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Segara 1 & 2 Mini Hydro Power Plant Development in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara - Indonesia

PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY (ENGINEERING OVERVIEW) ON MINI HYDRO POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA INDONESIA (SEGARA-1 & SEGARA-2)

1. 1.1

INTRODUCTION Segara 1 & 2 Mini Hydro Power Plant

PT. Tamaris Hijau Lestari, selanjutnya disebut sebagai "Klien" berencana untuk berinvestasi dan mengembangkan PLTM Segara 1 dan 2 di Sungai Segara. Lokasi kedua PLTM tersebut berada di Desa Bentek, Kecamatan Gangga, Lombok Utara - Nusa Tenggara Barat. Kapasitas PLTM tersebut adalah 2 x 1,3 MW untuk Segara 1 dan 2 x 2,05 MW untuk Segara 2. Rencana pembangunan dari Studi Kelayakan sampai dengan Detail Desain telah dilakukan oleh mitra Klien, PT. Suar Investindo Capital, selanjutnya disebut sebagai "SIC". Pekerjaan konstruksi telah dimulai dari pembangunan jalan akses.

Klien meminta PT. Indokoei Internasional selanjutnya disebut "Konsultan" untuk melakukan Studi Pra-Kelayakan untuk menentukan potensi 2 (dua) PLTM tersebut. Sejak pembangunan telah mencapai desain rinci dan memulai pekerjaan konstruksi, Konsultan menunjukkan memodifikasi lingkup pekerjaan sebagai "Sekilas Teknik" daripada "Pre-FS".

The Client requested PT. Indokoei International hereinafter referred to as the Consultant to undertake a Pre- Feasibility Study to determine potential of the two MHPPs. Since the development has reach the detailed design and start the construction work, the Consultant suggests modifying the scope of work as Engineering Overview rather than Pre-FS.

1.2

Ruang Lingkup Pra-Studi Kelayakan (Engineering Overview)

Tujuan dari pekerjaan adalah untuk mempelajari potensi kondisi lokasi dari sudut pandang hidrologi, topografi, geologi, dan lain-lain, baik ada atau tidaknya potensi untuk pengembangan PLTM, dimana apabila benar terdapat potensi untuk pengembangan PLTM, maka studi lebih lanjut akan dilaksanakan..
1) Penghimpunan data

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Data yang akan dihimpun adalah sebagai berikut: peta topografi, skala 1:25.000 atau 1:50.000 dari Badan Koordinasi Pemetaan & Survei Nasional (Bakosurtanal), Peta Geologis dari Pusat Pengembangan dan Riset Geologis, data Curah Hujan dari Badan Meteorlogi & Geofisika serta debit sungai, peta HPH, jika ada. 2) Pemantauan Lapangan Pemantauan lapangan akan dilakukan guna memeriksa lokasi atau pembangkitan listrik tenaga air yang paling memungkinkan untuk PLTM dari sudut pandang kondisi topografi dan geologi. identifikasi limpasan sungai di lokasi intake dan Tailrace PLTM juga akan dilakukan Hal-hal berikut akan dikonfirmasikan di lokasi: Letak dari lokasi bendungan Lokasi stasiun daya Kesejajaran aliran sungai Kesejajaran saluran air daya Potensi hulu Alur sungai

3) Catchment Areas Catchment area akan diperiksa dari peta topografi. Batas-batas dari catchment area akan ditentukan untuk menghitung area-area tersebut. Kondisi hutan dan statusnya akan diperiksa juga untuk memperkirakan koefisien alur. 4) Analisa Hidrologi Analisis Hidrologi akan dilakukan untuk menganalisa data curah hujan dan menghitung debit bulanan rata-rata. Flow Duration Curve akan ditetapkan untuk menentukan probabilitas dari faktor ketergantungan aliran. Di samping itu, Konsultan akan menganalisa tingkat banjir selama periode 50 dan 100 tahun terakhir.

5) Analisa Pembangkit Listrik Atas dasar Flow Duration Curve, faktor ketergantungan aliran akan ditentukan. Berdasarkan Flow Duration Curve dan faktor ketergantungan aliran tersebut, faktor pusat pembangkit akan ditetapkan. Listrik yang akan dibangkitkan akan dihitung menggunakan debit yang telah didesain dan hulu yang ada. Di samping itu, Konsultan

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akan mempertimbangkan penggunaan secara efektif faktor ketergantungan aliran untuk memproduksi pembangkit listrik yang optimal.

6) Analisis & Kesimpulan Konsultan akan menganalisa dan menyimpulkan apakah pembangunan akan potensial dan layak dan dapat dilanjutkan dengan pengembangan selanjutnya.

7) Lainnya Seperti disebutkan di atas, pembangunan telah mencapai desain rinci dan memulai pekerjaan konstruksi, Konsultan melakukan "Engineering Overview" pada desain weir dan waterway / saluran headrace.

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2.

