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Strength Gaining of RC Columns Using FRP Retrofit Technique

Akash Krupeshkumar Chauhan a, Nirav B. Umravia b

M Tech (Computer Aided Structural Engineering) International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad, Hyderabad- 500 032 Andhra Pradesh, India. akash.chauhan@students.iiit.ac.in, +91 9542837050 Assistant Professor, Civil Engg. Dept., C K Pithawala College of Engineering & Technology, Gujarat Technological University, Surat, India. nirav_dr@indiatimes.com , +91 9998511458
b

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to compare and discuss effectiveness of different strengthening methods used to improve the performance of FRP wrapped rectangular columns. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) lamina are being used in structural strengthening applications due to advantages such as lightweight, high strength and ease of application. Column is an important component of any structure. The strengthening is carried out to increase compressive strength and ductility of the column. The confinement due to FRP enhances both the ultimate compressive strength and the ultimate compressive strain of the concrete. This process is significantly more efficient with circular rather than square or rectangular columns. This research work desires to improve the confinement effectiveness of FRP composites for square and rectangular columns by changing the cross-sectional shape. This shape alteration is done using different materials such as normal concrete, micro concrete, cement based polymer and epoxy based polymer. The paper presents results of one experiment and explains ongoing programme.

Keywords: Concrete; Column; Strengthening, Jacketing, FRP

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INTRODUCTION Strengthening or retrofitting of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures is required for

a variety of reasons. Sometimes it may be change in use causing higher loads, or deterioration due to factors like environmental factors, or for withstanding lateral loads.[Fig 1] Column is an important component of any structure. The strengthening is carried out to increase compressive strength and ductility of the column. The confinement due to FRP enhances both the ultimate compressive strength and the ultimate compressive strain of the concrete. The three most commonly used materials for column jacketing are concrete (with reinforcing bars or fibre-reinforced), steel, or fibre-reinforced polymers. Kunio Fukuyama et al. [1]. The jacket material is selected depending on the column cross sectional shape and the column deficiency needing correction. At first concrete and steel jackets were used widely, later FRP jackets are being used.

FIG 1A Repaired Jetty using FRP [www.fyfeco.com]

Fig 1B Typical damaged column

Fig 1C Shear failure of a reinforced concrete column in the 2001 Bhuj earthquake

Fig 1D. The column damaged during blast and after FRP jacketing. [www.wai.com]

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FRP COMPOSITES FOR STRENGTHENING OF RC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Wrapping of FRP sheets around beams, and columns has become a common strengthening technique to increase the ductility and load carrying capacity of existing structural. C. Arya et.al. [1]. The most common fibre materials are E-glass (EFRP), Glass (GFRP) or Carbon (CFRP). The main advantages of FRP materials are (1) High specific strength and Stiffness (2) High corrosion resistance: - Composites are not prone to rust. (3) Non Magnetic

Properties: (4) Lower maintenance cost: - Due to inherent properties like resistance to corrosion, environment & chemical solvents, composites need lesser maintenance cost. (5) They can easily be applied to existing elements and can conform to any structural shape Strengthening of column using FRP- Jacketing on RC column with FRP primarily improves column performance, as it provides lateral confining pressure to the column. This confining pressure places the concrete in a triaxial state of stress, altering the loaddeformation characteristics of the concrete as shown in Fig. 2. High levels of confining pressure enable concrete to sustain both greater axial loads and greater ultimate axial strain by changing the failure mode from cleavage of the concrete to the crushing of its cement paste. FRP jackets can apply confining pressure either actively or passively. In the active retrofit scheme the fibers are tensioned either as they are wrapped around the column or by pressure injecting grout or epoxy between the jacket and the column. In the passive scheme, the
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confining pressure is a result of the reaction of the jacket against the lateral dilation of the column cross section as it is loaded axially.

Fig.2 Stress-strain diagram of confined unconfined concrete, L. Lam and J.G. Teng [3]

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STRENGTHENING OF RECTANGULAR COLUMNS The confinement due to FRP is significantly more efficient with circular rather than square

or rectangular columns: with the latter, the confinement action is mostly concentrated at the corners. Poor confinement may be due to low FRP jacket stiffness. Another reason for this is that FRP composite jackets resist axial loads by membrane action, and are more effective for circular sections as opposed to square or rectangular column sections with corners and long flat sides; stress concentrations at the corners and inefficient confinement at the flat sides cause loss of membrane action of the FRP composite and reduction of confinement.

Fig 3. Strengthening Of Circular Columns V/S Rectangular Columns, (Yousef A. Al-Salloum [2])
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The improvement in strength can be achieved by rounding the corners of rectangular sections with effectiveness increasing with rounding radius, until a certain threshold is reached. Because of the presence of steel ties, rounding of the corner radius in existing square/rectangular columns is limited.

