
$IFNJDBM3FBDUJPOT
1. A chemical change occurs when the arrangement of atoms in compounds changes to form new
compounds.
2. One or more chemical changes that happen at the same time are called a chemical reaction.
3. e original substances, called reactants, change into new substances called products.
4. Chemical reactions can be written in dierent ways.
% A word equation:
Example: Nitrogen monoxide + oxygen A nitrogen dioxide
% A TZNCPMJDFRVBUJPO is a set of chemical symbols and formulas that identify the reactants and
products in a chemical reaction.
Example: 2NO + O
2
A 2NO
2

$POTFSWBUJPOPG.BTTJO$IFNJDBM$IBOHF
1. Chemical change means new compounds are created, but no new matter is created or destroyed; atoms
are just rearranged.
% All of the matter in the reactants = all of the matter in the products
% Number of each atom in reactants = number of each atom in products
2. e MBXPGDPOTFSWBUJPOPGNBTT states that mass is conserved in a chemical reaction; the total mass of
the products is always equal to the total mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction.
% In chemical reactions, atoms are neither created nor destroyed.
% e law of conservation of mass was formulated by Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier in the 1700s.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. when does a chemlcal change occur! _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what are two ways that a chemlcal reactlon can be wrltten! _____________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. State the law of conservatlon of mass. _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
23 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
8SJUJOHBOE#BMBODJOH$IFNJDBM&RVBUJPOT
1. e simplest form of chemical equation is a word equation.
Example: Potassium + oxygen A potassium oxide
2. A skeleton equation shows the formulas of the elements/compounds but not quantities of atoms.
Example: K + O
2
A K
2
O
3. A balanced chemical equation shows all atoms and their quantities.
Example: 4K + O
2
A 2K
2
O
$PVOUJOH"UPNTUP#BMBODFBO&RVBUJPO
1. Using the law of conservation of mass, you can count atoms and use math to balance the number of
atoms in chemical equations.
% Balancing ensures that the number of each atom is the same on both sides of the reaction arrow.
2. To balance the compounds, take note of how many atoms of each element occur on each side of the
reaction arrow (Figure 4.9).
Skeleton equation: CH
4
+ O
2
A H
2
O

+ CO
2
1 C, 4 H, 2 O A 1 C, 2 H, 3 O
% To balance, fnd values that equate atoms on both sides. Always use the smallest whole number ratio.
Balanced equation: CH
4
+ 2O
2
A 2H
2
O

+ CO
2

1 C, 4 H, (2 2) O A 1 C, (2 2) H, (2 1) + 2 O
. Por an equatlon to be balanced, the same number of atoms of
each element must be present on both sldes of the equatlon.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Llst the total number of each type of atom ln the followlng reactants.
(a) 3 Cl
2
+ 2 Cr|
3
_________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) Pb(NO
3
)
4
+ 4 Na| ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
26 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
)JOUTGPS8SJUJOH8PSE&RVBUJPOT
1. Word equations require careful examination to be written correctly.
2. e chemical symbol is used for most elements that are not in a compound
3. Watch for diatomic elements: H
2
, N
2
, O
2
, F
2
, Cl
2
, Br
2
, and I
2
.
4. Watch for polyatomic elements such as P
4
and S
8
.
3. Several common covalent molecules containing hydrogen have common names that do not help in
writing chemical formulas.
% Methane is CH
4
, water is H
2
O, glucose is C
6
H
12
O
6
, ethane is C
2
H
6
, and ammonia is NH
3
.
4USBUFHJFTGPS#BMBODJOH&RVBUJPOT
1. Balance chemical equations by following these steps.
% Trial and error will oen work for simple equations.
% Balance compounds frst and elements last.
% Balance one compound at a time.
% Only add coe cients; NEVER change subscripts.
% If H and O appear in more than one place, attempt to balance them LAST.
% Polyatomic ions (such as SO
4
2-
) can oen be balanced as a whole group.
% Always double-check aer you think you are fnished.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. 8alance the followlng skeleton equatlons.
(a ____ Al + ____ Cl
2
A ____ AlCl
3
(b) ____ CH
4
+ ____ O
2
A ____ CO
2
+ ____ H
2
O
(c) ____ Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ ____ Cu
2
SO
4
A ____ CaSO
4
+ ____ CuNO
3
(d) ____ Na
2
CO
3
+ ____ Nl(NO
3
)
3
A ____ NaNO
3
+ ____ Nl
2
(CO
3
)
3

2. wrlte skeleton equatlons for the followlng chemlcal reactlons and then balance them. 8e sure to
check your formulas carefully before you begln to balance.
(a) calclum nuorlde + potasslum A potasslum nuorlde + calclum
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) alumlnum hydroxlde + hydrogen bromlde A alumlnum bromlde + water
____________________________________________________________________________
(c) chromlum(|||) lodlde + potasslum carbonate A chromlum(|||) carbonate + potasslum lodlde
____________________________________________________________________________
(d) hydrogen nltrate + barlum carbonate A barlum nltrate + water + carbon dloxlde
____________________________________________________________________________
27 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Which set of ordered coecients correctly balances the
following equation:
____ Na
3
PO
4
+ ____ MgSO
4
A ____Mg
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ ____Na
2
SO
4
A. 1, 2, 2, 3 A. Atoms do not balance. For
example, there are 3 Na on the le
and 6 Na on the right.
B. 2, 1, 2, 3 B. Atoms do not balance. For
example, there are 6 Na on the le
and 9 Na on the right.
C. 2, 2, 3, 1 C. Atoms do not balance. For
example, there are 3 Na on the le
and 1 Na on the right.
D. 2, 3, 1, 3 D. is is the correct answer.
Each side of the equation gives
6 Na, 2 P, 3 Mg, 3 S, and 20 O.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can balance an equation by placing coecients correctly.
You need to be able to count the number of each kind of atom present in the reactants and in the
products.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 206 to 211 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
28 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Consider the following unbalanced chemical
equation.
___ NH
4
ClO
4
A ___ Cl
2
+ ___ N
2
+ ___ O
2
+ H
2
O
What is the coecient in front of O
2
when this equation
is correctly balanced:
A. 1 A. e balanced equation is 2NH
4
ClO
4
A
Cl
2
+ N
2
+ 2O
2
+ H
2
O
B. 2 B. is is the correct answer.
C. 3 C. e balanced equation is 2NH
4
ClO
4
A
Cl
2
+ N
2
+ 2O
2
+ H
2
O
D. 4 D. e balanced equation is 2NH
4
ClO
4
A
Cl
2
+ N
2
+ 2O
2
+ H
2
O
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how to balance a skeleton chemical equation.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 206 to 211 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
29 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 4.3
Atomic theory explains the formation of compounds: Chemical Equations
Circle the letter of the best answer. You can use the Periodic Table of the Elements on page 2 of your Data Pages
to help you.
1. What coecient is needed in front of O
2
in order
to balance the following equation:
C
3
H
8
+ __ O
2
A 3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
A. 2
B. 3
C. 6
D. 10
2. In a chemical reaction, 40.3 g of magnesium
oxide is broken down to yield 24.3 g of
magnesium and 16.0 g of oxygen. What is this an
example of:
A. Dalton's atomic theory
B. the law of constant proportions
C. the law of conservation of mass
D. the law of conservation of energy
3. List the total number of each type of atom found
in the following reactants:
2FeCl
3
+ 3Na
2
CO
3
Fe Cl Na C O
I 2 6 6 3 3
II 2 3 6 1 3
III 2 6 6 3 9
IV 1 3 2 1 3
A. I
B. II
C. III
D. IV
4. Which of the following is the correctly balanced
equation for the following skeleton equation:
Al + ___ CuCl
2
A ___ AlCl
3
+ ___ Cu:
A. Al + CuCl
2
A AlCl
3
+ Cu
B. Al + 3CuCl
2
A 2AlCl
3
+ Cu
C. 2Al + 3CuCl
2
A 2AlCl
3
+ 3Cu
D. 6Al + 3CuCl
2
A 2AlCl
3
+ 6Cu
3. Which of the following equations is correctly
balanced:
A. Al + Br
2
A AlBr
3
B. Al + 3Br
2
A AlBr
3
C. Al + 3Br
2
A 2AlBr
3
D. 2Al + 3Br
2
A 2AlBr
3
6. Rewrite the following word equation as a
balanced equation.
Potassium sulfate and lead(II) nitrate react to
make potassium nitrate and lead(II) sulfate.
A. K
2
S + Pb(NO
3
)
2
A 2KNO
3
+ PbS
B. K
2
SO
4
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2
A 2KNO
3
+ PbSO
4
C. 3K
2
SO
4
+ Pb
3
N
2
A 2K
3
N + 3PbSO
4
D. 3PSO
4
+ Pb
3
N
2
A P
3
N + 3PbSO
4
7. Write the skeleton equation for the following
reaction.
Iron(III) bromide reacts with sodium
hydroxide to yield iron(III) hydroxide and
sodium bromide.
A. FeBr
3
+ NaOH A Fe(OH)
3
+ NaBr
B. FeBr
3
+ SOH A Fe(OH)
3
+ SBr
C. FeBr + NaOH A FeOH + NaBr
D. IBr + NaOH A IOH + NaBr
30 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
8. Which of the following equations is correctly
balanced:
A. C
3
H
12
+ 8O
2
A 3CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
B. C
3
H
12
+ 11O
2
A 3CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
C. C
3
H
12
+ 11O
2
A 3CO
2
+ 12H
2
O
D. 2C
3
H
12
+ 22O
2
A 10CO
2
+ 24H
2
O
9. In a tightly closed container, a piece of zinc reacts
in hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas
and a salt solution of zinc chloride. What will
happen to the mass of the container:
A. It will increase.
B. It will decrease.
C. It will stay the same.
D. It will frst increase, then decrease.
10. Tom has an open cup of vinegar (acetic acid)
and adds some sodium carbonate. e mixture
bubbles and fzzes. Aer the fzzing stops, Tom
fnds the container is lighter (less mass) than it
was originally. He thinks it has broken the law of
conservation of mass. His lab partner knows the
correct answer and states:
A. You must have made a mistake. Try it
again."
B. Yes, you found a reaction that breaks the
law of conservation of mass!"
C. ere is not enough information here. We
must do the experiment again."
D. No, the law of conservation of mass is
obeyed. Gas was produced, and it escaped
into the surrounding air."
31 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

$IBQUFS $PNQPVOETBSFDMBTTJmFEJOEJFSFOUXBZT
5.l Aclds and 8ases
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Many common pure substances can be classifed according to whether they are acids or bases.
% Some acids and bases are corrosive and poisonous, whereas others add favour to food or are vitamins.
% Acid-base indicators are chemicals that change colour in response to acidic or basic conditions.
% e pH scale is a number scale for measuring how acidic or basic a solution is.
% A pH value below pH 7 is acidic, ph7 is neutral, and a pH value above pH 7 is basic.
% Generally, the chemical formula for an acid starts with H (hydrogen) on the le of the formula.
% Bases generally have an OH on the right of the chemical formula.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
FQ)4DBMF
1. Many familiar compounds are acids or bases.
2. Classifcation as acids or bases is based on chemical composition.
% Both acids and bases can be very corrosive so you should NEVER try to identify an acid or base by
taste or touch!
3. e acidity level of solutions of acids and bases is measured on the pH scale.
% e Q)TDBMF is a number scale for measuring how acidic or basic a solution is
% pH below 7 = BDJEJD, pH above 7 = CBTJD, pH 7 = neutral
4. Each decrease of 1 on the pH scale indicates 10 more acidic.
Examples: pH 4 is 10 times more acidic than pH 3.
pH 3 is 1000 more acidic than pH6.
3. "DJET are compounds that produce a solution of less than pH 7 when they dissolve in water.
6. #BTFT are compounds that produce a solution of more than pH 7 when they dissolve in water.
7. If a solution has a pH of 7, it is said to be OFVUSBM, neither acidic nor basic.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the pH range for each of these solutlons!
(a) acldlc _______________________________
(b) baslc ________________________________
2. How many tlmes has the acldlty level lncreased lf the pH drops from pH 4 to pH 3! ___________
3. How many tlmes has the acldlty level lncreased lf the pH drops from pH 6 to pH 2! ___________
4. what ls the pH of a solutlon that ls neutral! _________________
32 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

pH Indicators
1. e pH of acids and bases can be measured by pH (acid-base) indicators or by a pH meter that measures
the electrical conductivity of the solution.
% pH indicators, also called acid-base indicators, are chemicals that change colour based on the
solution they are placed in.
2. Litmus, a compound extracted from lichens, is the most common acid-base indicator and is used on
litmus paper.
% ere are two colours of litmus paper. Blue indicates basic, pH above 7. Red indicates acidic, pH
below 7.
3. Acid-base indicators change colour at dierent pH values, so dierent indicators are used to identify
dierent pH values. See page 3 of your Data Pages for a chart showing acid-base indicator colour
changes.
% Bromothymol blue is a type of acid-base indicator that turns yellow when added to an acid.
% Phenolphthalein is a type of acid-base indicator that turns pink when added to a base.
% Other acid-base indicators include methyl orange, methyl red, and indigo carmine.
% Many natural sources, such as beets and cabbage, are also acid-base indicators.
% Universal indicator contains many indicators that turn dierent colours at dierent pH values.
5YMGO'LIGO
use the oc|J-oose |nJ|cotot chott on oe 3 ol yout 0oto loes to onswet the lollow|n quest|ons.
l. what ls the colour of each of these acld-base lndlcators ln the followlng solutlons!
(a) methyl orange ln stomach aclds ___________________
(b) methyl orange ln tomato [ulce ____________________
(c) bromothymol blue ln banana [ulce _________________
(d) blue lltmus ln pure water _________________________
(e) red lltmus ln pure water __________________________
(f ) phenolphthaleln ln ammonla solutlon (NH
3
) _________
Acids
1. If you know a compound's chemical formula, you may be able to identify whether it is an acid.
2. Acids oen behave like acids only when dissolved in water, so they oen are written with the
symbol (aq), which means aquatic.
3. e chemical formula of an acid usually starts with hydrogen (H).
4. Acids with a carbon usually have the C written frst.
Examples of common acids: HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid; present in stomach
HNO
3
(aq) = nitric acid; used to make fertilizers
CH
3
COOH(aq) = acetic acid; present in vinegar
3. Names of acids follow these simple rules.
% Hydrogen + .JEF = hydro.JD acid
Example: HF(aq) = hydrogen fuoride = hydrofuoric acid
% Hydrogen + .BUF = .JD acid
Example: H
2
CO
3
(aq) = hydrogen carbonate = carbonic acid
% Hydrogen + .JUF = .PVT acid
Example: H
2
SO
3
(aq) = hydrogen sulfte = sulfurous acid
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Name the followlng non-oxygen aclds.
(a) HCl(aq) _____________________________________________________________________
(b) H8r(aq) _____________________________________________________________________
(c) HP(aq) ______________________________________________________________________
2. Name the followlng common aclds.
(a) H
2
SO
4
______________________________________________________________________
(b) HNO
3
_______________________________________________________________________
(c) CH
3
COOH(aq) ________________________________________________________________
3. Name the followlng aclds contalnlng oxygen and chlorlne.
(a) HClO
4
(aq) ___________________________________________________________________
(b) HClO
3
(aq) ___________________________________________________________________
(c) HClO
2
(aq) ___________________________________________________________________
(d) HClO(aq) ____________________________________________________________________
#BTFT
1. If you know a compound's chemical formula, you may be able to identify whether it is a base.
2. Bases, like acids, oen behave like bases only when dissolved in water so they are oen written with the
symbol (aq).
3. e chemical formula of a base usually ends with hydroxide (OH).
4. Examples of common bases: NaOH(aq) sodium hydroxide; drain and oven cleaner
Mg(OH)
2
(aq) magnesium hydroxide; ingredient in some antacids
Ca(OH)
2
(aq) calcium hydroxide; soil and water treatment
NH
4
OH(aq) ammonium hydroxide; kitchen cleaner
1SPEVDUJPOPG*POT
1. Acids and bases can conduct electricity because they release ions in solution (Table 3.1 on the next page).
% Acids release hydrogen ions, H
+
(aq).
% Bases release hydroxide ions, OH

(aq).
2. e pH of a solution refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
% $PODFOUSBUJPO means the amount of solute present in a specifc volume of solution.
% High concentration of H
+
(aq) = low pH, very acidic
% High concentration of OH

= high pH, very basic


4. A solution cannot have a high concentration of both H
+
(aq) and OH

(aq) because they react with each


other and form water.
Example: H
+
(aq) + OH

(aq) A H
2
O()
% is process is called neutralization.
34 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

. Propertles of Aclds and 8ases


1SPQFSUZ "DJET #BTFT
Taste
(^ever taste chemicals in the laboratory.)
Sour Bitter
Touch
(^ever touch chemicals in the laboratory with
your bare skin.)
Will burn skin Slippery
Will burn skin
Indicator tests Turn blue litmus paper red Turn red litmus paper blue
Reaction with some metals Acids corrode metals. No reaction
Electrical conductivity Conductive Conductive
pH Less than 7 More than 7
Production of ions Form hydrogen ions (H
+
)
in solution
Form hydroxide ions (OH

)
in solution
5YMGO'LIGO
l. |dentlfy each by thelr formula as aclds, bases, or nelther when dlssolved ln water.
(a) H| _______________________
(b) KOH _____________________
(c) NaCl ____________________
(d) Ca(OH)
2
__________________
(e) Mg8r
2
___________________
(f ) H
3
PO
4
___________________
2. whlch lon ls ln hlgh concentratlon ln an acldlc solutlon! ________________________________
3. whlch lon ls ln hlgh concentratlon ln a baslc solutlon! __________________________________
4. The concentratlons of H
+
and OH
-
cannot both be hlgh at the same tlme. why not! __________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
A mixture of lemon juice, bromothymol blue
indicator, and indigo carmine indicator is
prepared. What is the colour of this mixture:
A. yellow A. e bromothymol blue is yellow, but it is mixed
with blue indigo carmine.
B. blue B. e indigo carmine is blue, but it is mixed with
yellow bromothymol blue.
C. colourless C. e lemon juice is almost colourless, but the
presence of the other two indicators makes the
solution green.
D. green D. is answer is correct. e lemon juice solution is
pH 3. At this pH, bromothymol blue is yellow and
indigo carmine is blue. A mix of blue and yellow is
green.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can make use of the indicator chart on page 3 of your Data
Pages.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 220 to 224 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What is the name of the compound H
2
SO
4
:
A. hydrogen sulfte A. Hydrogen sulfte is H
2
SO
3
.
B. hydrosulfurous acid B. is is not the name of any compound.
C. sulfuric acid C. is answer is correct. SO
4
2
is sulfate; -ate"
compounds become -ic" acids.
D. sulfurous acid D. Sulfurous acid is H
2
SO
3
. SO
3
2
is sulphite;
-ite" compounds become -ous" acids.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can name acids.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 223 and 226 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
36 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 5.1
Compounds are classihed in dierent ways: Acids and Bases
Circle the letter of the best answer. Use the charts on page 3 of your Data Pages to help you answer the
questions.
1. What is the pH of an acidic substance:
A. between 4 and 8
B. greater than 7
C. less than 7
D. equal to 7
2. A sample of grapes is crushed, and the pH is
tested using three dierent indicators. Which set
of colours is correct for the grapes:
Methyl
Orange
Bromothymol
Blue
Indigo
Carmine
I. yellow yellow yellow
II. red yellow blue
III. red blue blue
IV. yellow blue yellow
A. I
B. II
C. III
D. IV
3. You have a sample to test in a lab. e sample
looks like milk. Choose the two best indicators
for testing if the sample is in the same pH range
as milk.
A. litmus and phenolphthalein
B. methyl orange and methyl red
C. methyl red and bromothymol blue
D. phenolphthalein and indigo carmine
4. A property of acids is that they react with metals.
If you placed a cut lemon and a raw egg on two
spots on bare metal, which of the following
would you observe:
A. Only the egg would react.
B. Only the lemon would react.
C. Both the lemon and the egg would react.
D. Neither the lemon nor the egg would react.
3. What kind of substance feels slippery, turns red
litmus blue, and has a pH > 7:
A. a base, such as NaOH
B. an acid, such as HCl
C. a salt, such as MgCl
2
D. a neutral substance, such as HNO
3
6. A solution has a pH of 11. Acid is added until
pH = 3. Which indicator would be a good choice
to know when the solution has reached pH = 3:
A. methyl red
B. methyl orange
C. phenolphthalein
D. indigo carmine
7. A substance used in producing plastic is HCl. It is
a(n) ___ and is named ___.
A. salt, hydrogen chlorite
B. acid, hydrogen chlorate
C. base, hydrogen chloride
D. acid, hydrogen chloride
37 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
8. Which of the following is the correct formula for
sulfuric acid:
A. H
2
S
B. HSO
4
C. H
2
SO
3
D. H
2
SO
4
9. Perchloric acid is used in manufacturing
explosives and speeding up chemical reactions.
What is the formula for perchloric acid:
A. HF
B. HBr
C. HClO
4
D. H
2
Pe
3
10. A sample of bleach was tested with bromothymol
blue to determine its pH.
What colour will it be, BOE what does the colour
tell you about the pH of bleach:
A. blue, pH > 7
B. blue, pH = 12
C. yellow, pH < 7
D. yellow, pH = 12
38 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5.2 Salts
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Salts are a class of compounds including ionic compounds that can be produced when an acid and a base
react.
% Oxides and carbonates can chemically react with acids and produce salts.
% Salts can also be produced by the chemical reaction of a metal and an acid.
% Metal oxides combine with water to form bases.
% Non-metal oxides combine with water to form acids.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
4BMUT
1. 4BMUT are ionic compounds formed when acids and bases react.
2. Salts are also produced when oxides or carbonates react with acids, or when metals react with acids.
3. A salt is made up of a positive ion from a base and negative ion from an acid.
"DJE#BTF/FVUSBMJ[BUJPOand.FUBM0YJEFTBOE/PO.FUBM0YJEFT
1. Neutralization reactions occur when an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water.
Example: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) A NaCl(s) + H
2
O()
BDJE CBTF TBMU XBUFS
2. A NFUBMPYJEF is a chemical compound that contains a metal chemically combined with oxygen.
% Metal oxides react with water to form bases.
Example: Na
2
O(s) + H
2
O() A 2NaOH(aq)
3. A OPONFUBMPYJEF is a chemical compound that contains a non-metal chemically combined with
oxygen.
% Non-metal oxides react with water to form acids.
Example: SO
2
(g) + H
2
O() A H
2
SO
3
(aq)
% Non-metal oxides are formed from the burning of fossil fuels.
% Non-metal oxides dissolve in rainwater to produce acid precipitation.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. |dentlfy each of the followlng as an acld, a base, a salt, a metal oxlde, or a non-metal oxlde.
(a) 8a(OH)
2
____________________________________
(b) H
2
SO
4
_____________________________________
(c) NaCl ______________________________________
(d) K
2
O _______________________________________
(e) SO
2
_______________________________________
2. whlch klnds of oxldes react wlth water to form acld preclpltatlon! _________________________
3. Complete and balance the followlng neutrallzatlon reactlons.
(a) ____ HP + ____ KOH A _______________________________________________
(b) ____ H
2
SO
4
+ ____ NaOH A ___________________________________________
(c) ____ HNO
3
+ ____ Mg(OH)
2
A _________________________________________
39 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

"DJETBOE.FUBMT
1. e most reactive metals, at the bottom of groups 1 and 2 in the periodic table, react vigorously with
water and acids (Figure 3.1).
% All other metals are less reactive than those in groups 1 and 2.
. Alkall metals and alkallne earth metals are the most reactlve metals.
2. When metals react with acids, H
2
gas is usually released.
Example: 2 HCl(aq) + Mg(s) A MgCl
2
(s) + H
2
(g)
"DJETBOE$BSCPOBUFT
1. Carbonates (CO
3
) neutralize acids.
H
2
SO
4
(aq) + CaCO
3
(s) A CaSO
4
(s) + H
2
O() + CO
2
(g)
TVMGVSJD DBMDJVN DBMDJVN XBUFS DBSCPO
BDJE DBSCPOBUF TVMGBUF EJPYJEF
% Calcium carbonate is added to some lakes to help neutralize acid from acid precipitation.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Complete and balance the followlng reactlons between an acld and a metal.
(a) ____ HP + ____ Zn A ____________________
(b) ____ H
2
SO
3
+ ____ Mg A ____________________
(c) ____ HCl + ____ Al A _____________________
2. why ls calclum carbonate sometlmes added to lake water! _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
40 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which of the following is a salt:
A. CaCl
2
A. is answer is correct. Salts contain a positive ion and a
negative ion. e positive ion in CaCl
2
is from the base
Ca(OH)
2.
e negative ion is from the acid HCl.
B. SCl
2
B. Salts are ionic. is compound is covalent. erefore, it
is not a salt.
C. Ca(OH)
2
C. e presence of OH indicates that this is a base.
D. HCl D. e presence of H indicates that this is an acid.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish among acids, bases, salts, and other
compounds.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 234 to 239 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Consider the following reaction.
CaO + H
2
O A __________
Determine the formula of the product(s) and identify
the product(s) as acid, base, or neutral compound.
A. Ca(OH)
2
, an acid A. Ca(OH)
2
is correct, but it is not an acid.
B. Ca(OH)
2
, a base B. is answer is correct. CaO is a metal
oxide, which forms the base Ca(OH)
2

when it reacts with water.
C. CaO + H
2
, neutral compounds C. e product should be a base because it is
a metal oxide reacting with water.
D. Ca + H
2
O
2
, neutral compounds D. e product should be a base because it is
a metal oxide reacting with water.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish between metal and non-metal oxides and
can recall that non-metal oxides form acids while metal oxides form bases when they react with water.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 238 and 239 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
41 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 5.2
Compounds are classihed in dierent ways: Salts
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following correctly lists, in order, an
acid, a base, and a salt:
A. HCl, NaOH, BaCl
2
B. HNO
3
, CaCl
2
, NaOH
C. NaCl, MgBr
2
, NH
4
OH
D. Ba(OH)
2
, HNO
3
, H
3
PO
4
2. Which reaction is an acid-base neutralization:
A. HCl + Ca A CaCl
2
+ H
2
B. CaO + H
2
O A Ca(OH)
2
C. HCl + BaCO
3
A BaCl
2
+ H
2
O + CO
2
D. HNO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
A Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O
3. Which of the following are produced when
Ca + HCl react:
A. CaHCl
B. CaH + Cl
2
C. CaCl
2
+ H
D. CaCl
2
+ H
2
4. Which of the following completes the reaction
below:
SO
3
(g) + H
2
O() A _____________
A. H
2
SO
4
(aq)
B. H
2
SO
3
(aq)
C. HSO
4
(aq)
D. HSO
3
(aq)
3. Consider the following reaction.
BaO + H
2
O A __________
Determine the formula of the product(s), and
indicate if the product is an acid, a base, or a
neutral compound.
A. Ba(OH)
2
, a base
B. Ba(OH)
2
, an acid
C. BaO + H
2
, neutral compounds
D. Ba + H
2
O
2
, neutral compounds
6. Which basic compound could be added to lakes
to help deal with acid precipitation:
A. NaCl
B. NaOH
C. CaCO
3
D. HCl
7. Which of the following groups contains only
salts:
A. NaCl, HBr
B. NH
4
OH, LiOH
C. NaCl, Ca(NO
3
)
2
D. NaCl, Ca(NO
3
)
2
, NH
4
OH, LiOH, HBr
8. Which of the following is a balanced equation for
the reaction between an acid and a carbonate:
A. 2CH
3
COOH + 2NaOH A
2NaCH
3
COO + H
2
O
B. 2HCl + CaCO
3
A CaCl
2
+ H
2
O + CO
2
C. 2HCl + Mg A MgCl
2
+ H
2
D. CO
2
+ H
2
O A H
2
CO
3
9. Identify the products that complete the following
reaction.
H
3
PO
4
+ Ba(OH)
2
A _____
A. BaPO
4
+ H
2
O
B. Ba
3
P
2
+ H
2
O
C. BaH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O
D. Ba
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ H
2
O
10. Which of the following reactions are written
correctly:
I. HNO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
A Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O
II. CO
2
+ H
2
O A H
2
CO
2
III. Li
2
O + H
2
O A 2LiOH
A. I and II
B. I and III
C. II and III
D. I , II, and III
42 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5.3 Organlc Compounds


* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Organic compounds always contain carbon and almost always contain hydrogen as well.
% Other elements, including metals and non-metals, may also be present.
% Inorganic compounds are all other compounds.
% To recognize a compound as organic, look for an indication of the presence of carbon in its name,
chemical formula, or diagram.
% Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
0SHBOJD$PNQPVOET
1. 0SHBOJDcompounds contain carbon and usually contain hydrogen.
% Organic molecules always have C before H in their formulas.
- is dierentiates organic compounds from acids, which almost always start with H.
% Carbon has four electrons in its valence shell, which allows for more chemical bonding possibilities
than any other element.
2. *OPSHBOJD compounds are compounds that do not have carbon.
% Some exceptions to this rule include carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, which are inorganic
compounds even though they contain carbon.
% Other exceptions to the rule are that carbonates (e.g., CaCO
3
) and carbides (e.g., SiC) are inorganic.
3. Organic compounds can be represented in several dierent ways as shown in Table 3.2.
. Dlnerent ways of Pepresentlng Propane
/BNF
.PMFDVMBS
'PSNVMB
4USVDUVSBM
'PSNVMB
4IPSUFOFE
4USVDUVSBM
'PSNVMB 4QBDF'JMMJOH.PEFM
propane C
3
H
8
CH
3
CH
2
CH
3
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what element must be present for a compound to be consldered organlc! _________________
2. what are three examples of compounds contalnlng carbon that are lnorganlc!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
43 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

