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Human resources are the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector or an economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent", "labor", and simply "people".

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The term in practice In the corporate vision, employees are viewed as assets to the enterprise, whose value is enhanced by development. Hence, companies will engage in a barrage of human resource management practices to capitalize on those assets. In governing human resources, three major trends are typically considered: 1. Demographics: the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, gender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings, insurance packages etc. 2. Diversity: the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Advocates of "workplace diversity" advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of society insofar as race, gender, sexual orientation etc. 3. Skills and qualifications: as industries move from manual to more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is "tight" (i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers must compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc. In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labor market, the following must be understood: Geographical spread: how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel to work should be in line with the pay offered, and the transportation and infrastructure of the area also influence who applies for a post. Occupational structure: the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure, namely, craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career (promotion
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through the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed). Generational difference: different age categories of employees have certain characteristics, for example, their behavior and their expectations of the organization.

Concerns about the terminology One major concern about considering people as assets or resources is that they will be commoditized and abused. Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not "commodities" or "resources", but are creative and social beings in a productive enterprise. The 2000 revision of ISO 9001, in contrast, requires identifying the processes, their sequence and interaction, and to define and communicate responsibilities and authorities. In general, heavily unionized nations such as France and Germany have adopted and encouraged such approaches. Also, in 2001, the International Labour Organization decided to revisit and revise its 1975 Recommendation 150 on Human Resources Development. One view of these trends is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system facilitates labor mobility and tends to make the entire economy more productive, as labor can develop skills and experience in various ways, and move from one enterprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting. Another important controversy regards labor mobility and the broader philosophical issue with usage of the phrase "human resources". Governments of developing nations often regard developed nations that encourage immigration or "guest workers" as appropriating human capital that is more rightfully part of the developing nation and required to further its economic growth. Over time, the United Nations have come to more generally support the developing nations' point of view, and have requested significant offsetting "foreign aid" contributions so that a developing nation losing human capital does not lose the capacity to continue to train new people in trades, professions, and the arts.
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Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is the management of an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture, and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will typically also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employees' representatives (usually a labor union). HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advancement, and further research, HR now focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion.

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Whereas in startup companies HR's duties may be performed by a handful of trained professionals or even by non-HR personnel, larger companies typically house an entire functional group dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have created programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations likewise seek to engage and further the field of HR, as evidenced by several field-specific publications.


Antecedent theoretical developments

HR spawned from the human relations movement, which began in the early 20th century due to work by Frederick Taylor in lean manufacturing. Taylor explored what he termed "scientific management" (later referred to by others as "Taylorism"), striving to improve economic efficiency in manufacturing jobs. He eventually keyed in on one of the principal inputs into the manufacturing processlaborsparking inquiry into workforce productivity.[1] The movement was formalized following the research of Elton Mayo, whose Hawthorne studies serendipitously documented how stimuli unrelated to financial compensation and working conditionsattention and engagementyielded more productive workers.[2] Contemporaneous work by Abraham Maslow, Kurt Lewin, Max Weber, Frederick Herzberg, and David McClelland formed the basis for studies in organizational behavior and organizational theory, giving room for an applied discipline.

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Birth and evolution of the discipline

By the time enough theoretical evidence existed to make a business case for strategic workforce management, changes in the business landscape (a l Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller) and in public policy (a l Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal) had transformed the employer-employee relationship, and the discipline was formalized as "industrial and labor relations". In 1913, one of the oldest known professional HR associationsthe Chartered Institute of Personnel and Developmentwas founded in England as the Welfare Workers' Association, then changed its name a decade later to the Institute of Industrial Welfare Workers, and again the next decade to Institute of Labor Management before settling upon its current name.[3] Likewise in the United States, the world's first institution of higher education dedicated to workplace studiesthe School of Industrial and Labor Relationswas formed at Cornell University in 1945.[4] During the latter half of the 20th century, union membership declined significantly, while workforce management continued to expand its influence within organizations. "Industrial and labor relations" began being used to refer specifically to issues concerning collective representation, and many companies began referring to the profession as "personnel administration". In 1948, what would later become the largest professional HR associationthe Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) was founded as the American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA).[5] Nearing the 21st century, advances in transportation and communications greatly facilitated workforce mobility and collaboration. Corporations began viewing employees as assets rather than as cogs in machine. "Human resources management", consequently, became the dominant term for the functionthe ASPA even changing its name to SHRM in 1998.[5] "Human capital management" is sometimes used synonymously with HR, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view of human resources; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used to describe the field include "organizational management",

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"manpower management", "talent management", "personnel management", and simply "people management".

In popular media
HR has been depicted in several popular media. On the U.S. television series of The Office, HR representative Toby Flenderson is sometimes seen as a nag because he constantly reminds coworkers of company policies and government regulations.[6] Longrunning American comic strip Dilbertalso frequently portrays sadistic HR policies through character Catbert, the "evil director of human resources".[7] Additionally, an HR manager is the title character in the 2010 Israeli film The Human Resources Manager, while an HR intern is the protagonist in 1999 French film Ressources humaines.

The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through careful design of work. During the middle part of the century emphasis shifted to the employee's productivity. Recent decades have focused on increased concern for the quality of working life, total quality management and worker's participation in management. These three phases may be termed as welfare, development and empowerment.

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Flow Chart: 1.1

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Human Resource Management: Nature

Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include: It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. Its focus is on results rather than on rules. It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization. It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees. It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc.

Human Resource Management: Scope

The scope of HRM is very wide: 1. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity etc. 2. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc. 3. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.

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Human Resource Management: Objectives

To help the organization reach its goals. To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources. To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals. To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization. To achieve and maintain high morale among employees. To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees. To increase to the fullest the employee's job satisfaction and self-actualization. To develop and maintain a quality of work life. To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society. To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect. To enhance employee's capabilities to perform the present job. To equip the employees with precision and clarity in transaction of business. To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.

Human Resource Management: Functions

In order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource Management undertakes the following activities: 1. Human resource or manpower planning. 2. Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel. 3. Training and development of employees. 4. Appraisal of performance of employees. 5. Taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another. 6. Remuneration of employees. 7. Social security and welfare of employees. 8. Setting general and specific management policy for organizational relationship. 9. Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling. 10. Staffing the organization.
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11. Aiding in the self-development of employees at all levels. 12. Developing and maintaining motivation for workers by providing incentives. 13. Reviewing and auditing manpower management in the organization 14. Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling. 15. Role Analysis for job occupants. 16. Job Rotation. 17. Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality of Working Life.