CATCHMENT AREA

The Catchment Area (CA) of Segara 1 & 2 MHPP sebagian besar berada di hutan produksi terbatas dan hutan lindung di sekitar dari Taman Nasional Rinjani. Berdasarkan peta yang disediakan oleh BBWS (Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai) Lombok, CA dari DAS Segara di lokasi Bendung Segara 1 adalah 69,67 km2. Peta BBWS ditransfer ke dalam software Info Peta, dan kemudian koordinat Weir Segara 1 diplot ke dalam peta BBWS. CA dari Bendung Segara 1 dapat diindikasikan. Di Peta BAKOSURTANAL pada skala 1:25.000, CA dapat diindikasikan dan dihitung pada 64.97 km2, sedangkan CA dihitung selama tahap desain rinci adalah 94.68 km2. Perbandingan CA antara tiga (3) sumber ditunjukkan pada tabel di bawah ini:
Table 1. Perbandingan Catchment Area (Segara 1 Weir)

Ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara CA selama tahap desain rinci dan CA dihitung dari peta BBWS dan Peta BAKOSURTANAL sekitar 26% dan 31%. Untuk keamanan, Konsultan akan menggunakan CA yang berasal dari Peta BAKOSURTANAL untuk analisis hidrologi lebih lanjut. Hal ini akan berimplikasi untuk mengurangi debit yang diandalkan dan akibatnya akan mengurangi daya yang dihasilkan.

Photo 1. Kondisi Hutan


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Photo 2. Kondisi Aliran Sungai


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Kondisi hutan di CA masih dalam kondisi sangat baik. Hutan tersebut masih sangat terjaga dan tidak mengganggu hutan. Berdasarkan hutan lindung dan peta hutan produksi saling tumpang tindih pada peta CA, kawasan hutan lindung mencapai sekitar 75% dari total CA Segara 1, dan sekitar 70% dari total CA Segara 2. Kedua kawasan hutan produksi terbatas dan hutan lindung tersebut harus dijaga dan menghindari dari pembalakan liar untuk menjamin keberlanjutan debit sepanjang tahunnya.
Table 2. Catchment Area VS Hutan Lindung & Hutan Produksi

Peta CA, Hutan Lindung dan Hutan Produksi adalah seperti terlampir pada lampiran-1

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3. 3.1.

PETA TOPOGRAPHY & GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) Pendekatan Koordinat

Ada empat Bench Mark (BM) referensi ditampilkan dalam peta topografi yang disediakan oleh SIC, bernama BM 0 di sekitar Weir Segara 1, BM 1 di sekitar jalan akses di dalam perkebunan tanaman coklat, dan BM 0 sekitar 1 Power House Segara, dan BM 3 di sekitar Power House Segara 2. Konsultan memeriksa koordinat BM 0 dan BM 0 dengan menggunakan GPS untuk menentukan koordinat yang tepat dari dua BM berdasarkan sistem UTM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan antara koordinat peta topografi yang ada dengan hasil cek GPS. Untuk BM 0, perbedaannya adalah sekitar 386 m untuk X, 28 untuk Y dan 43 untuk Z. Sedangkan untuk BM 0', perbedaannya adalah sekitar 329 m untuk X, 62 untuk Y dan 46 untuk Z. Tapi, perbedaan jarak BM 0 sampai BM 0 antara peta yang ada dan pengecekan aktual hanya 4 m sepanjang 2.076 m atau sekitar 0,196% saja.

BM 3 tampaknya telah dihapus oleh Kontraktor karena lahan pekerjaan kliring untuk jalan akses. Konsultan mencoba kembali mengelompokkan lokasi BM 3 berdasarkan informasi dari staf lokal dan re-instal 3 BM di lokasi yang aman. Perbandingan koordinat antara nilai yang ada dan pengamatan GPS yang diberikan di bawah ini:
Table 3. Perbandingan Koordinat Bench Mark

Koordinat X, Y dari peta topografi yang ada akan dipindahkan ke koordinasi baru (UTM system) sambil diayak koordinat yang ada ke koordinat baru sebagai hasil pemeriksaan GPS. Untuk melakukan koreksi pada level tersebut, itu tidak begitu mudah, tidak bisa hanya menambahkan tingkat yang ada dengan faktor, karena faktor koreksi berbeda sekitar BM 0 di Weir Segara 1 dan di sekitar BM 0 'di PH Segara 1. Jika kita dapat mengidentifikasi data asli (X, Y, Z) dari mana mereka disurvei (BM 0 atau BM 0), kita dapat membuat koreksi ke data pertama, dan kemudian, kita jalankan lagi dengan software 3D Sipil untuk menarik garis kontur.

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Photo 3. Pengamatan GPS di Weir Segara 1

Photo 4. Pengamatan GPS di Weir Segara 2

3.2.