)ZESPDBSCPOT
1. A hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen.
% Hydrocarbons are based on a carbon chain, with hydrogen atoms on the sides.
2. e simplest hydrocarbons are methane (CH
4
), followed by ethane (C
2
H
6
), propane (C
3
H
8
),
butane (C
4
H
10
), and pentane (C
3
H
12
).
3. All hydrocarbons are fammable, and most are liquids are room temperature.
"MDPIPMT
1. Alcohols are organic compounds with C, H, and O.
2. e simplest alcohols are methanol (CH
4
O), ethanol (C
2
H
6
O), and isopropyl alcohol (C
3
H
8
O).
3. Alcohols are very good solvents (they dissolve other substances), they can be used as fuels and sterilizers,
and they are generally very fammable.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. The shortened structural formula for pentane, a chemlcal ln gasollne, ls CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
.
(a) what ls pentane's molecular formula! ____________________________________________
(b) Draw pentane's structural formula below.
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Which of the following is an organic compound:
A. CaH
2
A. is compound is inorganic. It does not contain
carbon.
B. CaCO
3
B. is compound is inorganic. It does contain
carbon, but the carbon is in the form of a
carbonate.
C. Al
4
C
3
C. is compound is inorganic. It does contain
carbon, but the carbon is in the form of a carbide.
D. C
8
H
10
N
4
O
2
D. is answer is correct. e presence of C
indicates it is organic. Other elements H, N, and
O can be present in an organic compound.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 244 to 248 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
44 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Consider the following representation of methanol
(CH
3
OH).
What type of representation is used in the illustration:
A. chemical name A. e chemical name is methanol.
B. molecular formula B. e molecular formula is CH
4
O.
C. shortened structural formula C. e shortened structural formula is
CH
3
OH.
D. space-flling model D. is answer is correct.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you distinguish between dierent ways of representing organic
compounds.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 244 to 248 in BC Science 10.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
43 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 5.3
Compounds are classihed in dierent ways: Organic Compounds
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following is not an organic
compound:
A. CH
4
B. CO
2
C. C
6
H
3
COOH
D. K
2
HC
6
H
3
O
7
2. Which of the following best describes organic
compounds:
A. almost all compounds that contain carbon
B. compounds made exclusively by living
things
C. compounds made of mostly carbon and
oxygen, such as oxides and carbonates
D. any compound that does not include carbon,
except compounds such as CO
2
, CO, and
compounds like Li
2
CO
3
3. What is a hydrocarbon:
A. another name for the acid H
2
CO
3
B. another name for an organic alcohol
C. one of the products of an acid-base
neutralization
D. an organic compound that is made of only
carbon and hydrogen
4. Which of the following is an inorganic
compound:
A. C
6
H
12
O
6
B. NO
2
C. CH
3
CH
2
COOH
D. C
4
H
10

3. Consider the following representation of
2-propanol, a kind of rubbing alcohol. What
kind of representation is used in the diagram:
H OH H

H C C C H

H H H
A. chemical name
B. molecular formula
C. structural formula
D. space-flling model
6. Which of the following is an organic compound:
A. CaH
3
B. H
2
CO
3

C. C
3
H
8
O
D. Ca
2
CO
3
7. CH
3
(CH
2
)
3
CH
3
is an example of what type of
compound:
A. an acid
B. a salt
C. a base
D. an organic compound
8. In the following diagram of propane, light-
coloured spheres represent hydrogen atoms and
dark-coloured spheres represent carbon atoms.
What is the chemical formula of propane:

A. C
8
H
3
B. 8C
3
H
C. C
3
H
8
D. 3C
8
H
9. Ethanol (CH
3
CH
2
OH) is used in alcoholic
beverages and also as a fuel. What kind of
compound is ethanol:
A. inorganic
B. organic
C. ionic
D. multivalent
10. Which of the following is not an inorganic
compound:
A. methane
B. carbon dioxide
C. barium carbonate
D. ammonium chloride
46 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

$IBQUFS $IFNJDBMSFBDUJPOTPDDVSJOQSFEJDUBCMFXBZT
6.l Types of Chemlcal Peactlons
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Chemical reactions can be classifed as one of six main types: synthesis, decomposition, single
replacement, double replacement, neutralization (acid-base), and combustion.
% You can identify each type of reaction by examining the reactants.
% is makes it possible to classify a reaction and then predict the identity of the products.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
4ZOUIFTJT3FBDUJPOT
1. 4ZOUIFTJT(combination) is a type of chemical reaction in which two or more elements or compounds
combine to form a single compound.
% A + B A AB where A and B represent elements
% e elements may form ionic compounds.
Example: Sodium metal and chlorine gas combine to form sodium chloride.
2Na + Cl
2
A 2NaCl
Example: Magnesium metal reacts with oxygen gas to form magnesium oxide.
2Mg + O
2
A 2MgO
% e elements may form covalent compounds.
Example: Nitrogen gas and oxygen gas join to form dinitrogen monoxide.
2N
2
+ O
2
A 2N
2
O
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Complete and balance the followlng synthesls reactlons. Pemember to conslder the chemlcal
formulas of the products carefully before you begln to balance.
(a) ____ Al + ____ P
2
A ____________________
(b) ____ K + ____ O
2
A ____________________
(c) ____ Cd + ____ |
2
A ____________________
2. |dentlfy whether each of the followlng chemlcal equatlons ls a synthesls reactlon.
(a) 2Pe + 3CuCl
2
A 2PeCl
3
+ 3Cu __________________
(b) 2KClO
3
A 2KCl + 3O
2
_________________________
(c) 2Nl + 3Cl
2
A 2NlCl
3
__________________________
47 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

%FDPNQPTJUJPO
1. %FDPNQPTJUJPO is a type of chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into two or more
elements or simpler compounds.
% AB A A + B where A and B represent elements
2. Ionic compounds may decompose to produce elements.
Example: Sodium chloride (table salt) can be broken down into sodium metal and chlorine gas by
melting salt at 800C and running electricity through it.
2NaCl A 2Na + Cl
2

3. Covalent compounds may decompose into elements.
Example: By running electricity through water, the water molecules decompose into hydrogen and
oxygen gases.
2H
2
O A 2H
2
+ O
2
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Complete and balance the followlng decomposltlon reactlons. Pemember to check for dlatomlc
elements as you wrlte the formulas of the products.
(a) ____ Na
2
O A ____________________________________
(b) ____ Mg
3
N
2
A ___________________________________
(c) ____ Cs| A ______________________________________
2. |dentlfy each reactlon as synthesls, decomposltlon, or nelther.
(a) 2AgCl + Cu A CuCl
2
+ 2Ag _____________________________________
(b) 2Cr + 3P
2
A 2CrP
3
_____________________________________________
(c) 2NaCl A 2Na + Cl
2
____________________________________________
4JOHMF3FQMBDFNFOU
1. 4JOHMFSFQMBDFNFOU is a type of chemical reaction in which one element replaces another element in a
compound.
% A + BC A B + AC where A is a metal, or
A + BC A C + BA where A is a non-metal
2. Example of when A is a metal:
% Aluminum foil in a solution of copper II chloride produces solid copper and aluminum chloride.
2Al + 3CuCl
2
A 3Cu + 2AlCl
3

3. Example of when A is a non-metal:
% When fuorine is bubbled through a sodium iodide solution, iodine and sodium fuoride are
produced.
F
2
+ 2NaI A I
2
+ 2NaF
%PVCMF3FQMBDFNFOU
1. %PVCMFSFQMBDFNFOU is a type of chemical reaction in which elements in dierent compounds
exchange places.
% AB + CD A AD + CB
Example: When potassium chromate and silver nitrate react, they form silver chromate in a solution
of potassium nitrate.
K
2
CrO
4
+ 2AgNO
3
A Ag
2
CrO
4
+ 2KNO
3
48 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Complete and balance the followlng slngle replacement reactlons.
(a) ____ K +
____
NaCl A ________________________________________
(b) ____ CuP
2
+ ____ Mg A _____________________________________
(c) ____ P
2
+ ____ Cs8r A ______________________________________
2. Complete and balance the followlng double replacement reactlons.
(a) ____ Na
3
PO
4
+ ____ Mg|
2
A _______________________________________
(b) ____ SrCl
2
+ ____ Pb(NO
3
)
2
A ______________________________________
(c) ____ AgNO
3
+ ____ Na
2
CrO
4
A _____________________________________
3. Classlfy each reactlon as synthesls, decomposltlon, slngle replacement, or double replacement.
(a) Nl8r
2
+ ZnSO
4
A Zn8r
2
+ NlSO
4
_________________________________________________
(b) 2Au + Pe
2
O
3
A 2Pe + Au
2
O
3
____________________________________________________
(c) 2Pb + O
2
A 2PbO _____________________________________________________________
(d) 2Tl8r
3
A 2Tl + 38r
2
____________________________________________________________
Neutralization (acid-base)
1. Neutralization (acid-base) is a type of chemical reaction in which an acid (most compounds starting
with H) and a base (most compounds ending in OH, or beginning with NH
4
) combine to produce a salt
and water.
% Acid + base A salt + water
HX + MOH A MX + H
2
O where X and M are elements
Examples:
- Sulfuric acid is used to neutralize calcium hydroxide.
H
2
SO
4
+ Ca(OH)
2
A CaSO
4
+ 2H
2
O
- Phosphoric acid helps to neutralize the compounds that cause rust, such as iron (II) hydroxide.
H
3
PO
4
+ 3Fe(OH)
2
A Fe
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 6H
2
O
Combustion
1. Combustion is a type of chemical reaction in which oxygen is one of the reactants and where heat is
produced.
% C
X
H
Y
+ O
2
A CO
2
+ H
2
O where X and Y represent integers
Examples:
- Natural gas (methane) is burned in furnaces to heat homes.
CH
4
+ O
2
A CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
- An acetylene torch is used to weld metals.
2C
2
H
2
+ 3O
2
A 4CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
- Carbohydrates like glucose combine with oxygen in our body to release energy.
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
A 6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Complete and balance the followlng neutrallzatlon (acld-base) reactlons.
(a) ____ HP + ____ NaOH A ____________________________________
(b) ____ HCl + ____ Pb(OH)
2
A __________________________________
(c) ____ Al(OH)
3
+ ____ HClO
4
A ________________________________
2. Complete and balance the followlng combustlon reactlons.
(a) ____ CH
4
+ ____ O
2
A ______________________________________
(b) ____ C
4
H
l0
+ ____ O
2
A _____________________________________
(c) ____ C
4
H
8
O
4
+ ____ O
2
A ___________________________________
3. Classlfy each reactlon as synthesls, decomposltlon, slngle replacement, double replacement,
neutrallzatlon, or combustlon.
(a) 2K8r A 2K + 8r
2
______________________________________________________________
(b) Cu + AgNO
3
A Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ Ag ___________________________________________________
(c) 3Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ 2Na
3
PO
4
A 6NaNO
3
+ Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
______________________________________
(d) 2C
6
H
6
+ l5O
2
A l2CO
2
+ 6H
2
O __________________________________________________
(e) 6Mg + P
4
A 2Mg
3
P
2
___________________________________________________________
(f ) Ca(OH)
2
+ H
2
SO
4
+ A 2H
2
O + CaSO
4
______________________________________________
30 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Which of the following reactions is double
replacement:
A. Pb + 2CuCl
2
A PbCl
2
+ 2Cu A. An element reacting with a compound is single
replacement.
A + BC A AC + B
B. Na
2
CO
3
+ CaBr
2
A CaCO
3
+ 2NaBr B. is answer is correct. Two compounds trade
ions.
AB + CD A AD + CB
C. MgCO
3
+ 2HBr A MgBr
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O C. is does not ft any of the 6 types studied.
D. Mg(OH)
2
+ 2HBr A MgBr
2
+ 2H
2
O D. A base and an acid react to make a salt and
water.
MOH + HX A MX + H
2
O
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish among the six types of reactions: synthesis,
decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, neutralization, and combustion.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 236 and 237 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Consider the following balanced equation.
C
3
H
8
+ 3O
2
A 3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
What type of reaction is this:
A. single replacement A. Although the reaction involves a compound and
an element, this is not single replacement. When
an organic compound reacts with oxygen (O
2
), it is
called combustion.
B. combustion B. is answer is correct. An organic compound is
reacting with oxygen (O
2
).
C. decomposition C. Decomposition has only one reactant.
D. double replacement D. Both reactants in double replacement are
compounds.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish among the six types of reactions: synthesis,
decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, neutralization, and combustion.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 236 and 237 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
31 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 6.1
Chemical reactions occur in predictable ways: Types of Chemical Reactions
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. What type of reaction is the following:
2Al + 3CuCl
2
A 2AlCl
3
+ 3Cu
A. synthesis
B. neutralization
C. single replacement
D. double replacement
2. Which equation shows a double replacement
reaction:
A. 2Mg + O
2
A MgO
B. 2H
2
O
2
A 2H
2
O + O
2
C. CH
4
+ 2 O
2
A CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
D. Na
2
CO
3
+ CaCl
2
A CaCO
3
+ 2NaCl
3. KCl reacts with Pb(NO
3
)
2
. What type of reaction
is this:
A. combustion
B. neutralization
C. single replacement
D. double replacement
4. Solid magnesium reacts with nitric acid to
produce hydrogen gas and another product.
What is the other product that would be formed
in this reaction:
Mg + 2HNO
3
A ___ + H
2
A. Mg(NO
3
)
2
B. Mg
3
N
2
C. MgO
D. O
2
3. Which of the following balanced equations
represents a synthesis reaction:
A. 2LiF A 2Li + F
2
B. Ca + Br
2
A CaBr
2
C. Ba + CuSO
4
A BaSO
4
+ Cu
D. KOH + HNO
3
A KNO
3
+ H
2
O
6. For a neutralization reaction to occur, which
of the following should be added to react with
NaOH:
NaOH + ___
A. F
2
B. Ca
C. HCl
D. Mg(NO
3
)
2
7. What is the missing reactant in this synthesis
reaction, and what are the coecients needed to
balance this equation:
Na + ___ A NaF
A. Na + F A NaF
B. Na + F
2
A NaF
2
C. Na + F
2
A 2NaF
D. 2Na + F
2
A 2NaF
8. If Na
2
O undergoes decomposition, what will the
products be:
A. Na + O
B. Na + O
2
C. Na
2
+ O
D. Na
2
+ O
2
9. If aluminum bromide decomposes, which of
the following is the correct balanced formula
equation for the reaction:
A. AlBr
3
A Al + Br
B. AlBr
3
A Al + 3Br
2
C. 2AlBr
3
A 2Al + Br
2
D. 2AlBr
3
A 2Al + 3Br
2
10. Which of the following balanced equations
correctly represents the combustion of butene,
C
4
H
8
:
A. C
4
H
8
+ 6O
2
A 4CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
B. C
4
H
8
+ O
2
A 8CO
2
+ 8H
2
O
C. C
4
H
8
+ O
2
A 4CO
2
+ H
2
O
D. C
4
H
8
+ O
2
A CO
2
+ H
2
O
32 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

6.2 Pactors Anectlng the Pate of Chemlcal Peactlons


* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Understanding the factors that aect reaction rates helps chemists speed up or slow down chemical
reactions.
% Four main factors aect the rate of chemical reactions: temperature (hotter is faster), surface area
(the more surface contact between reactants, the faster the reaction), concentration (the greater the
concentration, the faster the reaction rate), and the presence of a catalyst (the catalyst helps the reaction
go more quickly but is still present in the same amount at the end of the reaction).
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
5FNQFSBUVSF
1. In a chemical reaction, how quickly or how slowly reactants turn into products is called rate of reaction.
2. e rate of reaction changes with the temperature.
% Temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecules.
3. e more energy molecules have, the higher the temperature.
% When molecules have more energy, they react faster.
% Higher temperature = faster reaction rate
Example: We cook food to speed up the chemical reactions.
% Lower temperature = slower reaction rate
Example: We refrigerate food to slow down the chemical reactions.
$PODFOUSBUJPO
1. $PODFOUSBUJPO is the amount of solute present in a specifc volume of a solution.
% Concentration is measured in mass per unit volume (g/L).
2. Usually, the higher the concentration of reactants, the faster the reaction occurs.
% Since there are more molecules per unit volume in high concentrations, there are more opportunities
for molecules to collide and react.
% A splint of wood glows brighter in highly concentrated oxygen than in normal air with a lower
concentration of oxygen.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what happens to the rate of a chemlcal reactlon when the temperature ls ralsed!
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what does coollng do to the frequency at whlch partlcles of reactants can colllde!
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. How does lncreaslng the concentratlon of an acld result ln an lncrease ln reactlon rate between
the acld and a plece of alumlnum metal placed ln lt! ___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
4. why does blowlng on a campre speed the burnlng process! ____________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

4VSGBDF"SFB
1. 4VSGBDFBSFB is the extent of a two-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary. In other words,
surface area is the measure of how much area of an object is exposed.
2. Increasing surface area increases the rate of reaction.
% e more atoms and molecules there are to collide, the higher the reaction rate.
3. Surface area can be increased by creating smaller pieces.
% A powdered substance has far more surface area than one large chunk.
$BUBMZTUT
1. A DBUBMZTU is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed itself.
% Catalysts oen lower the amount of energy necessary to break the bonds in the reactants.
2. Enzymes are an example of biological catalysts.
% Saliva has enzymes that help speed up the breakdown of starches in the mouth.
3. A catalytic converter is a device installed in all cars to decrease pollution.
% Car exhaust passes through the catalytic converter before leaving the car.
% Catalysts found in the honeycomb-shaped flters in the converter help to change many of the
pollutants into less harmful substances.
Examples: Poisonous carbon monoxide is changed into CO
2
, hydrocarbons are converted into
CO
2
, and H
2
O, and nitrogen oxides are changed into N
2
and O
2
.
2N
2
O
3
A 2N
2
+ 3O
2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. How does lncreaslng the surface area of a reactant lncrease reactlon rate! __________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. why does cuttlng wood lnto tlny pleces for a campre speed the burnlng process! ___________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. what happens to the rate of a reactlon when a catalyst ls added!
_________________________________________________
4. what ls the purpose of a catalytlc converter ln a car!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. what ls an enzyme! ______________________________________________________________
34 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
***4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Suppose a chemist performed an experiment by dissolving
equal masses of magnesium carbonate in three separate
beakers containing hydrochloric acid.

5SJBM
)ZESPDIMPSJD
"DJE
.BHOFTJVN
DBSCPOBUF

5FNQFSBUVSF
I Concentrated Finely ground 30

C
II Concentrated Lump 30

C
III Dilute Lump 73

C
e magnesium carbonate dissolved the fastest in Trial
III and the slowest in Trial II. List concentration, surface
area, and temperature in order of most important to least
important in increasing the rate of this reaction.
A. surface area, temperature, concentration A. Surface area is less important than
temperature in this case because
Trial I (higher surface area/lower
temperature) was slower than
Trial III (lower surface area/higher
temperature).
B. concentration, surface area, temperature B. Concentration is less important than
temperature in this case because
Trial II (higher concentration/lower
temperature) was slower than Trial
III (lower concentration/higher
temperature).
C. temperature, surface area, concentration C. is answer is correct. Trial III is the
fastest (high temperature with lower
surface area and lower concentration).
is series of trials does not
demonstrate which of concentration
and surface area is more important in
this experiment.
D. surface area, concentration, temperature D. Surface area is less important than
temperature in this case because
Trial I (higher surface area/lower
temperature) was slower than
Trial III (lower surface area/higher
temperature).
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to see whether you can determine how temperature, concentration, and surface
area aect the rate of a reaction by examining experimental data.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 272 to 277 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
33 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
In order to reduce smog emissions from automobiles,
exhaust gases are passed through a unit that
contains platinum metal. When exhaust gases make
contact with the platinum, the rate at which smog
decomposes increases several thousand times. What
factor is responsible for the increased rate of smog
decomposition:
A. temperature A. Temperature did not change during the
process.
B. concentration B. Concentration of smog particles did not
change during the process.
C. surface area C. If the surface area of the platinum were
increased, the smog decomposition rate
would increase. However, the surface area
did not change during the process.
D. catalyst D. is answer is correct. Platinum metal
causes the rate to decomposition of smog
to increase. e platinum itself is not
changed.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to see whether you can determine how temperature, concentration, surface area,
and catalysts aect the rate of a reaction.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 272 to 277 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
36 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 6.2
Chemical reactions occur in predictable ways: Factors Aecting the Rate of Chemical Reactions
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. When zinc metal is added to hydrochloric acid,
it reacts to produce hydrogen gas. Which of the
following pairs would react at the greatest rate:
A. a chunk of zinc and dilute HCl
B. a chunk of zinc and concentrated HCl
C. powdered zinc and dilute HCl
D. powdered zinc and concentrated HCl
2. Cement is used in many construction projects.
When used in building projects, water is sprayed
on the surface of the drying cement. is allows
the cement to dry evenly both on the surface and
in the middle. A strange fact about cement is that,
as cement cures" (what we think of as drying),
it undergoes an exothermic reaction. In other
words, cement is actually giving o heat energy
as it dries, which can speed up drying even more.
Which factor aecting the rate of chemical
reactions is involved when builders spray water
onto drying cement:
A. addition of a catalyst
B. change in temperature
C. change in surface area
D. change in concentration
3. Which of the following is an example of
decreasing reaction rate:
A. scrambling an egg
B. adding food colouring
C. putting food in a refrigerator
D. cleaning a clogged drain with concentrated
vinegar and baking soda
4. In order to start a campfre, wood is chopped
into many small pieces, called kindling. Which
factor makes it easier to light a fre using kindling
instead of large pieces of wood:
A. temperature
B. concentration
C. surface area
D. catalyst
3. If you have had your gall bladder removed, you
may have trouble digesting fats. It is possible in
some cases to take an enzyme called lipase, which
helps to digest fats.
With respect to rates of reactions, which factor is
best illustrated by taking lipase:
A. introducing a catalyst
B. increasing temperature
C. increasing surface area
D. increasing concentration
6. Food is digested in your body with the aid of a
number of factors that aect the reaction rates.
Which of the following aects the rate of food
digestion by changing surface area:
A. chewing food
B. a body temperature of 37$C
C. enzymes such as lipase and sucrase
D. the concentration of HCl in the stomach
37 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
7. inking of factors that aect reaction rate, what
frst aid treatment should you use when you burn
your hand on a hot stove or with hot water:
A. Do nothing, as you have already stopped
touching the hot object.
B. Cover the burn with moisturizing cream.
C. Cover your burn in butter or margarine.
D. Run your hand under cold water.
8. Blacksmithing is considered to be a fading art.
Blacksmiths use heated coal and other materials
to work with molten metal to turn the metal
into everything from horseshoes to swords and
ploughs. Blacksmiths use a tool called a bellows
to make the fre hotter. is tool is also oen used
in homes with freplaces.

inking of factors that aect reaction rate,
how do you think the use of bellows aects the
temperature of the fre:
A. adds a catalyst
B. removes carbon dioxide
C. increases the surface area of the fre
D. increases the concentration of oxygen
9. Why does putting food in a refrigerator slow the
spoilage of the food:
A. e decreased temperature speeds up the
molecules, making the reactions slower.
B. e decreased temperature slows down the
molecules making the reactions faster.
C. e decreased temperature slows down the
molecules making the reactions slower.
D. Keeping the food in the refrigerator
decreases the concentration of oxygen.
10. Which of the following is OPU a factor that aects
the rate of reaction:
A. changing the temperature
B. changing the colour of the reactants
C. changing the surface area of the reactants
D. changing the concentration of the reactants
38 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
$IBQUFS 5IFBUPNJDUIFPSZFYQMBJOTSBEJPBDUJWJUZ
7.l Atomlc Theory, |sotopes, and Padloactlve Decay
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Radiation refers to high-energy rays and particles emitted by radioactive sources.
% Isotopes are atoms of the same element that dier in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
% Radioisotopes are natural or human-made isotopes that decay into other isotopes, releasing radiation.
% e three major types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.
% A nuclear reaction occurs when radiation is released from the nucleus.
% Radioactivity results when the nucleus of an atom decays.
% If the atom emits one or more protons as it decays, the atom changes into an atom of another element.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
*TPUPQFTBOE.BTT/VNCFS
1. .BTTOVNCFSis the total number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom.
% "UPNJDNBTT is the average total mass of the protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up an atom.
2. *TPUPQFT are atomic nuclei of the same element having the same number of protons but dierent
numbers of neutrons.
% Isotopes of an element have the same symbol and the same atomic number (number of protons) as
each other.
% Since they have dierent numbers of neutrons, isotopes have dierent mass numbers.
3FQSFTFOUJOH*TPUPQFT
1. Isotopes are represented using TUBOEBSEBUPNJDOPUBUJPO or JTPUPQFOPUBUJPO,which shows the
chemical symbol, the atomic number, and the mass number.
% e mass number is written above the atomic number.
% e isotope potassium-39 is written

K, which shows that there are a total of 39 protons and


neutrons, of which 19 are protons.

3BEJPBDUJWF%FDBZ
1. 3BEJBUJPO is the high-energy rays and particles emitted by a substance as a result of changes in the
nuclei of its atoms.
% Radioactive atoms emit radiation because their nuclei are unstable. When these nuclei lose energy
and break apart, radioactive decay occurs.
% Radioactive atoms release energy until they become stable, oen as dierent atoms.
% An element may have only certain isotopes that are radioactive. ese are called radioisotopes.
2. 3BEJPBDUJWFEFDBZ is the process in which the nuclei of radioactive parent isotopes emit alpha, beta, or
gamma radiation to form decay products.
39 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Complete the followlng table.
Isotope Mass
Number
Atomic Number
(number of
protons)
Number of
Neutrons
nitrogen-13
sulfur-30
neon-22
12 13
4 3
6 6
22 12
19 10
2. An element ls analyzed and found to have a mass number of 37. |t contalns 20 neutrons ln lts
nucleus. State:
(a) the number of protons _____________________________
(b) the name of the lsotope ____________________________
(c) the standard atomlc symbol _________________________
3. Por an lsotope contalnlng ll protons and l0 neutrons, state:
(a) the atomlc number ________________________________
(b) the mass number __________________________________
(c) the name of the lsotope ____________________________
(d) the standard atomlc symbol _________________________
4. what ls radloactlve decay! _________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
60 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
"MQIB3BEJBUJPO
1. "MQIBSBEJBUJPO

_ or

Heis a type of radiation resulting from the emission of helium nuclei from the
nuclei of atoms (Figure 7.1).
Example:

Ra

Rn +

_
or

Ra

Rn +

He
. A radlum-226 nucleus undergoes alpha decay to form a dlnerent element, radon-222,
and an alpha partlcle.
2. Alpha particles are positively charged with a charge of 2+ because there are two protons.
- Alpha particles are the most massive of the radiation types.
3. e release of alpha particles is called alpha decay.
4. Alpha particles are slow and penetrate materials much less than the other forms of radiation.
3. A sheet of paper will stop an alpha particle.
#FUB3BEJBUJPO
1. A CFUBQBSUJDMF,

-

or

-

F is a high-speed electron that is emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta decay
(Figure 7.2).
Example:

Xe +

-


or

Xe +

-
F
. An lodlne-l3l nucleus undergoes beta decay to form a dlnerent element, xenon-l3l, and a beta
partlcle.
2. Beta decay occurs when a neutron changes into a proton plus an electron.
- e proton stays in the nucleus, and the electron is released.
3. Electrons are very tiny, so beta particles are assigned a mass of 0.
4. A beta particle has a charge of 1.
3. A thin sheet of aluminum foil will stop a beta particle.
61 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. |dentlfy the mlsslng partlcle ln each of these alpha decay equatlons.
(a)

Pa A________ +

He
(b)

Po A________ +

(c)

Lr A________ +

(d) ________ A

Pr +

2. |dentlfy the mlsslng partlcle ln each of these beta decay equatlons.


(a)

Na A_________ +

-
F
(b) ________ A

Hg +

(c) ________ A

Co +

(d)

He A ________ +

(BNNB3BEJBUJPO
1. (BNNBSBEJBUJPO,

a, is a ray of high-energy, short-wavelength radiation, emitted from the nuclei of


atoms.
Example:

Ni

Ni +

a
% e symbol means that the atom has extra energy.
2. Gamma radiation has no charge and no mass.
% e release of gamma radiation does not change the atomic number or the mass number of a
nucleus.
3. Gamma radiation is the highest-energy form of electromagnetic radiation.
4. It takes thick blocks of lead or concrete to stop gamma rays.
3. Gamma decay results from energy being released from a high-energy nucleus.
% Oen, other kinds of radioactive decay will also release gamma radiation.
Example:

He + 2a
/VDMFBS&RVBUJPOT
1. Nuclear equations are written like chemical equations, with reactants on the le and products on the
right, but they represent changes in the nucleus of atoms.
2. e sum of the mass numbers does not change.
3. e sum of the charges in the nucleus does not change.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the symbol for a gamma ray ln an equatlon! ________________
2. Lxplaln the changes that occur ln the nucleus durlng each of the followlng.
(a) alpha decay __________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) beta decay __________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(c) gamma decay ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Classlfy each of the followlng as alpha, beta, or gamma decay.
(a)

U A


Th +

He ___________________________________________________________
(b)

Nl` A

Nl +

_____________________________________________________________
(c)

Na A

Mg +

-

F @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
(d)

Ac A

Pr +

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
(e)

Pa` A

Pa +

__________________________________________________________
(f )

| A

Xe +

-

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
63 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
e periodic table contains the following
information about the element cobalt.
What can be concluded about the number of
subatomic particles in a nucleus of cobalt-37:
A. It has 32 protons and 27 neutrons. A. e number 38.9 is not of any use in this problem.
e mass number is 37. e atomic number is
27 = number of protons. e number of neutrons
is 37 27 = 30.
B. It has 27 protons and 32 neutrons. B. e number 38.9 is not of any use in this problem.
e mass number is 37. e atomic number is
27 = number of protons. e number of neutrons
is 37 27 = 30.
C. It has 30 protons and 27 neutrons. C. e number 38.9 is not of any use in this problem.
e mass number is 37. e atomic number is
27 = number of protons. e number of neutrons
is 37 27 = 30.
D. It has 27 protons and 30 neutrons. D. is answer is correct.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to see whether you can determine the number of protons, neutrons, the name
of the element given in the periodic table, and information about the nucleus of an atom.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 286 to 293 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
64 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
e Question Why It Is Right/Why It Is Wrong
Consider the following nuclear decay equations.
I

Hg A

Tl +

II

Pa A

Ac +

He
III

Ac A

Fr +


_
IV

Ni A

Ni +


Which equation(s) represent alpha decay:
A. I and IV
B. II and III
C. III and IV
D. I and III
A. I and IV A. I is beta and IV is gamma.
B. II and III
B. is answer is correct. Both

He and


_
represent alpha particles.
C. III and IV C. III is alpha and IV is gamma.
D. I and III D. I is beta and III is alpha.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish between alpha, beta, and gamma decay in
equations.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 294 to 298 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
63 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 7.1
e atomic theory explains radioactivity: Atomic eory, Isotopes, and Radioactive Decay
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following shows alpha radioactive
decay:
A.