Human Resource Management: Major Influencing Factors

In the 21st century, HRM is influenced by following factors, which will work as various issues affecting its strategy: Size of the workforce. Rising employees' expectations Drastic changes in the technology as well as Life-style changes. Composition of workforce. New skills required. Environmental challenges. Lean and mean organizations. Impact of new economic policy. Political ideology of the Government. Downsizing and rightsizing of the organizations. Culture prevailing in the organization etc.

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Importance of Human Resource Management

The benefits of proper human resource management are many. An organization cannot build a good team of working professionals without it. The key functions of the HR management team include recruiting people, training them, performance appraisals, motivating employees as well as workplace communication, workplace safety, and much more. The beneficial effects of these functions are discussed here:

Recruitment and Training This is one of the major responsibilities of the human resource team. The HR managers come up with plans and strategies for hiring the right kind of people. They design the criteria which is best suited for a specific job description. Their other tasks related to recruitment include formulating the obligations of an employee and the scope of tasks assigned to him or her. Based on these two factors, the contract of an employee with the company is prepared. When needed, they also provide training to the employees according to the requirements of the organization. Thus, the staff members get the opportunity to sharpen their existing skills or develop specialized skills which in turn, will help them to take up some new roles.

Performance Appraisals Human resource management team encourages the people working in an organization, to work according to their potential and gives them suggestions that can help them to bring about improvement in it. The team communicates with the staff individually from time to time and provides all the necessary information regarding their performances and also defines their respective roles. This is beneficial as it enables them to form an outline of their anticipated goals in much clearer terms and thereby, helps them execute the goals with best possible efforts. Performance appraisals, when taken on a regular basis, motivate the employees.

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Maintaining Work Atmosphere This is a vital aspect of human resource management because the performance of an individual in an organization is largely driven by the work atmosphere or work culture that prevails at the workplace. A good working condition is one of the benefits that the employees can expect from an efficient human resource team. A safe, clean and healthy environment can bring out the best in an employee. A congenial atmosphere gives the staff members job satisfaction as well.

Managing Disputes In an organization, there are several issues on which disputes may arise between the employees and the employers. You can say conflicts are almost inevitable. In such a scenario, it is the human resource department which acts as a consultant and mediator to sort out those issues in an effective manner. They first hear the grievances of the employees. Then they come up with suitable solutions to sort them out. In other words, they take timely action and prevent things from going out of hands.

Developing Public Relations The responsibility of establishing good public relations lies with the human resource management to a great extent. They organize business meetings, seminars and various official gatherings on behalf of the company in order to build up relationships with other business sectors. Sometimes, the HR department plays an active role in preparing the business and marketing plans for the organization too.

Any organization, without a proper setup for human resource management is bound to suffer from serious problems while managing its regular activities. For this reason, today, companies give a lot of stress for setting up of a strong and effective human resource management system

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Human Resource Management: Futuristic Vision

On the basis of the various issues and challenges the following suggestions will be of much help to the philosophy of HRM with regard to its futuristic vision: 1. There should be a properly defined recruitment policy in the organization that should give its focus on professional aspect and merit based selection. 2. In every decision-making process there should be given proper weightage to the aspect that employees are involved wherever possible. It will ultimately lead to sense of team spirit, team-work and inter-team collaboration. 3. Opportunity and comprehensive framework should be provided for full expression of employees' talents and manifest potentialities. 4. Networking skills of the organizations should be developed internally and externally as well as horizontally and vertically. 5. For performance appraisal of the employees emphasis should be given to 360 degree feedback which is based on the review by superiors, peers, subordinates as well as selfreview. 6. 360 degree feedback will further lead to increased focus on customer services, creating of highly involved workforce, decreased hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases and identifying performance threshold. 7. More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM will cover all employees at all levels; it will conform to customer's needs and expectations; it will ensure effective utilization of resources and will lead towards continuous improvement in all spheres and activities of the organization. 8. There should be focus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge of the employees are broadened as well as potentialities of the employees are increased for future job prospects. 9. For proper utilization of manpower in the organization the concept of six sigma of improving productivity should be intermingled in the HRM strategy. 10. The capacities of the employees should be assessed through potential appraisal for performing new roles and responsibilities. It should not be confined to organizational
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aspects only but the environmental changes of political, economic and social considerations should also be taken into account. 11. The career of the employees should be planned in such a way that individualizing process and socializing process come together for fusion process and career planning should constitute the part of human resource planning.

To conclude Human Resource Management should be linked with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. All the above futuristic visions coupled with strategic goals and objectives should be based on 3 H's of Heart, Head and Hand i.e., we should feel by Heart, think by Head and implement by Hand.

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Today retaining talented people has become one of the major challenges across the globe. A critical person holds crucial position in the organization and has the requisite skill level to perform the job. Most often in organizations, the critical talent is found at the middle level. The topic Identification and Retention of Critical Talent focuses on segregating the pivotal roles and picking out ways to retain people performing those roles. A satisfaction survey has been conducted during the study to check the contentment and commitment level of critical talent. This survey can be utilized by the company to do further research. Interview method has been adopted to do the survey, based on various parameters of job satisfaction. This research has been done to enable Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore to stay focused on their critical people and eventually satisfy them to whatever extent possible.

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Employee retention refers to the various policies and practices which let the employees stick to an organization for a longer period of time. Every organization invests time and money to groom a new joinee make him a corporate ready material and bring him at par with the existing employees. The organization is completely at loss when the employees leave their job once they are fully trained. Employee retention takes into account the various measures taken so that an individual stays in an organization for the maximum period of time.

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Research says that most of the employees leave an organization out of frustration and constant friction with their superior and other team members. In some case low salary, lack of growth prospects and motivation compel an employee to look for a change. The management must try its level best to retain those employees who are really important for the system and are known to be effective contributors. It is the responsibility of the line managers as well as the management to ensure that the employees are satisfied with their roles and responsibilities and the job is offering them a new challenge and learning everyday.


Misha was a talented employee who delivered her best and completed all her work in the desired time frame. Her work locked errors and was always found to be innovative and thought provoking. She never interfered with anybody else's work and stayed away from unnecessary gossip and rumours. She avoided loitering around at the work place, was serious about her work and no doubts her performance was always appreciable. Greg, her immediate boss never really liked Misha and considered her as a big threat at the workplace. He left no stone unturned to insult and demotivate Misha. Soon, Misha got fed up with Greg and decided to move on. SITUATION 1: The HR did not make any efforts to retain Misha and accept her resignation. SITUATION 2: The HR immediately intervened and discussed the several issues which prompted Misha to think for a change. They tried their level best to convince Misha and even appointed a new boss to make the things better for her. SITUATION 1 would most likely leave the organization at lurch. It is not easy to find an employee who gets well with the system and understands the work. Hiring an employee,
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training him and making him fit to work in an organization incur huge costs and thus sincere efforts must be made to retain the employee. Every problem has a solution and the management must probe into the exact reasons of an employee's displeasure. Employees sticking to an organization for a longer time tend to know the organization better an develop a feeling of attachment towards it. The employees who stay for a longer duration are familiar with the company policies, guidelines as well as rules and regulations and thus can contribute more effectively than individuals who come and go. Employee retention techniques go a long way in motivating the employees for them to enjoy their work and avoid changing jobs frequently.

