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Fundamentals of Piping Engineering

Areas Covered
Piping Elements Piping Drawings Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams ( & IDs) (P ) Software Based Stress Analysis

Piping Elements
Piping System involves not only pipes but also the fittings, valves and other specialties. These items are known as piping elements or components As per the Codes Piping components are mechanical elements suitable for joining or Codes assembly into pressure-tight fluid containing piping system. Piping Elements : 1. 1 Pipes 2. Fittings 3. Expasion Joints 4. Flanges 5. Gaskets 6. Boltings 7. Valves 8. S Specialities Piping elements should conform to the specification and standards listed in the code. Unapproved elements may also be used Unapproved elements must be qualified for use as per applicable chapters of the code.

Piping Elements

Valves a es

Tees

Flanges a ges

Gas e s Gaskets

Sweepolet Expansion Bellows Weldolet

Sockolet Various Pipe Elements

Nippolet

Piping Sizing
Pipes Pipes can be defined as a pressure tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or transmit fluid under pressure in an applicable material of construction Specification of pipe Parameters used to define a Pipe specification are : Material of Construction Method of production / manufacture Size (Outside diameter and Thickness) Protective Coatings (if any) How is Pipe Diameter specified ? The diameter (outside) of the pipe is identified by NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (NPS) Thickness is identified by Schedule (SCH). NPS and SCH are dimensionless DESIGNATORs of pipe diameter and thickness

Commercial Sizing Terms of a pipe

Piping Sizing
Early developments of Standardization of Piping Industry. p y g p (IPS) System ) y Pipes were initially classified according to Iron Pipe Size ( Eg: IPS 6 means a pipe of size 6 inches All pipes had the same thickness and was known as Standard Thickness (STD) For higher pressures there were pipes designated as Extra Strong (XS) and Double Extra Strong (XXS). But standardized outside diameter remained unchanged. With the advent of stronger and corrosion resistant materials there was a need for thinner walled pipes. Hence a new designation known as Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) replaced IPS.

Early Developments in Piping Industry

Piping Sizing
Pipe Outside Diameter (OD)
NPS 1 1 1 2 2* 3 3* 4 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 DN 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 115 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 OD [in (mm)] 0.405 (10.29) 0.540 (13.72) 0 540 (13 72) 0.675 (17.15) 0.840 (21.34) 1.050 (26.67) 1.315 (33.40) 1.660 (42.16) 1.900 (48.26) 2.375 (60.33) 2.875 (73.03) 3.500 (88.90) 4.000 (101.60) 4.500 (114.30) 5.000 (127.00) 5.563 (141.30) 6.625 (168.28) 7.625 (193.68) 8.625 (219.08) 8 625 (219 08) 9.625 (244.48) 10.75 (273.05) 12.75 (323.85) 14.00 (355.60) 16.00 (406.40) 16 00 (406 40) 18.00 (457.20) 20.00 (508.00) 22.00 (558.8) 24.00 (609.60)

Inner Dia : NPS - 2 x SCH (inches) Pipes up-to NPS12 have outside diameters designators. greater than size

Pipes from NPS14 onwards have outside diameters equal to size designators. g For pipe sizes larger than NPS 80 , determine the DN equivalent by multiplying NPS number by 25 Standard NPS and SCH are mentioned in ASME B36.19M for Stainless Steel Pipes Standard NPS and SCH are mentioned in ASME 36.10M for Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipes SCH i expressed i numbers as 5 , 5S , 10 , 10S , 20 , 20S , 30 , is d in b 30 S , 40 , 40S etc.

Piping Sizing

Piping Sizing
Wallthickness [in(mm)]
NPS SCH40 SCH60/XS SCH80 SCH100 SCH120 SCH140/XXS SCH160

10

0.365(9.271)

0.500(12.700)

0.593(15.062)

0.718(18.237)

0.843(21.412)

1.000(25.400)

1.125(28.575)

12

0.406(10.312) 0 406 (10 312)

0.562(14.275) 0 562 (14 275)

0.687(17.450) 0 687 (17 450)

0.843(21.412) 0 843 (21 412)

1.000(25.400) 1 000 (25 400)

1.125(28.575) 1 125 (28 575)

1.312(33.325) 1 312 (33 325)

14

0.437(11.100)

0.593(15.062)

0.750(19.050)

0.937(23.800)

1.093(27.762)