Survei Cross Section

Saluran Waterway / headrace berjalan di sepanjang sisi kanan sungai yang sangat curam sekitar 60 - 80 derajat. Cross Section yang tersedia tampaknya tidak mencerminkan kondisi riil. Untuk mempertimbangkan modifikasi desain / re-alignment, Survey Cross Section telah dilakukan dari Weir Segara 1 dan sepanjang Waterway/head race. 3.3. Modifikasi Peta

Berdasarkan koreksi koordinat BM dan hasil survei cross section, peta telah diperbaiki dan ditransfer ke sistem UTM. Dengan ini, peta topografi baru akan disesuaikan dengan sistem UTM dan kita dapat melacak keselarasan atau menemukan beberapa poin dengan GPS. Peta Topografi yang telah dikoreksi dan gambar cross section diberikan dalam Buku 2 Peta & Gambar. 3.4. Koreksi Head

Konsistensi dalam perhitungan Net Head untuk pembangkit listrik di Segara 1 dan Segara 2. Untuk membuatnya konsisten, Konsultan melakukan koreksi Net Head dalam dua cara:

1. Berdasarkan gambar desain Head dihitung dari gerbang penstock di Head pond dan pusat dari turbin di Power house. 2. Berdasarkan hasil cek GPS pada BM yang ada Konsultan mengasumsikan bahwa desain didasarkan pada peta topografi. Karena elevasi pada peta BM dan peta topografi akan diperbaiki, desain elevasi juga perlu dikoreksi. Karena perbedaan faktor koreksi BM di sekitar Weir Segara 1 dan Segara 2, koreksi Net Head adalah berbeda untuk Segara 1 dan 2.

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Head di Segara 1 yang sebelumnya 89,02 meter harus dikoreksi menjadi 86,50 meter atau menurun sekitar 2,52 meter, sementara di Segara 2, Head sebelumnya 140,00 meter harus dikoreksi menjadi 143,30 meter atau meningkat sekitar 3,30 meter. Koreksi dari level dan head untuk Segara 1 dan 2 dapat dilihat pada Tabel 4 di bawah ini.
Table 4. Koreksi Level dan Head

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4. 4.1.

ANALISIS HYDROLOGI Data Curah Hujan

Tiga (3) stasiun pencatatan curah hujan yang ada di sekitar DAS Segara yaitu, Tanjung, Santong dan Sesaot. Data curah hujan di tiga stasiun tersebut tersedia mulai tahun 1994-2007 dalam Laporan Hidrologi yang disiapkan oleh SIC. Konsultan mengumpulkan data tambahan curah hujan dari BISDA (Balai Informasi Sumber Daya Air) Lombok untuk melengkapi data yang ada. Sebagai hasilnya, data curah hujan yang tersedia adalah sebagai berikut:
a) Stasiun Santong : 1980 2011 b) Stasiun Sesaot : 1974 2011 c) Stasiun Tanjung : 1994 2007

Tidak ada data tambahan untuk Stasiun Tanjung dari BISDA sejak Stasiun ini berada di bawah kontrol oleh lembaga lain. Data curah hujan dari tiga (3) Stasiun dianalisis menggunakan Metode Thiessen untuk memperoleh data curah hujan untuk proyek tersebut. Data curah hujan tahunan pada DAS Segara ditunjukkan di bawah ini.

Figure 1. Curah Hujan Tahunan di Lembah Sungai Segara


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Curah hujan tahunan berkisar antara 1.190 mm sampai 2.900 mm, sedangkan curah hujan tahunan rata-rata 2.057 mm. Curah hujan minimum terjadi pada tahun 1997 dan 1982, sedangkan curah hujan maksimum terjadi pada tahun 1992 dan 1981. Tampaknya bahwa data curah hujan sangat potensial untuk pembangunan PLTM tersebut. Curah hujan bulanan rata-rata ditunjukkan pada gambar di bawah ini. Angka ini menunjukkan bahwa selama empat (4) bulan dari Juni sampai September, curah hujan bulanan akan berkurang.

Figure 2. Curah Hujan Bulanan Rata-rata sekitar Lembah Sungai Segara

Ringkasan data curah hujan bulanan ditunjukkan dalam Lampiran 2 Analisis hidrologi. 4.2 Debit Bulanan

Debit sungai dianalisis dengan menggunakan data hidrologi dan catchment area untuk menentukan debit andalan, seperti di bawah ini. Qi = C x Ri x A x 1,000,000 / (1,000 x 30 x 24 x 60 x 60) m3/sec Dimana: Qi = Debit sungai bulanan rata-rata, m3/detik C = Koefisien debit, yang untuk saat ini ditetapkan sebesar 0,70 Ri = Data Curah Hujan Bulanan, dalam mm A = Catchment Area, dalam km2 Based on the rainfall data, catchment areas and the run-off coefficient, the month discharge can be determined as shown in figure below.

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Figure 3. Average Monthly Discharge on MHPP Segara 1

Figure 4. Average Monthly Discharge on MHPP Segara 2

The figure shows that during four (4) months from June to September, the monthly discharge will be shortage.

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The average monthly discharge is grouped into some ranges of discharge groups and counted the time of occurrence, cumulative of occurrence and the percentage. The percentage cumulative of occurrence is plotted in a chart versus discharges to draw the Flow Duration Curve (FDC). The graph of percentage cumulative of occurrence (X) versus discharges (Y) was approached using logarithmic trend line equation to determine the flow duration curve.