What sets Employee Retention Strategies apart is a steadfast philosophy that:

Uses only research-based, theory-supported approaches to improving employee engagement. Avoided are gimmicks such as employee of the month, suggestion boxes, prizes or other carrots. While commonly used, these short-term fixes fail to produce genuine employee loyalty (more than 60 years of research tells us so!).

Employs an easy-to-understand systems approach to ensure the root causes of turnover are addressed and the potential for lasting change unleashed. Customizes all activities to your organizations unique history, current practices and strategic objectives. Also considered are challenges unique to your industry sector, competitive marketplace issues and talent shortages.

Involves those responsible for implementing change in actually creating the change, ensuring input and improved shared understanding and support of all initiatives.

Integrates hands-on, action-oriented approaches that enable organizations to move forward quickly and effectively

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Recognizes the research-proven role of no-cost strategies in developing the glue that builds employee loyalty and commitment.

Brings to your organization leading-edge organization-development best practices to effectively and quickly build a retention-rich culture.

The Employee Retention Strategies newsletter, which gained this website the No. 1 positions on Google and Yahoo during its publication in the early part of this decade, was a nationally noted source for research-based, fact-driven guidance on enhancing employee retention. (Back issues still are available). From that research come approaches built on a solid foundation of what works (and what doesnt) to gain the commitment of employees in all industries and economic sectors.

Added to this base are leading-edge organization-development methodologies to bring your organizations strengths to the fore, to rekindle the dynamic potential of your company to meet todays challenges and to rebuild workforce commitment to the heart of your organizations mission.

Spend time reading the topics on this site. Understand more about what truly contributes to employee engagement and retention. Then, call for an individual discussion of your organizations unique retention agenda.

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Flow Chart: 1.1

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Management thinkers from Ferdinand Fournies ( Why Employees Don't Do What They're Supposed to Do and What to Do About It) to Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman (First Break All the Rules agree that a satisfied employee knows clearly what is expected from him every day at work. Changing expectations keep people on edge and create unhealthy stress. They rob the employee of internal security and make the employee feel unsuccessful. Im not advocating unchanging jobs just the need for a specific framework within which people clearly know what is expected from them.

The quality of the supervision an employee receives is critical to employee retention. People leave managers and supervisors more often than they leave companies or jobs. It is not enough that the supervisor is well-liked or a nice person, starting with clear expectations of the employee, the supervisor has a critical role to play in retention. Anything the supervisor does to make an employee feel unvalued will contribute to turnover. Frequent employee complaints center on these areas.

--lack of clarity about expectations, --lack of clarity about earning potential, --lack of feedback about performance, --failure to hold scheduled meetings, and
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--failure to provide a framework within which the employee perceives he can succeed.

The ability of the employee to speak his or her mind freely within the organization is another key factor in employee retention. Does your organization solicit ideas and provide an environment in which people are comfortable providing feedback? If so, employees offer ideas, feel free to criticize and commit to continuous improvement. If not, they bite their tongues or find themselves constantly "in trouble" - until they leave.

Talent and skill utilization is another environmental factor your key employees seek in your workplace. A motivated employee wants to contribute to work areas outside of his specific job description. How many people could contribute far more than they currently do? You just need to know their skills, talent and experience, and take the time to tap into it. As an example, in a small company, a manager pursued a new marketing plan and logo with the help of external consultants. An internal sales representative, with seven years of ad agency and logo development experience, repeatedly offered to help. His offer was ignored and he cited this as one reason why he quit his job. In fact, the recognition that the company didn't want to take advantage of his knowledge and capabilities helped precipitate his job search.

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Hard Costs Recruitment costing Training costing

Hidden Costs Loss of productivity Wastage of time Work load on others Loss of customers Loss of man hours

This study reveals key factors that motivate employees to stay with the organization. It also highlights the necessary steps which need to be taken by Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore to suit the needs of its critical employees. Apart from this study being significant to Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts, Bangalore, it also stands to benefit the Indian manufacturing sector and eventually might improve Toyotas future endeavors in India. This is because Toyota has been the only company to outsource Tier 1 manufacturing to India, at Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts, Bangalore. This type of manufacturing, if nurtured, can give a fresh look to the countrys manufacturing sector. Tier 1 projects offer higher value that will boost the Indian economy.

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Improvement to employee retention

Successful organizations realize by having an effective employee retention plan will help them sustain their leadership and growth in the marketplace. Good organizations make employee retention a core element of their talent management strategy and organizational development process. Those that fail to make employee retention a priority are at risk of losing their top talented people to the competition. Chart Your Course International helps organizations design employee retention programs to recruit, manage, retain and engage the best workforce available by providing cutting-edge talent management strategies, hiring assessments, consulting, employee retention training and talent management programs.

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Retention Strategies

Our research surfaced six dimensions that are most critical to influencing retention. These dimensions must be infused into three major components that must be in place and aligned for an organization to achieve world class retention: 1. Manager Retention Practices Our research consistently validated the reality that the manager plays a significant role in influencing the employee's commitment level and retention. There are a number of manager retention practices which increase the probability that an employee will remain committed to an organization over time. These retention practices represent the manager's actual behaviors on the job. This often has little to do with the amount of classroom training they have received. Furthermore, the best retention practices are not the same as the standard menu for good organizational management. Most organizations ask their managers to place productivity as the highest priority, underscored by pressures to fulfill "our obligations to our investors."