1.250(31.750)

1.406(35.712)

16

0.500(12.700) 0 500 (12 700)

0.656(16.662) 0 656 (16 662)

0.843(21.412) 0 843 (21 412)

1.031(26.187) 1 031 (26 187)

1.218(30.937) 1 218 (30 937)

1.437(36.500) 1 437 (36 500)

1.593(40.462) 1 593 (40 462)

18

0.562(14.275)

0.750(19.050)

0.937(23.800)

1.156(29.362)

1.375(34.925)

1.562(39.675)

1.781(45.237)

20

0.593(15.062) 0.593 (15.062)

0.812(20.625) 0.812 (20.625)

1.031(26.187) 1.031 (26.187)

1.280(32.512) 1.280 (32.512)

1.500(38.100) 1.500 (38.100)

1.750(44.450) 1.750 (44.450)

1.968(49.987) 1.968 (49.987)

24

0.687(17.450)

0.968(24.587)

1.218(30.937)

1.531(38.887)

1.812(46.025)

2.062(52.375)

2.343(59.512)

Table From ASME B36.10

Piping Sizing
How do we calculate the pipe thickness ? yp pipe There are 2 types of basic stresses that will act on a p p Hoops Stress (Circumferential) - Dominant Longitudinal Stress (Along the axis of the pipe) Less Dominant

Stress Analysis of pipes due to internal pressure

Piping Sizing
Formula for Calculation of Pipe Thickness as per ASME B31.1 (Power Piping)

P = Internal Pressure ; S = Allowable Stress ; E = Joint Efficiency ; y = co-eff. ; A = Corrosion Allowance

Piping Drawings
Various Symbols used in piping drawings

Piping Drawings

Piping and Instrumentation Drawings


How are PIDs derived ? BlockFlowDiagram g (FatherDiagram)
Only basic process information y p (no equipment information)

ProcessFlowDiagram (MotherDiagram)

Detailed process piping and equipment information (no standby equipment)

PID1

PID2

PID3

PID4

Detailed piping and instrumentation along with standby equipment to be shown

Piping and Instrumentation Drawings


Points to remember : PID is wrongly called Process and Instrumentation Drawings Each line on a PID generally represents a pipe connection PID should contain all details related to sizes and types of pipes , valves , pumps etc. along with standby equipment Physical sizes are not to scale. Color Coding for Drawing Review : Corrected Areas and Dimensions YELLOW Areas and dimensions to be Deleted GREEN Areas to be corrected / incorporated - RED

Basic Piping Symbols

Piping Supports
Why are piping supports required ? Main reasons can be attributed as follow : Piping may not be always supported on the ground Optimization of layout requires pipes to run overhead Suggested Pipe Support as per ASME B31.1

Piping Supports
Design Considerations : Static Loads due to valves , flanges , insulation , fluid and other concentrated loads should be considered Dynamic analysis due to Hammering , Vibration Resonance , Bends etc have to be considered for precise and safe design. Choosing a proper flow regime would be essential to avoid low frequency vibrations Thumb rule Closer the span , lesser the Bending Moment at the support Reference Guidelines and Standards : MS SP 58 Materials and Design of pipe supports MS SP 69 Selection and application of pipe supports Span Calculation for static load :

Design of Support

Piping Supports

Graphical Method

Piping Supports

Piping Supports

Piping Supports
Spring Supports :
These are used for piping which is subject to significant vertical movement Two Type of Spring Supports : 1. Variable Spring Support : Here the supporting force on the pipe varies with the movement of pipe or the loading on the pipe Eg : MSS SP 58 Type 51,52 and 53 2. Constant Spring Support : Here the supporting force remains constant (within +/6% range) Eg : MSS SP 58 Type 54, 55 and 56 Snubbers or Shock Arrestor : This is a mechanical or hydraulic type of support used to restrain dynamic load These are also called Restraint Control in MSS SP 58 (Refer Type 47) These can be installed at locations where thermal dispalcement hinders used of a rigid support i id t Used for loading conditions such as Seismic event , Water Hammer , Steam Hammer or relief valve opening

Piping Supports
When sudden impact load acts upon the snubber , internal braking devices engage and the snubber is said to be in Lock Up and in this condition snubber would act as a rigid support.

Snubbers installed on the bottom ring header of the boiler

Hanger Rods at steam header on the boiler