B A

C+

-

F
B.

NaCl A

Na +
.


Cl
2
C.

Ni A

Ni +

D.

U A

He
2. Which of the following shows beta radioactive
decay:
A.

Fr A

At +

He
B.

Cs A

Ba +

-

F +

C.

Ni A

Ni +

D.


H
2
O
2
A


H
2
O +


O
2
3. Which of the following is an example of gamma
radioactive decay:
A.

K A

K +

B.

Sr A

Y +

-

F
C.

Au A

Ir +

_
D.

Rn A

Po +

He
4. What type of decay occurs in the following
reaction:

Na A

Mg +

-

F
A. alpha
B. beta
C. gamma
D. decomposition
3. Which is the correct parent nucleus to give the
following products:
____ A

Ac +

He
A.

At
B.

Np
C.

Fr
D.

Pa
6. How does each of the isotopes of an atom dier:
A. in the number of protons
B. in the number of electrons
C. in the number of neutrons
D. in the number of protons, electrons, and
neutrons
7. How many protons and neutrons are in the
following isotope:

Cl
A. 17 protons, 17 neutrons
B. 17 protons, 20 neutrons
C. 17 protons, 37 neutrons
D. 37 protons, 17 neutrons
8. If an isotope has 33 protons and 82 neutrons,
which of the following correctly represents the
isotope:
A.

Pb
B.

Cs
C.

Cs
D.

Pb
9. Which of the following correctly completes the
following radioactive decay:

Hg A

Tl + _____
A.

-

F
B.

C.

H
D.

He
10. Which of the following correctly completes the
following radioactive decay:

Pa A

Ac + _____
A.

-

F
B.

C.

H
D.

He
66 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

7.2 Half-Llfe
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% A half-life can be used to compare the rate of radioactive decay for an isotope.
% e shorter the half-life, the faster the decay rate.
% All radioactive decay rates follow a similar pattern called a decay curve.
% e dierence between dierent isotopes is the length of their half-lives.
% e Common Isotope Pairs Chart identifes the parent isotope (which decays) and the daughter isotope
(one of the decay products).
% e chart also shows the half-life of the parent and the dating range the isotope can be used for in
radioisotope dating.
% A decay curve can be used to estimate the amount of parent isotope remaining or the amount of
daughter isotope produced at any time aer the radioactive sample frst formed or, in the case of carbon
dating, aer the organism died.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
$BSCPO%BUJOHandF3BUFPG3BEJPBDUJWF%FDBZ
1. )BMGMJGF is the amount of time required for half the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.
% Strontium-90 has a half-life of 29 years. If you have 10 g of strontium-90 today, there will be 3.0 g
remaining in 29 years.
2. e half-life for a radioactive element is a constant rate of decay.
3. Radioactivity provides a method to determine age of objects by measuring relative amounts of remaining
radioactive material to stable products formed, such as the ratio of carbon-14 atoms to carbon-12 atoms.
5YMGO'LIGO
use th|s |nlotmot|on to onswet quest|ons 3 onJ 4:
5uose o 64 tom somle ol o cetto|n |sotoe hos o holl-l|le ol 1000 yeots.
l. what ls a half-llfe! ________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. How does radloactlvlty provlde a method for determlnlng the age of ob[ects! _______________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. State what length of tlme has gone by after:
(a) two half-llves __________________________
(b) four half-llves __________________________
4. How many grams of the lsotope are left after:
(a) l000 years __________________
(b) 2000 years __________________
(c) three half-llves _______________
67 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

6TJOHB%FDBZ$VSWF
1. A EFDBZDVSWF is a curved line on a graph that shows the rate at which radioisotopes decay.
% e curve shows the relationship between half-life and the percentage of the original substance that
remains.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Use the followlng decay curve for lsotope X.

(a) Lstlmate the half-llfe of lsotope X. ________________________________________________
(b) what percentage of the orlglnal lsotope remalns after 50 000 years! ___________________
(c) How many years does lt take for the lsotope to be reduced to about l0 percent of lts orlglnal
quantlty! ________
(d) How many half-llves have gone by after 60 000 years! ___________
(e) what ls the age of volcanlc rock contalnlng element X after two half-llves! _____________
$PNNPO*TPUPQF1BJST
Refer to the Common Isotope Pairs Chart on page 4 of your Data Pages.
1. ere are many radioisotopes that can be used for dating.
2. eQBSFOUJTPUPQF is the original, radioactive material.
3. A EFDBZQSPEVDU is the product of radioactive decay, which may itself decay to produce another decay
product or daughter product.
4. eEBVHIUFSQSPEVDUJTPUPQF is the stable product of the radioactive decay.
Example: Carbon-14 (parent) decays into nitrogen-14 (daughter)
Example: Uranium-233 (parent) decays into lead-207 (daughter)
3. e rate of decay remains constant, but some elements require one step to decay while others decay over
many steps before reaching a stable daughter isotope.
68 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

5YMGO'LIGO
3FGFSUPUIF$PNNPO*TPUPQF1BJST$IBSUPOQBHFPGZPVS%BUB1BHFT
l. Uranlum-235 ls a radlolsotope. what ls the daughter ln the lsotope palr ln whlch uranlum ls the
parent! ___________________________________
2. what ls the half-llfe of thorlum-245! _______________________________________
3. whlch radlolsotope decays faster, uranlum-238 or rubldlum-87! ____________________________
4. when a sample of volcanlc rock ls formed lt contalns potasslum-40 but no argon-40. when the
rock ls analyzed later, lt contalns equal amounts of potasslum-40 and argon-40. How old ls the
rock! ____________________________________
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Potassium-40 and its daughter isotope argon-40
are used to date a sample of rock. How old
is a rock that is found to contain 10 g of
potassium-40 and 30 g of argon-40:
A. 0.63 billion years old A. is corresponds to half of a half-life.
B. 1.3 billion years old B. is corresponds to one half-life.
C. 2.6 billion years old C. is answer is correct because the amounts of
each isotope indicate that two half-lives have
passed. e total mass is 40 g, which started
out as potassium-40. Aer two half-lives the
remaining amount is 40 g

= 10 g. is
leaves 30 g of daughter isotope.
D. 3.9 billion years old D. is corresponds to three half-lives.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to see whether you can determine the amount of radioisotope le aer a given
number of half-lives, as well as how much daughter isotope is produced.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 302 to 309 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
69 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
A sample of wood from an ancient forest fre
is found to contain

of the original amount of


carbon-14. Estimate the age of the wood.
A. 716 years
A. is answer corresponds to

of a half-life.
However, it should correspond to

of the
original amount of substance, which is three
half-lives.
B. 3730 years B. is answer corresponds to one half-life.
However, it should correspond to

of the
original amount of substance, which is three
half-lives.
C. 11 460 years C. is answer corresponds to two half-lives.
However, it should correspond to

of the
original amount of substance, which is three
half-lives.
D. 17 190 years D. is answer is correct.

is

, which is three half-lives of


carbon-14.
Age = 3 3730 years = 17 190 years
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to see whether you can determine the amount of radioisotope le aer a given
number of half-lives, as well as how much daughter isotope is produced.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 302 to 309 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
70 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 7.2
e atomic theory explains radioactivity: Half-Life
Circle the letter of the best answer. You can use the Common Isotope Pairs chart on page 4 of your Data Pages
to help you.
1. What is a half-life:
A. the time required for nuclei to undergo
nuclear fusion
B. the time required for nuclei to undergo
nuclear fssion
C. the time required for half the nuclei in a
sample to decay
D. the time it takes for an isotope to react
with any other substance to produce a new
compound
2. e carbon-14 isotope has a half-life of
3730 y. What percent of carbon-14 isotope
will be present aer 17 190 y:
A. 12.3 percent
B. 23 percent
C. 30 percent
D. 100 percent
3. A 10 g sample of potassium-40 undergoes
radioactive decay until 2.3 g of potassium-40 is
present. How many half-lives have occurred:
A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3
4. Suppose a meteorite is analyzed and found to
contain equal amounts of uranium-238 and
lead-206. How long ago did the meteorite form:
A. 710 million years
B. 1420 million years
C. 4.3 billion years
D. 9 billion years
3. What is carbon dating:
A. the exact age of a sample of carbon
B. the process of determining the time required
to complete the carbon cycle
C. the process of determining the age of an
object by measuring the amount of
carbon-14 remaining in that object
D. the process of looking for fossils from
specifc time periods and determining the
age of the carbon sample relative to the fossil
6. If a 10 g rock sample of isotope


K undergoes
two half-lives to make daughter isotope

Ar, what is the mass of the total sample at the


completion of the second half-life:
A. 10 g
B. 3.0 g
C. 2.3 g
D. 1.23 g
7. If you start with 100 g of isotope

U, what mass
of this parent material will be le aer four
half-lives:
A. 30 g
B. 23 g
C. 12.3 g
D. 6.23 g
8. Aer three half-lives have passed for carbon-14, a
4.0 g sample remains of the parent isotope. What
mass of the parent isotope was originally present:
A. 0.3 g
B. 8.0 g
C. 16 g
D. 32 g
71 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
6TFUIFGPMMPXJOHEFDBZDVSWFUPBOTXFS
RVFTUJPO
9. Scientists have discovered a new isotope (X).
Using the data they collected, a graph was
produced to show the percentage of the isotope
remaining over time. Using this information,
what is the half-life of this isotope:
A. 10 000 y
B. 20 000 y
C. 30 000 y
D. 100 000 y
10. A 10 g sample of isotope


C decays for 17 190
years. Use the Common Isotope Pairs chart on
page 4 of your Data Pages to fnd the half life of
this radioactive sample. Determine the total mass
of daughter isotope


N that would be produced.
A. 8.73 g
B. 7.3 g
C. 2.3 g
D. 1.23 g
72 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

7.3 Nuclear Peactlons


* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Fission is a nuclear reaction in which a large nucleus breaks apart, producing two or more smaller nuclei,
subatomic particles, and energy.
% Fission is the source of energy for all nuclear power generation used today.
% e daughter products are oen radioactive and are a signifcant waste disposal problem.
% Fusion is a nuclear reaction in which small nuclei combine to produce a larger nucleus.
% Other subatomic particles as well as energy are released in this process.
% Fusion is the source of energy in the Sun.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
/VDMFBS'JTTJPO
1. 'JTTJPO is the process by which a large nucleus splits into two pieces of roughly equal mass, accompanied
by the release of large amounts of energy.
2. Nuclear reactions are dierent than chemical reactions.
% In chemical reactions, mass is conserved, energy changes are relatively small.
% ere are no changes to the nuclei in chemical reactions.
3. In nuclear reactions, the nucleus of an atom changes.
% Protons, neutrons, electrons, and/or gamma rays can be lost or gained.
% Small changes of mass = huge changes in energy
/VDMFBS&RVBUJPOTGPS*OEVDFE/VDMFBS3FBDUJPOT
1. Scientists can induce (force) nuclear reactions by smashing nuclei with alpha, beta, and gamma radiation
(Figure 7.3).
2. e rules for writing equations for induced nuclear reactions are:
% e sum of the mass numbers on each side of the equation stays the same.
% e sum of the charges (represented by atomic numbers) on each side of the equation stays the same.
. when a nltrogen-l4 nucleus ls bombarded by an alpha partlcle, a nuorlne-l8 nucleus
ls produced, whlch decays lnto oxygen-l7 and a hydrogen atom.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls a sslon nuclear reactlon! ___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what two quantltles do not change durlng a nuclear reactlon!
_______________________________________ ____________________________________
73 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

Nuclear Fission of Uranium-235


1. Most nuclear fssion reactors and nuclear weapons use neutrons to smash nuclei (Figure 7.4).
Example:
A neutron,

O crashes into an atom of stable uranium-233 to create unstable uranium-236, which


then undergoes radioactive decay.
Aer several steps, atoms of krypton and barium are formed, along with the release of three neutrons
and huge quantities of energy.

O +

Kr +

Ba + 3

O + energy
. Nuclear sslon of uranlum-235
Chain Reactions
1. Once the nuclear fssion reaction has started, it can keep going in a chain reaction.
% In a chain reaction, each neutron released triggers more reactions on other uranium-233 atoms.
2. Nuclear reactors have complex systems to ensure the chain reaction stays at safe levels.
% Materials that absorb neutrons, such as cadmium rods, can be inserted into the reactor.
% An uncontrolled chain reaction can result in a violent nuclear explosion.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Plnd the lndlcated daughter nucleus.
(a)


O +

U A________ +

Mo + 3


O + energy
(b )


O +

U A________ +

Cs + 3


O + energy
(c)


O +

U A _________ +

Nd + 3


O + energy
2. what happens ln a nuclear chaln reactlon! ___________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
74 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2

$"/%63FBDUPSTand)B[BSEPVT8BTUFT
1. Nuclear power plants can generate large amounts of electricity.
2. Canadian-made nuclear reactors are called CANDU reactors and produce power from fssion.
% CANDU reactors are found in various countries around the world.
% e reactors are known to be safe and easy to shut down in an emergency.
3. e heat energy produced in a CANDU reactor turns electricity-generating turbines.
4. Hazardous wastes produced by nuclear reactions are problematic.
% Some waste products, like fuel rods, can be re-used.
% Some products are very radioactive and must be stored away from living things.
% Most of this waste is buried underground or stored in concrete.
% It will take thousands of years before the material reaches safe levels of radioactivity.
/VDMFBS'VTJPO
1. 'VTJPO is the joining of two small atomic nuclei to make a larger nucleus, usually involving the release of
a large amount of energy.
2. In the core of the Sun, two hydrogen nuclei join under tremendous heat and pressure to form a helium
nucleus.
% When the helium atom is formed, huge amounts of energy are released.

H +

He +


O + energy
3. A fusion reaction needs the heat and pressure from a fssion nuclear reaction to get it started.
4. Scientists have not yet found a safe, manageable method to harness the energy of nuclear fusion.
% A fusion reaction is used in nuclear weapons to generate most of the energy in the blast.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. why are hazardous wastes from nuclear reactors an ongolng lssue ln soclety! _______________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what ls nuclear fuslon! ____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. where does most nuclear fuslon occur ln our solar system! ______________________________
73 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Consider the following induced nuclear reaction.


O +

U ____ +

Cs + 3


O + energy
What is the identity of the missing isotope:
A.

He
A. is fragment is too small.
B.

Sr
B. is answer is correct.
e mass numbers on both sides add up to 236.
On the right, 90 + 143 + 3 = 236.
e atomic numbers on both sides add up to 92.
On the right, 37 + 33 + 0 = 92.
C.

Sr
C. e mass number is incorrect.
D.

Cs
D. Both mass number and atomic number are
incorrect.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to assess your understanding of nuclear reaction equations.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 312 to 321 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH


H +


He +


O + energy
What does this equation represent:
A. a chemical reaction A. Chemical reactions do not produce new
elements.
B. a fusion reaction B. is answer is correct. Two small nuclei
fuse to form one larger nucleus (as well as a
neutron).
C. a fssion reaction C. Fission reactions involve a large nucleus
splitting into two smaller fragments of nearly
equal size.
D. a decomposition reaction D. is is a nuclear reaction, not a chemical
reaction.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to assess your understanding of nuclear reaction equations.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 312 to 321 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
76 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 7.3
e atomic theory explains radioactivity: Nuclear Reactions
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. What is nuclear fssion:
A. the process in which two low mass nuclei
join together to make a more massive
nucleus
B. the process of cell division that results in two
new cells that are identical to their parent
cell
C. the splitting of a massive nucleus into two
less massive nuclei, subatomic particles, and
energy
D. the process in which a parent cell splits
into two daughter cells of approximately
equal size, oen occurring in single celled
organisms
2. What is nuclear fusion:
A. the process in which two low mass nuclei
join together to make a more massive
nucleus
B. the process of cell division that results in two
new cells that are identical to their parent
cell
C. the splitting of a massive nucleus into two
less massive nuclei, subatomic particles, and
energy
D. the process in which a parent cell splits
into two daughter cells of approximately
equal size, oen occurring in single celled
organisms
3. Which equation represents nuclear fssion:
A.

K A

Ca +

-

F + energy
B. 2C
3
H
7
OH + 9O
2
A 6CO
2
+ 8H
2
O
C.

H +

H A

He +


O + energy
D.


O +

U A

Kr +

Ba + 3


O + energy
4. Which equation represents nuclear fusion:
A.

I A

Xe +

B.

U A

He +2
C.

H +

H A

He +


O + energy
D.


O +

U A

Mo +

Sn + 3


O + energy
3. What is the daughter nucleus to complete the
following nuclear fssion reaction:


O +

U A

Tc + ____ + 3


O + energy
A.

In
B.

In
C.

In
D.

In
6. Which of the following is used to control the
rate of the chain reaction that occurs in a nuclear
reactor:
A. Add uranium-233 to the reactor.
B. Use fossil fuels (like gas or coal).
C. Insert cadmium rods into the nuclear
reactor.
D. Remove cadmium rods from the nuclear
reactor.
7. Which statement about nuclear fusion is not
true:
A. Two lightweight nuclei join together to form
a heavier nucleus.
B. A typical reaction showing nuclear fusion is:

H +

H A

He +


O + energy
C. Lightweight nuclei will not release excess
energy if the nucleus generated by fusion is
heavier than iron.
D. ere are many commercial fusion reactors
in the world. Canada has a series of them
called CANDU reactors.
77 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
8. Which of the following statements applies to
nuclear fssion:
A. Nuclear fssion produces clean energy with
very little waste.
B. Unstable nuclei release a huge amount of
energy when they split.
C. Heavy, unstable nuclei join together into one
new, larger nucleus.
D. A typical reaction for nuclear fssion is:

H +

H A

He +


O + energy
9. Which of the following statements applies to
nuclear fusion:
A. All fusion reactions release massive amounts
of energy.
B. Unstable nuclei release a huge amount of
energy when they split.
C. A typical reaction for nuclear fusion is:


O +

U A

Kr +

Ba + 3


O + energy
D. A fusion reaction is used in modern nuclear
weapons to generate most of the energy
released in the blast.
10. How can a nuclear reaction be induced:
A. by bombarding a nucleus with alpha
particles, beta particles, or gamma rays
B. by heating the reaction with your lab Bunsen
burner
C. by inserting cadmium rods into the nuclear
reactor
D. by burning the nucleus using oxygen
78 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
Processes of Sclence vocabulary Terms
:PVNBZFODPVOUFSUIFGPMMPXJOH1SPDFTTFTPG4DJFODFWPDBCVMBSZUFSNTPOUIFFYBN
BDDVSBDZ the dierence between a measurement and its accepted value
DPODMVTJPO the explanation of the results of an experiment as they apply to the hypothesis being tested
DPOUSPM a test you carry out with no independent variables so you can observe whether your independent
variable in an experiment does indeed cause a change
DPOUSPMMFEFYQFSJNFOU an investigation in which only one variable is changed, and the resulting eect on
another variable is observed, while all other variables are held constant
EFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMF in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to a change in the independent
variable; also called the responding variable
FYUSBQPMBUJPO a prediction that is out of the range of the collected data
IZQPUIFTJT a testable proposal used to explain an observation or to predict the outcome of an experiment;
oen expressed in the form of an If ..., then ..." statement
JOEFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMF in an experiment, the factor that is selected or adjusted to see what eect the change
will have on the dependent variable; also called the manipulated variable
JOUFSQPMBUJPO a prediction that is within the range of collected data
PCTFSWBUJPO information gathered through one or more senses, including hearing, touch, sight, taste, and
smell
QSFDJTJPO a measure of the detail, such as the number of digits, with which a quantity is expressed
QSFEJDUJPO a forecast about what you expect to observe when you do an investigation
QSJODJQMF a fundamental law, assumption, or fact
QSPDFEVSF a specifc set of actions which if executed in the same manner under the same circumstances will
yield the same results
TDBMF ratio between a single unit of distance, such as on a map, model, or drawing, and the corresponding
distance in reality
TDJFOUJDMJUFSBDZ an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary
to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, to become lifelong learners, and to
maintain a sense of wonder about the world
TMPQF the direction of a line on a graph, which may be horizontal (zero), slanting up (positive), or slanting
down (negative). Slope is calculated by determining the ratio of rise/run.
VODFSUBJOUZ a lack of certainty; having limited knowledge to describe a state or outcome, oen where more
than one outcome is possible
WBMJEJUZ the degree to which a conclusion is likely to be true
WBSJBCMF a factor that can infuence the outcome of an experiment
7FOOEJBHSBN a type of graphic organizer that can be used to compare and contrast two or more concepts
or objects by using two or more intersecting circles
79 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
Unlt 2 Glossary
acidic a solution with a pH below 7
acids compounds that produce a solution of less than pH 7 when they dissolve in water
alpha particle (
4
2
,
4
2
He) a positively charged atomic particle that has the same combination of particles as the
nucleus of a helium atom
atom the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
atomic mass the average total mass of the protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up an atom
atomic number the number of protons in a nucleus
bases compounds that produce a solution of more than 7 when they dissolve in water
basic a solution with a pH above 7
beta particle (
0
1
,
0
1
F) a high-speed electron that is emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta decay
Bohr diagram a model of an atom that describes the arrangement of an element's subatomic particles with
neutrons and protons in the nucleus and electrons in electron shells
bonding pair the pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond
bromothymol blue a type of acid-base indicator that turns yellow when added to an acid
catalyst a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed itself
chemical family/group in the periodic table, columns of elements; all elements in a chemical family or group
have similar properties and bond with other elements in similar ways
combustion a type of chemical reaction in which oxygen is one of the reactants and where heat is produced
compound a pure substance that is made up of two or more dierent elements that have been combined in a
specifc way
concentration the amount of solute present in a specifc volume of a solution
conservation of mass the preservation of mass in a chemical reaction; the total mass of the products is always
equal to the total mass of the reactants
covalent bonding a bond formed through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons
daughter product/isotope the stable product of radioactive decay
decay curve a curved line on a graph that shows the rate at which radioisotopes decay
decay product the product of radioactive decay, which may itself decay to produce another decay product or
daughter product
decomposition a type of chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into two or more elements or
simpler compounds
diatomic element elements in which pairs of electrons are joined by covalent bonds; examples include
hydrogen (H
2
), nitrogen (N
2
), oxygen (O
2
), fuorine (F
2
), chlorine (Cl
2
), bromine (Br
2
), and iodine (I
2
)
double replacement a type of chemical reaction in which elements of dierent compounds exchange places
electron a subatomic particle that has a 1 (negative) electric charge
hssion the process by which a large nucleus splits into two pieces of roughly equal mass, accompanied by the
release of large amounts of energy
fusion the joining of two small atomic nuclei to make a larger nucleus, usually involving the release of a large
amount of energy
gamma (
0
0
) a ray of high-energy, short-wavelength radiation, emitted from the nuclei of atoms and which has
no charge and no mass
half-life the amount of time required for half the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay
hydrocarbon an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
80 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
indigo carmine a pH indicator named aer its colour change from blue to yellow over a pH range of
11.2 to 13.0
inorganic refers to compounds that generally do not contain carbon; the few exceptions include carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, and the ionic carbonates
ionic bonding a bond formed as the result of the attraction between positively charged ions and negatively
charged ions
ions electrically charged particles produced when atoms gain or lose electrons
isotopes atomic nuclei of the same element having the same number of protons but dierent numbers of
neutrons
Lewis diagrams models of the atom that show only the valence electrons
litmus a compound extracted from lichens, commonly used as an acid-base indicator called litmus paper
lone pair a pair of electrons in the valence shell that is not used in bonding
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom
metal oxide a chemical compound that contains a metal chemically combined with oxygen
methyl orange a pH indicator named aer its colour change from red to yellow over a pH range of 3.2 to 4.4
methyl red a pH indicator named aer its colour change from red to yellow over a pH range of 4.8 to 6.0
molecule a group of atoms in which the atoms are bound together by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
neutral in solutions, a pH of 7; neither acidic nor basic
neutralization (acid-base) a type of chemical reaction in which an acid (most compounds beginning with H)
and a base (most compounds ending in OH, or beginning with NH
4
) combine to produce a salt and water
neutron a subatomic particle that does not have an electric charge
non-metal oxide a chemical compound that contains a non-metal chemically combined with oxygen
organic refers to almost all carbon-containing compounds; exceptions include carbon dioxide, carbon
monoxide, and ionic carbonates
paired electrons electrons found in twos
parent isotope the original radioactive material that undergoes radioactive decay
period in the periodic table, a row of elements
pH indicators chemicals that change colour based on the solution they are placed in; also called acid-base
indicators
pH scale a number scale for measuring how acidic or a basic a solution is
phenolphthalein a type of acid-base indicator that turns pink when added to a base
polyatomic ions that are composed of more than one type of atom joined together by covalent bonds
proton a subatomic particle with a 1+ (positive) charge
radiation the high-energy rays and particles emitted by a substance as a result of changes in the nuclei of its
atoms
radioactive decay the process in which the nuclei of radioactive parent isotopes emit alpha, beta, or gamma
radiation to form decay products
salts ionic compounds formed when acids and bases react
shell/orbit regular pattern or energy level around the nucleus
single replacement a type of chemical reaction in which one element replaces another element in a compound
standard atomic notation/isotope notation a representation of an isotope's chemical symbol, atomic number,
and mass number, with the mass number written above the atomic number; for example, the isotope
potassium-39 is written
39
19
K
81 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
TVSGBDFBSFB the extent of a two-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary; a measure of how much area
of an object is exposed
TZNCPMJDFRVBUJPO a set of chemical symbols and formulas that identify the reactants and products in a
chemical reaction
TZOUIFTJT a type of chemical reaction in which two or more elements or compounds combine to form a single
compound
VOQBJSFEFMFDUSPOT single electrons
WBMFODFFMFDUSPOT electrons in the outermost shell
$IBQUFS
2VJDL$IFDL"OTXFST
page
1. An atom is the smallest part of an element
that still has the properties of the element. An
element is a pure substance that cannot be
chemically broken down into simpler substances.
A compound is a pure substance that is made up
of two or more dierent elements that have been
combined in a specifc way.
2. (a) 1+ (positive)
(b) No electric charge
(c) 1 (negative)
3. (a) Nucleus
(b) Nucleus
(c) Surrounding the nucleus
4. Atomic number is the number of protons in an
atom.
page 7
1. A family is a vertical column. A period is a
horizontal row.
2. Group 1 is alkali metals, Group 2 is alkaline earth
metals, Group 17 is halogens, and Group 18 is
noble gases.
3. By losing or gaining electrons
4. Metals lose electrons to form positive ions. Non-
metals gain electrons to form negative ions.
page 8
1. In the outermost shell of an atom
2. 2, 8, 8
3. (a) C 6p 2, 4
(b) Cl 17p 2, 8, 7
(c) Al 13p 2, 8, 3
4. (a) F 9p 2, 8
(b) Na
+
11p 2, 8
(c) Al
3+
13 p 2, 8
page 10
1. An ionic bond is a chemical connection between
oppositely charged ions. Metal and non-metals
form ionic bonds when they are combined
together in a compound.
2. A covalent bond is a chemical connection
between two atoms in which a pair of electrons
is shared. Non-metals form covalent bonds when
they combine chemically with other non-metals.
3. Diatomic elements include hydrogen (H
2
),
nitrogen (N
2
), oxygen (O
2
), fuorine (F
2
), chlorine
(Cl
2
), bromine (Br
2
), and iodine (I
2
).
4. (a) O =


(b) F =


(c) Na =
3. (a) H
2
O =

(b) NH
3
=
page 1
1. (a) lithium phosphide
(b) calcium chloride
(c) zinc oxide
2. (a) Na
2
S
(b) MgI
2
(c) Al
2
O
3
page 17
1. (a) Cu
2
O
(b) PbI
4
(c) PbCl
2
(d) Au
2
S
3
2. (a) chromium(II) phosphide
(b) manganese(II) chloride
(c) cobalt(III) oxide
(d) iron(III) nitride
page 18
1. (a) Cs
2
SO
4
(b) Ti(HCO
3
)
4
(c) (NH
4
)
2
S
(d) (NH
4
)
2
Cr
2
O
7
2. (a) sodium perchlorate
(b) magnesium phosphate
(c) ammonium sulphite
(d) copper(II) sulfate
1BSU$o6OJU"OTXFS,FZ
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2 82
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
3. (a) 3 K, 1 P, 4 O for a total of 8 atoms
(b) 2 N, 8 H, 1 S, 4 O for a total of 13 atoms
(c) Ni
2
(CO
3
)
3
; 2 Ni, 3 C, 9 O for a total of 14
atoms
(d) Mo(NO
3
)
2
; 1 Mo, 2 N, 6 O for a total of 9
atoms
page 19
1. (a) SO
3
(b) N
2
O
(c) P
4
S
10
(d) PCl
3
2. (a) phosphorus tribromide
(b) dinitrogen trisulphide
(c) dinitrogen tetraoxide
(d) oxygen difuoride
page 20
1. (a) Ionic; ammonium phosphide
(b) Covalent; oxygen dibromide
(c) Ionic; iron(III) fuoride
(d) Ionic; tin(IV) sulfde
2. (a) PbO
2
is ionic: lead(IV) oxide; NO
2
is
covalent: nitrogen dioxide
(b) SO
2
is covalent: sulfur dioxide; SnO
2
is ionic:
tin(IV) oxide; KClO
2
is ionic: potassium chlorite;
NO
2
is covalent: nitrogen dioxide
page 24
1. A chemical change is a process in which the
arrangement of atoms changes to from new
compounds or substances.
2. Word equation, symbolic (formula) equation
3. Mass is conserved in a chemical reaction; the
total mass of the products is always equal to the
total mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction.
page 25
1. (a) 6 Cl, 2 Cr, 6 I
(b) 1 Pb, 4 N, 12 O, 4 Na, 4 I
page 2
1. (a) 2Al + 3Cl
2
2AlCl
3
(b) CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
(c) Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ Cu
2
SO
4
CaSO
4
+ 2CuNO
3
(d) 3Na
2
CO
3
+ 2Ni(NO
3
)
3
6NaNO
3
+
Ni
2
(CO
3
)
3

2. (a) CaF
2
+ 2K 2KF + Ca
(b) 2Al(OH)
3
+ 6HBr 3AlBr
3
+ 6H
2
O
(c) 2CrI
3
+ 3 K
2
CO
3
Cr
2
(CO
3
)
3
+ 6KI
(d) 2HNO
3
+ BaCO
3
Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O + CO
2
Practice Questions Answers
Section 4.1
1. C
2. C
3. A
4. A
3. B
6. D
7. C
8. C
9. B
10. C
Section 4.2
1. D
2. D
3. C
4. D
3. A
6. C
7. A
8. C
9. D
10. B
Section 4.3
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. C
3. D
6. B
7. A
8. A
9. C
10. D
$IBQUFS
Quick Check Answers
page 31
1. (a) below 7 (b) above 7
2. 10 times
3. 10 000 times
4. 7
83
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
page 32
1. (a) red
(b) orange (from red + yellow)
(c) yellow
(d) blue
(e) red
(f) pink
page 33
1. (a) hydrochloric acid
(b) hydrobromic acid
(c) hydrofuoric acid
2. (a) sulfuric acid
(b) nitric acid
(c) acetic acid
3. (a) perchloric acid
(b) chloric acid
(c) chlorous acid
(d) hypochlorous
page 34
1. (a) acid
(b) base
(c) neither
(d) base
(e) neither
(f) acid
2. H
+
3. OH

4. ey react together to form water.


page 39
1. (a) base
(b) acid
(c) salt
(d) metal oxide
(e) non-metal oxide
2. Non-metal oxides
3. (a) HF + KOH KF + H
2
O
(b) H
2
SO
4
+ 2NaOH 2NaF + 2H
2
O
(c) 2HNO
3
+ Mg(OH)
2
Mg(NO
3
)
2
+ 2H
2
O
page 40
1. (a) 2HF + Zn ZnF
2
+ H
2
(b) H
2
SO
3
+ Mg MgSO
3
+ H
2

(c) 6HCl + 2Al 2AlCl
3
+ 3H
2
2. To help neutralize acid from acid precipitation
page 44
1. Carbon
2. Carbon oxides (e.g., CO
2
), carbonates (e.g.,
CaCO
3
), and carbides (SiC)
page 45
1. (a) C
3
H
12
(b)
H H H H H
H C C C C C H
H H H H H
Practice Questions Answers
Section 5.1
1. C
2. B
3. C
4. B
3. A
6. A
7. D
8. D
9. C
10. A
Section 5.2
1. A
2. D
3. D
4. A
3. A
6. C
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. B
Section 5.3
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. B
3. C
6. C
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. A
84
83
$IBQUFS
Quick Check Answers
page 4
1. (a) 2Al + 3F
2
3AlF
2
(b) 4K + O
2
2K
2
O
(c) Cd + I
2
CdI
2
2. (a) Not synthesis
(b) Not synthesis
(c) Synthesis
page 47
1. (a) 2Na
2
O 4Na + O
2
(b) Mg
3
N
2
N
2
+ 3Mg
(c) 2CsI 2Cs + I
2
2. (a) Neither
(b) Synthesis
(c) Decomposition
page 48
1. (a) K +

NaCl Na + KCl
(b) CuF
2
+ Mg MgF
2
+ Cu
(c) F
2
+ 2CsBr Br
2
+ 2CsF
2. (a) 2Na
3
PO
4
+ 3MgI
2
Mg
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 6NaI
(b) SrCl
2
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2
Sr(NO
3
)
2
+ PbCl
2

(c) 2AgNO
3
+ Na
2
CrO
4
2NaNO
3
+ Ag
2
CrO
4
3. (a) Double replacement
(b) Single replacement
(c) Synthesis
(d) Decomposition
page 49
1. (a) HF + NaOH NaF + H
2
O
(b) 2HCl + Pb(OH)
2
PbCl
2
+ 2H
2
O
(c) Al(OH)
3
+ 3HClO
4
Al(ClO
4
)
3
+ 3H
2
O
2. (a) CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
(b) C
3
H
8
+ 3O
2
3CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
(d) C
4
H
8
O
4
+ 6O
2
4CO
2
+ 4H
2
O
3. (a) Decomposition
(b) Single replacement
(c) Double replacement
(d) Combustion
(e) Synthesis
(f) Neutralization
page 52
1. e rate increases
2. Cooling decreases the frequency.
3. Increasing the concentration of the acid causes
more frequent collisions between acid particles
and the aluminum.
4. Blowing on a camp fre increases the
concentration of oxygen (O
2
) on the wood. is
leads to more frequent collisions between the
oxygen molecules and the wood.
page 53
1. e greater the surface area, the greater the
number of collisions that can happen between
reactant particles.
2. Cutting wood into small pieces increases the
surface area of the wood. is leads to more
frequent collisions between the oxygen molecules
and the wood.
3. e rate increases.
4. To convert harmful nitrogen oxides back into
harmless N
2
and O
2
.
3. An enzyme is a biological catalyst.
Practice Questions Answers
Section 6.1
1. C
2. D
3. D
4. A
3. B
6. C
7. D
8. B
9. D
10. A
Section 6.2
1. D
2. B
3. C
4. C
3. A
6. A
7. D
8. D
9. C
10. B
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
86 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
$IBQUFS
2VJDL$IFDL"OTXFST
page 59
1.
Isotope
Mass
Number
Atomic Number
(number of protons)
Number of
Neutrons
nitrogen-15 13 7 8
sulfur-30 30 16 14
neon-22 22 10 12
magnesium-25 23 12 13
beryllium-7 7 4 3
carbon-12 12 6 6
neon-22 22 10 12
fuorine-10 19 9 10
2. (a) 17
(b) chlorine-37
(c)
37
17
Cl
3. (a) 11
(b) 21
(c) sodium-21
(d)
21
11
Na
4. Radioactive decay is the process in which the
nuclei of radioactive parent isotopes emit alpha,
beta, or gamma radiation to form decay products.
page 1
1. (a)
227
89
Ac
(b)
204
82
Pb
(c)

252
101
Md
(d)

225
89
Ac
2. (a)
24
12
Mg
(b)
201
79
Au
(c)
52
26
Fe
(d)
6
3
Li
page 2
1.

0
0

2. (a) The nucleus loses an alpha particle, which is


the same as a helium nucleus. The mass number
drops 4 units and the atomic number drops 2
units.
(b) The nucleus releases an electron while a
neutron turns into a proton. The mass number
remains the same while the atomic number
increases by one.
(c) The nucleus loses excess energy. The mass
number and atomic number remain unchanged
3. (a) Alpha
(b) Gamma
(c) Beta
(d) Alpha
(e) Gamma
(I) Beta
page
1. Half-life is the amount of time required for half
the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to
decay.
2. By measuring relative amounts of remaining
radioactive material to stable products formed,
such as the ratio of carbon-14 atoms to carbon-12
atoms.
3. (a) 2000 years
(b) 4000 years
4. (a) 32 g
(b) 16 g
(c) 8 g
page 7
1. (a) 20 000 years
(b) 18 percent
(c) 63 000 years
(d) 3
(e) 40 000 years
page 8
1. lead-207
2. 14 billion years
3. uranium-238
4. 1.3 billion years (or one half-life)
page 72
1. A fssion nuclear reaction is the process by which
a large nucleus splits into two pieces of roughly
equal mass, accompanied by the release of large
amounts of energy.
2. e sum of the mass numbers; the sum of the
charges (represented by atomic numbers)
page 73
1 (a)
139
30
Sn
(b)
90
37
Rb
(c)
93
32
Ge
2. A chain reaction is a reaction in which the
products of the reaction trigger more reactions in
a self-sustaining process.
87 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 2
QBHF
1. It takes 20 half-lives (thousands of years) before
the material reaches safe levels of radioactivity.
2. Fusion is the joining of two small atomic nuclei to
make a larger one, usually involving the release of
a large amount of energy.
3. In the Sun
Practice Questions Answers
Section 7.1
1. D
2. B
3. A
4. B
3. D
6. C
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. D
Section 7.2
1. C
2. A
3. C
4. C
3. C
6. A
7. D
8. D
9. B
10. A
Section 7.3
1. C
2. A
3. D
4. C
3. B
6. C
7. D
8. B
9. D
10. A
1SPWJODJBM&YBN4UVEZ(VJEF
6OJU.PUJPO
-JPOFM4BOEOFS
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
(MFO'BULJO
^orth Surrey Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
%POBME-BDZ
Stellys Secondary School
Saanichton, British Columbia
+PTFG.BSUIB
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
+BNFT.JMSPTT
Fraser Heights Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
,BSFO/BTP
David ompson Secondary School
Vancouver, British Columbia
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York
St. Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London
City Milan New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei
3 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
1BSU# 6OJU4UVEZ/PUFTBOE&YBN2VFTUJPOT
6OJU .PUJPO
#ZUIFFOEPGUIJTVOJUZPVTIPVMECF
BCMFUP
1. Explain the relationship of displacement
and time interval to velocity for objects in
uniform motion
is includes being able to:
defne displacement (change in position,
E), time interval (U), and velocity (
av
)
analyze graphically the relationship
between displacement and time interval
for an object traveling in uniform motion
use the formula
av
= E /U to calculate
the average velocity (
av
), displacement
(change in position, E), and time
interval (U) for an object in uniform
motion, given appropriate data
design and conduct one or more
experiments to determine the velocity of
an object in uniform motion (e.g., using
carts, balls, skateboards, bicycles, canoes
in still water)
2. Demonstrate the relationship between
velocity, time interval, and acceleration
is includes being able to:
defne acceleration (positive, negative,
and zero)
give examples of positive, negative, and
zero acceleration, including
- falling objects
- accelerating from rest
- slowing down or stopping
- uniform motion

#ZUIFFOEPGUIJTVOJUZPVTIPVMEVOEFSTUBOEUIFGPMMPXJOHLFZJEFBT
1. Average velocity is the rate of change in position.
2. Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
5PIFMQZPVTUVEZZPVTIPVMEIBWFUIFGPMMPXJOH
- #$4DJFODF student book pages 338 to 417. Note the practice exam questions on pages
416 and 417.
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Data Pages page 4.
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Vocabulary List, page 2.
- Access to www.bcscience10.ca.
4 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
$IBQUFS "WFSBHFWFMPDJUZJTUIFSBUFPGDIBOHFJOQPTJUJPO
8.l The Language of Motlon
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- A vector quantity has both a magnitude and a direction.
- Position and displacement are vector quantities.
- A scalar quantity has magnitude only.
- Distance and time are scalar quantities.
- e magnitude of an object's displacement will be the same as the distance an object travels only if it
travels in a straight line in one direction.
- An object in uniform motion travels equal displacements in equal time intervals.
- Uniform motion is represented as a straight line on a position-time graph.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
%JSFDUJPO.BLFTB%JFSFODFand3FQSFTFOUJOH7FDUPST
1. .BHOJUVEF refers to the size of a measurement or the amount you are counting.
2. Quantities that describe magnitude but do not include direction are called scalar quantities.
Example: 23 s
3. Quantities that describe magnitude and also include direction are called vector quantities.
Example: 3 km N
4. Vector abbreviations are sometimes written in bolded italics with an arrow above them, such as for
velocity and for position.
3. When a direction is written in a vector description, it is usually abbreviated and put into square brackets,
such as 10 km [E] for 10 km east.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. |dentlfy each of the followlng quantltles as elther vector or scalar.
(a) l0 kg ____________________________________
(b) 20 m |S| __________________________________
(c) 5 hours drlvlng ln a car ______________________________
(d) swlmmlng for l00 m |N| _____________________________
(e) l5C _____________________________________
5JNF*OUFSWBMBOE1PTJUJPO
1. Time (U) is a concept that describes when an event occurs.
2. Initial time (U
i
) is when the event began.
Final time (U
f
) is when the event fnished.
3. 5JNFJOUFSWBM is the dierence between the fnal and initial times.
- Time interval is calculated by: U =U
G
mU
J
3 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
%JTUBODFBOE1PTJUJPO
1. %JTUBODF (E) is a scalar quantity that describes the length of a path between two points or locations.
Example: A person ran a distance of 400 m.
2. 1PTJUJPO (E) is a vector quantity that describes a specifc point relative to a reference point.
Example: e school is 3.0 km east of my house.
3. e SI unit for both distance and position is metres, m.
%JTQMBDFNFOUBOE%JTUBODF
1. %JTQMBDFNFOU describes the straight-line distance and direction from one point to another.
- Displacement describes how much an object's position has changed.
- Displacement is equal to the fnal position minus the initial position.
2. e SI unit for displacement is metres, m.
5YMGO'LIGO

6TFUIFEJBHSBNBCPWFUPBOTXFSUIFGPMMPXJOHRVFTUJPOT
l. (a) How long dld lt take the skateboarder to travel 7.0 m!
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) |f the skateboarder started at 0 m and stopped at 2.0 m, what would be U
f
!
____________________________________________________________________________
2. wrlte three sentences that lllustrate the dlnerence between dlstance, posltlon, and
dlsplacement.
(a) Dlstance ___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(b) Posltlon ___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
(c) Dlsplacement ________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
6 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
%JSFDUJPOBOE4JHOT
1. To indicate an opposite direction for a vector quantity, an opposite sign is used. e common sign
conventions are shown in Figure 8.1.
. North, east, up, and rlght are called posltlve (+). South, west, down, and left are called negatlve (-).
5YMGO'LIGO
l. wrlte the opposlte dlrectlon for the followlng vector quantltles.
(a) l0 m |N| ________________________
(b) 5.0 m/s up ________________________
(c) -20 cm/h ________________________
(d) 50 km/h |w| ________________________
(e) -l5 km ________________________
6OJGPSN.PUJPOand(SBQIJOH6OJGPSN.PUJPO
1. All objects in VOJGPSNNPUJPO meet the following conditions.
- Objects in uniform motion travel equal displacements in equal time intervals.
- Objects in uniform motion do not speed up, slow down, or change direction.
2. Motion of an object can be analyzed by drawing a position-time graph (Figure 8.2).
- A position-time graph plots position data on the vertical axis (Z-axis)
and time data on the horizontal axis (Y-axis).
3. A best-ft line is a smooth curve or straight line that most
closely fts the general shape outlined by the points.
4. Uniform motion is represented by a straight line on a
position-time graph. e straight line passes through all
the plotted points.

. Posltlon-tlme graph
7 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Graph the followlng data of an ob[ect ln motlon and answer the questlons below.
5JNFT 1PTJUJPON
0 3
1 9
2 14
3 22
4 26
2. (a) |s the ob[ect ln unlform motlon! ______
(b) Support your answer.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
4MPQF
1. e TMPQF of a graph refers to whether
a line is horizontal or goes up or down
at an angle.
2. Positive slope (Figure 8.3)
Line slants up to the right.
Indicates motion in the direction
of the positive Z-axis
3. Zero slope (Figure 8.4)
Line is horizontal.
Indicates that the object is stationary
4. Negative slope (Figure 8.3)
Line slants down to the right.
Indicates motion in the direction of the negative Z-axis
. Posltlve slope
. Zero slope
. Negatlve slope
8 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
5YMGO'LIGO
$SFBUFBHSBQIUPSFQSFTFOUUIFGPMMPXJOHNPUJPO
l. A person cycles l0 km ln 30 mln and then stops for
l5 mln. Then, the cycllst returns home ln l5 mln.
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
5IF2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What is the distance from the house to the school in
the diagram below:

A. 330 m A. is answer is correct.
B. 130 m B. Subtracting the two distance quantities does
not give you the distance between the two
places.
C. 330 m [E] C. Distance is a scalar quantity, and direction is
not needed.
D. 130 m [W] D. To get the distance between the two objects.
you add both distances, not subtract.
Distance is a scalar quantity, so direction is
not required.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can demonstrate an understanding of the dierence between
displacement and distance. Displacement is a vector quantity and direction is required. Distance is a
scalar quantity and direction is not required.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 344 to 361 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
9 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
5IF2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
A delivery truck travels directly north for 13 min. At
the end of the trip the driver notes she has travelled
20 km. What is the average velocity of the truck
during the trip:
A. 1.3 km/h A. e time used in the calculation is not
13 min but 0.23 h. e units used in the
calculation must match the answer.
B. 80 km/h B. e calculation of velocity is correct, but a
direction must be included for this vector
quantity.
C. 1.3 km/h [N] C. e direction is correct and required for
average velocity, but the time used in the
calculation is not 13 min but 0.23 h. e
units used in the calculation must match the
answer.
D. 80 km/h [N] D. is answer is correct.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how to correctly calculate average velocity.
Remember that velocity is a vector quantity and a direction is required.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 344 to 361 in BC Science 10.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
10 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
1. What term describes quantities that have a
magnitude but no directional component:
A. amplitude
B. velocity
C. vectors
D. scalars
Use the graph below to answer the following two
questions 2 and 3.
2. What is the total displacement of this object:
A. 0 m
B. 6.0 m [E]
C. 6.0 m [W]
D. 12 m
3. What does the horizontal section of the graph
between time 4 s and 6 s indicate about the
object:
A. e object is at rest.
B. e object has turned south.
C. e object has slowed down.
D. e object is moving over a plateau on a
hilltop.
4. If a rolling cart moves with uniform motion at a
rate of 2 m/s in the forward direction, what will
its displacement be aer 3 s:
A. 0.4 m
B. 2.0 m
C. 10 m
D. 100 m
3. A golf ball is hit from the right side of a hole (+)
at a constant speed and travels toward the hole.
If you were to make a position vs. time graph
representing the ball's journey, would the slope of
the graph be positive, negative, or zero:
A. both negative and positive slope
B. negative slope
C. positive slope
D. zero slope
Use the following data to answer question 6.
Time (s) Position (m)
0 0
1 3
2 10
3 13
6. A cyclist coasts forward on a fat, obstacle-free
road. What was the total displacement of the
cyclist:
A. 0 m
B. 3.0 m
C. 10 m
D. 13 m
7. If you were to create a position-time graph for
someone who is standing still, what kind of slope
would the graph have:
A. zero slope
B. positive slope
C. negative slope
D. both negative and positive slope
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 8.1
Average velocity is the rate of change in position: e Language of Motion
Circle the letter of the best answer.
11 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
6TFUIFHSBQICFMPXUPBOTXFSRVFTUJPO
8. What is the total displacement of the object based
on the graph above:
A. 4.0 m
B. 12.0 m
C. 20 m
D. -4.0 m
9. What is the defnition of displacement":
A. a quantity that has only a magnitude
B. a scalar quantity that describes the length of
a path between two points
C. a vector quantity that describes the straight-
line distance between two points
D. the distance an object travels during a given
time interval divided by the time interval
10. What symbol is used to represent change in a
quantity:
A.
B. 6
C.
D. E
12 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
8.2 Average veloclty
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Average velocity is the rate of change in position.
% Speed is the magnitude of the velocity.
% e slope of the best-ft line on a position-time graph is average velocity.
% e relationship between average velocity, displacement, and time interval is given by

av
= /U
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
4QFFEBOE7FMPDJUZ
1. 4QFFE (W) is the distance an object travels during a time interval divided by the time interval.
% Speed is a scalar quantity.
% e SI unit for speed is metres per second (m/s).
2. 7FMPDJUZ () is the displacement of an object during a time interval divided by the time interval.
% Velocity describes how fast an object's position is changing.
% Velocity is a vector quantity and therefore must include direction.
% e SI unit for velocity is metres per second (m/s).
3. e direction of the velocity is the same as the direction of the displacement.
4. Objects travelling the same speed can have dierent velocities.
% If they are travelling in opposite directions, one object is given a positive velocity and the other is
given a negative velocity.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Plll ln the blanks.
(a) veloclty ls the _________________________________________ of an ob[ect durlng a
tlme lnterval dlvlded by the tlme lnterval.
(b) Speed ls the __________________________________________ an ob[ect travels durlng a
tlme lnterval dlvlded by the tlme lnterval.
$BMDVMBUJOHUIF4MPQFPGUIF1PTJUJPO5JNF(SBQI
1. e slope of a graph represents
rise
run
, which is the change in the Z-axis divided by the change in the Y-axis.
2. On a position-time graph, the slope is the change in position () divided by the change in time (U).
3. e steeper the slope, the greater the change in displacement during the same time interval.
"WFSBHF7FMPDJUZ
1. e slope of a position-time graph is the object's average velocity.
% Average velocity is the rate of change in position for a time interval.
2. e symbol for average velocity is
av
.
3. If forward" is given a positive direction on a position-time graph:
% A positive slope means that the object's average velocity is forward.
% A negative slope means that the object's average velocity is backward.
% Zero slope means the object's average velocity is zero.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3

5YMGO'LIGO
use the os|t|on-t|me toh oelow to onswet quest|on 1.
l. (a) whlch [ogger was travelllng faster! _____________
(b) How do you know! ___________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
use the os|t|on-t|me toh oelow to onswet quest|on 2.
2. (a) Durlng whlch tlme lnterval was the ob[ect remalnlng statlonary!
____________________________________
(b) Durlng whlch tlme lnterval was the ob[ect movlng away from lts orlgln!
____________________________________
(c) Durlng whlch tlme lnterval was the ob[ect returnlng to lts orlgln!
____________________________________
14 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
$BMDVMBUJOH"WFSBHF7FMPDJUZ
1. e relationship between average velocity, displacement, and time is given by:

av
= /U
$BMDVMBUJOH%JTQMBDFNFOU
1. e relationship between displacement, average velocity, and time is given by:
(
av
)(U)
$BMDVMBUJOH5JNF
1. e relationship between time, average velocity, and displacement is given by:
U =
av
5YMGO'LIGO
l. A boat travels 280 m |L| ln a tlme of l20 s. what ls the boat's average veloclty!
2. what ls the dlsplacement of a blcycle that travels 8.0 m/s |N| for l5 s!
3. A frult ny leaves a wlndowslll and nles over to a banana that ls 2.0 m west of lts startlng polnt.
The ny travels ln a curved path and actually travels a total of 20 m durlng lts nlght to the banana.
The nlght lasts for a total of 4.0 s.
(a) what ls the ny's average speed!
(b) what ls the ny's average veloclty!
4. How long would lt take a cat walklng north at 0.80 m/s to travel l2 m north!
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
$POWFSUJOHLNIJOUPNT
1. Remember:
1 km = 1000 m
1 h = 3600 s
2. To convert a velocity given in km/h to m/s:
- Multiply by 1000 and divide by 3600.
Or
- Divide the speed in km/h by 3.6 to obtain the speed in m/s.
Example: Convert 73 km/h to m/s.
73 km/h (1000 m/1 km) (1 h/3600 s) = 21 m/s
Or
73 km/h 3.6 = 21 m/s
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Convert 36 km/h lnto m/s.
2. Convert 20 m/s to km/h.
16 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
e graph above shows the motion of an object.
What is the average velocity of the object between
6.0 s and 10 s:
A. 0 m/s A. is is the average velocity over the entire
graph, which begins and ends at the
same point. In this question, we consider
motion only between 6 s and 10 s.
B. 1.0 m/s [W] B. is answer is correct. e average
velocity is the slope of the graph during
the time interval. At 6.0 s, the position
of the object is 6.0 m [E]. At 10 s, the
position of the object is 2.0 m [E].
slope = (2.0 m - 6.0 m)
(10 s - 6.0 s)
= 4.0 m / 4.0 s
= 1.0 m/s or 1.0 m/s [W]
C. 3.0 m/s C. is answer may be from counting
spaces on the graph and dividing them.
However, the actual scales need to be
read. Also, since this is a velocity, the
direction needs to be given.
D. 3.0 m/s [W] D. is answer may be from counting
spaces on the graph and dividing them.
However, the actual scales need to be
read.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can distinguish between distance and velocity and also
whether you can calculate the slope of a line to determine average velocity.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 364 and 363 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
17 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
At the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Michael
Phelps won eight gold medals in swimming. In the
200 m freestyle, Phelps swam with a world record
time of 1 min and 42.9 s. What was his winning
average speed in m/s:
A. 0 m/s A. His average velocity was 0 m/s because his
starting and ending position were the same.
However, speed depends on the total distance
covered.
B. 0.31 m/s B. is was calculated by putting time in
the numerator. Time needs to be in the
denominator.
C. 1.94 m/s C. is answer is correct.
W = 200 m
102.9 s
Note thatU = 60 s + 42.9 s = 102.9 s
D. 140 m/s D. e time was incorrectly used.
1 min and 42.9 s is 60 s + 42.9 s = 102.9 s
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can calculate speed and velocity.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 362 to 366 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
18 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 8.2
Average velocity is the rate of change in position: Average Velocity
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. What units are used to measure speed:
A. s
B. km
C. m/s
D. m/s
2
2. What is the average velocity of a baseball that
travels 10 m [E] in 0.73 s:
A. 7.3 m/s
B. 10.0 m/s
C. 11.3 m/s
D. 13.3 m/s
3. A major league baseball pitcher throws a baseball
with an average velocity of 28 m/s. How long
would it take for the ball to travel the 18.3 m
distance from the pitcher's mound to home plate:
A. 0.33 s
B. 0.66 s
C. 1.3 s
D. 1.3 s
Use the following graph to answer questions
4 and 5.


4. Using the graph above showing the motion of an
object, determine the average speed of the object.
A. 1.0 m/s
2
B. 1.3 m/s
2
C. 1.0 m/s
D. 1.3 m/s
3. What is the average velocity of the object
described by the graph above:
A. -1.0 m/s
B. 0 m/s
C. 1.0 m/s
D. 1.3 m/s
Use the following graph to answer question 6.
6. What is the average velocity represented by the
graph above:
A. 0.3 m/s
B. 1.0 m/s
C. 2.0 m/s
D. 10 m/s
7. On August 16, 2008, the 100 m sprint record
was broken by Jamaican Usain Bolt running
the distance in 9.69 s. What was Usain's average
velocity:
A. 9.3 m/s
B. 9.72 m/s
C. 10.3 m/s
D. 10.3 m/s
19 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3
8. A Formula One race car can move at an average
velocity of 330 km/h. How far would the race car
travel in 10 s:
A. 972 m
B. 102 m
C. 97.2 m
D. 1.2 km
9. What does the slope of a line in a position vs.
time graph represent:
A. time
B. distance
C. displacement
D. average velocity
10. A Boeing 747 jet has an average cruising velocity
of 780 km/h. How long would it take to fy the
673 km distance from Vancouver to Calgary:
A. 69 min
B. 32 min
C. 42 min
D. 33 min
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 20

$IBQUFS "DDFMFSBUJPOJTUIFSBUFPGDIBOHFJOWFMPDJUZ
9.l Descrlblng Acceleratlon
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
% A change in velocity is calculated by subtracting the initial velocity from the fnal velocity.
% If an object's acceleration is in the same direction as its velocity, the object's speed increases.
% If an object's acceleration is in the opposite direction to its velocity, the object's speed decreases.
% Zero acceleration means that the object is moving at a constant velocity.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
6OJGPSNBOE/POVOJGPSN.PUJPO
1. An object travelling with uniform motion has equal displacements in equal time intervals.
2. An object travelling with non-uniform motion will:
% have dierent displacements during equal time intervals
% take dierent amounts of time to travel equal displacements
% have a continuously changing velocity
1PTJUJWFBOE/FHBUJWF$IBOHFTJO7FMPDJUZ
1. A change in velocity () occurs when the speed of an object changes and/or its direction of motion
changes.
2. A change in velocity can be calculated by subtracting the initial velocity from the fnal velocity.
=
f

i
3. If the change in velocity is the same sign (+ or ) as the initial velocity, the speed of the object is
increasing.
4. If the change in velocity is the opposite sign of the initial velocity, the speed of the object is decreasing.
3. If the change in velocity is zero, the object is travelling with uniform motion.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Calculate the followlng changes ln veloclty. Make sure you lndlcate whether the veloclty change ls
posltlve or negatlve.
(a) A pedestrlan walklng forward at l.0 m/s speeds up to 3.0 m/s. ________________________
(b) A runner movlng at 4.0 m/s slldes lnto home plate, and crosses lt at l.0 m/s. _____________
(c) A snowboarder slldlng backward at 3.0 m/s changes veloclty to 5.0 m/s backward. ________
"DDFMFSBUJPO
1. "DDFMFSBUJPO() is the rate of change in velocity.
% Acceleration can be due to a change in speed and/or a change in direction.
2. Two objects with the same change in velocity can have dierent accelerations because acceleration
describes the rate at which the change in velocity occurs.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 21

1PTJUJWFBOE/FHBUJWF"DDFMFSBUJPO
1. e direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the change in velocity.
2. Acceleration that is opposite the direction of motion is sometimes called deceleration.
3. Remember that positive (+) and negative () refer to directions.
4. Examples of acceleration:
% A car speeding up in the forward direction (Figure 9.1)
If we designate the forward direction as positive (+), then the change in velocity is positive (+),
therefore the acceleration is positive (+).
. Slnce the car speeds up ln a forward dlrectlon, lts slgn ls posltlve.
% A car slowing down in the forward direction
If we designate the forward direction as positive (+), then the change in velocity is negative (),
therefore the acceleration is negative ().
% A car speeding up in the backward direction (Figure 9.2)
If we designate the backward direction as negative (), then the change in velocity is negative ().
- e acceleration is negative () even though the car is increasing its speed.
. Slnce the car speeds up ln a backward dlrectlon, lts slgn ls negatlve.
% A car slowing down in the backward direction
If we designate the backward direction as negative (), then the change in velocity is positive (+).
- e acceleration is positive (+) even though the car is decreasing its speed.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls acceleratlon! _____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what are two ways that an ob[ect can change lts veloclty!
_______________________________________ _____________________________________
3. what ls deceleratlon! _____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
4. |f a car ls acceleratlng at -5.0 km/h, ls lt golng backward or slowlng down!
______________________________________
5. Glve an example of somethlng wlth a forward veloclty experlenclng a negatlve acceleratlon.
_______________________________________________________________________________
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 22
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
While a car is backing up, its velocity changes
from 3 m/s to <9 m/s. What would be its total
change in velocity:
A. +12 m/s A. Do not add the two velocities. Subtract the initial
velocity from the fnal velocity.
B. +6.0 m/s B. e fnal and initial velocities have been reversed
in this answer. Remember to subtract the initial
velocity from the fnal velocity, not the other way
around.
C. 6.0 m/s C. is answer is correct. e car was already
backing up and at the end of the time was
backing up even faster than at the start. Since
the change in velocity increases the rate of
backward motion, the change in velocity is acting
opposite to the forward direction. is makes the
acceleration negative.
=
f

i

= 9.0 m/s (3.0 m/s)
= 6.0 m/s
D. 12 m/s D. Do not add the two velocities. Subtract the initial
velocity from the fnal velocity to fnd the change
in velocity.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can use the equation that calculates the change in velocity.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 380 to 386 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 23
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
A rock is thrown up into the air and allowed to
fall. If up is the positive direction, what kind of
acceleration does the rock experience:
A. zero acceleration A. e acceleration is not zero as long as its
velocity is changing. Regardless of the
rock's velocity, even when it is stationary
between rising and falling, its velocity is
constantly decreasing due to the pull of
gravity. is makes its acceleration negative.
B. negative acceleration B. is answer is correct. e eects of gravity
are acting against the positive direction of
motion (up).
C. positive acceleration C. Gravity is causing the rock to slow down.
D. both negative and positive acceleration D. e speed upwards may change from
positive (up) to negative (down), but the
rate of change is always in the downward
(negative) direction.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can recognize acceleration and distinguish it from velocity.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 380 to 386 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 24
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 9.1
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity: Describing Acceleration
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. How is acceleration defned:
A. the rate at which an object changes its
velocity
B. the dierence between the initial time and
the fnal time
C. the rate at which an object travels over a
given distance
D. the displacement of an object during a time
interval divided by the time interval
2. How is deceleration defned:
A. the displacement of an object during a time
interval divided by the time interval
B. the dierence between the initial time and
the fnal time
C. the rate at which an object travels over a
given distance
D. acceleration that is opposite the direction of
motion
3. While a car is backing up, its velocity changes
from 2.0 m/s to <7.0 m/s. What would be the
total change in velocity:
A. 9.0 m/s
B. 3.0 m/s
C. 3.0 m/s
D. 9.0 m/s
4. A drag racer uses a parachute to slow down aer
reaching top speed at the racetrack. What kind of
acceleration does the parachute create on the car:
A. zero acceleration
B. positive acceleration
C. negative acceleration
D. both negative and positive acceleration
3. What happens to the speed of an object if its
acceleration is in the same direction as its
velocity:
A. e object will speed up.
B. e object will slow down.
C. e object's speed will not change.
D. e object will begin to travel in the opposite
direction.
6. A ball being dropped from a height accelerates at
9.8 m/s
2
. Which of the following statements best
describes the motion of the ball:
A. e velocity increases and the acceleration
increases.
B. e velocity is constant and the acceleration
increases.
C. e velocity is constant and the acceleration
is constant.
D. e velocity increases and the acceleration is
constant.
7. A Ferrari P4/3 race car goes from 0 km/h to
100 km/h in 3.33 s. What statement best
describes the motion of the car:
A. uniform motion
B. zero acceleration
C. positive acceleration
D. negative acceleration
8. A horse that is running forward at 23 m/s stops
and then backs up at 2.0 m/s. What is the horse's
change in velocity:
A. 27 m/s
B. 23 m/s
C. 23 m/s
D. 27 m/s
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 23
9. A ball is thrown straight up into the air. On its
way up, the ball's acceleration in is the downward
direction. Which of the following statements is
true:
A. is ball has no acceleration.
B. e ball is being slowed by gravity.
C. e ball has acceleration in an upward
direction.
D. e ball is being accelerated by the thrower
and gains velocity.
10. e Drop of Doom is a ride that accelerates
you upward from 0 km/h to 80 km/h before
plummeting you back to the ground, where you
come to a rest at 0 km/h. What is the total change
in velocity:
A. 0 km/h
B. 80 km/h
C. It depends on acceleration and cannot be
calculated from the information given.
D. It depends on the height of the ride and
cannot be calculated from the information
given.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 26

9.2 Calculatlng Acceleratlon


* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
% e slope of a velocity-time graph is average acceleration.
% Acceleration is measured in m/s
2
.
% e relationship of acceleration, change in velocity, and time interval is given by the equation =

6U
.
% e acceleration due to gravity near the surface of Earth is 9.8 m/s
2
downward.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
7FMPDJUZ5JNF(SBQITBOE%FUFSNJOJOH.PUJPOGSPNB7FMPDJUZ5JNF(SBQI
1. e motion of an object with a changing velocity can be represented by a velocity-time graph.
% e slope of a velocity-time graph is average acceleration.
2. 1PTJUJWFBDDFMFSBUJPO (positive slope) indicates the object's velocity is increasing in the positive direction.
3. ;FSPBDDFMFSBUJPO (zero slope) indicates the object's velocity is constant.
4. /FHBUJWFBDDFMFSBUJPO (negative slope) indicates the object's velocity is decreasing in the positive
direction or the object's velocity is increasing in the negative direction.
5YMGO'LIGO
6TFUIFWFMPDJUZUJNFHSBQIUPBOTXFSUIFGPMMPXJOHRVFTUJPOT
l. State durlng whlch tlme lnterval:
(a) the acceleratlon was zero ______________________________________________________
(b) the acceleratlon was negatlve ___________________________________________________
(c) the acceleratlon was posltlve ___________________________________________________
(d) the ob[ect was lncreaslng lts veloclty N ___________________________________________
(e) the ob[ect was decreaslng lts veloclty N ___________________________________________
(f ) the ob[ect was movlng at a constant veloclty N _____________________________________
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 27

$BMDVMBUJOH"DDFMFSBUJPO
1. Acceleration is measured in m/s
2
.
2. e relationship of acceleration, change in velocity, and time interval is given by the equation =

6U

Example: A pool ball travelling at 2.3 m/s towards the cushion bounces o at 1.3 m/s. If the ball was in
contact with the cushion for 0.20 s, what is the ball's acceleration: (Assume towards the cushion is the
positive.)
B =

6U

= (1.3 m/s - 2.3 m/s)

0.20 s
= 4.0 m/s
0.20 s
= 20 m/s
2
5YMGO'LIGO
l. A truck startlng from rest accelerates unlformly to l8 m/s |w| ln 4.5 s. what ls the truck's
acceleratlon!
$BMDVMBUJOH$IBOHFJO7FMPDJUZBOE5JNF
1. e relationship of change in velocity, acceleration, and time interval is given by the equation
= ()(U)
Example: A car accelerates from rest at 3.0 m/s
2
forward for 3.0 s. What is the velocity of the car at
the end of 3.0 s:
= ()(U)
= (3.0 m/s
2
)(3.0 s)
= 13 m/s
e car's change in velocity is 13 m/s forward, therefore:
=
f
-
i
13 m/s =
f
- 0

f
= 13 m/s
e car's velocity aer 3.0 s is 13 m/s forward.
2. e relationship of time interval, change in velocity, and acceleration is given by the equation
U=


Example: A train is travelling east at 14 m/s. How long would to increase its velocity to 22 m/s [E],
if it accelerated at 0.30 m/s
2
[E]: Assign E positive (+).
=
f
-
i
= (22 m/s) - (14 m/s) = 8.0 m/s
To fnd the value of U:
U=

= 8.0 m/s
0.30 m/s
2
= 16 s
It would take 16 s for the train to increase its velocity.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 28

5YMGO'LIGO
l. A toboggan movlng 5.0 m/s forward decelerates backwards at -0.40 m/s
2
for l0 s. what ls the
toboggan's veloclty at the end of the l0 s!
2. How much tlme does lt take a car travelllng south at l2 m/s to lncrease lts veloclty to 26 m/s south
lf lt accelerates at 3.5 m/s
2
south!
(SBWJUZBOE"DDFMFSBUJPOand$BMDVMBUJOH.PUJPO%VFUP(SBWJUZ
1. Objects near the surface of Earth fall to Earth due to the force of gravity.
% Acceleration () due to gravity is 9.8 m/s
2
downward.
2. To analyze situations where objects are accelerating due to gravity, use the equations:
=

6U

= ()(U)
U=

Example: Suppose a rock falls from the top of a cli. What is the change in velocity of the rock aer
it has fallen for 1.3 s: Assign down" as negative ().
= ()(U)
= (9.8 m/s
2
)(1.3 s)
= 13 m/s
Since down is negative (), the change in the rock's velocity is 13 m/s down.
3. Air resistance is a friction-like force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air.
- If the object is falling, air resistance acts upward on the object.
4. e amount of air resistance force depends on the speed, size, and shape of the object.
- Air resistance is why a fat piece of paper falls more slowly than a crumpled piece of paper.
3. In the absence of air resistance all objects, regardless of their mass, would fall with the same acceleration.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3

5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the change ln veloclty of a brlck that falls for 3.5 s!
2. A ball ls thrown stralght up lnto the alr at l4 m/s. How long does lt take for the ball to slow down to
an upward veloclty of 6.0 m/s!
3. A rock ls thrown downward wlth an lnltlal veloclty of 8.0 m/s. what ls the veloclty of the rock
after l.5 s!
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 30
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
e graph above shows the motion of four
dierent objects. e positive direction is
up. Which object initially was moving up,
then accelerated to a stop, and fnally began
accelerating downward:
A. 1 A. is object was not moving at the start. Its velocity
is shown at the start as zero. Its velocity increased
constantly up, which means it was accelerating up.
B. 2 B. is object was moving up at the start. Its initial
velocity (up) is shown as greater than zero. e
line is horizontal meaning that its velocity is
not changing. is object is moving up but not
accelerating.
C. 3 C. is answer is correct. is object was moving
up at the start. Its initial velocity (up) is shown as
greater than zero. Its velocity is constantly getting
smaller, as shown by a downward slope of the
line. At the point the line crosses the Y-axis, it has
stopped. However, it continues to accelerate down
aer that.
D. 4 D. is object was moving down at the start. Its initial
velocity (up) is shown as less than zero, which is
what indicates that it is moving down. Its velocity
continues to decrease (upward), which means that
its velocity downward is increasing.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can use a velocity-time graph to interpret the motion of an
accelerating object.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 392 to 400 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 31
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
A rock is thrown straight up into the air with an
initial velocity of 30 m/s. How long does it take for
the rock to reach its maximum height: (Assume
the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s
2
downward.)
A. 0.33 s A. is is the inverse of the correct answer.
e values were substituted incorrectly into
the formula, or the formula was incorrectly
derived.
B. 3.1 s B. is answer is correct. e moment the rock
reaches its maximum height, its velocity is
zero. is gives:

i
= 30 m/s

f
= 0 m/s
= 9.8 m/s
e change in velocity can be calculated by:
=
f

i

= 0 m/s - 30 m/s
= 30 m/s
U=

= 30 m/s
9.8 m/s
2
= 3.1 s
C. 294 s C. is is the product of the acceleration and the
initial velocity. e formula may have been
incorrectly derived.
D. It is not possible to answer the question because
the maximum height is not known.
D. Even though the maximum height is not
known, it is possible to determine how long
it takes to get to the maximum height. is
is because at the highest point, just between
rising and falling, the velocity is zero. is
information can be used to calculate
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can recognize acceleration and distinguish it from velocity.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
% Use pages 392 to 400 in #$4DJFODF.
% Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 32
*71SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 9.2
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity: Calculating Acceleration
Circle the letter of the best answer.
Use the graph below to answer questions 1 and 2.
1. e graph above shows the motion of a sprinter
during a 100 m sprint. Where does the sprinter
have the greatest acceleration:
A. 0 to 3.0 s
B. 3.0 to 7.0 s
C. 7.0 to 8.0 s
D. 8.0 to 10 s
2. What is the acceleration of the sprinter during
the frst 3 s of the race:
A. -2.0 m/s
2
B. -1.0 m/s
2
C. 1.0 m/s
2
D. 2.0 m/s
2
3. What is the SI unit for acceleration:
A. m
B. s
C. m/s
D. m/s
2
4. If a ball is thrown straight up into the air with
an initial velocity of 24 m/s, how long does it
take for the ball to reach its maximum height:
(Assume the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s
2

downward.)
A. 2.0 s
B. 2.4 s
C. 4.2 s
D. 9.8 s
3. A piece of a potato fred from a potato gun
accelerates from rest to a velocity of 60 m/s in
0.08 s. What is the acceleration:
A. -630 m/s
2
B. 630 m/s
2
C. 730 m/s
2
D. 7300 m/s
2
6. How long does it take a skier to accelerate from
28 m/s to 47 m/s if the skier is accelerating at
4.0 m/s
2
:
A. 3.7 s
B. 4.73 s
C. 47.3 s
D. 76 s
7. A golf ball is struck from a tee and accelerates
from rest at 360 m/s
2
forward. What is the
velocity of the ball aer 0.03 s:
A. 1120 m/s
B. 112 m/s
C. 28 m/s
D. 2.8 m/s
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 33
8. At what velocity will a penny strike the sidewalk
if it is dropped from the Empire State Building
and takes 11.27 s to fall the 373 m distance to
the ground: You may ignore the eects of air
resistance.
(Remember that the acceleration due to gravity is
-9.8 m/s
2
.)
A. 110.43 m/s
B. -110.43 m/s
C. 123.20 m/s
D. -123.20 m/s
9. Which of the following is the factor with the
greatest eect on the acceleration of an object
falling due to gravity:
A. Earth's magnetic poles
B. the object's temperature
C. the object's mass
D. air resistance
Use the graph below to answer question 10.
10. Which statement below best describes what is
happening to the object in the graph:
A. e object has a constant velocity.
B. e object is experiencing positive
acceleration.
C. e object is experiencing negative
acceleration.
D. is object is travelling in the same direction
for this data set.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 34
Processes of Sclence vocabulary Terms
:PVNBZFODPVOUFSUIFGPMMPXJOH1SPDFTTFTPG4DJFODFWPDBCVMBSZUFSNTPOUIFFYBN
BDDVSBDZ the dierence between a measurement and its accepted value
DPODMVTJPO the explanation of the results of an experiment as they apply to the hypothesis being tested
DPOUSPM a test you carry out with no independent variables so you can observe whether your independent
variable in an experiment does indeed cause a change
DPOUSPMMFEFYQFSJNFOU an investigation in which only one variable is changed, and the resulting eect on
another variable is observed, while all other variables are held constant
EFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMF in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to a change in the independent
variable; also called the responding variable
FYUSBQPMBUJPO a prediction that is out of the range of the collected data
IZQPUIFTJT a testable proposal used to explain an observation or to predict the outcome of an experiment;
oen expressed in the form of an If ..., then ..." statement
JOEFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMF in an experiment, the factor that is selected or adjusted to see what eect the change
will have on the dependent variable; also called the manipulated variable
JOUFSQPMBUJPO a prediction that is within the range of collected data
PCTFSWBUJPO information gathered through one or more senses, including hearing, touch, sight, taste, and
smell
QSFDJTJPO a measure of the detail, such as the number of digits, with which a quantity is expressed
QSFEJDUJPO a forecast about what you expect to observe when you do an investigation
QSJODJQMF a fundamental law, assumption, or fact
QSPDFEVSF a specifc set of actions which if executed in the same manner under the same circumstances will
yield the same results
TDBMF ratio between a single unit of distance, such as on a map, model, or drawing, and the corresponding
distance in reality
TDJFOUJDMJUFSBDZ an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary
to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, to become lifelong learners, and to
maintain a sense of wonder about the world
TMPQF the direction of a line on a graph, which may be horizontal (zero), slanting up (positive), or slanting
down (negative). Slope is calculated by determining the ratio of rise/run.
VODFSUBJOUZ a lack of certainty; having limited knowledge to describe a state or outcome, oen where more
than one outcome is possible
WBMJEJUZ the degree to which a conclusion is likely to be true
WBSJBCMF a factor that can infuence the outcome of an experiment
7FOOEJBHSBN a type of graphic organizer that can be used to compare and contrast two or more concepts
or objects by using two or more intersecting circles
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 33
Unlt 3 Glossary
BDDFMFSBUJPO () the rate of change in velocity
EJTQMBDFNFOU () the straight-line distance and direction from one point to another
EJTUBODF (E) the length of a path between two points or locations
NBHOJUVEF the size of the measurement or the amount you are counting
OFHBUJWFBDDFMFSBUJPO indicates the object's velocity is decreasing in the positive direction or the object's
velocity is increasing in the negative direction
QPTJUJPO () a specifc point relative to a reference point
QPTJUJWFBDDFMFSBUJPO indicates the object's velocity is increasing in the positive direction
TMPQF the direction of a line on a graph, either horizontal (zero), slanting up (positive), or slanting down
(negative). Slope is calculated by determining the ratio of rise .

run
TQFFE (W) the distance an object travels during a time interval divided by the time interval
UJNFJOUFSWBM(U) the dierence between the fnal time and the initial time (when the event began)
VOJGPSNNPUJPO travelling in equal displacements in equal time intervals; neither speeding up, slowing down,
nor changing direction
WFMPDJUZ () the displacement of an object during a time interval divided by the time interval; a change in
velocity is represented by , initial velocity is
i
, and fnal velocity is
f

[FSPBDDFMFSBUJPO indicates the object's velocity is constant

8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 36
$IBQUFS
2VJDL$IFDL"OTXFST
page 4
1. (a) Scalar
(b) Vector
(c) Scalar
(d) Vector
(e) Scalar
page 5
1. (a) 3 s
(b) 2 s
2. (a) Distance describes the length of a path
between two points or locations.
(b) Position describes a specifc point relative to
a reference point.
(c) Displacement describes the straight-line
distance and direction from one point to another.
page
1. (a) 10 m [S]
(b) 3.0 m/s down
(c) +20 cm/h
(d) 30 km/h [E]
(e) +13 km
page 7
1. Sample graph:
l 2 3 4
Time (m)
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

(
m
)
27
24
2l
l8
l5
l2
9
6
3
0
Position vs. Time
2. (a) No
(b) e object travels dierent distances during
dierent time intervals.
page 8
1. Sample graph:
l2 24 36 48 60
Time (min)
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

(
k
m
)
l8
l6
l4
l2
l0
8
6
4
2
0
Position vs. Time
page 12
1. (a) displacement
(b) distance
page 13
1. (a) Jogger A
(b) e slope is steeper.
2. (a) t
1
to t
2

(b) 0 to t
1
(c) t
2
to t
3
page 14
1. 2.3 m/s [E]
2. 120 m [N]
3. (a) 3.0 m/s
(b) 0.3 m/s [W]
(c) 4. 13 s
page 15
1. 10 m/s
2. 72 km/h
1BSU$o6OJU"OTXFS,FZ
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 3 37
Practice Questions Answers
Section 8.1
1. D
2. A
3. A
4. C
3. B
6. D
7. A
8. A
9. C
10. B
Section 8.2
1. C
2. D
3. B
4. C
3. B
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. B
$IBQUFS
Quick Check Answers
page 20
1. (a) +2 m/s
(b) 3 m/s
(c) 2 m/s
page 21
1. Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
2. Speed, direction of motion (or both)
3. Deceleration is acceleration that is opposite the
direction of motion.
4. e car is slowing down, as indicated by the
negative sign in front of the acceleration. (It is
not possible from the information given to know
whether the car is moving forwards or backwards,
only that it is slowing down.)
3. Accept any answer indicating an object that is
moving forward while also slowing down.
page 2
1. (a) t
1
to t
2
(b) t
2
to t
3
(c) 0 to t
1
(d) 0 to t
1
(e) t
2
to t
3
(f) t
1
to t
2
page 27
1. 4.0 m/s [W]
page 28
1. 1.0 m/s forward
2. 4.0 s
page 29
1. 34 m/s downward
2. 0.82 s
3. 23 m/s downward
Practice Questions Answers
Section 9.1A
1. A
2. D
3. B
4. C
3. A
6. D
7. C
8. A
9. B
10. A

Section 9.2
1. A
2. D
3. D
4. B
3. C
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. C
1SPWJODJBM&YBN4UVEZ(VJEF
6OJU&OFSHZ5SBOTGFSJO
/BUVSBM4ZTUFNT
-JPOFM4BOEOFS
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
(MFO'BULJO
^orth Surrey Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
%POBME-BDZ
Stellys Secondary School
Saanichton, British Columbia
+PTFG.BSUIB
Edvantage Press Ltd.
Sidney, British Columbia
+BNFT.JMSPTT
Fraser Heights Secondary School
Surrey, British Columbia
,BSFO/BTP
David ompson Secondary School
Vancouver, British Columbia
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York
St. Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London
City Milan New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei
3 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
6OJU &OFSHZ5SBOTGFSJO/BUVSBM4ZTUFNT
#ZUIFFOEPGUIJTVOJUZPVTIPVMECFBCMFUP
1. Explain the characteristics and sources of
thermal energy
is includes being able to:
defne IFBU and UIFSNBMFOFSHZ
explain and illustrate how thermal
energy is transferred through
conduction, convection, and radiation,
with reference to
- kinetic molecular theory
- practical examples (e.g., home
heating, cooking methods, loss of
body heat, insulation)
describe Earth's energy sources,
including
- residual thermal energy from Earth's
formation
- energy from radioactive decay
- solar energy (with reference to
absorption and radiation in the
atmosphere)
2. Explain the eects of thermal energy within
the atmosphere
is includes being able to:
defne BUNPTQIFSJDQSFTTVSF and explain
how it is measured
identify weather conditions that typically
accompany areas of low and high
pressure in the atmosphere
describe how energy transfer infuences
atmospheric convection, atmospheric
pressure, and prevailing winds (e.g.,
dierential heating of land and water
causes changes in air density and aects
prevailing winds)
3. Evaluate possible causes of climate change
and its eect on natural systems
is includes being able to:
describe how natural phenomena can
aect climate (e.g., biosphere processes,
volcanic eruptions, Coriolis eect, El
Nio and La Nia)
describe how climate can be infuenced
by human activities (e.g., greenhouse
gases, depletion of ozone layer)
describe how climate change aects
natural systems (e.g., shrinking of the
permafrost region, melting of ice shelves/
icecaps/glaciers)
4. Analyze the processes and features
associated with plate tectonics
is includes being able to:
defne QMBUFUFDUPOJDTQMBUFCPVOEBSZ
FBSUIRVBLFUSFODIWPMDBOPTQSFBEJOH
SJEHFTVCEVDUJPO[POFIPUTQPU
relate tectonic plate movement to the
composition of the following layers of
Earth, as determined by seismic waves
(primary, secondary, and surface waves):
- crust
- lithosphere
- asthenosphere
- mantle
- outer core
- inner core
describe tectonic plate boundaries,
including
- transform boundaries
- divergent boundaries
- convergent boundaries (oceanic-
oceanic crust, oceanic-continental
crust, and continental-continental
crust)
1BSU# 6OJU4UVEZ/PUFTBOE&YBN2VFTUJPOT
4 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
identify tectonic mapping symbols
explain how plate movement produces
the following features:
- epicentres and shallow-focus to
deep-focus earthquakes
- volcanism at subduction zones (e.g.,
volcanic island arcs, volcanic belts)
and at spreading ridges
- mountain ranges and mid-ocean
ridges
- hot spot chains (e.g., Hawaiian
Islands, Yellowstone)
identify sources of heat within Earth that
produce mantle convection and hot spot
activity (i.e., heat within the core and
excess radioactivity within the mantle)
explain how mantle convection and
ridge push and slab pull are believed to
contribute to plate motion
3. Demonstrate knowledge of evidence that
supports plate tectonic theory
is includes being able to:
describe evidence for continental dri
theory (e.g., fossil evidence, mountain
belts, paleoglaciation)
relate the following to plate tectonic
theory:
- the world distribution of volcanoes,
earthquakes, mountain belts,
trenches, mid-ocean ridges, and ri
valleys
- hot spot and subduction zone
eruptions
- magnetic reversals and age of rocks
relative to spreading ridges
#ZUIFFOEPGUIJTVOJUZPVTIPVMEVOEFSTUBOEUIFGPMMPXJOHLFZJEFBT
1. e kinetic molecular theory explains the transfer of thermal energy.
2. Climate change occurs through natural processes and human activities.
3. ermal energy drives plate tectonics.
5PIFMQZPVTUVEZZPVTIPVMEIBWFUIFGPMMPXJOH
- #$4DJFODF student book pages, 418 to 349. Note the practice exam questions on pages 348
and 349.
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Data Pages, pages 7, 10, and 11
- BC Science 10 Provincial Exam Vocabulary List, pages 2 and 3
- Access to www.bcscience10.ca
3 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
Chapter 10 7he kinetic moIecuIar theory expIains the transfer of
thermaI energy.
l0.l Temperature, Thermal Lnergy, and Heat
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- e kinetic molecular theory explains that particles in matter are in constant motion.
- Matter has thermal energy due to the kinetic and potential energies of its particles.
- Heat is the amount of thermal energy transferred from a warmer area to a cooler one.
- Heat transfer occurs by collisions between particles (conduction), the movement of fuids (convection),
or the movement of electromagnetic waves (radiation).
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
F,JOFUJD.PMFDVMBSFPSZ
1. e LJOFUJDNPMFDVMBSUIFPSZ explains that all matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms and molecules)
that are constantly in motion.
- ,JOFUJDFOFSHZ is energy due to motion.
2. e particles of a substance move dierently for dierent states (Figure 10.1).
- In solids, particles vibrate slowly but do not change position.
- In liquids, particles vibrate more and move around within a set volume.
- In gases, particles vibrate greatly and move around to take all the available volume.
. Partlcles ln a solld are strongly attracted to one another. Partlcles ln llqulds and
gases move freely and are spread farther apart.
6 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
5FNQFSBUVSFFSNBM&OFSHZBOE)FBU
1. 5FNQFSBUVSF is a measure of the average of the kinetic energy of all the particles in a sample of matter.
- Temperature is measured in degrees Fahrenheit (F), Celsius (C), and Kelvin (K).
Examples: Water freezes at 32F, 0C, and 273 K.
2. FSNBMFOFSHZ is the total energy of all the particles in a solid, liquid, or gas.
- ermal energy = all kinetic energy + all potential energy
- 1PUFOUJBMFOFSHZ is the stored energy of an object or particle, due to its position or state.
3. )FBU is the amount of thermal energy that transfers from an area or object of higher temperature to an
area or object of lower temperature.
- )FBUPX is the movement of thermal energy from a hotter object to a colder object.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what does the klnetlc molecular theory explaln! _______________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Dene temperature. ______________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Dene thermal energy. ____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Dene heat. _____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Compare a bolllng hot cup of tea to an lceberg noatlng ln the ocean.
(a) whlch has greater thermal energy! ______________________________________________
(b) whlch has partlcles wlth the hlghest average klnetlc energy! _________________________
(c) whlch has more potentlal energy! _______________________________________________
(d) |f placed together, would heat now from the tea to the lceberg or from the lceberg to the tea!
____________________________________________________________________________
7 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
)FBU5SBOTGFS$POEVDUJPO$POWFDUJPOBOE3BEJBUJPO
1. $POEVDUJPOis the transfer of heat by direct contact of particles.
- Heat is transferred across a temperature gradient, from higher temperature, higher kinetic energy
particles to lower temperature, lower kinetic energy particles.
- A temperature HSBEJFOU is a region where the temperature changes from one measure to another.
Example: A cold spoon warms when placed in a cup of hot chocolate.
- ermal conductors transfer heat easily.
- ermalJOTVMBUPST are materials that do not transfer heat easily.
2. $POWFDUJPO is the transfer of heat energy in fuids where hot, less dense fuid rises and cold, denser fuid
sinks.
- Fluids are substances that can fow, including liquids and gases.
- Density is the amount of mass contained in a given volume.
- A convection current is the movement of a fuid caused by density dierences.
3. 3BEJBUJPO is the transfer of energy by waves through space.
- Infrared radiation or heat radiation is the transfer of radiant energy such as from the Sun or a
campfre.
4. Earth's energy sources include:
- thermal energy le over from Earth's formation
- the decay of radioactive elements underground
- solar radiation (energy from the Sun), including visible light as well as infrared and other types of
radiation
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what are the names of the three ways that heat now can occur!
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
2. whlch klnd of heat now can occur when two sollds come ln contact!
_________________________________________________________________
3. whlch klnd of heat now needs no contact and can even occur ln empty space!
_________________________________________________________________
4. whlch klnd of heat now lnvolves the motlon of a nuld from one place to another!
_________________________________________________________________
8 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
As a piece of gold is heated, it can change from one
state to another state. Which series below lists the
states of matter according to particle speed, from
slowest to fastest:
A. solid, liquid, gas A. is answer is correct. According to the
kinetic molecular theory, the particles in a
solid move the slowest and those in a gas
move the fastest.
B. liquid, gas, solid B. Gases move with the greatest amount of
speed.
C. gas, solid, liquid C. Gases move with the greatest amount of
speed.
D. gas, liquid, solid D. Gases move with the greatest amount of
speed.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the kinetic molecular theory and its description
of the motion of particles.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 423 to 431 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Which form of heat transfer requires the motion
of particles from one place to another:
A. radiation A. Radiation is the transfer of electromagnetic energy
and occurs without matter.
B. convection B. is answer is correct. In convection, particles
move from one place to another, carrying their
energy with them.
C. conduction C. Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy
through contact between two objects, but the
matter in the objects is not transferred.
D. radiation, convection, and conduction D. Only convection involves the movement of
particles.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand mechanisms of heat transfer through conduction,
convection, and radiation.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 426 to 431 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
9 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 10.1
e kinetic molecular theory explains the transfer of thermal energy: Temperature, ermal Energy,
and Heat
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which phrase below best describes thermal
energy:
A. the transfer of heat from one object to
another
B. the total energy of all the particles in a solid,
liquid, or gas
C. the random movements of all the particles in
a sample of matter
D. the average kinetic energy of all the particles
in a sample of matter
2. What form of heat transfer does not require the
presence of particles:
A. radiation
B. convection
C. conduction
D. All heat transfer requires particles for
transmission.
3. At which of the following temperatures does
water change from liquid to solid:
A. 0C
B. 0 K
C. 0F
D. all of the above
4. Many homes are heated by a forced air furnace,
from which hot air is pumped into a room
through a vent, and the cold air is then forced out
of the room through a cold air return. What type
of transfer of heat is happening in this situation:
A. radiation
B. convection
C. conduction
D. ere is no heat being transferred in this
process.
Use the image of a container of boiling water below
to answer questions 5 and 6.