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Good retention practices focus not only on what the employee is contributing to the company, but also focus on how the manager can create a climate so that the employee is retained and committed on a long term basis. While enlightened leaders balance the needs of the organization with the needs of the employee, the truth is that these leaders are rare. Though managers play a very crucial role in retention, they do not control all of the factors that can affect attrition. Therefore, the second component represents the organization's responsibility in the retention equation. 2. Organizational Retention Systems There are a number of organizational systems and processes that influence retention. Some of them are evident, such as equity of pay scales. Other systems are less obvious, and their impact on retention is often unrecognized. For example, there is evidence that an organization's recruiting systems and processes can significantly impact retention ratios. These systems support the Manager Retention Practices, but they also increase the likelihood that employees are committed on a long term basis and are performing at their best. 3. Measurement and Accountability Closely linked to the other components, this component ensures that retention becomes an on-going priority. Many organizations do not even know what their attrition rates are. And those that do often lack enough data to pinpoint where the problem is most severe, or to uncover the specific causes of attrition. For example, those organizations that measure attrition sometimes do not track it by length of service. The tenure patterns of the departing employees can reveal valuable information concerning the potential causes for attrition. Additionally, many organizations do not track attrition by occupational group other than by "manager" or "non-manager." This simple segmentation is often a crude one that does not provide the organization the refined information it needs.

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Measurement goes hand in hand with accountability. Organizations must hold their managers personally accountable for retention. Likewise, they must hold their corporate staff accountable for developing, maintaining, and upgrading their retention systems. When retention is relegated the status of being a "HR issue," it often falls to the bottom of the priority list for managers. When it becomes one of their business goals, it takes on a new perspective. One example comes from one of the world's top hardware manufacturers. In a recent meeting, the new director of the telephone technical support group presented the following four new business goals to his management team. The first three were: 1. Fulfill Technical Support Contract Obligations 2. Maintain the Highest Level of Customer Satisfaction 3. Manage Costs Aggressively

The fourth goal was to retain employees! After some discussion, the entire management team observed that they would not achieve the other goals if they could not achieve their retention goals. In another division of the same company, the senior managers' personal bonuses are calculated on the basis of their success at retaining their best people. When managers are held accountable in this fashion, it ensures that the motivation to examine and enhance their personal retention practices is ever present.

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Toyota is a world leader in the research and development of advanced automobile technology. Creating intelligent solutions for today's mobility challenges and taking responsibility for the future generations. That's the mission that motivates Toyota. Innovation The quest for innovation is the foundation for the Toyota's new technology concepts. Unconventional ideas need room for creativity and the technology of the future need testing in real- life conditions. This is why Toyota develops concept cars such as p.o.d or FXS. Engines Engines technology is one of Toyota's greatest assets. Toyota's award- winning engine range reflects the high design and quality standards set by its engineers. Toyota engines are developed for the performance and responsiveness with a big focus on reducing emission and saving fuel. Today Toyota brings these benefits to customers with advanced variable valve technology, petrol engine, common rail turbo diesel and with the unique Toyota Hybrid System. Safety Safety is the top priority for Toyota. Advanced steering, braking and traction control technologies help keep your Toyota on the road and out of trouble. In addition, every new Toyota model is carefully designed to maximize safety, using computer simulations and real life crash tests. The body and chassis are built to absorb impact and provide maximum occupant protection, whilst SRS airbags in place in case of a collision.

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Historical Background of the Toyota Motor Corporation

The story of the Toyota Motor Corporation began in September 1933 when Toyoda Automatic Loom (one of the world's leading manufacturers of weaving machinery) created a new division devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda. The Toyoda Automatic Loom Works was then headed by Japan's "King of Inventors" Sakichi Toyoda. The patent rights to one of his machines had been sold to Platt Brothers (UK) and provided the seed-money for the development and test-building of Toyota's first automobiles. Soon thereafter, the division produced its first Type A Engine in 1934, which was used in the first Model A1 passenger car in May 1935 and the G1 truck in August 1935. Production of the Model AA passenger car started in 1936. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937. Commercial passenger car production started in 1947 with the model SA. In 1950 a separate sales company Toyota Motor Sales Co. was established (which lasted until July 1982). 1950 also saw the companys first and only strike. The labor and the management resolved those issues permanently. They were committed to the principles of mutual trust and dependence, which guides their growth till today. As production system improved in the late 1950s, it led to the establishment of Toyota Production System designed by TaiichiOhno. In 1970 it came to be popularly known as TPS. It works on the principles of Jidoka (automation with human intelligence), Just-in-time and Kaizen and focuses on setup, lead time and lot size reduction and provides systematic ways to improve quality.

Toyota started producing vehicles outside Japan in 1959 at a small plant in Brazil. It believed in localizing its operations wherever it went. This philosophy helped them build

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mutually beneficial long-term relations with local suppliers and fulfill its commitments to local labor. August 1997 marked the 60th anniversary of Toyota Motor Corporation. The fledgling company founded by Kiichiro Toyoda, had since then blossomed into the leader that it is today. Today Toyota is the largest auto company in the world in terms of market capitalization. It is the second largest auto company in the world in terms of sales volume. Toyota Motor Corporation is publicly traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. Its manufacturing and export divisions are set up in more than 20 countries and its vehicles are sold all across the globe. Over and above manufacturing, Toyota also has a global network of 'Research and Development' facilities, embracing three major car markets of Japan, North America and Europe. Toyota Financial Services Corporation provides financing to Toyota customers. Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology like P.T. Toyota Bio Indonesia in Indonesia, Australian Afforestation Pvt. Ltd. in Australia, Toyota FloritechCo. Ltd. and Toyota Roof Garden Corporation in Japan and Sichuan Toyota Nitan Development Co. Ltd. in China. Across the world, Toyota participates enthusiastically in community activities ranging from the sponsorship of educational and cultural programs to international exchange and research. Today, Toyota is by far the largest Japanese automotive manufacturer, producing more than 7.0 million vehicles per year, equivalent to one in every six seconds. This has been made possible by its way of working called The Toyota Way and believing that there is still a big world out there.

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VISION Delight our customers through innovative products, by utilizing advanced

technologies and services.

Ensure growth to become a major player in the Indian auto industry and
contribute to the Indian economy by involving all stakeholders.

Become the most admired and respected company in India by following the
Toyota way.

Be Core Company in global Toyota operations.

MISSION Practice ethics and transparency in all our business operations. Touch the hearts of our customers by providing products and services of superior
quality at a competitive price.

Cultivate a lean and flexible business model throughout the value chain by
continuous improvement.

Lead the Toyota global operations for the emerging mass market. Create a challenging workplace which promotes a sense of pride, ownership,
mutual trust and team work.

Create an eco- friendly company in harmony with harmony with nature and

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Toyota- Kirloskar Collaboration

Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Pvt. Ltd.

Toyota entered the Indian markets in a joint venture with Kirloskar Systems Limited (KSL). KSL was established in 1962 in the name of Kirloskar Asea Limited (KAL). The company has technical and financial collaboration with Asea group of Sweden. In 1973 the name Kirloskar Asea Limited was changed to Kirloskar System Limited with the exit of Asea Limited from the joint venture. In the year 1998, KSL entered into an agreement with Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan for technical assistance and manufacturing auto components. Subsequently after a takeover in 1999, Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Pvt. Ltd. (TKAP) was established in the form of a joint venture between three corporate namely Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) with 64% stake, Toyota Industries Corporation (TICO) with 26%stake and Kirloskar Systems Limited (KSL) with 10% stake.

