Anda di halaman 1dari 34

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

- Relation between change in length and axial force N :

= NL / (EA) ; concepts of stiffness and flexibility

- Use in the calculation of displacement/deflection

= NL/EA :
- to determine , N is required. N is calculated using FBD and equation of equilibrium (statics)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

To determine NAC and NCB , equilibrium equation is used :


R=P1+P2.

NAC
C

Using appropriate FBD :


NCB=R=P1+P2 and NAC=-P2+R=P1 Reaction forces and internal forces (e.g. axial force) can be determined by using only equilibrium equations(statics).

NCB P2

- statically determinate structure/ problem.

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

NAC and NCB : From equilibrium equation : RA+RB=P.

NAC NCB
C

Using appropriate FBD ; NCB=RB and NAC=-P+RB or since RB=P-RA, NCB=P-RA dan NAC = -RA

Note that RA or RB remains as unknown

RB

RDr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil B


Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

NCB and NAC are not determined. RA or RB are unknowns.

NAC NCB
C

Equilibrium equation alone is not sufficient to solve the problem. One more equation (not equilibrium equation) is needed.

Reaction forces and internal forces (e.g. axial force) cannot be determined by using only equilibrium equations (statics). - statically indeterminate structure/ problem

RB

RDr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil B


Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Statically Indeterminate Structures : equations other than equilibrium equations are needed to solve for reactions and internal forces (e.g.axial forces). Additional equations/relations : - related to the support conditions of the structure and also the deformations. E.g. : Bar is fixed at A and B. - elongation of bar will be zero.

NAC NCB
C

P
AB =

0 : additional equation/relation

RB

RB Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil


Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


AB=

0 : compatibility equation

RA+RB=P : equilibrium equation

NAC
L1

The above two equations are used together

to solve the problem.

NCB
C L2

AB= AC+ CB

; =NL/(EA)

Forcedisplacement eq.

P
RBL2/( EA2 )+(RB-P)L1/( EA1 )=0 ; - RB is calculated. NCB and NAC can then be calculated.

RB

RB Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil


Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Example : Analysis of statically indeterminate structure
A cylindrical steel S which is solid S is fixed within a copper tube C. Compression load acting on the combined structure of S and C is P. Cross-sectional area and modulus of elasticity of S and C are AS, ES and AC , EC , respectively. Length of both S and C is L. Determine :
a] compression force in steel cylinder PS and copper tube PC ; b] the corresponding compressive stress
S

Rigid plate

and

C;

c] shortening for the combined structure S and C

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


PC : resultant of acting on AC

Rigid plate

PS : resultant of acting on AS

Solution a] PS and PC : Equilibrium equation : PS+PC=P ( using FBD for rigid plate in (d) ) - the only equilibrium equation available. Two unknowns : PS and PC. , statically indeterminate problem.

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Rigid plate PC : resultant of acting on AC

PS : resultant of acting on AS

S(= C)

Compatibility equation :

S= C

(S and C are both connected to the rigid plate).

- Substitution of =PL/(EA) into compatibility equation ; PSL/(ESAS)=PCL/(ECAC) or PS= PCL (ESAS)/(ECAC)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

S(= C)

Substitution of PS into equilibrium equation PS+PC=P ; PC= P(ECAC)/(ESAS+ECAC) and PS=P(ESAS)/(ESAS+ECAC)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

b] axial stress (normal stress) in S and C :


S=PS/AS=

PES/(ESAS+ECAC) and

C=

PC/AC=PEC/(ESAS+ECAC)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

c] shortening for combined structure S and C :


S= C

, =PSL/(ESAS)=PL/(ESAS+ECAC) , =PCL/(ECAC)=PL/(ESAS+ECAC)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

*d] Exercise :

If it is required that S= C and C has inner diameter of D and tube thickness of t, derive the expression for diameter of S .

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Example (p.90 Gere) : Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structure
Horizontal rigid bar ADFB is suspended using wires CD and EF at point D and F, respectively. A vertical load P acts at B. Length of the bar is 3b. Length of wires CD and EF are L1 and L2 , respectively. Diameter and modulus of elasticity of wire : CD d1 and E1 ; EF d2 and E2. a] Derive the formula for the permissible load P if allowable stresses in wires CD and EF are 1 and 2 , respectively. b] Calculate P for the following condition : wire CD aluminium, E1=72GPa, d1=4.0mm, L1=0.40 m, wire EF magnesium, E2=45 GPa, d2=3.0 mm, L2=0.30 m,
Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM
1=200

MPa ; MPa.

2=175

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Solution

FBD for bar ADFB : T1, T2 are allowable forces in wires CD and EF. Allowable stresses :
1=T1/A1

and

2=T2/A2

P can be related to T1 and T2.


and d1, d2 given (A1 and A2 can be evaluated). P is the allowable load to be determined. FBD for rigid bar ADFB
1, 2

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

T1 and T2 : From equilibrium equation : moment at A = 0 , bT1+2bT2=3bP or T1+2T2=3P . Only ONE equilibrium equation. An additional equation is needed.

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


A2
A1

from (c):

Bar ADFB is rigid. Hence AB remains straight after P is applied.