3. What type of heat transfer is represented by X:
A. radiation
B. convection
C. conduction
D. boiling
6. If you were to grab the sides of this hot container,
what form of heat transfer would you experience:
A. radiation
B. convection
C. conduction
D. boiling
7. Which of the following has particles with the
greatest average kinetic energy and the least
amount of thermal energy:
A. a boiling pot of water
B. a bath tub full of lukewarm water
C. the fame of a candle
D. a lake with a layer of ice on its surface
10 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
8. Why does a piece of metal expand when it heats
up:
A. e particles vibrate faster and move farther
apart.
B. e particles vibrate slower and move farther
apart.
C. e particles get larger and take up more
volume.
D. e particles break their bonds and begin to
slide past each other.
9. Put the following systems in order of least
thermal energy present to greatest thermal
energy present.
I a boiling kettle at 98C
II an ocean at 10C
III an ice cube at 4C
IV a swimming pool at 28C
A. II, IV, I, III
B. III, I, IV, II
C. III, II, IV, I
D. IV, I, II, III
10. Which of the following is a good thermal
insulator:
A. a so drink can
B. a piece of glass
C. a piece of foam
D. a copper-bottomed pot
11 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
l0.2 Lnergy Transfer ln the Atmosphere
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- Life on Earth depends on the atmosphere.
- Solar radiation transfers heat to Earth.
- Conduction and infrared radiation from Earth's surface help to heat the atmosphere.
- Atmospheric pressure, air temperature, and humidity vary throughout the atmosphere.
- Dierences in atmospheric conditions aect, and are aected by, convection in the atmosphere.
- Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a specifc time and place.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
F-BZFSTPGUIF"UNPTQIFSF
1. e BUNPTQIFSF includes layers of gases that extend above Earth.
- Air is a combination of gases near Earth's surface, made of about 78 percent N
2
and 21 percent O
2
,
with traces of other gases, such as argon and carbon dioxide.
2. e density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude.
3. e USPQPTQIFSFisthe closest layer to Earth's surface and ranges from 8 km to 16 km thick (about 10 km
on average).
- is is the highest density layer because all other layers compress it.
- Almost all water vapour in the atmosphere is found here, and most weather takes place here.
- Solar energy and thermal energy from Earth keep air moving in this layer.
- Temperature ranges from an average of 13C at the bottom to -33C at the top.
4. eTUSBUPTQIFSF is above the troposphere and extends 10 km to 30 km above Earth, warming from
-33C as altitude increases.
- is layer has strong, steady winds, so airplanes oen fy here to avoid the turbulent troposphere.
- e ozone layer is found here, which blocks harmful ultraviolet radiation.
3. e upper atmosphere includes the NFTPTQIFSF, UIFSNPTQIFSF, and FYPTQIFSF and extends from 30 km
above Earth into space.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. whlch two gases make up about 99 percent of the atmosphere!
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
2. Are alr partlcles closer together on a mountaln top or at sea level!
__________________________________________________
3. what two sources of energy cause the alr ln the troposphere to keep mlxlng!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
12 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
3BEJBUJPOBOE$POEVDUJPOJOUIF"UNPTQIFSF
1. Almost all of the thermal energy on Earth comes from the Sun.
- Most thermal energy is transferred near the equator, which receives more direct rays from the Sun
than do the regions closer to the poles.
2. Earth's surface absorbs solar radiation, heats up, and then radiates the thermal energy into the
atmosphere.
3. Earth has a balance of incoming and outgoing energy called the FOFSHZCVEHFU, IFBUCVEHFU, or
radiation budget (Figure 10.2).
- About 13 percent of incoming solar radiation is refected by clouds, 7 percent is refected by dust, and
20 percent is absorbed by clouds and the atmosphere.
- e remaining 38 percent of incoming solar radiation reaches Earth's surface.
- About 9 percent of incoming solar radiation is refected back to space by Earth's surface.
4. Conduction transfers heat in the lowest part of the atmosphere, near Earth's surface.
- e ground transfers heat to particles in the air directly above it.
. Larth's energy budget
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
8IBU*T8FBUIFS
1. Weather is the conditions in the atmosphere at a particular place and time.
- Weather describes temperature, atmospheric pressure, amount of moisture in the air, and wind
speed and direction.
2. Convection currents in the air spread the thermal energy around by causing some air masses to rise and
other air masses to fall.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what happens when Larth's surface absorbs radlatlon!
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. what ls Larth's energy budget a balance between!
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. what role do convectlon currents play ln creatlng weather!
_______________________________________________________________________________
"UNPTQIFSJD1SFTTVSF
1. "UNPTQIFSJDQSFTTVSFis the amount of pressure the molecules in the atmosphere exert at a particular
location and time.
- 1SFTTVSF is the amount of force per unit area.
2. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a CBSPNFUFS.
- e SI unit for atmospheric pressure is the pascal (Pa), which has a force of 1 newton per square
metre = 1 N/m
2

- 1 kilopascal (kPa) = 1000 Pa
- At sea level, the atmospheric pressure is about 101.3 kPa.
3. Atmospheric pressure is aected by altitude, temperature, and humidity.
4. Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude because air is less dense as altitude increases.
- Your ears may pop" on a mountain road to help balance pressure inside your ears with pressure on
the outside.
3. Warm air is lighter and less dense than cool air and so warm air has a lower pressure than cool air.
6. e amount of moisture that evaporates into the air aects the weather.
- &WBQPSBUJPO is the change of state of a substance from liquid form to gas form.
- More evaporation occurs with warm, dry air over a warm lake or ocean.
- Humid air (air with more water vapour) has lower pressure than dry air.
- When the atmospheric pressure drops, warm, moist air is arriving in the area.
.PWFNFOUPG"JS.BTTFT
1. 8JOE is the movement of air from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
2. An air mass is a large body of air with similar temperature and humidity throughout.
- Air masses take on the conditions of the weather below.
- Air masses can be as large as an entire province or even larger.
3. High pressure systems form when an air mass cools.
- High pressure systems usually occur over cold water or land.
- Winds blow clockwise around the centre of the high (Figure 10.3 on next page).
- As the high pressure air sinks, it becomes warmer and drier. As a result, high pressure systems
oen bring clear skies.
14 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
4. Low pressure systems form when an air mass warms.
- Low pressure systems usually occur over warm water or land.
- Winds blow counterclockwise around the centre of the high (Figure 10.3).
- As the low pressure system rises, it cools and condensation occurs. As a result, low pressure systems
oen produce clouds or precipitation.
- $POEFOTBUJPO is the change of state of a substance from gas form to liquid form, such as from
water vapour to liquid water.
. Lxamples of hlgh pressure and low pressure systems
5YMGO'LIGO
l. (a) what ls atmospherlc pressure! __________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) what lnstrument ls used to measure atmospherlc pressure! __________________________
2. |s alr pressure greater on a mountaln top or at sea level! ________________________________
3. why does warm alr have a lower pressure than cool alr! _________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. what causes wlnd! _______________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. why do hlgh pressure alr mass systems often brlng clear skles! ___________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. why do low pressure alr mass systems often brlng preclpltatlon! _________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
13 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
1SFWBJMJOH8JOET
1. 1SFWBJMJOHXJOET are winds that are typical for a location.
2. Prevailing winds in southern British Columbia are moist air masses from the Pacifc Ocean that blow
inland over the coastal mountains (Figure 10.4).
- Cool temperatures and high altitudes cause water vapour to condense, forming rain or snow, so
that the prevailing winds have lost most of their moisture by the time they reach interior British
Columbia.
. Prevalllng wlnds ln southern 8rltlsh Columbla blow lnland over coastal mountalns.
3. 4VSGBDFXJOETare winds near Earth's surface that are subjected to friction from the dierences in
geographic features.
- Hills and forests force the winds to slow down and change direction, whereas a calm ocean surface
does not create as much friction.
4. Sea breezes are local winds that are caused by dierent rates at which land and water respond to heating
and cooling.
- Onshore breezes usually occur during the late morning along coastal regions as the warm air over the
land rises and cool air from over the water is drawn inland.
- Oshore breezes usually occur at night when warm air over the water rises and draws in the cool air
from over the land.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what are the prevalllng wlnds ln southern 8rltlsh Columbla! _____________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. How can hllls and forests anect surface wlnds! ________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls the name of the sea breezes that occur when warm alr over the water rlses and draws ln
the cool alr from over the land! __________________________________
4. what ls the name of the sea breezes that occur as the warm alr over the land rlses and cool alr
from over the water ls drawn lnland! _____________________________
16 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
F$PSJPMJT&FDU(MPCBM8JOETBOE+FU4USFBNT
1. e $PSJPMJTFFDU is a change is the direction of moving air, water, or objects due to Earth's rotation.
- As Earth rotates, any location at the equator travels much faster than a location near either pole.
- Air rising from the equator travels east quickly in the same direction that Earth rotates, causing
circulating air to curve to the side (Figure 10.3).
. The Corlolls enect causes clrculatlng alr to curve to the slde.
2. Convection currents and the Coriolis eect create Earth's three major global wind systems that occur in
both hemispheres: the trade winds, the prevailing westerlies, and the polar easterlies (Figure 10.6).
. Convectlon currents and the Corlolls enect create Larth's global wlnd systems.
3. A jet stream is a band of fast-moving air in the stratosphere, where winds are subject to less friction and
can move much faster than winds in the troposphere.
- Airplane pilots try to fy with these winds and avoid trying to fy against them.
17 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
'SPOUTBOE&YUSFNF8FBUIFS
1. A front is a boundary between two air masses.
2. Air masses oen have very large amounts of thermal energy.
- Extreme weather can arise under certain conditions as this energy is released.
3. understorms can occur when warm air rises and water condenses, which releases energy.
- Sea breezes in the tropics and energetic cold and warm fronts can cause thunderstorms.
- Static energy can be built up and released as lightning.
- Lightning superheats the air, causing it to expand rapidly and then collapse, creating the sound of
thunder.
4. Tornadoes can form when high altitude horizontal winds meet thunderstorms.
- A UPSOBEP is a funnel" of rotating air, which sometimes extends all the way to the ground with
winds of up to 400 km/h.
- When tornadoes form over water, waterspouts can occur.
3. e tropics can oen have severe weather, such as IVSSJDBOFT, which are storm systems with a low
pressure centre that have strong winds, fooding rains, and many thunderstorms.
- Large masses of warm, moist air rise quickly and release thermal energy as the water vapour
condenses.
- e Coriolis eect forces the air to rotate counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere, clockwise in
the south.
- Hurricane wind speeds may reach up to 240 km/h.
- Hurricanes are also called tropical cyclones or typhoons.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the Corlolls enect! _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Llst the three ma[or global wlnd systems ln the order ln whlch they occur from the equator to the
poles.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
3. what ls a weather front! ___________________________________________________________
4. what causes extreme weather events! _______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Llst three klnds of extreme weather.
__________________________ ________________________ ______________________
18 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
On a certain coastline, early evening oshore winds
(blowing from the land out to the ocean) occur.
What is the most likely reason for this:
A. e land remains warmer at night, which
generates oshore winds.
A. Land cools more quickly than water.
B. e ocean remains warmer at night, which
generates onshore winds.
B. While the water does remain warmer, this
would lead to oshore winds, not onshore
winds.
C. ere is rapid cooling of land at night, which
generates oshore winds.
C. is answer is correct. Land cools down
faster than nearby water. e relatively warm
air over the water rises and draws cool air
from land out over the water.
D. ere is rapid cooling of water at night, which
generates oshore winds.
D. Water keeps a relatively constant temperature
between day and night. It is the land that
changes temperature quickly.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can explain how local winds are generated on a coastline.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 448 and 449 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
19 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What type of weather can be expected when a
weather forecast predicts a low-pressure system
for the day:
A. thunderstorms A. A thunderstorm is a severe weather condition and
is not likely to occur just because a low-pressure
system is formed.
B. unsettled weather conditions B. Unsettled weather conditions are more likely to
result at the boundary between two air masses
where mixing of air with dierent pressures,
temperatures, and moisture content occurs.
C. clear skies C. Clear skies occur in a high-pressure system. High-
pressure air tends to sink, making it warmer and
able to hold increased amounts of water moisture
as a gas. is causes the water droplets that form
clouds to evaporate. Clear skies are the result.
D. cloudy skies D. is answer is correct. A low-pressure system is
created when an air mass is warmed over land.
e warming causes the air to expand and rise.
is causes the air to cool, which also results
in water vapour condensing to form tiny water
droplets. Many of these droplets join together to
become clouds.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can identify weather conditions that typically accompany
areas of low and high pressure in the atmosphere.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 447 and 448 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
20 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 10.2
e kinetic molecular theory explains the transfer of thermal energy: Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following defnitions best describes
the term atmosphere":
A. a partly molten layer of Earth's upper mantle
B. constant layer of dry air that has virtually no
clouds
C. the layer of gas that extends above a planet's
surface
D. a dense layer of gases that extends anywhere
from 6 km to 16 km from the surface of
Earth
2. What are the four most abundant components of
Earth's atmosphere:
A. hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and
oxygen
B. hydrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide
C. nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and argon
D. nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, and carbon dioxide
3. Which of the following forms of heat transfer
contribute to global wind patterns:
I convection
II conduction
III solar radiation
A. I only
B. III only
C. I and II only
D. I, II, and III
Use the following image to help answer question 4.

4. If you live in Dakar, on the west coast of Africa,
what would you expect the wind to be like on a
warm summer evening:
A. an oshore breeze (from land onto the
water) with a northeast trade wind
B. an oshore breeze (from land onto the
water) with a prevailing westerly
C. an onshore sea breeze (from water onto the
land) with a southeast trade wind
D. an onshore sea breeze (from water onto the
land) with a prevailing westerly
3. What is the reason for the Coriolis eect:
A. the rising of hot air masses at the equator
and then falling at 30 latitude
B. the cooling of land masses faster than oceans
that they border
C. atmospheric pressure
D. rotation of Earth
21 8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4
6. e usual direction of wind in the southern
interior of British Columbia is in a western
direction. What would you call this type of wind:
A. a local wind
B. a prevailing wind
C. an onshore breeze
D. an oshore breeze
7. What is the most likely reason why fights from
Vancouver to Toronto take less time than fights
from Toronto to Vancouver:
A. Pilots take advantage of the high pressure
systems that form on the coast of British
Columbia to push them east.
B. Pilots have to deal with large amounts of
turbulence as they leave the Great Lakes
heading west.
C. Pilots are fying in the direction of Earth's
rotation when they are fying east.
D. Pilots can take advantage of the jet stream
when travelling east.
8. You are watching the weather station and the
meteorologist informs you that there will be a
high pressure system in your area tomorrow.
What type of weather would you predict:
A. a storm
B. clear skies
C. precipitation
D. unstable weather
9. Which of the following is the term used to
describe a change in the direction of moving air,
water, or objects due to Earth's rotation:
A. pressure dierential
B. prevailing winds
C. Coriolis eect
D. jet stream
10. Which of the following are key features of a
tornado:
I high-altitude, horizontal winds
II accompanied by a thunderstorm
III may have wind speeds of 400 km/h
IV
results from an exchange of thermal
energy in the tropics
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. I, II, and III only
D. I, II, III, and IV
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 22

$IBQUFS $MJNBUFDIBOHFPDDVSTUISPVHIOBUVSBMQSPDFTTFTBOE
IVNBOBDUJWJUJFT
ll.l Natural Causes of Cllmate Change
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- Climate describes a region's long-term weather patterns.
- Geological evidence shows that Earth has undergone many climate changes, including ice ages and
periods of warming.
- e processes that contribute to climate change are complex and include factors that aect Earth's
radiation budget and heat transfer around the globe.
- Scientists have identifed several factors that aect climate: greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, Earth's
tilt and orbit, heat transfer by the oceans, and catastrophic events, such as volcanic eruptions and meteor
impacts.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
%FTDSJCJOH$MJNBUFand-PPLJOH'PSXBSECZ4UVEZJOHUIF1BTU
1. Climate describes the average conditions of a region over 30 years or more, including clouds,
precipitation, average temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind.
2. To understand our climate now and predict future climates, paleoclimatologists study evidence of past
climates using fossils, tree rings, glacier ice cores, etc.
3. Evidence shows Earth's climate has dramatically changed in the past, including ice ages and periods of
warming.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls meant by the term "cllmate! ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Llst three klnds of evldence can be used to study cllmate changes that have occurred ln the past.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
F$PNQPTJUJPOPG&BSUIT"UNPTQIFSF
1. e natural greenhouse eect is the absorption of thermal energy by the atmosphere, which keeps
Earth's temperature within a certain range.
2. (SFFOIPVTFHBTFT are atmospheric gases, such as water vapour and carbon dioxide, that absorb and
emit radiation as thermal energy.
- Greenhouse gases keep Earth an average of 34C warmer than it would be otherwise.
- More greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would make Earth much warmer.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 23

&BSUIT5JMU3PUBUJPOBOE0SCJUBSPVOEUIF4VO
1. Earth's tilt is responsible for seasons in northern hemisphere (Figure 11.1).
- In summer, the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, increasing the amount of solar
radiation.
- In winter, the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun, decreasing the amount of solar
radiation.
- Earth's tilt varies between 22.3 and 24.3 (currently 23.3) in 41 000 y cycles.
- Our climate may experience the largest extremes when the tilt is the greatest.
. Larth rotates on an axls that ls tllted 23.5 relatlve to Larth's orblt
around the Sun. Larth's tllt anects the angle of lncldence of the Sun's rays.
2. Earth wobbles" as it rotates on its axis.
- Because the axis changes on a 23 000 y cycle, the angle of incidence of solar radiation also changes.
3. Earth's orbit around the Sun is elliptical, not circular.
- e shape of Earth's orbit changes over a period of 100 000 y.
- When Earth is farther from the Sun, it receives less solar radiation.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the natural greenhouse enect! _______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. How much cooler would Larth be on average wlthout the natural greenhouse enect! ________
3. Llst three types of motlon that lnnuence Larth's cllmate.
_______________________ __________________________ _______________________
4. whlch type of Larth motlon ls responslble for seasons! _________________________________
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 24
F8BUFS$ZDMF
1. e water cycle describes the circulation of water on, above, and below Earth's surface.
2. Water vapour is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.
3. When the temperature increases, more water evaporates.
4. An increased amount of water vapour in the atmosphere may have two eects:
- More solar energy may be absorbed and radiated by greenhouse gases.
- More solar energy may be refected back out to space and never reach Earth.
0DFBO$VSSFOUT
1. Convection currents in the oceans move large amounts of thermal energy all around Earth (Figure 11.2).
2. Deep ocean currents are driven by dierences in the density of water, which is aected by temperature
and salt content.
- Cold and salty water sinks below warmer, less salty water.
- Large changes in ocean water density can change direction of currents.
3. Surface currents exchange heat with the atmosphere.
- e path of surface currents is aected by wind, Earth's rotation, and the shape of continents.
4. e UIFSNPDMJOF is the transition zone that separates the cold, deep ocean waters from the Sun-warmed
surface waters.
. Deep-ocean currents form a global conveyer belt. Cold and salty water slnks below
warmer less salty water, resultlng ln convectlon currents.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 23

5YMGO'LIGO
l. whlch greenhouse gas ls most abundant ln Larth's atmosphere!
________________________________________________
2. what two factors anect the denslty of ocean water!
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
3. what ls a thermocllne! ____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
&M/JPBOE-B/JB
1. Sometimes, deep water rises above the thermocline to the surface in a process called upwelling.
2. A -B/JB event is an example of upwelling that brings cooler than normal waters to the surface of the
eastern Pacifc Ocean.
- Cool water at the surface of the Pacifc causes warm winters in southeastern North America and cool
winters in the northwest.
3. In an &M/JPevent, unusually warm water on the surface of the Pacifc Ocean leads to warmer winters
in the Pacifc Northwest and in eastern Canada.
4. &M/JP4PVUIFSO0TDJMMBUJPO&/40 refers to phenomena of the El Nio and La Nia events and to
changes in air pressure over the southern Pacifc Ocean.
F$BSCPO$ZDMF
1. e carbon cycle maintains a balance of CO
2
in the atmosphere by balancing carbon sources, which
release CO
2
and carbon sinks, which remove CO
2
.
- Deep oceans and mature forests store carbon.
- Weathering of rocks, forest fres, and decaying vegetation release carbon.
$BUBTUSPQIJD&WFOUT
1. Large-scale disasters can quickly change atmospheric conditions.
2. Erupting volcanoes can release ash and molten rock that absorb radiation.
- Water vapour and sulfur dioxide (changed into sulfuric acid) can refect solar radiation back into
space.
3. Meteorites, asteroids, and comets that strike Earth can cause large quantities of dust, debris and gases in
the atmosphere, which reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 26

5YMGO'LIGO
l. How ls an Ll Nlno event dlnerent from a normal year!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. (a) what are two examples of where carbon ls stored!
_______________________________________ _____________________________________
(b) what are three sources that release carbon lnto the atmosphere!
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
3. How can volcanlc actlvlty cause coollng of Larth's surface! _______________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How can a large comet strlke cause coollng of Larth's surface! ____________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Which of the following defnes the term
thermocline":
A. the tendency of Earth to warm due to the
greenhouse eect
A. is is called global warming or global climate
change.
B. the boundary between high and low pressure air
masses
B. is is called a front.
C. the upwelling of cooler-than-normal waters in
the eastern Pacifc Ocean
C. is is called a La Nia event.
D. the boundary between deep cool ocean water
and the warmer layer above it
D. is answer is correct.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you know terms related to ocean currents.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 471 to 473 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 27
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What causes the seasons:
A. Earth's orbit is not a perfect circle. Summer is
when Earth is closest to the Sun, and winter is
when it is farthest.
A. While it is true that the orbit is not a circle,
the dierence in radiation received by Earth
between its closest and farthest approach to the
Sun is tiny and does not cause the seasons.
B. e Sun's radiation is not constant. Summer
is when the Sun is releasing more energy, and
winter is when it is releasing less energy.
B. While the Sun's radiation is not constant, these
slight changes do not cause the seasons. Over
thousands or millions of years, they might
cause climate changes.
C. Earth's rotation is tilted relative to its orbit
around the Sun. When Earth spins clockwise
it is summer, and when Earth spins counter-
clockwise it is winter.
C. Earth does not stop and change the direction
of its rotation.
D. Earth's rotation is tilted relative to its orbit
around the Sun. Where the axis of rotation
points towards the Sun it is summer, and where
the axis points away from the Sun it is winter.
D. is answer is correct. It implies that, when it
is summer in the northern hemisphere, it must
be winter in the southern hemisphere.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can explain which of Earth's motions are responsible
for the seasons.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 468 to 470 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 28
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 11.1
Climate change occurs through natural processes and human activities: Natural Causes of Climate Change
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following types of evidence might a
paleoclimatologist use to study climate change:
I ice cores from glaciers
II ocean wave patterns
III tree-trunk ring studies
IV plant fossils
A. I only
B. I and III only
C. I, III, and IV only
D. I, II, III, and IV
2. Which of the following best defnes the term
climate":
A. the temperature readings for the past 30
years or more
B. the specifc weather patterns for a local
region or city
C. the weather patterns that are occurring right
now
D. the average conditions of the atmosphere for
a large region for the past 30 years or more
3. Earth's temperature is regulated by the
greenhouse eect. What statement best describes
how the greenhouse eect works:
A. Greenhouse gases act like a greenhouse,
which absorbs and retains solar energy,
thereby increasing Earth's temperature.
B. e Sun's radiation is amplifed by Earth's
oceans.
C. e greenhouse eect is caused by human
activity.
D. Greenhouse gases create thermal radiation.
4. Which of the following events may have been
catastrophic enough to have caused mass
extinctions in the past:
A. a volcanic eruption
B. a meteorite strike
C. an earthquake
D. a tsunami
Use the following satellite photograph to answer
question 5.

3. e picture above is a NASA photo of Lake
Manicouagan, a scar le in northern Quebec.
What is the most likely cause of this massive scar
on Earth:
A. a glacier
B. a volcano
C. an asteroid
D. an earthquake
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 29
6. What aect does the phenomenon known as El
Nio have on coastal British Columbia winters:
A. cooler than usual
B. warmer than usual
C. no change
D. more extreme weather events
Use the following diagram to answer question 7.

7. What season would people be experiencing at A:
A. spring
B. summer
C. fall
D. winter
Use the following graph to answer question 8.

8. What is the result of the changes indicated in the
graph:
A. stronger deep ocean currents
B. increased deforestation
C. global warming
D. an El Nio event
9. Carbon dioxide is kept in balance by the natural
patterns of the carbon cycle. Which of the
following would not be considered a carbon sink
or store:
A. deep oceans
B. precipitation
C. dead vegetation
D. new growth forest
10. How can a large comet collision impact on Earth
result in global climate change:
A. Debris scatters into the atmosphere,
refecting sunlight and causing global
cooling.
B. Debris scatters into the atmosphere,
capturing sunlight and causing global
warming.
C. Heat from the impact causes global
warming.
D. Cooling from the ice in the comet causes
global cooling.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 30
ll.2 Human Actlvlty and Cllmate Change
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- Climate change refers to changes in long-term weather patterns in certain regions.
- Global warming, an increase in Earth's average global temperature, is one aspect of climate change.
- e current increase in global temperature is caused by an increase in greenhouse gas emissions,
especially carbon dioxide, from the burning of fossil fuels and other human activities.
- Various regions of Earth are expected to undergo changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and the
amount of ice.
- Climate change is expected to aect society, economies, and the environment.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
(MPCBM8BSNJOH
1. $MJNBUFDIBOHF is the change in long-term weather patterns in certain regions.
- ese changes can aect the fow of thermal energy around Earth.
2. Global warming refers to an increase in global average temperature.
- e average global temperature increased by about 0.74C from 1906 to 2003.
- e eects of global warming are unknown and are the subject of debate.
- Some scientists believe that human-caused climate change may happen too quickly for the
biosphere to adapt.
F&OIBODFE(SFFOIPVTF&FDU
1. e enhanced greenhouse eect is the increased capacity of the atmosphere to absorb and emit thermal
energy because of an increase in greenhouse gases (Figure 11.3).
- Water vapour is an important greenhouse gas, contributing about 63 percent of the greenhouse eect,
but human activities have very little direct eect on the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere.
- Carbon dioxide contributes about 23 percent of the greenhouse eect.
- Other gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs, and surface ozone together contribute about 10
percent of the greenhouse eect.