It started its operations in Bidadi area in Bangalore with 3 Units Division producing Front Axle, Rear Axle and Propeller Shaft for Qualis Model of Cars. Now these parts are made for Innova Vehicle. In 2004 it started Transmission Unit which is an Export Oriented Unit. This division is exporting its entire production to be installed in Toyotas Innovative Multi utility Vehicles (vans, SUVs and small trucks on a common platform) being produced in nine countries (including Thailand, the Philippines, South Africa and some Latin American countries). The present MD of Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts is Hiroshi Nakagawa and is constantly working with all the other employees to this as The Best Toyota Plant in India and the cleanest in the world.

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Importance of Toyota- Kirloskar collaboration to India

Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Pvt. Ltd. enjoys the privilege as a public utility company by the government of India. This is because it is engaged in critical component manufacturing also called as Tier 1 manufacturing. Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts transmissions project is the most significant Tier I project ever outsourced to India Worldwide, auto component supplies have evolved into tier-wise manufacturing because of the need for super-specialization in different areas of automobile manufacturing. Of these, Tier I, the closest to the vehicle maker, has emerged as the most crucial link in the supply chain. This is because it is responsible for supplying the larger modules like engine, transmission, wheel assemblies, dashboard assemblies and steering systems directly to auto companies. Importantly, the Tier I supplier has to have the capability to design, develop and manufacture the entire module on its own because automakers are beginning to involve them as early as the concept stage of vehicle development. Tier II manufacturers are those who supply to Tier I manufacturers and those on Tier III supply to Tier II manufacturers. Tier I manufacturing is very crucial for India. It helps India make a quantum jump to take up major global projects and prove its mettle in critical component manufacturing. As of now Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts is 90 per cent owned by Toyota Motor Corporation and thus will supply to Toyotas subsidiaries only.

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Toyotas contribution to Automobile Sector

Japanese automobiles, today by default set a global standard in terms of quality, innovation and efficiency. Toyota is known as much for its lower end, mass market Corollas as it is for its luxury segment sedan, Lexus or for its ubiquitous SUV, Prado Land Cruiser. Toyota's consolidated vehicle sales in 2011 have been around 7.974 million units. Toyota Motor Corporation forecasts consolidated net revenues of 22.3 trillion yen for the year 2012. Apart from its well known brand and increasing sales, Toyota has also given a new shape to the global manufacturing standards. It has successfully introduced and followed concepts like Just in time, Kaizen, Jidoka (automation with human intelligence), eliminating Muda (waste), Lean manufacturing etc. The western world is yet to match up to these standards. There are about 24 Toyota traditions and the most important guiding principle is Contributing towards Sustainable Development which still holds good and guides the Toyota way of working.


Toyota Car Models in India

Till date more than 118 different models of Toyota Cars have been rolled out in different countries depending on their means of transport, need, policies, climatic conditions etc. They also have more than 7 concept cars in their basket. In India Toyota has launched: Prado Fortuner Camry Corolla

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Innova Qualis (stopped production) Lexus

Future Plans of Toyota in India

Toyota has a market share of only 5% in India, while India's biggest car manufacturer, Suzuki-controlled Maruthi Udyog, holds about 50% in the local market, where small cars account for more than 70% of overall auto sales. Toyota sold 48,000 vehicles last year in India as per country records. Toyota plans to develop vehicles specifically targeting emerging markets, the first of which was sold in India around 2010. In collaboration with its subsidiary, Daihatsu Motor, Toyota will also put a new plant in India on stream next year. It will build a new plant to produce small cars as early as next year in collaboration with its subsidiary Daihatsu. The pair will build the new plant near an existing factory run by a joint venture between Toyota and an Indian company in Bangalore, southern India. Initially it plans to produce 100,000 cars a year, with investment likely to total more than 10 billion yen. Toyota's ambitious expansion of local production is inevitably bringing forth the new task of securing a sufficient number of skilled workers, among other prerequisites, for sustainable growth. In India, Toyota will also open a vocational training school within the compound of Toyota Kirloskar Motor, a joint venture between Toyota and the Kirloskar Group, in Bangalore in August next year to foster local engineers. It will be the first such school outside Japan to be run by Toyota. India in terms of Automobile penetration has more or less been an untapped market. Toyota has seen this as an opportunity to grow its business and in turn benefit the Indian Economy.

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Our strength is our people Toyota believes that an organization gets its strength from its employees. We cultivate a corporate culture that truly reflects the qualities of 'Continuous Improvement' and 'Respect for People' in all our activities, collective and individual. We not only encourage employees to give their suggestions on improving our products, practices and work environment, but also reward them for their valuable inputs. Developing human resources and ensuring employment stability is of utmost importance to TKM. As part of a regular practice, over 400 of our team members have been benefited from attending various training programs in Toyota plants across Japan, Taiwan and Indonesia. Employees are motivated to work in groups of 5- 7, called 'Quality Circles', to enhance teamwork, innovation and productivity. TKM's concept of 'Information Time' or I- Time facilities direct communication between team members and leaders.

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Harmonizing with the environment

Globally, Toyota has indicated a strong and diverse commitment to the pursuit of harmonious growth through its technically advanced and environment- friendly products. There have been relentless efforts in the crucial fields of mobility, city transportation, resources, society and environment, through research and developement. Protecting the environment has always been a priority at TKM, starting with the ecofriendly engines that are manufactured for the Toyota vehicles, to the advanced technology that is used for purification or recycling of waste water at the plant. Apart from this, the plant at Bidadi, Karnataka, is surrounded by a green belt, meets high environmental standards and has achieved the ISO 14001 certification in its very first year of operations.