2=2 1

: compatibility equation
1, 2

= elongation of CD and EF

Using =NL/(EA) , T2L2/(E2A2)=2T1L1/(E1A1) or f2T2=2f1T1

where f1=L1/(E1A1) and f2=L2/(E2A2)


Position of bar ADFB when acted upon by load P ( f1, f2 : flexibility of wires CD and EF)
Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


A2
A1

f2T2=2f1T1

T1=3f2P/(4f1+f2) T2=6f1P/(4f1+f2)

T1+2T2=P

where f1=L1 / (E1A1) dan f2=L2 / (E2A2)

a] allowable load P
1=T1/A1=(3P/A1)[ f2/(4f1+f2) 2=T2/A2=(6P/A2)[ f2/(4f1+f2)

] ]

based on condition

: P = smaller value between P1 and P2

P1= 1A1(4f1+f2)/( 3f2 ) based on condition


2

P2= 2A2(4f1+f2)/( 6f1 )


Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


A2
A1

b] Numerical calculation of P : A1= d12/4 = (4)2/4 = 12.57 mm2 A2= d22/4 = (3)2/4 = 7.069 mm2 f1=L1/(E1A1)=0.40m/[(72GPa)(12.57mm2)] =0.4420 x 10-6 m/N f2=L2/(E2A2)=0.30m/[(45GPa)(7.069mm2)] =0.9431 x 10-6 m/N
1=200

MPa ;

2=175

MPa

Substitution into equations for P1 and P2 : P1=2.41 kN and P2=1.26 kN


Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


A2
A1

P1=2.41 kN and P2=1.26 kN hence, allowable load P =1.26 kN

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


A2
A1

*Exercise: a) b) Show that RH=0 ; Determine RV by using the condition of moment equilibrium at B. Next, write down equilibrium equation for forces in vertical direction. Show that the same equilibrium equation i.e. T1+2T2=P . will be obtained.

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Cause of stress

and strains : external load not the only cause

Other causes

thermal effect (due to temperature change), misfit(due to error during fabrication) and pre-strain(due to initial deformation)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Thermal effect (p.93 Gere)

Deformation of bodies/structures due to thermal effect : expansion or contraction - THERMAL STRAIN


T=

( T)

A unrestrained block block is free to expand

: coefficient of thermal expansion ; T: temperature change unit = 1/K, 1/ C

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


positive (= expansion )
T=

( T)

: thermal strain
negative(=contraction ) : heated : cooled Normal materials : heated > Expands cooled > contracts

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


T= T

( T)
TL=

: thermal strain

( T)L : thermal expansion


temperaturedisplacement relation

For cases where bodies/structures are not restrained ; (free to expand/contracts)


T
T

: thermal strain WILL occur


: thermal stress WILL NOT occur

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


WILL ONLY occur if bodies/structures are restrained, i.e they are not free to expand or contract.
T

Statically determinate structures : thermal strain : will occur thermal stress : will not occur

Statically indeterminate structures : thermal strain : will occur thermal stress : might or might not occur (dependent upon the characteristics of
structure and patterns of temperature change)

(refer p.95 Gere for more information)


Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Example (p.96 Gere)
Bar AB is held fixed at supports A and B. If the temperature of the bar is increased uniformly by T, determine the thermal stress T that will occur in the bar ? (Assume the bar is made of linearly elastic material)
Solution Equilibrium equation : RA-RB=0 . The only equilibrium equation. Hence, a statically indeterminate problem. Bar tries to expand but it is prevented (restrained) Additional equation :
AB=0

: compatibility equation

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Fig. (b) : support A is removed; bar free to expand by T
Fig. (c) : reaction force RA is imposed ; bar shortens by R Fig.(a) : actual condition ;
AB=0 T=

T= R R=RAL/(EA)

( T)L ;

( T)L= RAL/(EA) RA= ( T)EA

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


RA= ( T)EA RA-RB=0 RA=RB= ( T)EA

thermal stress in bar :


T

= RA/A or
( T)

T=RB/A

T=E

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Other possible cause of deflection : - misfits (see e.g. pg.101 of Gere) - longer/shorted than required in the design

- Change in shape when the member is forced into the structure

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Additional points to ponder

S(= C)

(a) Axial force in different bodies: PC= P(ECAC)/(ESAS+ECAC) and PS=P(ESAS)/(ESAS+ECAC) (*from the above equations : force in bodies axial rigidity) axial rigidity (EA) and 1/total

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


PC : resultant of acting on AC
S(= C)

PS : resultant of acting on AS

(b) axial stress (normal stress) in S and C :


S=PS/AS=

PES/(ESAS+ECAC) and

C=

PC/AC=PEC/(ESAS+ECAC)

(*

S/ C

= ES/EC : in general, higher stress will occur in bodies which are stiffer)

Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM

EAS 152 Axially Loaded Bars


Additional points to ponder RA= ( T)EA RA-RB=0 RA=RB= ( T)EA

thermal stress in bar :


T

= RA/A or
( T)

T=RB/A

T=E

*From this example, we notice that :

- RA(or RB) does not depend on bar length L


- T does not depend on crosssectional area A and bar length L
Dr.K.K.Choong, School of Civil Engineering, USM