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X. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Cervix Description:


Anatomy: The cervix is located at the bottom of the uterus and includes the opening between the vagina and the uterus. It is the narrow, inferior outlet that protrudes into the vagina. The cervix (Latin for neck) is the lower-most portion of the uterus. Cylindrical in shape, the cervix consists of the following two major structures: the ectocervix and the endocervix. The ectocervix is the portion of the cervix which is touchable and visible through the vaginal canal. This is also the area where is swabbed during a Pap smear. The endocervix is the internal, canal-like portion of the cervix which opens into the uterus. The external orifice of the uterus (or ostium of uterus, or external os) is a small, depressed, somewhat circular aperture on the rounded extremity of the vaginal portion of the cervix. Through this aperture, the cervical cavity communicates with that of the vagina. The external orifice is bounded by two lips, an anterior and a posterior. The anterior is shorter and thicker, though it projects lower than the posterior because of the slope of the cervix. Normally, both lips are in contact with the posterior vaginal wall. In the prepartum condition, or prior to pregnancy, the external orifice has a rounded shape when viewed through the vaginal canal (as through a speculum). Following parturition, the orifice takes on an appearance more like a transverse slit or is "H-shaped". The internal orifice of the uterus (or internal orifice of the cervix uteri or internal os) is an interior narrowing of the uterine cavity. It corresponds to a slight constriction known as the isthmus that can be observed on the surface of the uterus about midway between the apex and base. Physiology: A small hole at the end of the vagina through which sperm passes into the uterus. Also serves as a protective barrier for the uterus. During childbirth, the cervix dilates to permit the baby to descend

from the uterus into the vagina for birth. The cervix is the portion of the uterus which is connected to the vaginal canal and allows the passage of menstrual fluid; promotes fertility; protects the uterus, upper reproductive tract, and a developing fetus from pathogens; and may play a role in womens sexual pleasure.


Anatomy: Uterus is located in the pelvis between the urinary bladder and rectum. The uterus is suspended in the pelvis by the broad ligament and anchored anteriorly and posteriorly by the round and uterosacral ligaments. The major portion of the uterus is referred to as the body. Its superior rounded region above the entrance of the uterine tubes is the fundus, and its narrow outlet, which protrudes into the vagina below, is the cervix.

The wall of the uterus is thick and composed of three layers, endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium outermost serous layer of the uterus. Endometrium The lining of the uterine cavity is called the "endometrium". It consists of the functional endometrium and the basal endometrium from which the former arises. Damage to the basal endometrium results in adhesion formation and/or fibrosis (Asherman's syndrome). In all placental mammals, including humans, the endometrium builds a lining periodically which is shed or reabsorbed if no pregnancy occurs. Shedding of the functional endometrial lining is responsible for menstrual bleeding (known colloquially as a "period" in humans with a cycle of about 28 days) throughout the fertile years of a female and for some time beyond. Depending on the species, menstrual cycles may vary from a few days to six months, but can vary widely even in the same individual, often stopping for several cycles before resuming. Marsupials and monotremes do not have menstruation.

Myometrium The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.

Perimetrium The perimetrium (or serous coat of uterus) is the outer serosa layer of the uterus. It is the peritoneum covering of the fundus and ventral and dorsal aspects of the uterus.

Normally the uterus lies in anteversion & anteflexion. Anteversion is a forward angle between the axis of the cervix and that of the vagina measuring about 90 degree, provided the urinary bladder and the rectum are empty. Anteflexion is a forward angle between the body and cervix at the isthmus measuring about 125 degree, provided the bladder and rectum are empty.

Physiology: The primary function of the uterus is in reproduction; the conduit for sperm transport, and the site for implantation of fertilized ova, placentation, growth and development of the fetus, and parturition (labor and delivery). The shape and position of the uterus also deflects downward-directed, intraabdominal pressures anteriorly toward the pubis, away from the pelvic floor. The endometrium is a target tissue for estradiol from the ovarian follicles, creating a smooth cellular, proliferative lining for sperm transport prior to ovulation. Progesterone from the corpus luteum of the ovaries, which changes the lining to a thicker, softer, secretory lining for blastcyst implantation.