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Global organization, with a strong international position in 170 countries worldwide. High financial strength (1997, sales turnover, 131,511 million), sales growth of 29.3%. Strong brand image based on quality, environmental friendly (greener), customized range. Industry leader in manufacturing and production. Maximizes profit through efficient lean manufacturing approaches (e.g. Total Quality Management) and JIT (Just in Time) manufacturing and first mover in car research and development. Excellent penetration in key markets (US, China, EMEA) and now the second largest car manufacturer in the world, surpassing Ford. Weakness

Japanese car manufacturer - seen as a foreign importer. Production capacity. Toyota produces most of its cars in US and Japan whereas competitors may be more strategically located worldwide to take advantage of global efficiency gains. Some criticism has been made due to large-scale re-call made in 2005, quality issues. Opportunities

Innovation -first to develop commercial mass-produced hybrid gas-electric vehicles (gas and electric), e.g. Prius model. Based on advanced technologies and R&D activity. With oil prices at an all time high - this investment and widening of product portfolio fits consumers looking to alternative sources of fuels away from gas guzzling cars. To expand more aggressively into new segments of the market. The launch of Aygo model by Toyota is intended to take market share in youth market. To produce cars which are more fuel efficient, have greater performance and less impact on the environment. To develop new cars which respond to social and institutional needs and wants. The development of electric cars, hybrid fuels, and components reduces the impact on the environment. Toyota's Eco-Vehicle Assessment System (Eco-VAS) has helped in production, usage, and disposal. Continued global expansion - especially in the emerging markets e.g. China and India, Russia, where population and demand is accelerating.

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Saturation and increased competition, intense marketing campaigns increasing competitive pressures. Shifts in the exchange rates affecting profits and cost of raw materials. Predictions of a downturn in the economy e.g. recession, will affect car purchases (especially new cars). As household budgets tighten - this could lead a decline in new car sales and possible rationalization of dealerships. Changing demographics e.g. number of large families is declining. Undermining the demand for large family cars. Changing usage - families using the car less for taking children to schools. Home deliveries. Businesses - restricting business travel (tele-conferencing). Governments encouraging alternative forms of transport - cycling and incentives to use public transport across Europe. Rising oil prices (fuel costs) and the costs of maintaining cars. Increase in families who have chosen not to own a car, or decided to use their car less.

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A study on retention of critical talent of the employees with reference to Toyota Kirloskar


It has become necessary to define and identify the Critical Roles and Talent in staff positions at Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts, Bangalore and conduct satisfaction survey to check their motivation level. There has been recent attrition in the company and attrite talent has been extremely talented in terms of their role and skill levels. This study facilitates Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts, Bangalore to identify reasons for its increased turnover and take corrective action.


The study has been conducted only in Bangalore city. The topics covered in this research are restricted to Retention, Attrition and Job Satisfaction.


This study is conducted to find out the following:-

To define and identify the Critical Roles and Talent at Nandi Toyota, Bangalore in all staff positions To assess the satisfaction level of the identified talent in staff positions To propose suggestions in line with companys capability and requirement

The nature of data collected for this project was primarily through Questionnaire. Similar type of Questionnaire was distributed among workers and supervisors. Apart from this, many employees were questioned orally.
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PRIMARY DATA Primary data was collected from the employees of Nandi Toyota, Bangalore. For this purpose a structured questionnaire was prepared. Similar type of questionnaire was distributed among workers and supervisors 100 respondents have been considered for the study. Information interaction with respondents served as a tool for collection of variable data. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data was collected from files, reports, trade journals, newspapers and magazines of Nandi Toyota, Bangalore. Part of the information was collected from Nandi Toyota web site.

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SURVEY METHOD The data was collected from 66 workers and 24 supervisors in the form of questionnaires, which were completely structured. Similar type of questionnaire was distributed among the above 2 mentioned levels of employees each compromising of 20 questions.


Here questionnaires are used as tool for the study.

The sampling technique used for the study is Simple Random Sampling. An employee opinion survey conducted to evaluate the satisfaction level of the existing workers and supervisors in Nandi Toyota.

In this case the employees belonging to the workers category and supervisors category of Nandi Toyota, Bangalore are only considered.

A sample size of 100 respondents was selected out of which 66 are workers and 24 are supervisors.

The questionnaire consists of closed and multiple-choice questions.

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The opinion of the respondents might not be true Japanese Expatriates could not be interviewed because of language barrier The study was only limited to the staff people and none of the team members could be involved in it. There was paucity of time to compare this company with other companies in the same industry.

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Q1. What were your reasons for joining TKAP?

TABLE 4(a).1
Particulars Learning No. of respondents % of respondents

39 23 38 100

39% 23% 38% 100%

Brand name Others Total

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 39% of the respondents joined the company for learning, 38% of the respondents joined the company due to other reasons, while 23% of the respondents joined the organization due to its brand name.

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GRAPH 4(b).1 Reasons for joining TKAP

350% 300% 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% Learning Brand name Others

Inference: Most of the employees consider learning and brand name as the main reason for joining TKAP. The company must find out ways to make people learn more .If not addressed properly, this factor might lead to dissatisfaction and frustration.

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Q2. How is the work pressure in your department?

TABLE 4(a).2

Particulars High Moderate Low Total

No. of respondents 50 20 30 100

% of respondents 50% 20% 30% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be observed that 50% of the respondents opinioned that work pressure was high, 30% of the respondents said work pressure was low, while 20% of them expressed that work pressure was moderate.

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GRAPH 4(b).2 Work Pressure

High Moderate Low

Inference: Most of the respondents feel more work pressure. The reasons for this could be lesser employees in a department than required or improper division of work.

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Q3. What kind of training should be given at TKAP?

TABLE 4(a).3
Particulars Managerial Technical Total No. of respondents 55 45 100 % of respondents 55% 45% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 55% of the respondents preferred managerial training while 45% of the respondents preferred technical training.

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GRAPH 4(b).3 Type of Training

0 0

45% 55% Mangerial training Technical training

Inference: This graph depicts that respondents are technically very strong. Respondents feel they lack managerial skills more than technical skills. Managerial skills must be checked by the Human Resource Department at the time of recruitment.

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Q4. Have you received any formal training program till now?

TABLE 4(a).4

Particulars Yes No Total

No. of Respondents 50 50 100

% of respondents 50% 50% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 50% of the respondents have received formal training program, and the other half have not received formal training.

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GRAPH 4(b).4 Formal Training

60% 50% 40% 30% 50% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 50%

Inference: This graph shows that not enough respondents have received formal training. Respondents may consider this as a lacking on the part of the company to develop their employees.

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Q5. Are your job responsibilities clear to you and your department?

TABLE 4(a).5
Particulars Yes No. of respondents % of respondents

33 67 100

33% 67% 100%

No Total

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 67% of the respondents expressed that the job responsibilities where clear to them, 33% expressed that the responsibilities where not clear.

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GRAPH 4(b).5 Clear job responsibilities


Yes 67% No

Inference: This graph infers that respondents may be doing a lot of extra work than assigned to them. This might lead to high levels of dissatisfaction.

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Q6. Does your department receive necessary support from other departments?

TABLE 4(a).6
Particulars Yes No. of respondents % of respondents

44 56 100

44% 56% 100%

No Total

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 56% of the respondents observed that necessary support from other departments where not given, 44% of them observed that necessary support from other departments was obtained.