. The approxlmate contrlbutlon of greenhouse gases to the greenhouse enect
2. More greenhouse gases in the atmosphere = increase of natural greenhouse eect.
3. Global warming potential (GWP) describes the ability of a substance to warm the atmosphere by
absorbing and emitting thermal energy (Table 11.1 on next page).
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 31

. Greenhouse Gases and Global warmlng Potentlal


(SFFOIPVTF(BT
$IFNJDBM
'PSNVMB
"UNPTQIFSJD
-JGFUJNFZ
4PVSDFGSPN)VNBO
"DUJWJUZ
(MPCBM8BSNJOH
1PUFOUJBM
carbon dioxide CO
2
variable - combustion of fossil fuels
- deforestation
1
methane CH
4
about 12 - processing of fossil fuels
- livestock, agriculture
- waste dumps
- rice paddies
23
nitrous oxide N
2
O 114 - production of chemical
fertilizers
- burning waste
- industrial processes
298
chlorofuorocarbons
(CFCs)
various 43 - liquid coolants
- refrigeration
- air conditioning
4730-3310
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Compare the global warmlng potentlal of equal amounts of CPCs and CO
2
.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. After water vapour, whlch greenhouse gas ls the most responslble for the greenhouse enect!
________________________________________________
3. what ls the enhanced greenhouse enect! _____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
0[POF
1. Chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs) were commonly used in spray cans, such as hairspray and spray paint,
until it was discovered that CFCs release chlorine atoms into the atmosphere that break apart ozone (O
3
)
molecules.
- AnBFSPTPMis a suspension of fne solid or liquid particles in a gas.
2. e P[POFMBZFSis a layer in the stratosphere that flters out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
- Holes in the ozone layer could potentially increase global warming by allowing more solar radiation
to reach Earth's surface.
3. At lower altitudes, ozone is a very powerful greenhouse gas.
- Surface ozone comes from solar radiation reacting with pollution from the burning of fossil fuels,
and is released from photocopiers and certain air purifers.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 32

"MCFEPBOE$MJNBUF
1. Albedo describes the amount of radiation refected by a surface.
- Snow-covered areas and deserts have high albedos; many forests and soils have low albedos.
2. If large expanses of Arctic sea ice were to melt, the albedo in the Arctic would drop and the region would
absorb more solar radiation.
3. Boreal forests have a low albedo, so they absorb solar radiation.
- Deforestation increases albedo, causing more solar radiation to be refected back into space.
4. It is not known how changes in albedo will aect average global temperature.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the beneclal enect of ozone ln the stratosphere! _______________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. what ls the harmful enect of ozone near the surface of Larth! ____________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Snow-covered areas are sald to have a hlgh albedo. what does thls mean! __________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How does the meltlng of sea lce lncrease the amount of sunllght that Larth absorbs! _________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
F3PMFPG4DJFODFJO6OEFSTUBOEJOH$MJNBUF$IBOHF
1. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are computer models used to study climate, to forecast weather, to
analyze climate, and to predict climate change.
- GCMs take into account changes in greenhouse gases, albedo, ocean currents, winds and surface
temperatures, and also take into account the properties of fuids, chemical reactions, and how
organisms aect their environment.
F3PMFPG*OUFSOBUJPOBM$PPQFSBUJPOJO$MJNBUF$IBOHF
1. e United Nations (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) created the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to address global concerns about climate change
and global warming.
- e IPCC examines possible climate change, highlights the cause, and suggests solutions.
(MPCBM*NQBDUTPG$MJNBUF$IBOHF
1. Current climate change models predict that temperatures will increase more in arctic regions than in
equatorial regions and more on land than in the oceans.
2. Potential global eects of climate change include rising sea levels, water conficts, greater disease risk,
increased severity and frequency of tropical storms, decreased crop yields, increased deforestation, and
changes in fsheries.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 33
Impacts of Climate Change on Canada and Impacts of Climate Change on British Columbia
1. Climate change aects weather patterns, such as winter and summer temperatures and the amount and
location of rainfall.
2. Parts of Canada have had average temperature increases of 0.3C to 1.3C during the last 23 years.
- e ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is rapidly shrinking, making it dicult for polar bears to hunt.
- Some areas of permafrost are melting.
- Permafrost is ground that usually remains frozen year-round.
- Growing seasons are getting longer, and more precipitation is occurring.
3. In the future in British Columbia:
- ere could be heavier spring rains and fooding and more frequent and longer lasting droughts.
- Sea levels could rise.
- Fisheries could be negatively aected.
- Forests may beneft from longer growing seasons, but there could also be increased forest fres and
more insects that harm trees.
- An increase in CO
2
dissolved in the ocean would make ocean water more acidic and could result in
the loss of some species.
Uncertainty and Decision
1. Predictions about climate change cannot be certain.
2. Our response to climate change aects society, the economy, and the environment.
- People in developed countries are concerned about the costs of implementing changes.
- People in developing countries are reluctant to slow their economic growth.
3. e United Nations suggests that we should not postpone cost-eective measures to prevent serious
environmental damage just because of a lack of scientifc certainty about climate change.
An Action Plan for the Global Community, and Canada's Response to Climate Change
1. Decreasing overall greenhouse gas emissions requires global cooperation.
2. Relatively small changes, such as the following, could positively aect the climate in Canada (see
Figure 11.4 for sources of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada).
- Reduce vehicle greenhouse gas emissions.
- Reduce industrial greenhouse gas emissions.
- Increase use of energy-ecient products.
- Improve indoor air quality.
- Improve fertilizer use.
- Promote worldwide planting of trees.
- Promote recycling, composting, and minimizing waste.
. Sources of emlsslons of greenhouse gases ln Canada
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 34

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Llst slx potentlal negatlve global enects of cllmate change.
___________________________ ________________________ _______________________
___________________________ ________________________ _______________________
2. Llst slx ways Canadlans could posltlvely anect cllmate ln Canada.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What negative eects to British Columbia's environment
are likely to result from global climate change:
I hotter, drier summers
II wetter springs
III increased insect infestations
A. I only A. Increased temperatures will mean hotter,
drier summers.
B. I and III only B. Since winters will not be as cold, insect
pests will thrive.
C. II only C. Warmer temperatures do not just mean
drier weather all year. Rather, it means
more extreme weather. In B.C., rainy
seasons are expected to have increased
precipitation.
D. I, II, and III D. is answer is correct.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand important environmental eects due to climate
change.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 488 to 496 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 33
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What gas is the major contributor to the enhanced
greenhouse eect:
A. water vapour A. Water vapour does contribute the majority of
warming due to the greenhouse eect, but it is
not responsible for the increased warming due
to the enhanced greenhouse eect.
B. carbon dioxide B. is answer is correct. Carbon dioxide causes
most of the heating because human activity has
increased its concentration so dramatically.
C. ozone C. Ozone is a powerful greenhouse gas, but its
concentrations are much lower than carbon
dioxide.
D. chlorofuorocarbons D. Chlorofuorocarbons are powerful greenhouse
gases, but their concentrations are much lower
than carbon dioxide.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can understand the contribution of greenhouse gases to the
enhanced greenhouse eect.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 484 to 486 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 36
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 11.2
Climate change occurs through natural processes and human activities: Human Activity and Climate
Change
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. What is the basic dierence between climate
change and global warming:
A. Climate change refers to the long-term
change of the whole planet, and global
warming refers to the increase in regional
temperature.
B. Climate change refers to the average
temperature change on Earth, and global
warming refers to the long-term change in
temperature for a region.
C. Climate change refers to the long-term
change in weather patterns in a region, and
global warming refers to the increase in the
average global temperature.
D. Climate change refers to the long-term
change in temperature in a region, and
global warming refers to the increase in
global weather change.
Use the diagram below to answer question 2.

2. What greenhouse gas is represented by the X in
the above diagram:
A. ozone
B. water vapour
C. nitrous oxide
D. carbon dioxide
3. Which of the following chemicals linked to
global warming has the highest global warming
potential (GWP):
A. methane, CH
4
B. nitrous oxide, N
2
O
C. carbon dioxide, CO
2
D. chlorofuorocarbons, CFCs
4. Scientists have discovered evidence that Earth
has gone through global warming and cooling
before. Why are people concerned about it this
time:
A. e demand on air conditioning will
increase.
B. Climate change may happen too quickly for
the biosphere to adapt.
C. All scientists agree that humans are
responsible for global warming.
D. Most scientists think that global warming
will have no eect for at least 100 years.

3. is is an image of non-vertical or drunken"
trees in the subarctic. Which global phenomenon
is the most likely cause of these crooked trees:
A. melting permafrost
B. increased precipitation
C. a hole in the ozone layer
D. increased insect infestation
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 37
6. Which has the lowest albedo:
A. clouds
B. glaciers
C. forests
D. oceans
7. Why is ozone important to the environment:
A. It is a greenhouse gas at low altitudes.
B. It screens out ultraviolet light at high
altitudes.
C. It breaks apart to form oxygen gas.
D. It is a poison.
8. What eect does melting polar ice in the Arctic
have on Canadian polar bears:
A. eir ability to hunt is reduced.
B. ey migrate south earlier in the year.
C. eir body temperatures are increasing.
D. ere is an increased number of seals to feed
on.
9. Which of the following is OPU a strategy to
address climate change:
A. Introduce alternative fuels.
B. Find new sources of fossil fuels.
C. Promote worldwide reforestation.
D. Research and develop renewable energy
sources.
10. Which of the following statements about albedo
and its eect on global warming is true:
A. As the snow and polar icecaps grow, a
decrease in albedo will result and more solar
energy will be refected from the ice.
B. As the snow and the polar icecaps melt,
a decrease in albedo will result from the
oceans refecting more solar energy.
C. As snow and polar icecaps melt, a decrease
in albedo will result in the oceans absorbing
more solar energy.
D. As the snow and polar icecaps grow, an
increase in albedo will result in the ice
absorbing more radiation.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 38
Chapter 12 7hermaI energy transfer drives pIate tectonics.
l2.l Lvldence for Contlnental Drlft
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- Various pieces of evidence indicate that the continents were once joined but later dried to their current
positions.
- e continental shelves of the continents can be aligned.
_ Regions of some continents that are far apart have similar rocks, mountain ranges, fossils, and
patterns of paleoglaciation.
- e process of sea foor spreading provides a mechanism for continental dri.
- e continents are attached to huge slabs of rock, known as tectonic plates.
- When the tectonic plates move across Earth's surface, they carry the continents with them.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
F+JHTBX1V[[MF'JU
1. e DPOUJOFOUBMESJUIFPSZ is a theory put forward by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century that
proposed that continents moved around on Earth's surface and were at one time joined together.
2. Wegener suggested that millions of years ago the continents were joined together as a TVQFSDPOUJOFOU,
which he called Pangaea, meaning all Earth."
- e shape of the continents on a world map suggests that they might ft together like jigsaw pieces.
- e ft is even better when the continental shelves surrounding the continents are included.
- A continental shelf is a shallow, undersea plain stretching o the coast of a continent.
3. See the Geological Time chart on page 7 of your Data Pages for information on geological time, models
of how Pangaea may have formed, and models of how the continents may have moved into their present
positions.
- Earth scientists and geologists use the HFPMPHJDBMUJNF scale to describe the timing of and
relationships between events in Earth's past.
.BUDIJOH(FPMPHJDBM4USVDUVSFTBOE3PDLT.BUDIJOH'PTTJMTand$MJNBUJD&WJEFODFGPS$POUJOFOUBM%SJ
1. Other evidence supported Wegener's theory of continental dri.
- ere were matching geologic features, such as mountain ranges and rocks, on dierent continents.
- ere were matching fossils, such as .FTPTBVSVT, on dierent continents representing species that
could not cross oceans.
- ere was evidence of dierent climates in the past, such as coal deposits in Antarctica, which is now
too cold to support plant life, and evidence of glaciers in parts of Africa, where it is now too warm for
glaciers to form.
- 1BMFPHMBDJBUJPO is a term describing past periods of extensive glaciations that covered most of the
continents.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 39

5YMGO'LIGO
l. what dld wegener notlce about the shapes of contlnents that led hlm to suggest that contlnents
were able to move! ______________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Llst three forms of evldence besldes contlnent shape that gave support to the ldea of contlnental
drlft.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
)PX$BO$POUJOFOUT.PWFand"1PTTJCMF.FDIBOJTN
1. Wegener's evidence for continental dri did not explain how entire continents could change locations, so
his theory was rejected by scientists of his time.
2. Wegener and the other scientists of his time did not know that Earth's surface is broken into large, rigid,
movable slabs of rock called UFDUPOJDQMBUFT that slide over a layer of partly molten rock.
3. New scientifc equipment developed since the 1940s has allowed scientists to gather evidence from the
sea foor.
&WJEFODFGSPNNBQQJOHUIFTFBPPS When explorers began to map the ocean foor, they discovered
undersea mountain ranges.
- A NPVOUBJOSBOHF is a chain of mountains separated from other mountains or surrounded by lowlands.
- ey discovered a NJEPDFBOSJEHF, a mountain range running north to south down the length of
the Atlantic Ocean, which they named the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
&WJEFODFGSPNPDFBOSPDLBOETFEJNFOUT Rocks taken from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge were younger than
other ocean rocks.
- Sediments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge became thicker farther away from the ridge.
&WJEFODFGSPNQBMFPNBHOFUJTNe direction ofEarth's NBHOFUJDQPMBSJUZ can experience a NBHOFUJD
SFWFSTBM over thousands of years so that the magnetic north pole becomes the magnetic south pole and
vice versa.
- Paleomagnetism is the study of the magnetic properties of ancient rocks.
- Using a NBHOFUPNFUFS, a device that detects variations in magnetic felds, researchers discovered
that the rocks on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge had a pattern of stripes in the direction that
iron-containing rocks pointed (Figure 12.1).
- is evidence indicated that some rocks formed when Earth's magnetic polarity was normal and
some formed when the polarity was reversed.
. Over tlme, the orlentatlon of Larth's magnetlc eld has reversed many tlmes.
Perlods of normal polarlty and reverse polarlty can be detected by measurlng
the magnetlc elds of rocks on the sea noor.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 40

4FB'MPPS4QSFBEJOH
1. In 1960, American geologist Harry Hess proposed that magma rises from below Earth's surface, then
cools and hardens when it breaks through the surface at a geologic hot spot or a mid-ocean ridge (also
called a TQSFBEJOHSJEHF), forming new sea foor.
- A geologic IPUTQPU is the location of excess radioactivity, causing magma to rise to Earth's surface.
- e Hawaiian Islands formed as a tectonic plate passed over a hot spot and magma rose up from
under Earth's surface.
- Convection currents deep under Earth's surface may cause new magma to rise and continuously push
the old rock aside in a process called TFBPPSTQSFBEJOH.
2. In the mid-1960s, Canadian geologist J. Tuzo Wilson combined the concepts of sea foor spreading and
paleomagnetism to explain continental dri, laying the groundwork for the plate tectonic theory.
- e QMBUFUFDUPOJDUIFPSZ states that Earth's surface is broken into large plates that move apart and
then rejoin, sliding over the semi-fuid rock below.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. why were wegener's ldeas about contlnental drlft orlglnally re[ected! _____________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. Lxplaln the lmpllcatlons of evldence from each of the followlng areas.
(a) mapplng the sea noor _________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) analyzlng ocean rock and sedlments _____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(c) paleomagnetlsm _____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
3. How dld the Hawallan |slands form! _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
4. what does the theory of plate tectonlcs state! _________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 41
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Which feature is shown in the diagram:
A. hot spot A. A hot spot involves a cylinder of rising magma
rather than a long ridge.
B. sea foor spreading B. is answer is correct. Rising magma due to
convection currents breaks through at the ridge
and causes the ocean foor on either side to spread
apart.
C. paleoglaciation C. is is the result of the marking that glaciers make
on rock formations.
D. jigsaw ft D. is is the idea that continents are shaped in such
a way that they can ft together.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the mechanism for sea foor spreading.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 310 to 313 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 42
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Refer to the Geological Time chart on page 7 of
your Data Pages. How long ago did Pangaea exist:
A. about 6000 years ago A. Look down the column Lithosphere" until
you see the labels Pangaea breaking apart"
and Pangaea forming." Read le across the
chart to fnd the time.
B. about 230 000 years ago B. You many have misread the chart. e chart
gives the time as 230 Ma which means
230 million years.
C. about 230 000 000 years ago C. is answer is correct
D. about 4.6 billion years ago D. is is the age of Earth.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you can use the Geological Time chart in your Data Pages.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 307 and 308 in #$4DJFODF and page 7 of your Data Pages.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 43
*71SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 12.1
ermal energy transfer drives plate tectonics: Evidence for Continental Dri
Circle the letter of the best answer.
1. Which of the following observations represent
evidence provided by Wegener to support his
theory of continental dri:
I the jigsaw ft" of the continents
II
matching geological structures and rocks
on dierent continents
III matching fossils on dierent continents
IV paleoglaciation
V sea foor spreading
A. I, II, III, and IV only
B. I, II, III, IV, and V
C. II and III only
D. II, III, and IV only
2. Which of the following is not evidence of
tectonic plate movement:
A. e pattern of the magnetic striping is the
same on both sides of the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge.
B. Rock samples taken near the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge are much younger than those taken
near the west coast of Africa and the east
coast of South America.
C. Stripes of rock from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
have alternating magnetic polarities.
D. ere is more sediment along the continental
shelf than on the ocean foor.
3. Which of the following statements best defnes
Pangaea:
A. an underwater ocean range
B. a supercontinent that used to exist on Earth
C. the fossil that represents evidence for
continental dri
D. the weak spot in the plate that created the
Hawaiian Islands
Use the following map to answer question 4.
4. e Hawaiian Islands are continuing to form as
a tectonic plate passes over a stationary hot spot.
e only island that still has an active volcano
is the big island of Hawaii. What direction is
the plate travelling that is responsible for the
formation of the Hawaiian Islands:
A. southeast
B. northeast
C. northwest
D. southwest
3. Which of the following represents why the
sea foor is relatively young" compared to the
continents:
I
e sea foor is continually being
generated at mid-ocean ridges.
II
Earth was once covered by a massive
continent.
III
e sea foor is continually being
destroyed.
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. I and III only
D. I, II, and III
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 44
6. Why was Wegener's theory of continental dri
dicult for the scientifc community to accept
when the theory was proposed:
A. Paleoglaciation points to common glacial
evidence on many continents.
B. Wegener could not explain what could cause
the continents to move.
C. Unique geological features can be found on
opposing continents.
D. e shapes of continents ft together like a
jigsaw puzzle.
7. Which of the following is OPU true of the evidence
of sea foor spreading provided by magnetic
striping:
A. Earth is like a large bar magnet and has two
poles.
B. Earth's magnetic poles reverse over hundreds
of thousands of years.
C. Rocks with magnetic striping, alternating
bands of normal and reverse polarity,
surround ocean ridges.
D. e pattern of magnetic striping is dierent
in rocks on either side of an ocean ridge.
8. What force pushes magma to the surface at ocean
ridges and ultimately drives the movement of
tectonic plates:
A. continental dri
B. earthquakes
C. volcanic eruptions caused by a hot spot
D. convection currents in the magma
9. What is a tectonic plate:
A. a large, fexible slab of rock
B. a large, rigid slab of rock
C. a lava fow
D. a continent
10. What evidence was discovered that helped to
explain how continents are capable of moving:
A. fossil remains that matched across large
oceanic plates
B. tropical plant fossils in non-tropical areas
C. a solid crust on top of a fuid mantle
D. magnetic striping of the sea foor
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 43
l2.2 Peatures of Plate Tectonlcs
* 4VNNBSZPG,FZ1PJOUT
- Earth has distinct layers.
- e asthenosphere is the partly molten layer of Earth located beneath the lithosphere.
- Convection currents from the asthenosphere push magma to Earth's surface, causing tectonic plates to
move and sometimes converge.
- When tectonic plates converge, one plate may slide beneath the other or the edges of the plates may
crumple, forming mountains.
- Tectonic plates can also diverge, or spread apart, forming ris on land and ridges in the oceans.
- Tectonic plates may begin to slide past one another at a transform boundary, resulting in the build-up of
pressure, which may be released as an earthquake.
- Volcanoes occur at tectonic plate boundaries or over geologic hot spots, where magma is coming up
through Earth's crust.
** 4UVEZ/PUFT
5FDUPOJD1MBUFTand"$SPTT4FDUJPOPG&BSUI
1. Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers (Figure 12.2).
- $SVTU: outer solid rock layer
- $POUJOFOUBMDSVTU is made from a less dense type of rock called granite.
- 0DFBOJDDSVTU is made from a dense rock called basalt.
- .BOUMF: thickest layer, mostly solid except for upper mantle being able to fow like thick toothpaste"
- 0VUFSDPSF: liquid iron and nickel
- *OOFSDPSF: mostly iron, the tremendous pressure keeps it solid.
- Heat from Earth's core helps produce convection currents and hot-spot activity.
2. A cross-section model of Earth is shown below.
- A DSPTTTFDUJPOrepresents a slice of an object and shows its interior, whereas a map view shows only
the object's surface.
. A cross-sectlon of Larth
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 46
1MBUF.PUJPO
1. Tectonic plates make up the lithosphere, which foats on the asthenosphere
- e MJUIPTQIFSF is the crust and upper portion of the mantle.
- e BTUIFOPTQIFSF is the molten layer of the upper mantle.
2. ere are about 12 major tectonic plates and many smaller ones.
- Tectonic plates are all moving at the same time.
3. .BOUMFDPOWFDUJPO is thermal energy transfer in the mantle where hot, light magma rises and cold,
dense lithospheric plate material sinks.
- %FOTJUZis the amount of mass contained in a given volume.
- Heat to keep the asthenosphere molten comes from radioactive elements.
- ANBOUMFQMVNFis an upwelling of extremely hot rock within Earth's mantle that forms hot spots
4. Continents, attached to the tectonic plates, foat in the magma of the asthenosphere.
3. Rising magma can reach the surface at spreading ridges (in the oceans) or SJWBMMFZT (on land).
- e magma cools when it reaches the surface, solidifes, and is pushed aside as new magma pushes
from below.
- In a process called SJEHFQVTI the spreading mid-ocean ridge pushes the rest of the tectonic plate it
is on away from the ridge.
6. 4VCEVDUJPOis the action of one tectonic plate pushing below another tectonic plate (Figure 12.3).
- A more dense oceanic plate subducts under a lighter continental plate.
- e dense, subducting plate material pulls the rest of the attached plate toward the subduction zone
and down into the mantle, a process called TMBCQVMM.
7. Along with convection currents and ridge push, slab pull helps keep tectonic plates in motion.
8. A QMBUFCPVOEBSZ is the location where two plates meet and move relative to each other.

. Thermal energy from lnslde Larth, gravlty, and tectonlc plate lnteractlons anect the movement
of tectonlc plates.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 47

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Name the four layers of Larth, ln order from the lnslde out.
(a) _____________________________________ (b) ___________________________________
(c) _____________________________________ (d) ___________________________________
2. what ls the dlnerence between the densltles of oceanlc crust and contlnental crust! __________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls the source of energy for convectlon currents and hot-spot actlvlty ln Larth's mantle!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. |n terms of the crust and the mantle, descrlbe:
(a) the llthosphere _______________________________________________________________
(b) the asthenosphere ____________________________________________________________
5. what ls a mantle plume! __________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. How does a rlft valley form! ________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. what happens ln subductlon! ______________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
1MBUF*OUFSBDUJPOT
Refer to your Data Pages, page 11, for the Tectonic Plate Boundaries Map. Each of the following plate
boundaries and their movements are shown on the map. Notice the dierent symbols used to show each type of
boundary on the map.
1. %JWFSHFOU plate boundaries are areas where tectonic plates are spreading apart.
- Ocean ridges such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are examples of divergent plate boundaries.
- Diverging plates at the East African Ri are slowly breaking Africa into pieces.
2. $POWFSHFOU plate boundaries are areas where tectonic plates collide.
- ATVCEVDUJPO[POFis a zone representing a convergent plate boundary, where one tectonic plate
subducts beneath and is destroyed by the other overriding tectonic plate.
- Large earthquakes and volcanoes are found in subduction zones.
- AUSFODI is a long narrow depression in the ocean foor that marks a convergent plate boundary and
is part of a subduction zone.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 48
"0DFBOJD$POUJOFOUBM1MBUF$POWFSHFODF
- e oceanic plate subducts under the continental plate, forming a trench (Figure 12.4).
- Cone-shaped volcanoes can form from magma seeping to the surface.
- A WPMDBOPis an opening in Earth's surface that, when active, spews out gases, chunks of rock, and
melted rock.
- A WPMDBOJDCFMU is a long chain of volcanoes.
- e volcanic belt of the Pacifc Northwest has formed as a result of the oceanic-continental
convergence between Juan de Fuca Plate (oceanic) and the North American Plate (continental).
See Data Pages, page 10, Map of the Pacifc Coast of North America.
- Mountain ranges like the Coast Mountain range also form from the convergence.
- Earthquakes can occur when slab pull, ridge push, and subduction stall.


. The convergence of an oceanlc and a contlnental
plate produced the Coast Mountalns of 8rltlsh
Columbla.
#0DFBOJD0DFBOJD1MBUF$POWFSHFODF
- e cooler, denser plate subducts under the warmer, less dense plate (Figure 12.3).
- Convergence may produce a WPMDBOJDJTMBOEBSD, which is a long chain of volcanic islands, such as
those found in Japan, Indonesia, and Alaska's Aleutian islands.
. The convergence of two oceanlc plates
can produce a volcanlc lsland arc, such as the
Aleutlan |slands of Alaska, ln the Unlted States.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 49
$$POUJOFOUBM$POUJOFOUBM1MBUF$POWFSHFODF
- Since both plates are continental plates, their densities are similar.
- As they collide, their edges fold and crumple, forming mountain ranges (Figure 12.6).
- e Himalayas are the world's youngest (and tallest) mountain range and are still growing taller today.
. The convergence of two contlnental
plates ls gradually forclng the Hlmalayas hlgher.
3. 5SBOTGPSN plate boundaries are areas where tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other (Figure
12.7).
- Transform plate boundaries are usually are found near ocean ridges but may also be found on land,
such as the San Andreas Fault in California.
- Since rock slides past rock, no mountains or volcanoes form, but earthquakes and faults may result.
- A GBVMU is a break or fracture in rock layers due to movement on either side.
- AUSBOTGPSNGBVMU is a fracture zone between two oset segments of a mid-ocean ridge.

. Transform faults can occur when tectonlc plates move alongslde one
another.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 30

5YMGO'LIGO
l. Llst three klnds of plate lnteractlons. _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________ _______________________________________
2. |dentlfy the geographlcal features that are typlcal of
(a) two oceanlc plates converglng __________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) an oceanlc plate and a contlnental plate converglng ________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(c) two contlnental plates converglng _______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(d) two contlnental plates dlverglng ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(e) two oceanlc plates dlverglng ___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
3. what ls the relatlve motlon that occurs between two plates that meet at a transform boundary!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
&BSUIRVBLFT
1. An FBSUIRVBLF is a shaking of the ground as the result of a sudden release of energy in Earth's crust.
- Earthquakes oen form as a result of friction between moving tectonic plates that works against
convection currents and results in the build-up of pressure.
2. About 80 percent of earthquakes occur in a ring bordering the Pacifc Ocean.
- e Juan de Fuca convergent plate boundary west of Vancouver Island has many earthquakes.
3. e GPDVTof an earthquake is where the pressure is fnally released.
- e FQJDFOUSF is the point on the surface directly above the focus.
4. Earthquakes occur at various depths, depending on the plates involved (Table 12.1).
- Earthquakes at the surface tend to cause more damage.
. Classlcatlon of Larthquakes
$MBTTJDBUJPO %FQUIPG'PDVT
Shallow focus 0 to 70 km
Intermediate focus 70 to 300 km
Deep focus Greater than 300 km
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 31
Seismic Waves
1. Energy released by an earthquake produces vibrations called seismic waves.
- Seismic waves reveal the source and strength of an earthquake.
- Seismic waves also help us learn about the composition and size of Earth's interior layers since the
waves behave dierently in dierent layers.
- Some seismic waves travel underground and are aected by the density of the material they travel
through, which provides evidence of whether a layer is solid.
2. Primary waves (P-waves) are underground seismic waves that travel at about 6 km/s through Earth's
crust, causing the ground to move in the direction of the wave's motion (Figure 12.8).
- P-waves travel through solids, liquids, and gases.
- P-waves are the fastest and are the frst waves to arrive aer an earthquake.
. Prlmary waves lllustratlon
3. Secondary waves (S-waves) are underground seismic waves that travel at about 3.3 km/s, causing the
ground to move perpendicular to the direction of the wave's motion (Figure 12.9).
- S-waves travel through solids but not liquids.
- S-waves are slower and are the second waves to arrive aer an earthquake.
. Secondary waves lllustratlon
4. Surface waves (L-waves) are seismic waves that ripple along Earth's surface like ripples on a pond
(Figure 12.10).
- L-waves usually cause more structural damage than P-waves.
- L-waves are the slowest and the last waves to arrive aer an earthquake.
. Surface waves lllustratlon
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 32

5YMGO'LIGO
l. what ls the dlnerence between the focus of an earthquake and the eplcentre of an earthquake!
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. what are three klnds of earthquake waves and how do they dlner!
(a) ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(b) ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
(c) ____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

.FBTVSJOH&BSUIRVBLFT
1. 4FJTNPNFUFSTPSTFJTNPHSBQITare machines that measure and record seismic wave energy.
2. A TFJTNPHSBN is a graph that shows the arrival times and sizes of seismic waves produced by an
earthquake, showing when an earthquake started, how long it lasted, and its magnitude (strength).
- An increase of 1 in magnitude = 10 stronger
Example: A magnitude 6 earthquake is 100 more powerful than a magnitude 4 earthquake.
3. Since seismic waves travel at dierent speeds, a time-distance graph can reveal the focus (Figure 12.11).
. A tlme-dlstance graph shows how long lt takes for dlnerent selsmlc waves
to travel a certaln dlstance.
7PMDBOPFT
1. e movement of tectonic plates causes volcano formation.
2. Composite volcanoes are found along plate boundaries and are made of layers of ash and lava, which is
magma on Earth's surface.
- As magma reaches the surface, it cools, hardens, and traps gases below.
- Pressure builds, and eventually there is an eruption.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 33

3. Shield volcanoes form over hot spots.


- Lava fows out from a hot spot and forms a low, wide cone.
- e Hawaiian Islands are an example of a chain of shield volcanoes.
- e Anaheim Volcanic Belt (see Data Pages, page 10) formed over a hot spot in the middle of British
Columbia.
- Yellowstone National Park in the United States has a series of volcanoes formed over a hot spot.
4. Ri eruptions occur along long cracks in the lithosphere, such as along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
- ese eruptions are not explosive, but they release massive amounts of lava.
5YMGO'LIGO
l. Llst three types of volcanoes and state where each ls found.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
*** 4BNQMF&YBN2VFTUJPOT&YQMBJOFE
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
Refer to Map of the Pacifc Coast of North America on
page 10 of your Data Pages. Find the Juan de Fuca Plate,
which is a small triangular plate that has a dierent kind
of plate boundary on each side. What will happen to the
Juan de Fuca plate in the distant future:
A. It will be subducted under the North American plate
and melt.
A. is answer is correct. Oceanic plates dive
under continental plates. Arrows show
the North American plate moving west as
the Juan de Fuca plate moves east.
B. It will get larger and push the North American plate
east as it moves west.
B. e Juan de Fuca plate is still growing
at the Juan de Fuca ridge, but the entire
ridge and plate will be subducted
eventually.
C. It will form an island arc. C. Island arcs form at the convergent
boundary between two oceanic plates.
D. It will remain basically unchanged. D. In the long term, all the oceanic plates in
the world are subducted as continental
plates pass over them.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand how to read a map showing plate movements.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 323 to 326 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 34
F2VFTUJPO 8IZ*U*T3JHIU8IZ*U*T8SPOH
What kind of volcano is shown in the diagram:
A. composite A. is answer is correct. Composite volcanoes
are characterized by many layers of ash
and lava, as well as violent eruptions. e
composition of composite volcanoes is
dierent from others because they are made of
melted subducted crust.
B. shield B. Shield volcanoes do not erupt explosively
because they are not made from melted
subducted crust.
C. ri C. Ri eruptions occur along long cracks.
D. hot spot D. Volcanoes that occur over hot spots are shield
volcanoes. ey are not made from melted
subducted crust.
Why was this question asked:
is question was asked to determine if you understand the three types of volcanoes.
Where can I get extra practice on this type of question:
- Use pages 323 to 334 in #$4DJFODF.
- Go to www.bcscience10.ca for extra practice.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 33
*7 1SBDUJDF2VFTUJPOT
Section 12.2
ermal energy transfer drives plate tectonics: Features of Plate Tectonics
Circle the letter of the best answer.
Use the photograph below to answer question 1.