Fig 4 : Effect of Corner Radius : The confinement effectiveness of FRP composites for square and rectangular columns can be increased by changing the cross-sectional shape. Patil et.al. [3] This shape alteration was done using micro concrete. Now this shape alteration will be done using different materials such as normal concrete, micro concrete, cement based polymer and epoxy based polymer. This study will focus on the use of different materials and techniques also discuss their merits and demerits.

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Experimental Program (Part 1) To test the applicability of proposed alteration of cross section method, an experimental

programme will be carried out. Stage 1 Casting of Prisms: In this stage total of 2 prisms of M20 grade were cast. Ready mix concrete was used to get the desired strength. The columns had size 150x150 and the height of all prisms was kept 300 mm. Special steel moulds were used for casting prisms. The prisms were cured for 28 days.

Stage 2 Alteration of cross section: The next stage was to alter the cross section of prisms. Special steel moulds having oval shape were used in which prisms were kept and micro concrete was poured around the prisms. Next day moulds were removed and these modified prisms were allowed to cure for 8 days. Stage 3 Wrapping of specimens: In this stage the cross section modified prisms were wrapped with FRP. Wrapping of FRP laminates to concrete surface is a delicate job and needs special attention. Prisms were wrapped following standard procedure indicated below: 1. Surface Preparation: The surface of the prisms was cleaned using wire brush. 2. Primer Application: The primer part A and part B were mixed in equal proportions and thoroughly mixed for 2-3 minutes using a wooden stick. The coat of Primer was applied to the prism surface by brush. The primer prepares the surface of the concrete for the application of the FRP sheets and has low viscosity. 3. Now Epoxy part A and part B were mixed in equal proportions and thoroughly mixed for 2-3 minutes using a wooden stick. The coat of epoxy was applied to the prism surface by paint brush. The surface is now ready for installation of FRP sheets. 4. Now the FRP Sheet was wrapped around the prisms surface. The sheet was pressed against the surface of prism to see that there are no air bubbles developed. And overlap of 150 mm ensured that no splitting occurs at the end. 5. A second hand coat of epoxy was given on this wrapped FRP to saturate it fully. A second application is necessary to ensure good penetration of the saturant around the fibres. 6. In case of prisms having second wrap epoxy coat was given on first layer and wrapping was continued for second layer. This second layer was the then coated with epoxy to saturate it further. After the required layers of the sheet were installed, the FRP wrapped prisms were cured for 10 days. These prisms are now ready for testing. Stage 4 Testing of prisms: The cross section altered, wrapped specimens were tested in UTM and Compression testing machine. Due to limitations of UTM (Capacity 100 tonnes) the specimens were tested in compression testing machine.

The observations are as detailed below. TABLE 1. STRENGTH OF SPECIMENS Strength of Strength of Strength of Cross Unconfined Normally Section Altered and Concrete Wrapped Wrapped Specimen (MPa) Specimen (MPa) (MPa) Single Double Single wrap wrap wrap 20 20 31 38 63 73 73 78

Sr. Specimen No Details

1 2

Square specimen Rectangular specimen

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EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM (part 2) In this programme it is proposed to use different materials like normal concrete, micro

concrete, cement based polymer and epoxy based polymer for changing the shape. Following experimental program has been planned. Concrete Grade: M25 Size of Rectangular Specimen: 100 X 150 X 300

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CONCLUSIONS The strength of FRP wrapped rectangular columns can be increased by changing the shape to elliptical.

Use of different materials for shape change plays a key role to gain strength. Various parameters can be verified and quantified with more number of specimens. Corner rounding is a well-accepted procedure that is normally used when retrofitting rectangular reinforced concrete columns to avoid stress concentration where FRP laminates are bent. No rounding of corners is required in this method as the shape is modified in this experiment. This is an advantage as rounding is cumbersome process creating noise pollution.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very grateful to Shree Y S Patil of SVNIT, Surat for encouraging and discussing

fruitfully on the subject. My special thanks are also to Shripad Construction to support us.

REFRENCES: [1] Kunio Fukuyama, Yasuo Higashibata, Yasuyoshi Miyauchi ,Studies on Repair and Strengthening Methods of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Columns ,Cement & Concrete Composites,22, (2000),81-88. [2] Yousef A. Al-Salloum (2007). Influence of edge sharpness on the strength of square concrete columns FRP composite laminates, Composites: Part B, 38, 640650. [3] Y.S. Patil1, H.S. Patil and J.A. Desai,(2011), Analysis of Performance of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Wrapped Columns - A Parametric Study, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Volume 6, Number 19, 2251-2266. [4] Pendhari Sandeep S. Kant, Tarun, Desai, Yogesh M. Application of Polymer Composites in Civil Construction: A General Review. Composite Structures, (84),(2008), 114124. [5] Lam L., Teng J.G. (2003). Design-Oriented StressStrain Model for FRP-Confined Concrete. Construction and Building Materials (17): 471489. [6] C. Arya , J.L. Clarke, E.A. Kay , P.D. ORegan, TR 55: Design Guidance for Strengthening Concrete Structures using Fibre Composite Materials: A Review, Engineering Structures, 24 ,(2002), 889900.