Figure 5. FDC MHPP Segara 1

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Figure 6. FDC MHPP Segara 2

The logarithmic trend line equation is used for determining the design discharge for several probabilities of dependable flow (30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). The result of dependable flow for several probabilities of dependable flow for each location is shown in the table below.
Table 5. Dependable Flow Discharge for Some Probabilities

4.3

Daily Discharge Data & Discharge Measurement

4.3.1. Daily Discharge Data


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In addition to the rainfall data, there is daily discharge data from the Dasan Tengak AWLR Station located at Pekaten Village, Tanjung Sub-district, West Lombok. The CA at the AWLR is at about 109.42 km2. The available data is from 1991 to 2011. The daily discharge data shall be adjusted to transfer the data from the location of installed AWLR to the Weir site location. Adjustment is made based on the proportional CA of weir site to the CA at the AWLR location. The summary of average monthly discharge from AWLR record and the adjustment is shown in the Attachment 3 Hydrological Analysis. The curve duration flow (FDC) can be derived from the AWLR record and compared to FDC from the hydrological analysis as shown in Figure 1 and 2. The comparison shows that the FDC from AWLR is below that from hydrological analysis. In fact, the ideal result of the two approaches shall be same result or not so much difference. In this case, the AWLR data should be verified as below: Whether the AWLR is in good condition during the period of data record Whether there is no intake structures for irrigation and other purpose upstream of the AWLR Whether the formula for transferring the water level data to discharge data is proper enough. To verify the reliability of AWLR data, the Consultant suggests conducting cross section survey at the reach where the AWLR is installed. The cross section data will be used to analyze the water level for a certain discharge by running HEC-RAC software. The water level versus discharge will be plotted in a graph to derive the formula using regression. The formula, then, will be used to transfer the AWLR data to be discharge data. 4.3.2. Discharge Measurement The monthly discharge from the Hydrological Analysis is derived from the rainfall data. Sometimes the rainfall data is not correct due to human error during recording. To verify the monthly discharge, a current measurement is conducted at the weir site Segara 1 and 2 locations. A cross section survey is conducted to check the section area of the river discharge at the current measurement time and location. The real time discharge then can be calculated based on the result of current measurement carried out on last September 24, 2011 and cross section survey. The result of discharge measurement in comparison with the hydrological measurement and daily discharge data for the same month is given in the table below.
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Table 6. Discharge Measurement & Hydrological Analysis and AWLR Data

The result of discharge measurement shows that it close to hydrological analysis result rather than discharge data from AWLR for Segara 1, while it is closed to AWLR data for Segara 2. The Consultant will use the hydrological analysis result for further planning of generated power, before the AWLR data is verified.

Photo 5. Current measurement in upstream Photo 6. Current measurement in upstream of Weir Segara 2 of Weir Segara 1

4.4

Flood Discharge and Flood Level

4.4.1. Flood Discharge The most important for design of river structures are flood discharge and flood level. SIC used Log Pearson III to determine Rainfall Design and Nakayasu Unit Hydrograph to determine the flood discharge for certain years returns period. In the hydrological analysis, there are many un-certain factors which sometimes difficult to be measured or taken exactly. Therefore, verification by other method shall be conducted to ensure the result of analysis.

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The Consultant used Log Person III which is the same method with SIC and verified using Gumbel method to check the Rainfall Design of some years of return period. The comparison of the result between SIC and the Consultant for the design rainfall is presented in figure and table below.

Figure 7. Designed Rainfall VS Return Period Table 7. Design Rainfall for Some Years of Return Period

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The comparison table shows that the result of analysis by SIC is much lower than the Consultant checked, both by Log Person III and Gumbel methods. This is caused by the data used by SIC is not the maximum daily rainfall in the year as required by the Log Person III method. For safety result, the Consultant will use the result of Log Person III by the Consultant for further analysis of flood discharge, since it is a little bit higher than the result by Gumbel method. To check the flood discharge, the Consultant used Nakayasu Unit Hydrograph as the same with SIC and verified using Rational Method. The comparison result is presented below.
Table 8. Flood Discharge for Some Years of Return Period

The result shows that the flood discharge analysis by the Consultant is higher than SIC analysis. This is caused by the rainfall design taken by the Consultant as the result of analysis above is higher than that by SIC. For further flood level analysis, the Consultant will use the result by Nakayasu Method since it is almost the same with the result of Rational Method.

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Figure 8. Unit Hydrograph by Nakayasu

The Hydrological Analysis for Rainfall Design and Flood Discharge is given in the Attachment 2. 4.4.2. Flood Level The design of weir shall be based on 50 years Return Period design flood level, and check by 100 years Return Period. The Consultant will use HEC-RAC software to determine the flood level and check whether the existing planned structures (weir and power house) is safe from 50 and 100 years return period. The HEC-RAC software needs the cross section along the river. The result of flood level check in comparison to the weir and power house design is shown in table below.
Table 9. Comparison Design Level to Flood Level

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The table shows that all structures are safe from flood level, both 50 years and 100 years RP. For Weir Segara 1, there is still enough free board at about 2.7 meter, but for power house Segara 1/Weir Segara 2, the free board is remain 1,024 meter above the 50 years RP flood level. The power house Segara 2 is also safe from flood level with 50 years RP. The profile of river flow under flood of 50 years RP is shown in figure below:
MHPP_Segara_Lombok_Rev_1 360 Plan: MHPP_Segara_1st 10/25/2011 Legend EG Q 50 yr 340 WS Q 50 yr Crit Q 50 yr Ground 320 Elevation (m) Sungai Segara MHPP Segara

300

280

260

240

500

1000

1500 Main Channel Distance (m)

2000

2500

3000

Figure 9. HEC-RAS profile

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5. 5.1.