Description: endocrine

Anatomy: Two nodular bodies, situated one on either side of the uterus in relation to the lateral wall of the pelvis, and attached to the back of the broad ligament of the uterus, behind and below the uterine tubes. The ovaries are of a grayish-pink color, and present either a smooth or a puckered uneven surface. They are each about 4 cm. in length, 2 cm. in width, and about 8 mm. in thickness, and weigh from 2 to 3.5 gm. Each ovary presents a lateral and a medial surface, an upper or tubal and a lower or uterine extremity, and an anterior or mesovarion and a posterior free border. It lies in a shallow depression, named the ovarian fossa, on the lateral wall of the pelvis. In the erect posture the long axis of the ovary is vertical. Physiology: Responsible for the production of eggs (female sex cells) and for hormone production (estrogen and progesterone). Estrogen is responsible for the appearance of secondary sex characteristics of anatomically female people at puberty and for the maturation and maintenance of the reproductive organs in their mature functional state. Progesterone functions with estrogen by promoting menstrual cycle cyclic changes in the endometrium. It is important during pregnancy and in preparing the breasts for milk production.


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Description: File:Illu diencephalon .jpg

Anatomy: The hypothalamus is the ventral-most part of the diencephalon. The hypothalamus is on either side of the third ventricle, with the hypothalamic sulcus delineating its dorsal border. The ventral aspect of the hypothalamus is exposed on the base of the brain. It extends from the rostral limit of the optic chiasm to the caudal limit of the mammillary bodies. Physiology: The hypothalamus: (1) controls the release of 8 major hormones by the hypophysis, and is involved in (2) temperature regulation, (3) control of food and water intake, (4) sexual behavior and reproduction, (5) control of daily cycles in physiological state and behavior, and (6) mediation of emotional responses.


Anatomy: Vagina is a thin-walled tube 8 to 10 cm long. It lies between the bladder and rectum and extends from the cervix to the body exterior. Because it receives the penis during sexual intercourse, it is the female organ of copulation. The distal end of the vagina is partially closed by a thin fold of the mucosa called the hymen. The hymen is very vascular and tends to bleed when it is ruptured during the first sexual intercourse. However its durability varies. In some women, it is torn during sports activity, tampon insertion, or pelvic examination. Occasionally, it is so tough that it must be ruptured surgically if intercourse is to occur. Labia Majora is the part of the external vagina that encloses and protects the other external parts, and is often referred to as the large lips. This part varies in size, but it is generally large, fleshy and contains sweat and oil-secreting glands, making it the female version of the scrotum of the male penis. This is the part that gets covered by hair when females reach puberty. Labia Minora is the part of the vagina that looks like a smaller version of the Labia Majora; hence, the nickname small lips. This part surrounds the opening of the vagina and the urethra.

Bartholins Glands is the gland that is located beside the vaginas opening and produces a fluid secretion during intercourse.

Clitoris is the only part of the vagina that is made purely for pleasure. It is a clump of thousands of nerve fibers, and it is twice than those found in the penis. Physiology: The vaginal opening is the entryway for the penis during sexual intercourse and where sperm are deposited and the exit for menstrual blood and vaginal discharge as well as a baby. Pituitary gland

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Anatomy: Approximately 1cm in size and weighs 500 mg. it lies in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull and is separated from the oral cavity by the sphenoid bone. The sella turcica is close to the optic chiasma. The pituitary gland is actually two glands, the larger anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis and the posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis. Physiology: The pituitary controls the function of most endocrine glands and is therefore sometimes called the master gland. Six hormones are produced by different cells of the anterior pituitary gland: 1. Growth hormone controls growth and development; promotes protein production. 2. Prolactin starts and maintains milk production in the ductal glands of the breast. 3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the production and secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland.

4. Adrenocorticotropin hormone controls the production and secretion of hormones by the adrenal cortex. 5. Follicle-stimulating hormone & 6. Luteinizing hormone control male and female sexual characteristics, stimulate the testes to produce sperm, the ovaries to produce eggs, and the sex organs to produce sex hormones. Two hormones are released by the posterior pituitary gland: 1. Antidiuretic hormone causes kidneys to retain water and, along with aldosterone, helps control blood pressure. 2. Oxytocin causes muscles of the uterus and millk ducts in the breast to contract.