1. e picture above is a part of the San Andreas
Fault. What term best describes the San Andreas
Fault:
A. oceanic plate boundary
B. divergent plate boundary
C. transform plate boundary
D. convergent plate boundary
2. What type of plate boundary has created the
Himalayan Mountains:
A. continental-continental plate convergence
B. oceanic-continental plate convergence
C. oceanic-oceanic plate convergence
D. divergent plate boundary
3. If an earthquake occurred on the opposite side of
Earth from you, what type of seismic wave might
you experience:
A. L-wave
B. P-wave
C. S-wave
D. S-wave and L-wave
Use the map below to answer question 4.
4. e Pacifc Rim is sometimes called the Ring
of Fire because of the large amount of volcanic
activity that occurs there. What is the main cause
of this volcanic activity:
A. divergent plates
B. transform faults
C. subduction zones
D. earthquake epicentres
3. Why is the inner core of Earth solid:
A. e inner core rotates more slowly than the
outer core.
B. e immense pressure keeps it solid.
C. e inner core of Earth is very cold.
D. Earth formed from a rocky mass.
6. What type of seismic wave travels the fastest:
A. L-wave
B. P-wave
C. S-wave
D. both the P-wave and the L-wave
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 36
Use the photograph below to answer
question 7.
7. e photo above is of Mount Taranaki in New
Zealand. is volcano was made famous in the
movie F-BTU4BNVSBJ posing as Mount Fuji.
What type of volcano are both Mount Taranaki
and Mount Fuji:
A. ri
B. shield
C. oceanic
D. composite
Use the map below to answer question 8.
8. O of the south coast of British Columbia, we
can fnd three dierent types of plate boundaries.
In the image above, what are the plate boundaries
located at A, B, and C, in that order:
A. transform, convergent, divergent
B. divergent, convergent, transform
C. convergent, divergent, transform
D. transform, divergent, convergent
9. Which of the following layers are components of
the theory of plate tectonics:
I lithosphere
II asthenosphere
III troposphere
IV stratosphere
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. I, II, and III only
D. I, II, III, and IV
10. Which of the following are associated with an
oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary:
I volcanic island arc
II suture zones
III earthquakes
IV ocean trenches
A. I and III only
B. I, II, and IV only
C. I, III, and IV only
D. II, III, and IV only
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 37
Processes of Sclence vocabulary Terms
:PVNBZFODPVOUFSUIFGPMMPXJOH1SPDFTTFTPG4DJFODFWPDBCVMBSZUFSNTPOUIFFYBN
BDDVSBDZ the dierence between a measurement and its accepted value
DPODMVTJPO the explanation of the results of an experiment as they apply to the hypothesis being tested
DPOUSPM a test you carry out with no independent variables so you can observe whether your independent
variable in an experiment does indeed cause a change
DPOUSPMMFEFYQFSJNFOU an investigation in which only one variable is changed, and the resulting eect on
another variable is observed, while all other variables are held constant
EFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMF in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to a change in the independent
variable; also called the responding variable
FYUSBQPMBUJPO a prediction that is out of the range of the collected data
IZQPUIFTJT a testable proposal used to explain an observation or to predict the outcome of an experiment;
oen expressed in the form of an If ..., then ..." statement
JOEFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMF in an experiment, the factor that is selected or adjusted to see what eect the change
will have on the dependent variable; also called the manipulated variable
JOUFSQPMBUJPO a prediction that is within the range of collected data
PCTFSWBUJPO information gathered through one or more senses, including hearing, touch, sight, taste, and
smell
QSFDJTJPO a measure of the detail, such as the number of digits, with which a quantity is expressed
QSFEJDUJPO a forecast about what you expect to observe when you do an investigation
QSJODJQMF a fundamental law, assumption, or fact
QSPDFEVSF a specifc set of actions which if executed in the same manner under the same circumstances will
yield the same results
TDBMF ratio between a single unit of distance, such as on a map, model, or drawing, and the corresponding
distance in reality
TDJFOUJDMJUFSBDZ an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary
to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities, to become lifelong learners, and to
maintain a sense of wonder about the world
TMPQF the direction of a line on a graph, which may be horizontal (zero), slanting up (positive), or slanting
down (negative). Slope is calculated by determining the ratio of rise/run.
VODFSUBJOUZ a lack of certainty; having limited knowledge to describe a state or outcome, oen where more
than one outcome is possible
WBMJEJUZ the degree to which a conclusion is likely to be true
WBSJBCMF a factor that can infuence the outcome of an experiment
7FOOEJBHSBN a type of graphic organizer that can be used to compare and contrast two or more concepts
or objects by using two or more intersecting circles
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 38
Unlt 4 Glossary
BFSPTPM a suspension of fne solid or liquid particles in a gas
BTUIFOPTQIFSF the molten layer of the upper mantle
BUNPTQIFSF layers of gases that extend above Earth
BUNPTQIFSJDQSFTTVSF the amount of pressure the molecules in the atmosphere exert at a particular location
and time
CBSPNFUFS an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
DMJNBUFDIBOHF the change in long-term weather patterns in certain regions
DPOEFOTBUJPO the change of state of a substance from gas form to liquid form
DPOEVDUJPO the transfer of heat by direct contact of particles
DPOUJOFOUBMESJUIFPSZ a theory put forward by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century that proposed that
continents moved around Earth's surface and were at one time joined together
DPOWFDUJPO the transfer of heat energy in fuids where hot, less dense fuid rises and cold, denser fuid sinks
$PSJPMJTFFDU a change in the direction of moving air, water, or objects due to Earth's rotation
DSPTTTFDUJPO a representation of a slice of an object, including its interior; in contrast, a map view shows only
the object's surface
DSVTU Earth's outermost, sold rock layer; continental crust is made from a less dense type of rock called granite,
and oceanic crust is made from a dense rock called basalt
EFOTJUZ the amount of mass contained in a given volume
FBSUIRVBLF a shaking of the ground as the result of a sudden release of energy in Earth's crust
&M/JP unusually warm water on the surface of the Pacifc Ocean that leads to warmer winters in the Pacifc
Northwest and in eastern Canada
&M/JP4PVUIFSO0TDJMMBUJPO (ENSO) the phenomena of El Nio and La Nia events and the accompanying
changes in air pressure over the southern Pacifc Ocean
FOFSHZCVEHFU Earth's balance of incoming and outgoing energy
FQJDFOUSF the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus where an earthquake starts
FWBQPSBUJPO the change of state of a substance from liquid form to gas form
GBVMU a break or fracture in rock layers due to movement on either side
GPDVT in geology, the location inside Earth where an earthquake starts
HFPMPHJDBMUJNFTDBMF a scale that describes the timing of and relationships between events in Earth's past
HSBEJFOU slope; the change of a measurement over a specifc distance and along a given direction, for example, a
temperature gradient is a region where temperature changes from one measure to another
HSFFOIPVTFHBTFT atmospheric gases that absorb and emit radiation as thermal energy
IFBU the amount of thermal energy that transfers from an area or object of higher temperature to an area or
object of lower temperature
IFBUCVEHFU See energy budget
IFBUPX the movement of thermal energy from a hotter object to a colder object
IFBUUSBOTGFS the transfer of heat across a temperature gradient, from higher temperature, higher kinetic
energy particles to lower temperature, lower kinetic energy particles; includes conduction, convection, and
radiation
IPUTQPU in geology, the location of excess radioactivity, causing magma to rise to Earth's surface
IVSSJDBOF storm system with a low pressure centre that has strong winds, fooding rains, and many
thunderstorms
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 39
inner core Earth's solid centre, made mostly of solid iron, which is at tremendous temperature and pressure
insulator in heat transfer, a material that does not transfer heat easily
kilopascal, kPa the SI unit that measures the vertical force of atmospheric pressure per unit area
kinetic energy energy due to motion
kinetic molecular theory a theory that explains that all matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms and
molecules) that are constantly in motion
La Nia an upwelling that brings cooler than normal waters to the surface of the eastern Pacifc Ocean
lithosphere the crust and upper portion of the mantle
magnetic polarity Earth's magnetic feld and north and south magnetic poles; normal polarity is when Earth's
magnetic poles are similar to its geographic poles, reverse polarity is when Earth's magnetic poles are
opposite to Earth's geographic poles
magnetic reversal a reversal of Earth's magnetic polarity over thousands of years so that the magnetic north
pole becomes the magnetic south pole and the magnetic south pole becomes the magnetic north pole
magnetometer a device that detects variations in magnetic felds
mantle Earth's thickest layer, lying just below the crust and making up about 70 percent of Earth's volume,
mostly solid except for the upper mantle, which can fow like thick toothpaste"
mantle convection thermal energy transfer in the mantle, where hot, light magma rises and cold, dense
lithospheric plate material sinks
mantle plume an upwelling of extremely hot rock within Earth's mantle that forms hot spots
mid-ocean ridge underwater mountain range, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge running north to south down
the length of the Atlantic Ocean
mountain range chain of mountains separated from other mountains or surrounded by lowlands
outer core the layer below Earth's mantle made of liquid iron and nickel
ozone layer a layer in the stratosphere that flters out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
paleoglaciation a term describing past periods of extensive glaciations that covered most of the continents
permafrost ground that usually remains frozen year-round
plate boundary the location where two plates meet and move relative to each other; convergent plate
boundaries are areas where tectonic plates collide, divergent plate boundaries are areas where tectonic
plates are spreading apart, and transform plate boundaries are areas where tectonic plates slide horizontally
past each other
plate tectonic theory the theory that Earth's surface is made up of several lithospheric plates that move around
relative to one another, sliding over the semi-fuid asthenosphere
potential energy the stored energy of an object or particle, due to its position or state
pressure the amount of force per unit area
prevailing winds winds that are typical for a location
primary waves (P-waves) underground seismic waves that travel at about 6 km/s through Earth's crust, causing
the ground to move in the direction of the wave's motion
radiation the transfer of energy by waves through space
ridge push the process in which a spreading mid-ocean ridge pushes the rest of the tectonic plate it is on away
from the ridge
ri valley a steep-sided valley formed on land where magma rises to Earth's surface at a spreading centre
sea oor spreading the process in which magma rises to Earth's surface at spreading ridges and, as it continues
to rise, pushes older rock aside
secondary waves (S-waves) underground seismic waves that travel at about 3.3 km/s, causing the ground to
move perpendicular to the direction of the wave's motion
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 60
seismogram a graph that shows the arrival times and sizes of seismic waves produced by an earthquake,
showing when an earthquake started, how long it lasted, and its magnitude (strength)
seismograph See seismometer
seismometer a machine that measures and records seismic wave activity
slab pull the process in which the dense, subducting plate material pulls the rest of the attached plate toward
the subduction zone and down into the mantle
spreading ridge the region where magma breaks through Earth's surface, continually forcing apart old rock and
forming new sea foor
subduction the action of one tectonic plate pushing below another tectonic plate
subduction zone areas of subduction at convergent plate boundaries where one tectonic plate subducts beneath
and is destroyed by the other overriding plate
supercontinent a landmass made up of more than one continent; an example is Pangaea, a landmass formed
millions of years ago and made of all the continents
surface waves (L-waves) seismic waves that ripple along Earth's surface like ripples on a pond
surface winds winds near Earth's surface that are subjected to friction from the dierences in geographic
features
tectonic plates large, rigid movable slabs of rock at Earth's surface that slide over a layer of partly molten rock
temperature a measure of the average of the kinetic energy of all the particles in a sample of matter
thermal energy the total energy of all the particles in a solid, liquid, or gas
thermocline the transition zone that separates the cold, deep ocean waters from the Sun-warmed surface
waters
tornado a funnel" of rotating air that can extend all the way to the ground with winds of up to 400 km/h; can
occur when high altitude horizontal winds meet thunderstorms
transform fault a fault that occurs at a transform boundary
trench a long narrow depression in the ocean foor that marks a convergent plate boundary and is part of a
subduction zone
volcanic belt a long chain of volcanoes
volcanic island arc a long chain of volcanic islands
volcano an opening in Earth's surface that, when active, spews out gases, chunks of rock, and melted rock
wind the movement of air from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 61
$IBQUFS
2VJDL$IFDL"OTXFST
page
1. e kinetic molecular theory explains that all
matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms and
molecules) that are constantly in motion.
2. Temperature is a measure of the average of the
kinetic energy of all the particles in a sample of
matter.
3. ermal energy is the total energy of all the
particles in a solid, liquid, or gas.
4. Heat is the amount of thermal energy that
transfers from an area or object of higher
temperature to an area or object of lower
temperature.
3. (a) Iceberg
(b) Hot cup of tea
(c) Iceberg
(d) From the tea to the iceberg
page 7
1. Conduction, convection, radiation
2. Conduction
3. Radiation
4. Convection
page 11
1. Nitrogen (N
2
) and oxygen (O
2
)
2. Sea level
3. Solar energy and thermal energy
page 13
1. Earth's surface absorbs solar radiation, heats up,
and then radiates the thermal energy into the
atmosphere.
2. Incoming and outgoing energy
3. Convection currents spread thermal energy
around by causing some air masses to rise and
others to fall.
page 14
1. (a) Atmospheric pressure is the amount of
pressure the molecules in the atmosphere exert at
a particular location and time.
(b) Barometer
2. Sea level
3. Warm air is lighter and less dense than cool air,
and therefore warm air has a lower pressure than
cool air.
4. Wind is caused by the movement of air from
areas of higher pressure to areas of lower
pressure.
3. High pressure systems form when an air mass
cools. As the high pressure airs sinks, it becomes
warmer and drier, and as a result, high pressure
systems oen bring clear skies.
6. Low pressure systems form when an air mass
warms. As the low pressure system rises, it cools,
and condensation occurs, producing clouds or
precipitation.
page 15
1. Prevailing winds in southern British Columbia
are moist air masses from the Pacifc Ocean that
blow inland over the coastal mountains.
2. Hills and forests force the winds to slow down
and change direction, whereas a calm ocean
surface does not create as much friction.
3. Oshore breezes
4. Onshore breezes occur at night when warm air
over the water rises and draws in the cool air
from over the land.
page 17
1. e Coriolis eect is a change is the direction
of moving air, water, or objects due to Earth's
rotation.
2. Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar easterlies
3. A weather front is a boundary between two
air masses each with its own temperature and
pressure.
4. Extreme weather events are caused when air
masses release large amounts of energy.
3. understorms, tornadoes (waterspouts),
hurricanes (cyclones, typhoons)
1BSU$o6OJU"OTXFS,FZ
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 62
Practice Questions Answers
Section10.1
1. B
2. A
3. A
4. B
3. C
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. B
10. C
Section 10.2
1. C
2. C
3. D
4. A
3. D
6. B
7. D
8. B
9. C
10. C
$IBQUFS
Quick Check Answers
page 22
1. Climate describes the average conditions of a
region over 30 years or more, including clouds,
precipitation, average temperature, humidity,
atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind.
2. Fossils, tree rings, glacier ice cores
page 23
1. e natural greenhouse eect is the absorption of
thermal energy by the atmosphere, which keeps
Earth's temperature within a certain range.
2. 34C
3. Tilt, rotation, orbit
4. Tilt
page 24
1. Water vapour
2. Water temperature and water salinity
3. A thermocline is the transition zone that
separates the cold, deep ocean waters from the
Sun-warmed surface waters.
page 25
1. In an El Nio year, unusually warm water on the
surface of the Pacifc Ocean leads to a warmer
winter in the Pacifc Northwest and eastern
Canada.
2. (a) Deep oceans, mature forests
(b) Weathering of rocks, forest fres, decaying
vegetation
3. Erupting volcanoes can release ash and molten
rock that absorb radiation, preventing it from
reaching the surface of the Earth. Water vapour
and sulfur dioxide (changed into sulfuric acid)
can refect solar radiation back into space.
4. Comets strike Earth, and the result is large
quantities of dust, debris, and gases in the
atmosphere, which reduce the amount of solar
radiation that reaches Earth's surface.
page 31
1. CFCs have a global warming potential that is
between 4730 and 3310 times greater that CO
2
.
2. CO
2
3. e enhanced greenhouse eect is the increased
capacity of the atmosphere to absorb and
emit thermal energy because of an increase in
greenhouse gases.
page 32
1. e ozone layer flters out harmful ultraviolet
radiation from the Sun.
2. At lower altitudes, ozone is a powerful
greenhouse gas
3. Snow-covered areas refect the Sun's radiation
particularly well
4. Ocean water has a low albedo. As ice disappears
and is replaced by liquid water, much more solar
radiation is absorbed.
page 34
1. Any six of: rising sea levels, water conficts,
greater disease risk, increased severity of tropical
storms, increased frequency of tropical storms,
decreasing crop yields, increasing deforestation,
changes in fsheries
2. Any six of: reduce vehicle greenhouse gas
emission, reduce industrial greenhouse gas
emissions, increase use of energy-ecient
products, improve indoor air quality, improve
fertilizer use, promote worldwide planting of
trees, promote recycling, composting, minimizing
waste
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 63
Practice Questions Answers
Section 11.1
1. C
2. D
3. A
4. B
3. C
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. A
Section 11.2
1. C
2. B
3. D
4. B
3. A
6. D
7. B
8. A
9. B
10. C
$IBQUFS
Quick Check Answers
page 39
1. e shapes of the continents seemed to ft
together like jigsaw pieces.
2. Similar geologic features (similar rocks) were
found on dierent continents, matching fossils on
dierent continents, evidence of dierent climates
(such as coal in Antarctica)
page 40
1. Wegener could not explain how continents
dried.
2. (a) e centre of the Atlantic Ocean is marked
by a volcanic ridge that runs the entire length
of the Atlantic Ocean from north to south, and
where new land forms.
(b) Rocks near the Mid-Atlantic ridge are
younger than rocks farther away from the ridge,
and sediments at the edges are deeper (suggesting
they are older).
(c) Magnetic striping patterns on the foor of the
Atlantic Ocean show mirror images on either side
of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, suggesting the sea foor
is spreading outwards from the ridge.
3. e Hawaiian Islands formed as a tectonic plate
passed over a hot spot and magma rose up from
under Earth's surface.
4. e plate tectonic theory states that Earth's
surface is broken into large plates that move apart
and then rejoin, sliding over the semi-fuid rock
below.
page 47
1. (a) Inner core
(b) Outer core
(c) Mantle
(d) Crust
2. Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust.
3. Heat from the Earth's core
4. (a) e lithosphere includes the crust and the
upper part of the mantle.
(b) e asthenosphere includes the upper part of
the mantle that is molten.
3. A mantle plume is an upwelling of extremely hot
rock within Earth's mantle that forms hot spots.
6. Ri valleys form on land as rising magma
reaches the surface and spreads in two opposite
directions, pulling plates apart.
7. Subduction is the action of one plate pushing
below another.
page 49
1. Diverging, converging, transform
2. (a) Island arc
(b) Volcanic belt at the edge of the continent
(c) High folded mountains
(d) Ri valley
(e) Mid-oceanic ridge
3. ey slide past each other in opposite directions
page 51
1. e focus of an earthquake is where the pressure
is fnally released. e epicentre is the point on
the surface directly above the focus.
2. In any order:
(a) P-waves are underground seismic waves that
travel the most quickly through Earth's crust,
causing the ground to move in the direction
of the wave's motion. ey can travel through
solids, liquids, and gases.
8C Sclence l0 - Provlnclal Lxam Study Gulde - Unlt 4 64
(b) S-waves are underground seismic waves that
travel slower, causing the ground to move
perpendicular to the direction of the wave's
motion.
(c) S-waves travel through solids but not liquids.
L-waves are seismic waves that ripple along
Earth's surface like ripples on a pond. L-waves
usually cause more structural damage than
P-waves or S waves.
QBHF
1. In any order:
(a) Composite volcanoes are found along plate
boundaries.
(b) Shield volcanoes form over hot spots.
(c) Ri eruptions occur along long cracks in the
lithosphere, such as along the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge.
Practice Questions Answers
Section 12.1
1. A
2. D
3. B
4. C
3. C
6. B
7. D
8. D
9. B
10. D
Section 12.2
1. C
2. A
3. B
4. C
3. B
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. C
Ministry of Education - 1 - Science 10
2009/10 School Year Vocabulary List
SCIENCE 10
VOCABULARY LIST
PROCESSES OF
SCIENCE
A
accuracy

C
conclusion
control
controlled experiment

D
dependent variable

E
extrapolation

H
hypothesis

I
independent variable
interpolation

O
observation

P
precision
prediction
principle
procedure

S
scale
scientific literacy
slope

U
uncertainty

V
validity
variable
Venn diagram
SUSTAINABILITY OF
ECOSYSTEMS
A
abiotic
acid precipitation/rain
adaptation
adaptive radiation
algae
annual precipitation
annual temperature
aquatic

B
bacteria
bioaccumulation
biodegradation
biodiversity
biomagnification
biome
biosphere
biotic

C
carbon exchange
carbon sink
carbon store
carbonate
carnivore
cellular respiration
climate
climatograph
climax community
commensalism
community
competition
consumer
(primary, secondary,
tertiary)

D
DDT
decomposers
deforestation
denitrification
detrivore


E
ecological hierarchy
(organism, population,
community, ecosystem)
ecological pyramid
(pyramid of biomass,
pyramid of energy,
pyramid of numbers)
ecological succession
(primary, secondary)
ecology
ecosystem
elevation
estuary
extinction

F
food chains
food pyramids
food webs
foreign species
fossil fuel

G
grazing

H
habitat
heavy metals
herbivore
host

K
keystone species

L
latitude
legumes
lichen
lightning


M
mutualism

N
native species
natural selection
niche
nitrification
nutrients

O
omnivore

P
parasitism
PCBs
pesticide
pH
phosphorus
photosynthesis
phytoplankton
pioneer species
predation
producer
proliferation

S
soil degradation
stability
symbiosis

T
terrestrial
top consumer/predator/
carnivore
toxin
trophic levels

Z
zooplankton
Ministry of Education - 2 - Science 10
2009/10 School Year Vocabulary List
CHEMISTRY AND
RADIOACTIVITY
A
acidic
acids
alpha particle
atomic mass
atomic number
atoms

B
bases
basic
beta particle
Bohr diagrams
bonding pair
bromothymol blue

C
catalyst
chemical family/group
combustion
compounds
concentration
conservation of mass
covalent bonding

D
daughter product/isotope
decay curve
decay product
decomposition
diatomic element

E
electron

F
fission
fusion

G
gamma

H
half-life
hydrocarbon

I
indigo carmine
inorganic
ionic bonding
ions
isotope


L
Lewis diagrams
litmus
lone pair

M
mass number
metal oxide
methyl orange
methyl red
molecules

N
neutral
neutralization
(acid-base)
neutron
non-metal oxide

O
organic

P
paired electrons
parent isotope
period
pH indicator
pH scale
phenolphthalein
polyatomic
proton

R
radiation
radioactive decay

S
salts
shells/orbits
single and double
replacement
standard atomic
notation/isotope notation
surface area
symbolic equations
synthesis

U
unpaired electrons

V
valence electron

MOTION
A
acceleration
(positive, negative and
zero)

D
displacement
distance

M
magnitude

P
position

S
slope
speed

T
time interval

U
uniform motion

V
velocity



ENERGY TRANSFER
IN NATURAL SYSTEMS
A
aerosol
atmosphere

B
barometer

C
climate change
condensation
Coriolis effect

E
El Nio Southern
Oscillation (ENSO)
energy
(kinetic, potential)
energy budget
evaporation

G
gradient
greenhouse gases



H
heat
heat budget
heat flow
heat transfer
(conduction, convection,
radiation)
hurricane

I
insulator

K
kilopascal, kPa
Kinetic Molecular
Theory

L
La Nia

O
ozone layer

P
permafrost
pressure
(atmospheric, within the
Earth)

T
temperature
thermal energy
thermocline
tornado

W
winds
(prevailing, surface)
Ministry of Education - 3 - Science 10
2009/10 School Year Vocabulary List
PLATE TECTONICS
A
asthenosphere

C
Continental Drift Theory
cross section
(vs. map view)
crust
(continental, oceanic)

D
density

E
earthquake
epicentre

F
fault
focus

G
geologic time

H
hot spot

I
inner core

L
lithosphere

M
magnetic polarity
(normal, reverse)
magnetic reversal
magnetometer
mantle
mantle convection
mantle plume
mid-ocean ridge
mountain range


O
outer core

P
paleoglaciation
plate boundary
(convergent, divergent,
transform)
Plate Tectonic Theory
primary waves
(P-waves)

R
ridge push
rift valley

S
seafloor spreading
secondary waves
(S-waves)
seismogram
seismograph
seismometer
slab pull
spreading ridge
subduction
subduction zone
supercontinent
(e.g. Pangea)
surface waves
(L-waves)

T
tectonic plate
transform fault
trench

V
volcanic belt
volcanic island arc
volcanoes



Data Pages
SCIENCE 10
Ministry of Education
* These Science 10 data pages may be retained * These Science 10 data pages may be retained * These Science 10 data pages may be retained
* These Science 10 Data Pages
may be retained for classroom
use. They do not need to be
returned to the Ministry with the
completed examinations.
Page 1 Table of Contents
Page 2 Periodic Table of the Elements
Page 3 pH Scale
Page 4 Alphabetical Listing of the Elements
Page 5 Names, Formulae and Charges of Some
Polyatomic Ions; Names and Formulae of
Common Acids; Prefixes
Page 6 Map of the Pacific Coast of North America
Page 7 World Tectonic Plate Boundaries Map
Page 8 The Carbon Cycle
Page 9 The Phosphorus Cycle
Page 10 Biomes of the World
Page 11 The Nitrogen Cycle
Page 12 Common Isotope Pairs Chart; Radioactivity Symbols;
Units and Abbreviations; Equations of Motion
Data Page 2 Science 10
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Science 10 Data Page 3
1
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3
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A
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Data Page 4 Science 10
Actinium
Aluminium
Americium
Antimony
Argon
Arsenic
Astatine
Barium
Berkelium
Beryllium
Bismuth
Bohrium
Boron
Bromine
Cadmium
Calcium
Californium
Carbon
Cerium
Cesium
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Curium
Darmstadtium
Dubnium
Dysprosium
Einsteinium
Erbium
Europium
Fermium
Fluorine
Francium
Gadolinium
Gallium
Germanium
Gold
Hafnium
Hassium
Helium
Holmium
Hydrogen
Indium
Iodine
Iridium
Iron
Krypton
Lanthanum
Lawrencium
Lead
Lithium
Lutetium
Magnesium
Manganese
Meitnerium
Element Symbol
Ac
Al
Am
Sb
Ar
As
At
Ba
Bk
Be
Bi
Bh
B
Br
Cd
Ca
Cf
C
Ce
Cs
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu
Cm
Ds
Db
Dy
Es
Er
Eu
Fm
F
Fr
Gd
Ga
Ge
Au
Hf
Hs
He
Ho
H
In
I
Ir
Fe
Kr
La
Lr
Pb
Li
Lu
Mg
Mn
Mt
Atomic Number
89
13
95
51
18
33
85
56
97
4
83
107
5
35
48
20
98
6
58
55
17
24
27
29
96
110
105
66
99
68
63
100
9
87
64
31
32
79
72
108
2
67
1
49
53
77
26
36
57
103
82
3
71
12
25
109
Mendelevium
Mercury
Molybdenum
Neodymium
Neon
Neptunium
Nickel
Niobium
Nitrogen
Nobelium
Osmium
Oxygen
Palladium
Phosphorus
Platinum
Plutonium
Polonium
Potassium
Praseodymium
Promethium
Protactinium
Radium
Radon
Rhenium
Rhodium
Roentgenium
Rubidium
Ruthenium
Rutherfordium
Samarium
Scandium
Seaborgium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Strontium
Sulfur
Tantalum
Technetium
Tellurium
Terbium
Thallium
Thorium
Thulium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Uranium
Vanadium
Xenon
Ytterbium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium
Element Symbol
Md
Hg
Mo
Nd
Ne
Np
Ni
Nb
N
No
Os
O
Pd
P
Pt
Pu
Po
K
Pr
Pm
Pa
Ra
Rn
Re
Rh
Rg
Rb
Ru
Rf
Sm
Sc
Sg
Se
Si
Ag
Na
Sr
S
Ta
Tc
Te
Tb
Tl
Th
Tm
Sn
Ti
W
U
V
Xe
Yb
Y
Zn
Zr100
101
80
42
60
10
93
28
41
7
102
76
8
46
15
78
94
84
19
59
61
91
88
86
75
45
111
37
44
104
62
21
106
34
14
47
11
38
16
73
43
52
65
81
90
69
50
22
74
92
23
54
70
39
30
40
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF THE ELEMENTS
Atomic Number
Science 10 Data Page 5
Positive Ions
NAMES, FORMULAE AND CHARGES OF
SOME POLYATOMIC IONS
Negative Ions
NAMES AND FORMULAE OF
COMMON ACIDS
Hydrochloric acid
Sulfuric acid
Nitric acid
Acetic acid
NH
4
+
Ammonium CH
3
COO

Acetate
CO
3
2
Carbonate
ClO
3

Chlorate
ClO
2

Chlorite
CrO
4
2
Chromate
CN

Cyanide

Cr
2
O
7
2
Dichromate
HCO
3

Hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate
HSO
4

Hydrogen sulfate, bisulfate
HS

Hydrogen sulfide, bisulfide
HSO
3

Hydrogen sulfite, bisulfite
OH

Hydroxide
ClO

Hypochlorite
NO
3

Nitrate
NO
2

Nitrite
ClO
4

Perchlorate
MnO
4

Permanganate
PO
4
3
Phosphate
PO
3
3
Phosphite
SO
4
2
Sulfate
SO
3
2
Sulfite
PREFIXES
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
mono
di
tri
tetra
penta
hexa
hepta
octa
nona
deca
HCl
H
2
SO
4
HNO
3
HCH
3
COO
Data Page 6 Science 10
MAP OF THE PACIFIC COAST OF NORTH AMERICA
LEGEND
Transform boundary
Divergent boundary
Convergent boundary
Plate movement
Volcanoes
N
S
E
W
S
A
N

A
N
D
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A
S

F
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STIKINE
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Mt. Baker
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N TRENCH
Science 10 Data Page 7
W
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L
D

T
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C
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P
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B
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Data Page 8 Science 10
T
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C
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C
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Data Page 12 Science 10
COMMON ISOTOPE PAIRS CHART
Isotope
Half-life of Parent
(years)
Carbon-14
Uranium-235
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Potassium-40
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Parent
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5730
710 million
1.3 billion
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Daughter
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