GENERATED POWER & PRODUCTION ENERGY Generated Power

Based on the result of hydrological analysis and measured head, the generated power can be derived using the simple equation: P=ExQxHxG kW
Where: P E Q H G = Generated Power by the MHPP = Efficiency of the MHPP, assumed to be 80% = Water discharge, in m3/sec = Head, potential water fall height, in meter = Gravitation acceleration, assumed to be 9.8 m/sec2

The water discharge is taken from the result of hydrological analysis for several percentages of probabilities of dependable flow, while the head is taken from the corrected design level in intake weir and power house. The result of Generated Power based on several percentage of dependable flow duration for each location is presented in table below.

Table 10. Generated Power for several Dependable Flow (Segara 1)

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Table 11. Generated Power for several Dependable Flow (Segara 2)

5.2. 5.2.1

Installed Capacity & Production Energy Segara 1

The consideration of the capacity of turbine to be installed shall be based on dependable flow and generated power as mentioned above. For Segara 1, the Consultant suggests two alternatives as below. 1) 2 x 1.3 MW (same as previous planning) As shown in the figure below, the total turbine capacity of 2.6 MW will be operated during 35% time flow during a year, while during the other 40% time flow, only one turbine (1.3 MW) might be operated.

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Figure 10. Operating Scenario 1 Segara 1

By this kind of operation scenario, the production energy is at least will be 12,527 GWh/year at full discharge operation. The plant factor (Area B / Area A) is 0.71 and the theoretically maximum generated energy is 16,249 GWh/year. The operation scenario with the total production energy is shown in table below.
Table 12. Design Discharge, Generated Power and Energy (2 x 1.3 MW)

2) 2 x 1.45 MW By this scenario the total turbine capacity of 2.9 MW will be operated during 31% time flow during a year, while during the other 38% time flow, only one turbine (1.45 MW) might be operated as shown in Figure 4 below.

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Figure 11. Operating Scenario 2 Segara 1

By this kind of operation scenario, the production energy is at least will be 12,702 GWh/year at full discharge operation. The plant factor (Area B / Area A) is 0.71 and the theoretically maximum generated energy is 18,124 GWh/year. The operation scenario with the total production energy is shown in table below.
Table 13. Design Discharge, Generated Power and Energy (2 x 1.45 MW)

5.2.2. Segara 2 For Segara 2, the Consultant suggests two scenarios for installation of turbine capacity as below: 1) 2 x 2.5 MW For this scenario, the total 5.0 MW will be operated during 30% of time flow, while during other 40% only one turbine of 2.5 MW might be operated as shown in figure below.
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Figure 12. Operating Scenario 1 Segara 2

By this kind of operation scenario, the production energy is at least will be 21,900 GWh/year at full discharge operation. The plant factor (Area B / Area A) is 0.69 and the theoretically maximum generated energy is 30,437 GWh/year. The operation scenario with the total production energy is shown in table below.
Table 14. Design Discharge, Generated Power and Energy (2 x 2.5 MW)

2) 2 x 2.3 MW (4.6 MW) For this scenario, the total 4.6 MW will be operated during 36% of time flow, while during other 40% only one turbine of 2.3 MW might be operated as shown in figure below.

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Figure 13. Operating Scenario 2 Segara 2

By this kind of operation scenario, the production energy is at least will be 22,566 GWh/year at full discharge operation. The plant factor (Area B / Area A) is 0.69 and the theoretically maximum generated energy is 28,002 GWh/year. The operation scenario with the total production energy is shown in table below.
Table 15. Design Discharge, Generated Power and Energy (2 x 2.3 MW)

3) 3 x 1.7 MW (5.1 MW) For this scenario, the total 5.1 MW will be operated during 30% of time flow, while during other 34% two turbine of 3.4 MW might be operated and other 31% only one turbine (1.7 MW) might be operated as shown in figure below.

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Figure 14. Operating Scenario 3 Segara 2

By this kind of operation scenario, the production energy is at least will be 27,848 GWh/year at full discharge operation. The plant factor (Area B / Area A) is 0.69 and the theoretically maximum generated energy is 31,046 GWh/year. The operation scenario with the total production energy is shown in table below.
Table 16. Design Discharge, Generated Power and Energy (3 x 1.7 MW)

5.3

Simulation of Production Energy

The production energy can be approach by simulation of real discharge for the past 30 years from 1981 to 2010. The monthly discharge for calculation of production energy is derived from the available monthly discharge by taking the discharge required appropriate to the installed capacity.

