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# EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

## - Use in the calculation of displacement/deflection

= NL/EA :
- to determine , N is required. N is calculated using FBD and equation of equilibrium (statics)

R=P1+P2.

NAC
C

## Using appropriate FBD :

NCB=R=P1+P2 and NAC=-P2+R=P1 Reaction forces and internal forces (e.g. axial force) can be determined by using only equilibrium equations(statics).

NCB P2

## NAC and NCB : From equilibrium equation : RA+RB=P.

NAC NCB
C

Using appropriate FBD ; NCB=RB and NAC=-P+RB or since RB=P-RA, NCB=P-RA dan NAC = -RA

RB

Engineering, USM

## NCB and NAC are not determined. RA or RB are unknowns.

NAC NCB
C

Equilibrium equation alone is not sufficient to solve the problem. One more equation (not equilibrium equation) is needed.

Reaction forces and internal forces (e.g. axial force) cannot be determined by using only equilibrium equations (statics). - statically indeterminate structure/ problem

RB

Engineering, USM

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Statically Indeterminate Structures : equations other than equilibrium equations are needed to solve for reactions and internal forces (e.g.axial forces). Additional equations/relations : - related to the support conditions of the structure and also the deformations. E.g. : Bar is fixed at A and B. - elongation of bar will be zero.

NAC NCB
C

P
AB =

RB

Engineering, USM

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

AB=

0 : compatibility equation

NAC
L1

## to solve the problem.

NCB
C L2

AB= AC+ CB

; =NL/(EA)

Forcedisplacement eq.

P
RBL2/( EA2 )+(RB-P)L1/( EA1 )=0 ; - RB is calculated. NCB and NAC can then be calculated.

RB

Engineering, USM

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Example : Analysis of statically indeterminate structure
A cylindrical steel S which is solid S is fixed within a copper tube C. Compression load acting on the combined structure of S and C is P. Cross-sectional area and modulus of elasticity of S and C are AS, ES and AC , EC , respectively. Length of both S and C is L. Determine :
a] compression force in steel cylinder PS and copper tube PC ; b] the corresponding compressive stress
S

Rigid plate

and

C;

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

PC : resultant of acting on AC

Rigid plate

PS : resultant of acting on AS

Solution a] PS and PC : Equilibrium equation : PS+PC=P ( using FBD for rigid plate in (d) ) - the only equilibrium equation available. Two unknowns : PS and PC. , statically indeterminate problem.

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Rigid plate PC : resultant of acting on AC

PS : resultant of acting on AS

S(= C)

Compatibility equation :

S= C

S(= C)

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

## b] axial stress (normal stress) in S and C :

S=PS/AS=

PES/(ESAS+ECAC) and

C=

PC/AC=PEC/(ESAS+ECAC)

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

## c] shortening for combined structure S and C :

S= C

, =PSL/(ESAS)=PL/(ESAS+ECAC) , =PCL/(ECAC)=PL/(ESAS+ECAC)

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

*d] Exercise :

If it is required that S= C and C has inner diameter of D and tube thickness of t, derive the expression for diameter of S .

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Example (p.90 Gere) : Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structure
Horizontal rigid bar ADFB is suspended using wires CD and EF at point D and F, respectively. A vertical load P acts at B. Length of the bar is 3b. Length of wires CD and EF are L1 and L2 , respectively. Diameter and modulus of elasticity of wire : CD d1 and E1 ; EF d2 and E2. a] Derive the formula for the permissible load P if allowable stresses in wires CD and EF are 1 and 2 , respectively. b] Calculate P for the following condition : wire CD aluminium, E1=72GPa, d1=4.0mm, L1=0.40 m, wire EF magnesium, E2=45 GPa, d2=3.0 mm, L2=0.30 m,
Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM
1=200

MPa ; MPa.

2=175

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Solution

FBD for bar ADFB : T1, T2 are allowable forces in wires CD and EF. Allowable stresses :
1=T1/A1

and

2=T2/A2

## P can be related to T1 and T2.

and d1, d2 given (A1 and A2 can be evaluated). P is the allowable load to be determined. FBD for rigid bar ADFB
1, 2

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

T1 and T2 : From equilibrium equation : moment at A = 0 , bT1+2bT2=3bP or T1+2T2=3P . Only ONE equilibrium equation. An additional equation is needed.

