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Present simple USES and Structure

Today we are going to focus on the present simple tense. Please, if this is your first time learning the present simple tense please go to the Basic Level Lesson (Lesson 10a / Lesson 10b). We are going to focus on the USES of the present simple tense and check on the common errors. Present Simple USES (Cundo utilizamos el present simple?) Do you know when to use the present simple tense? If you answer this question clearly then you are relating it to a context or situation. This means that you can USE the tense more naturally and this will help your fluency. If you have problems then it is important to discuss the uses of the present simple tense in detail. ***Para aprender ingls ustedes tienen que dejar de ver la gramtica como una formula o estructura. Necesitan saber en que situaciones usarla ya que esto es el objetivo final. De nada sirve saber las reglas gramaticales sin saber cules son sus usos comunicativos. Veamos entonces en que contextos usamos el present simple. We use the present simple in the following situations: 1) General truths and current information. (Hechos e Informacin actual) When we want to talk about something that is always true then we can use the present simple. Lets look at these examples: Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Peru is in South America. Two plus two equals four. These actions are always true. The information does not vary. We can also use the present simple for current information. The verb to be is very useful to express these situations. I am thirty one years old. My brother is a Dentist Sheila has three children.

2) Routines and habits Whenever you want to express something that you usually do please remember to use the present simple. We use this tense to express actions that

form part of a routine. Miguel gets up at about 6:00am. (This happens constantly) Pedro doesnt have breakfast. (It is not part of his routine) I smoke about ten cigarrttes a day. (It is a habit)

We can use the Adverbs of Frequency to help up emphasis a routine. (IR A LECCION 13 BASICO) How often do you go dancing? I sometimes go dancing.

Remember: DO NOT USE THE PRESENT SIMPLE TO DESCRIBE AN ACTION THAT IS HAPPENING NOW Structure: Look at the following table: TABLE #1: Verb to be Other verbs She works for IBM They live in Miami I play tennis Pedro doesnt like playing tennis. They dont live together

She is my friend They are married Im a teacher Pedro isnt sad

They arent brothers Are they single? Is he your friend?

Do they play guitar? Does he study English?

Can you find the differences between the first and second column? Why do we use the auxiliaries do, does, dont and doesnt in the second column? When do we use them? We use the auxiliaries with the verbs that are NOT to be in the present simples in NEGATIVE and QUESTIONS forms The verb TO BE The verb to be denotes a state or a condition and it does not denote an action. The verb to be DOES NOT use auxiliaries. Look at the examples: (+) I am always happy He/she/it is at the bank We/you/they are married

(-) I am not French He/she/it is not sad We/you/they are not single. (?) Am I sick doctor? Is he/she/it in the kitchen? Are we/you/they Brazilian? Other verbs These include ALL the verbs that are NOT the verb to be (+) I /we/you/they play tennis He/she/it plays tennis (-)I /we/you/they dont play tennis He/she/it doesnt play tennis (?) Do I /we/you/they play tennis Does he/she/it play tennis Common mistakes: I am play tennis (incorrect) - I play tennis (correct)

DO NOT use the verb to be with other verbs together. Pablo isnt study English(incorrect) - Pablo doesnt study English (correct) When we use other verbs (study), to form the negative, we have to use the auxiliary doesnt You live in Bogota? (incorrect) -Do you live in Bogota?(correct)

Use the auxiliaries in questions with other verbs. She doesnt plays (incorrect) - She doesnt play (correct)

When we use the auxiliaries, the verb NEVER goes in the s form. It always uses the simple form