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In-case of the monthly discharge is higher than the full discharge for turbine operation; the discharge will be taken at full discharge of turbine operation. On the other hand, in-case of the monthly discharge is less than 50% for one turbine operation, the discharge is taken zero, means no operation of turbine. 1) Segara 1, Installed Capacity 2 x 1.3 MW For Segara 1, the simulation for production energy is conducted for installed capacity of 2 x 1.3 MW. The design discharge for full operation is 3.88 m3/sec for operating both turbines, while for operation of one turbine need 1.9 m3/sec. The Consultant take assumption that 50% discharge (0.95 m3/sec) is still possible to operate one turbine. So, the Consultant will take the discharge in between 0.95 3.88 m3/sec for simulation of the energy production. The result of simulation is shown in table below.
Table 17. Segara 1 Simulation of Yearly Energy Production (1981-2010)

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Segara 1 & 2 Mini Hydro Power Plant Development in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara - Indonesia

The comparison of simulation using the monthly discharge during past 30 years and planning with FDC is shown in table below.
Table 18. Comparison of Planning with FDC and Simulation

The table shows that the average of simulation results meet to the minimum of planning using FDC. It is also shows that the minimum of the production energy by simulation is below the planning using FDC. 2) Segara 2, Installed Capacity 2 x 2.3 MW For Segara 2, the simulation for production energy is conducted for installed capacity of 2 x 2.3 MW. The design discharge for full operation is 4.12 m3/sec for operating both turbines, while for operation of one turbine need 2.12 m3/sec. The Consultant take assumption that 50% discharge (1.06 m3/sec) is still possible to operate one turbine. So, the Consultant will take the discharge in between 1.06 4.12 m3/sec for simulation of the energy production. The result of simulation is shown in table below.

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Segara 1 & 2 Mini Hydro Power Plant Development in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara - Indonesia

Table 19. Segara 2 Simulation of Yearly Energy Production (1981-2010)

The comparison of simulation using the monthly discharge during past 30 years and planning with FDC is shown in table below.
Table 20. Comparison of Planning with FDC and Simulation

The table shows that the average of simulation results meet to the minimum of planning using FDC. It is also shows that the minimum of the production energy by simulation is below the planning using FDC.
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Segara 1 & 2 Mini Hydro Power Plant Development in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara - Indonesia

6. 6.1.

GEOLOGICAL CONDITION Regional Geology

Rocks exposed around the project area consist of Quaternary (young) until Tertiary (old) volcanic rocks comprising of Rinjani volcanic rocks and Kalibabak formation. Rinjani volcanic rocks (Qhv(r)). Composed of lava, breccia, and tuff, these rocks are the youngest volcanic rock units in Lombok Island. In the study area, the rocks exposed are light creamy and gray pumice tuff with the size ranging from gravel, grit, until sand, pumice stone and sometimes loose and easy-to-fill andesite flakes are exposed. In the study area, this layer has thickness ranging from 0.5m to 5m and unevenly suppresses rock units and land underneath.
Photo 7. Young volcanic rocks (pumice tuff) are the materials resulting from volcanic activity of Rinjani Mountain

Kalibabak formation (TQb). This rock unit consists of breccia and lava (Figures 8 and 9). Taupe breccia, angular to sub-angular andesite, gravel to boulder size rock are contained in the basic mass of fine-grained tuff, which is generally solid or hard. Light gray lava with andesite component, solid or hard, at the upper part is sometimes vesicular. In study area, this andesite lava is exposed on the upper part of breccia. In the project area, these rock units are exposed around weir site, along waterway, and around powerhouse. These rock units are assumed to be used as foundation for Segara 1 MHPP structure.

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Study Area

Q a Qhv(r)

Alluvium, gravel, grit, sand and crushed coral Rinjani volcanic rock, lava, breccia, and tuff resulting from volcanic activity of Rinjani Mountain Lekopiko formation, pumice tuff, lava breccia, and lava Kalibabak formation, breccia and lava

Qvl)

TQb

Figure 15. Regional Geology of Study Area

Photo 8. Andesite lava, exposed on the cliff path into the weir

Photo 9. Breccia, exposed along Segara River flow

6.2.

Geological Condition of the Project

6.2.1. Segara 1 Weir The left and right sides form a narrow V-shaped valley with 45 to 90 slope. It indicates that the weir area is composed of hard rock where the surrounding horizontal erosion is weak. Narrow and steep slopes on both sides of the river spread upward to form undulating hills scattered around Segara River. River width in the weir area is approximately 20m. The exposed rocks around the weir are river alluvial and volcanic rocks. River alluvial rocks consist of sand, grit, gravel, until boulder with diameter up to several meters. Sand, grit, and gravel are loose, rounded to sub-rounded, coming from weathered rocks derived from the surrounding various older types of rocks. Boulders are dominated by
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andesite boulders and some boulder breccia. The river alluvial rocks are scattered along the river with an estimated thickness of not more than 2m. This material is not suitable for weir foundation, so that excavation to the bedrock is required. Based on observation, Segara River has low mud content so that it can be used as material for weir structure. Well-exposed volcanic rocks on the left and right sides extend upward to form a steep slope to a height of 70m. These rocks are included into Kalibabak Formation. In the study area, the bottom of this formation is composed of breccia and exposed very well on the left and right sides of the planned weir. Dark gray to yellowish breccia has andesite component with diameter ranging from several centimeter to 0.5m basic mass of fine tuff. These rocks have fine hardness with horizontal layer so that it is assumed that there is no significant tectonic activity. The breccia layer is highly suitable and has adequate supporting capacity as weir foundation.

