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APUSH 1900-1918 1.

Treaty of Versailles: Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1) stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air force. 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons League of Nations: an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed Committee on Public Information: It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and overseas. He proved that words were indeed weapons. Muckrakers: This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt. Russo-Japanese War: Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so. Henry Cabot Lodge: Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations Open Door Policy: A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. Fourteen Points: he war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations 16th, 17th Amendments: 1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. Upton Sinclair (The Jungle): The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions. Volstead Act: Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States. Mann-Elkin Act: 1910, gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companies; included communications Sussex/Arabic Pledges: pledges by the Germans before US entrance into WWI to stop using submarine warfare against US ships and to pledge not to destroy any more American citizens, in time they violated these pledges 7: 1934-1941 Charles and Mary Beard: influential historians of their day, they traced the economic factors developing modern societies and the clash of economic interests central to America's history Anthracite Coal Strike: 1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor Zimmerman Note: 1917 From the German foreign secretary to the German minister in Mexico. Offer to recover Texas and Arizona for Mexico if it would fight the US. Got US into war. Eugene Debs: He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party. Samuel Golden Rule Jones: American Political reformer - advanced employee-management relations Underwood-Simmons Tariff: 1914, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment. Bull Moose Party: nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912 Panama Canal: The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal. Federal Trade Commission: A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy. Creel Committee: Committee on Public Information; aimed to sell America and the world on Wilson's war goals; propaganda, censorship, "four-minute men" speeches, "Liberty Leagues" (spy on community) IWW: 1905 - Also known as IWW or Wobblies - created in opposition to American Federation of Labor. Followed socialist ideas based off of Karl Marx; this group was persecuted during WWI due to their socialist tendencies and activism against the government Federal Reserve System: The system created by Congress in 1913 to establish banking practices and regulate currency in circulation and the amount of credit available. It consists of 12 regional banks supervised by the Board of Governors. Often called simply the Fed.



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26. Irreconcilables: Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations 27. Dollar Diplomacy: Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries 28. W.E.B DuBois: DuBois attacked segregation and advocated full university education for blacks, him and his supporters led the Niagara movement and founded the NAACP to fight for black civil rights 29. Theodore Roosevelt: 26th President of the United States, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War 30. Gentlemens Agreement: Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them 31. The Birth of a Nation/D.W. Griffith: Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK. 32. Good and Bad Trusts: Theodore Roosevelt's leadership boiled everything down to a case of right versus wrong and good versus bad. If a trust controlled an entire industry but provided good service at reasonable rates, it was a "good" trust to be left alone. Only the "bad" trusts that jacked up rates and exploited consumers would come under attack 33. Emilio Aguinaldo: Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901 34. Black Jack John Pershing: ohn Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I 35. Jacob Riis: Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen 36. Lusitania: British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war. 37. Muller VS Oregon: 1908- Louis Brandeis. Supreme Court accepted constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies. Progressives ironically hailed this. 38. Triple Wall of Priviledge: The banks, trusts, and tariffs that Wilson pledged to topple were collectively known as this 39. Insurgents Revolt: Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule - supported by American sugar planters - yellow press coverage of the Spanish backlash led to the Spanish-American War 40. Robert LaFollete: Republican Senator from Wisconsin - ran for president under the Progressive Party - proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations 41. Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty: Buena Varilla compromised with Hay and T. Roosevelt to engineer a revolution in Panama against the Colombian government, therefore allowing the US to build a canal there 6: 1900-1918 42. Woodrow Wilson: 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize 43. Progressive Movement: (1901 -1917Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax 44. Wobblies: nickname for The Industrial Workers of the World who were a group that believed that there would eventually be a struggle between the rich and poor. They believed, that, in order to stop this, they needed to destroy wages and essentially take over the world. 45. Article X: This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression. 46. Reservations: areas of federal land set aside for American Indians 47. Spheres of Influence: areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China) 48. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair: Affair where Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development and was criticized by Pinchot. Prompted Rooseveltians to protests, splitting Taft and Roosevelt, and the party. 49. Big Stick Policy: Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen 50. Roosevelt Corollary: Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen 51. Keating-Owen Child Labor Act: outlawed the interstate sale of products produced by child labor; declared unconstitutional 52. Food Administration: This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military. 53. Insular Cases: Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens. 54. New Nationalism: Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government



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and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor. Pure Food and Drug Act: Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA. Northern Securities Case: Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts. Lochner VS New York: Supreme Court ruled that states could not restrict ordinary workers' hours (NY had a law giving bakers a 10hr day), Supreme Court ruled that states could not restrict ordinary workers' hours Clayton Anti-Trust Act: An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefitting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property. New Freedom: Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. Great White Fleet: 1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."