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GRAPH 4(b).6 Departmental support

60% 50% 40% 30% 44% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 56%

Inference: This graph shows intra department coordination. It can be inferred that the company is influenced by internal politics. In such case necessary action must be taken to curb this soon.

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Q7. Do you have a defined career plan at TKAP?

TABLE 4(a).7
Particulars Yes No. of respondents % of respondents

27 73 100

27% 73% 100%

No Total

Source: Survey data

Analysis: From the above table it can be analyzed that 73% of the respondents do not
have a defined career plan at TKAP, while 27% of the respondents have a defined career plan at TKAP.

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80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 27% 73%

Inference: The interpretation of this graph shows that respondents are not going in any direction. TKAP must define career plan for its employees so that they remain motivated at work.

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Q8. What is your level of motivation while working at TKAP?

TABLE 4(a).8
Particulars Average No. of respondents % of respondents

33 67 100

33% 67% 100%

Good Total

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 67% of the respondents felt that the level of motivation was good, while 33% of them felt it was average.

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70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 33% 67%

Inference: This should be constantly checked at all levels in the company. The motivation level will define the level of job satisfaction. The reason for low motivation is because of compensation, working hours and slow decision making.

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Q9. Are Toyota Values and way of working understood at all levels in your department?

TABLE 4(a).9
Particulars Yes Not sure No. of respondents % of respondents

No Total

10 10 80 100

10% 10% 80% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 80% of the respondents expressed that values and way of working is not understood at all levels of the department, 10% are not sure and the other 10% said that the values and way of working is understood at all levels.

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80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% yes Not sure No 10% 10% 80%

Inference: This graph reveals that Toyota Values need to be explained at all levels, especially the lower levels in the organization. There might be a training session required for this. Another reason for this could be that employees have forgotten about the Toyota values and need to be constantly reminded of them.

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Q10. Do you have an urge to learn Toyota Values and way of working?

TABLE 4(a).10
Particulars Yes No. of respondents % of respondents

75 25 100

75% 25% 100%

No Total

Source: Survey data

From the above table it is analyzed that 75% of the respondents opinioned that they have a urge to learn Toyota values and way of working, while 25% of the respondents said no.

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Yes No


Inference: This shows that respondents are impressed by the way Toyota works and they want to learn it. The other might be highly dissatisfied with the company or they might be a mismatch to the department.

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Q11. Do you think the current reward system is objective and fair?

TABLE 4(a).11
Particulars Yes Dont know No. of respondents % of respondents

No Total

25 13 62 100

25% 13% 62% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 62% of the respondents do not think that the current reward system is objective and fair, 25% of the respondents express that the current reward system is objective and fair while 13% said that they were not sure.

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Yes Don't know

Inference: The reward system here mainly includes compensation, performance appraisal etc. Respondents who say dont know are not aware of the reward systems in other companies. But the others are experienced and hence they might look for options outside. The company must check this


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Q12. Is Mentorship Program required at TKAP?

TABLE 4(a).12
Particulars Yes Dont know No Total No. of respondents 46 27 27 100 % of respondents 46% 27% 27% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 46% of the respondents expressed that mentorship program is required at TKAP, 27% of the respondents dont know while the other 27% expressed that mentorship program at TKAP is not required.

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30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Yes Don't know No 27% 27%

Inference: Respondents who come under Dont know area are not aware of such a program. Respondents require mentorship because they require proper guidance in certain areas of work.

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Q13. What kind of mentorship should be given by a mentor?

TABLE 4(a).13
Particulars Values Managerial Technical Total No. of respondents 25 25 50 100 % of respondents 25% 25% 50% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it can be analyzed that 50% of the respondents opinioned that technical mentorship should be given by a mentor, 25% of the respondents opinioned that managerial mentorship should be given by mentor, while the other 25% opinioned that values mentorship should be given by a mentor.

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50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Values Managerial Technical 25% 25% 50%

Inference: The mentorship must come from seniors more in terms of technical knowledge. Respondents feel this way because they still make mistakes on the shop floor, which need to be reduced drastically.

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Q14. Does the organization make any changes about your job?

TABLE 4(a).14 Particulars No. of respondents % of the respondents

Yes No Total 69 31 100 69% 31% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it is analyzed that 69%of the respondents said that the organization, makes changes in the job, while 31% of the respondents said no.

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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 69% 31%

From the above graph it is inferred that 69% of the respondents said yes about the change in the job made by the organization, while 31% of respondents said no.

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Q15. How do you rate yourself after retention? TABLE 4(a).15 Particulars
Very Good Good Average Below Average Total

No. of respondents
40 15 25 20 100

% of respondents
40% 15% 25% 20% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it is analyzed that 40% of the respondents said they rate themselves as very good,25% of respondents said good, while 20% of respondents said that it was below average.

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40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Very Good Good Average Below Average 15% 40%

25% 20%

From the above graph it is interpreted that it is analyzed that 40% of the respondents said they rate themselves as very good,25% of respondents said good, while 20% of respondents said that it was below average.

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Q16. Do you get enough recognition?

TABLE 4(a).16 Particulars No. of respondents

Yes No Total 81 19 100

% of respondents
81% 19% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it is observed that 81% of the respondents said they got recognition, while 19% said they dint have recognition in the organization

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Yes No 81%

From the above graph it is inferred that 81% of the respondents said they got recognition, while 19% said they dint have recognition in the organization

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Q17. Does the organization support the career goals. TABLE 4(a).17 Particulars
Agree Disagree Total

No. of respondents
77 23 100

% of respondents
77% 23% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it is analyzed that 77% of the respondents said the organization supports career goals, while 23% of the respondents disagreed.

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GRAPH 4(b).17 Does the Organization support career goals

Agree Disagree

From the above graph it is interpreted that 77% of the respondents said the organization supports career goals, while 23% of the respondents disagreed.

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Table 4(a).18
Are you aware of the retention efforts of your organization?

Yes No Total

No. of respondents
82 18 100

% of respondents
82% 18% 100%

Source: Survey data

From the above table it is analyzed that 82% of the respondents were aware of the retention efforts of the organization, while 18% of the respondents said they were not aware of the organizations efforts towards retention.

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Graph 4 (b).18

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%


18% 20% 10% 0% yes no

Interpretation From the above graph it is inferred that 82% of the respondents were aware of the retention efforts of the organization, while 18% of the respondents said they were not aware of the organizations efforts towards retention.

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Table 4(a).19

Why do you want to stay in this organization? Particulars No. of respondents

I like my job I believe in the mission of the organization I work for money benefits Total 56 20 10 100 56% 14% 20% 10% 100% I want to make a difference 14

% of respondents

Source: Survey data Analysis From the above table it is observed that 56% of the respondents said they liked the job,20% of them believed in the mission of the organization,14% wanted to make a difference, while 10% said that they wanted to remain in the organization due to money benefit.

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Graph 4(a).19


Interpretation From the above graph it is observed that 56% of the respondents said they liked the job,20% of them believed in the mission of the organization,14% wanted to make a difference,while 10% said that they wanted to remain in the organization due to money benefit.

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Table 4(a).20
What makes you think about leaving the organization?

Low salaries Work pressure Delay in promotions Career mobility issues Total

No. of respondents
34 26 18 22 100

% of respondents
34% 26% 18% 22% 100%

Analysis From the above table it is analyzed that 34% of the respondents wanted to leave the organization as the salaries were low, 26% of the respondents opinioned that they had work pressure,22% of the respondents experienced career mobility issues, while 18% of them said the organization took time to promote employees.

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Graph 4(b).20

35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% low salaries work pressure delay in promotion career mobility issues

Interpretation From the above graph it is interpreted that 34% of the respondents wanted to leave the organization as the salaries were low, 26% of the respondents opinioned that they had work pressure, 22% of the respondents experienced career mobility issues, while 18% of them said the organization took time to promote employees.

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1. Majority of the respondents joined the organization to learn new skills. 2. Most of the respondents said that they experienced high work pressure at TKAP. 3. Majority of the respondents preferred managerial training. 4. Majority of the respondents said that the organization specified the responsibilities of the job clearly. 5. Most of the respondents said that the department dint receive support from other departments. 6. Most of the respondents said they dont have a defined career in the organization. 7. Majority of the respondents said that the level of motivation was high at TKAP. 8. Most of the respondents said that most of the departments did not understand the values of Toyota. 9. Majority of the respondents said that they have a urge to learn Toyotas values and ways of working. 10. Majority of the respondents found that the reward system was not fair. 11. Most of the respondents said that mentorship programs were required. 12. Majority of the respondents said the technical mentorship should be given by mentors. 13. Most of the respondents said that the organization makes changes with the job. 14. Most of the respondents rated themselves as very good after retention. 15. Majority of respondents said that they received recognition from the organization. 16. Most of the respondents said that the organization supports career goals. 17. Most of the respondents are aware of the retention efforts taken by the organization. 18. Most of the respondents wanted to stay in the organization because they liked the job. 19. Most of the respondents said if they think of leaving the organization one of the reasons would be low pay.

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It is suggested that Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Pvt. Ltd. must consider the following recommendations: Stay Interviews: Stay interviews are conducted for employees mostly on a month on month basis. TKAP can conduct stay interview at least for it critical people on a quarterly basis. These interviews must be conducted by HR department and be disclosed openly but keeping in mind the kind of internal conflicts that might arise out of this. Satisfaction Survey: A full fledged satisfaction survey must be conducted once in 6 months for the staff cadre. The name of the person must be kept anonymous, only the department must be revealed. This will unearth lot of expectations of employees. Training Program: Training must be made formal. Training for group leaders and team leaders must be on interpersonal skills, team building and most important of all, leadership. Professional trainers must be appointed to train on these areas. Later this can be converted to in-house training. Training on the Toyota Culture must be given to everybody in the organization. This must also become a part of the formal training calendar. Career Growth: Opportunities must be given to employees who opt for higher studies. They can get a hike in salary, job rotation, more span of control or even promotion. This will help the company in the long run as more and more of their employees will come under the educated workforce. Job Rotation: This must be made a part and parcel of the system. Job rotation should also be done at lower levels in the organization depending on a persons interest and capabilities.

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Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts Private Limited (TKAP) started its operations in Bangalore in 1999 and recently has been facing problems in retaining their top talent. This study has been conducted at Bangalore within the premises of TKAP to help them solve this issue. Critical talent has been defined and identified at TKAP covering all staff level positions. A survey has been conducted to check the contentment and commitment level of the identified critical talent Suggestions have been proposed in line with companys requirements and capabilities. Hence Ho stands accepted.

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Q1. What were your reasons for joining TKAP? Learning Brand Name Others

Q2. How is the work pressure in your department? High Moderate Low Q3. What kind of training should be given at TKAP? Managerial Technical Q4. Have you received any formal training program till now? Yes No

Q5. Are your job responsibilities clear to you and your department? Yes No Q6. Does your department receive necessary support from other departments? Yes No

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Q7. Do you have a defined career plan at TKAP? Yes No

Q8. What is your level of motivation while working at TKAP? High Low

Q9. Are Toyota Values and way of working understood at all levels in your department? Yes No Not Sure Q10. Do you have an urge to learn Toyota Values and way of working? Yes No Q11. Do you think the current reward system is objective and fair? Yes No Dont know Q12. Is Mentorship Program required at TKAP? Yes No Dont know

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Technical On Toyota values Managerial

Q14. Does the organization make any changes about your job? Yes No

Q15. How do you rate yourself after retention? Very good Good Average Below average

Q16. Do you get enough recognition? Yes No

Q17. Does the organization support the career goals? Agree Disagree

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Q18. Are you aware of the retention effort of your organization? Yes No

Q19. Why do you want to stay in the organization? I like my job I want to make a difference I believe in the mission of the organization I work for money benefit

Q20. What makes you think about leaving the organization? Low salaries Work pressure Delay in promotions Career mobility issues

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E- Resources Japan's auto makers focus on key markets By Hisane Masaki at Foreign automakers inundate India by Terence Chea


Boom time for India's auto parts industry by Atul Sathe at Article on Indian Industries for the financial year 05-06 at Retaining your top talent by Nancy Hanna, Ceridian senior vice president of human resources at Reports of Critical Talent Management Climate Survey by Career Systems International. Report by KPMG on Indian Automotive Industry published in January 2006 for India Brand Equity Foundation. Retaining Talent: Retention and Succession in the Corporate Workforce- A study by Aberdeen Group (December- 2005) Retaining Talent: A Benchmarking Study by the Development Dimensions International (2000)

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Work-life balance becoming critical to recruitment and retention- Annual MetLife Employee Benefits Trend Study, Feb. 2006 The Challenge of Retaining Top Talent: The Workforce Attrition Crisis Research done by Integral Talent Systems, Inc. 1997-
Research by Deloitte Group- Its 2008: Do You Know Where Your Talent Is? Why

Retention and Acquisition Strategies Dont Work (2005),1015.sid%253D27668%2526cid%253D69980, m Talent management: the next dimension of strategic HR- a study by Lynne Morton at ory =919

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