Photo 10. Planned weir as, the left and right sides of weir is composed of hard breccia and has adequate supporting capacity as weir foundation

Andesite lava is contained in the upper part of breccia layer. At the site, these rocks generally form a very steep cliff with slope up to 90. Light gray, massive, and hard to very hard andesite lava are found in several places, which show cracks possibly due to weathering process. Sketch of breccia and andesite lava deployment around the weir can be seen in figure below.

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Andesite

River Alluvial Breccia

Figure 16. Geological cross-section of weir as (without scale)

6.2.2. Waterway/Head Race Channel Waterway is planned to be located at the right side of Segara River following a fairly steep slope to the downstream up to the head pond location. Geologically, waterway will pass through uniform type of rock in form of volcanic material composed of breccia at the lower part and andesite lava at the upper part. Based on field observation, it is likely that most of the waterway will be located on breccia, except around the head pond where the waterway is assumed to lie on andesite lava. Based on rock strength aspect, rock units to be passed by waterway have adequate supporting capacity. However, from geomorphology aspect, waterway will pass steep to very steep topography, which requires consideration during construction process. Possible construction methods are as follows:
1. Closed channel follows the slope along the river flow. This method can be

conducted in 2 ways, namely through excavation on gradient slope and through cantilever construction in steep rock wall. The advantage of this method is possibly lower construction cost. However, the disadvantage is the method is difficult so that further in-depth study is required. Another disadvantage is longer channel and winding path.
2. Tunneling. This method is usually conducted in a hilly area as in Segara 1.

Tunnel can be constructed starting from the intake area to the head pond area. The advantage of this method is waterway becomes simpler and straight. The disadvantages of this method are high level of difficulty and higher cost compared to channel method. 6.2.3. Head Pond Head pond is an outlet of waterway and functions as forebay before water enters the penstock. Head pond location is composed of volcanic materials in form of andesite lava and
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breccia with sufficient supporting capacity; therefore, technical difficulties are not found both in the foundation and the excavation. 6.2.4. Penstock and Power House Geologically, rocks around the penstock and power house are uniform with the rocks in the weir and along the planned waterway, which are composed of volcanic rocks of andesite lava and breccia with sufficient supporting capacity; therefore, technical difficulties are not found in the foundation. Powerhouse is planned to be built with total area of about 3 to 4 hectare. Topographically, powerhouse is located on a steep with the slope of 60. It causes extensive rock excavation in the area. Further study is required on excavation method in the area, whether it is enough by using breaker only or blasting is required.

6.3.

Further Investigation

To ensure the geological condition, especially in the Weir site location, further geological investigation is needed. The Consultant suggests conducting core drilling and some in-situ tests and laboratory test. The Terms of Reference of the Geological Investigation is given in Attachment 3.

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7. 7.1.

DESIGN ISSUES Intake Weir Segara 1

The Weir of Segara 1 has crest width at 22 meter. The intake structure is located in the right bank of the river, which is very steep and the geological condition is fresh rock. In the upstream of the existing planned weir location, there is a narrower river width, at about 15 meters, with the right bank slope is not so steep. Based on the cross section check at the Segara 1 Weir, it is realized that the wide of Segara 1 Weir is not match to the wide of the river. The wide of Segara 1 Weir shall be expanded at least up to 50 meters; in-case of the location will be kept as designed. In this case, the volume of works will be increase, and consequently, the construction cost will be increased. See Figure 17 and Figure 18. The Consultant suggests relocating the weir site location into 50m upstream where the river width is narrow. By this, the construction cost of weir will be cheaper. Moreover, the excavation works of intake structure will also much decrease as shown in the Figure 19 below.

Figure 17. Original Design of Weir Segara 1

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Figure 18. Adjustment of Weir Segara 1 (Same Location)

Figure 19. Propose New Location of Weir Segara 1

7.2

Waterway/ Head Race Channel Alignment


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The Segara 1 waterway alignment runs along the right side of river bank which is very steep and the geological condition consists of fresh rock of Andesite and Breccia. The samples design of waterway section is cutting the steep bank for inspection road and waterway as shown in the drawing below.

Figure 20. Original Design of Waterway Segara 1

The design caused some technical problems which shall be considered before execution of the construction works as described below: 1) Huge amount of rock excavation As shown in the cross section drawings, the rock to be excavated for the access/inspection road and channel is very huge. Consequently, the construction cost will be also high, since the rock excavation has higher unit price than the common soil excavation. 2) Difficulties for Construction Works Due to rock condition and steep valley, the construction works will be very difficult. Seem the rock cannot be excavated by ripper or breaker. Blasting shall be applied incase of the design will be executed as it is. 3) Problem for Disposal Area

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Even the excavation can be executed; there will another problem rises for disposal area, to where the excavated material shall be disposed. A disposal area shall be designed and hauling for transportation will increase the construction cost. 4) Slope Stability Problem At present condition, the slope of the steep bank is in a stable condition. After construction of the waterway channel, the bank will become steeper. The slope stability shall be analyzed to determine the safety factor of the bank. To do this, geological investigation shall be conducted along the waterway channel. To overcome the problems, some countermeasures were discussed during the site visit. Considering the geological condition, there are some alternatives as described below: 1) Modification of Design Section The huge excavation caused by design of access/inspection road at left side of the channel. To reduce the excavation volume, the design of access/inspection road shall be cancelled. On the other hand, the design of waterway channel shall be covered by concrete slab which has the function as the inspection road and channel protection from falling material of the steep bank. By this design modification, the excavation volume may reduce by more than half; probable remain 30% from the original volume.

Figure 21. Design Modification of Waterway Segara 1

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This modification is applicable for the breccias and weathered rock geological condition. In-case of the bank condition is fresh rock of Andesite, this design is still difficult to be applied due to difficult for rock excavation. 2) Cantilever Channels In-case of the bank is fresh rock of Andesite, the excavation will be very difficult. Cantilever design of channels might be considered. A frame support shall be jointed in the steep of the bank. The channels will be laid on the support frame. There are two alternatives of channels and frame, i.e., concrete channels and steel pipes as shown in figures below.

Figure 22. Cantilever Design, Alternative 1 by Concrete Channels

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Figure 23. Cantilever Design, Alternative 2 by Steel Pipes

The concrete channel is free from maintenance, but it is difficult for construction, while the steel pipe is easy for construction but need periodically maintenance. 3) Tunneling Other alternative to overcome the waterway construction problem is to make design change from open channel to tunnel. But, this need blasting work for excavation of tunnel alignment and proper of construction method for grouting and lining of the tunnel structure. Seem this design change need high construction cost and not recommended.

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7.3.

Power House Segara 1

The design level of Powerhouse Segara 1 is below the retaining wall of Segara 2 Weir. The weir is designed with flood discharge of 50 years return period with 1 meter freeboard. The Consultant has checked the design flood and found that the level of retaining wall of Segara 2 Weir is safe from flood 50 years RP and even 100 years RP. The problem is only in-case of the retaining wall will be broken during the flood; the Power House will also be inundated. It needs further consideration to rise up the Power House to be above the flood level. In this case the head for power generation will decrease.

Figure 24. Design of Power House Segara 1

7.4.

Intake Weir Segara 2

The Weir of Segara 2 is designed by Gabion. It seems that the weir is temporary weir since the water discharge to be conveyed to power house Segara 2 is directly comes from the tail race of Segara 1. The problem is that the operation of Segara 2 depends on the operation of Segara 1 operation. When the Segara 1 is not operated, while the Segara 2 needs to be operated, the water discharge will be taken from the inlet from gabion weir. In such case, there will be much water loss, and the discharge might be insufficient to rotate the turbine. It needs further consideration to change the Gabion type to be permanent weir type. In such case, the construction cost will be increase.
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Furthermore, the cross section design of Segara 2 is not match to the real cross section of the river. The heights of the weir need to be heighten, if the design level will be kept.

Figure 25. Design Adjustment of Weir Segara 2 by Gabion

Figure 26. Design Adjustment of Weir Segara 2 by Concrete Cyclops

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8. 8.1

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION Conclusion

8.1.1. Hydrological Analysis The Flow Duration Curve (FDC) resulted from the hydrological analysis shows higher than the data from AWLR. It seems that the AWLR data need to be verified to confirm the hydrological analysis result. The rainfall design and flood discharge for some years of return period resulted from the Consultant analysis is higher than SIC analysis. But design level of weir and powerhouse of both Segara 1 and Segara 2 are safe from flood level with 50 and 100 years return period.

8.1.2. Installed Turbine Capacity and Annual Energy The result of the Study concluded that the Segara river basin has the potential for development of MHPP with the following generated power and production energy as shown in table below.
Table 21. Installed Turbine Capacity and Annual Energy

8.1.3. Existing Design The existing design seems include in-accuracy of topographic map and design level. The design of Segara 1 and Segara 2 Weirs are not match to the actual cross section of the river. The planning of Segara 1 waterway alignment is very difficult to be implemented due to very steep of rock/andesite condition.

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8.2

Recommendation

To avoid any problems during further development and also to save construction cost, the Consultant proposes to Client to conduct some actions as below: 1) Review Design The review design will consist of the following items: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Shifting the Segara 1 Weir location to upstream Adjustment of Segara 1 to real section of the river at the proposed new location Re-alignment of Waterway/head race canal Re-design of canal section, whether laid on the existing ground or cantilever Re-design of Power House Segara 1 Re-design of Segara 2 Weir Cost estimation for the designed scheme

2) Review AWLR Data The AWLR data seems not match to the hydrological analysis. It needs to be verified by the following action: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Collecting original data of water level Cross section survey in upstream and downstream the AWLR location Running the water level calculation using HEC-RAC software for some discharge Plotting the water level versus discharge in graph Regression for finding the trend line equation Transferring the water level data to discharge data using new establish formula Comparing the FDC from hydrological analysis and AWLR discharge data

3) Geological Investigation Further geological investigation need to be conducted to investigate the sub-surface layer geological condition. The Term of References (TOR) is given in Attachment 3.

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