A2
A1

from (c):

## Bar ADFB is rigid. Hence AB remains straight after P is applied.

2=2 1

: compatibility equation
1, 2

= elongation of CD and EF

## where f1=L1/(E1A1) and f2=L2/(E2A2)

Position of bar ADFB when acted upon by load P ( f1, f2 : flexibility of wires CD and EF)
Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

A2
A1

f2T2=2f1T1

T1=3f2P/(4f1+f2) T2=6f1P/(4f1+f2)

T1+2T2=P

## where f1=L1 / (E1A1) dan f2=L2 / (E2A2)

1=T1/A1=(3P/A1)[ f2/(4f1+f2) 2=T2/A2=(6P/A2)[ f2/(4f1+f2)

] ]

based on condition

2

## P2= 2A2(4f1+f2)/( 6f1 )

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

A2
A1

b] Numerical calculation of P : A1= d12/4 = (4)2/4 = 12.57 mm2 A2= d22/4 = (3)2/4 = 7.069 mm2 f1=L1/(E1A1)=0.40m/[(72GPa)(12.57mm2)] =0.4420 x 10-6 m/N f2=L2/(E2A2)=0.30m/[(45GPa)(7.069mm2)] =0.9431 x 10-6 m/N
1=200

MPa ;

2=175

MPa

## Substitution into equations for P1 and P2 : P1=2.41 kN and P2=1.26 kN

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

A2
A1

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

A2
A1

*Exercise: a) b) Show that RH=0 ; Determine RV by using the condition of moment equilibrium at B. Next, write down equilibrium equation for forces in vertical direction. Show that the same equilibrium equation i.e. T1+2T2=P . will be obtained.

Cause of stress

## and strains : external load not the only cause

Other causes

thermal effect (due to temperature change), misfit(due to error during fabrication) and pre-strain(due to initial deformation)

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Thermal effect (p.93 Gere)

T=

( T)

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

positive (= expansion )
T=

( T)

: thermal strain
negative(=contraction ) : heated : cooled Normal materials : heated > Expands cooled > contracts

T= T

( T)
TL=

: thermal strain

## ( T)L : thermal expansion

temperaturedisplacement relation

T
T

## : thermal strain WILL occur

: thermal stress WILL NOT occur

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

WILL ONLY occur if bodies/structures are restrained, i.e they are not free to expand or contract.
T

Statically determinate structures : thermal strain : will occur thermal stress : will not occur

Statically indeterminate structures : thermal strain : will occur thermal stress : might or might not occur (dependent upon the characteristics of
structure and patterns of temperature change)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Example (p.96 Gere)
Bar AB is held fixed at supports A and B. If the temperature of the bar is increased uniformly by T, determine the thermal stress T that will occur in the bar ? (Assume the bar is made of linearly elastic material)
Solution Equilibrium equation : RA-RB=0 . The only equilibrium equation. Hence, a statically indeterminate problem. Bar tries to expand but it is prevented (restrained) Additional equation :
AB=0

: compatibility equation

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Fig. (b) : support A is removed; bar free to expand by T
Fig. (c) : reaction force RA is imposed ; bar shortens by R Fig.(a) : actual condition ;
AB=0 T=

T= R R=RAL/(EA)

( T)L ;

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

RA= ( T)EA RA-RB=0 RA=RB= ( T)EA

T

= RA/A or
( T)

T=RB/A

T=E

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Other possible cause of deflection : - misfits (see e.g. pg.101 of Gere) - longer/shorted than required in the design

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

S(= C)

(a) Axial force in different bodies: PC= P(ECAC)/(ESAS+ECAC) and PS=P(ESAS)/(ESAS+ECAC) (*from the above equations : force in bodies axial rigidity) axial rigidity (EA) and 1/total

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

## (b) axial stress (normal stress) in S and C :

S=PS/AS=

PES/(ESAS+ECAC) and

C=

PC/AC=PEC/(ESAS+ECAC)

(*

S/ C

= ES/EC : in general, higher stress will occur in bodies which are stiffer)

## EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Additional points to ponder RA= ( T)EA RA-RB=0 RA=RB= ( T)EA

T

= RA/A or
( T)

T=RB/A

T=E

## - RA(or RB) does not depend on bar length L

- T does not depend on crosssectional area A and bar length L
Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM