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COURSENOTES PREPARATION GUIDELINES

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

Topic 1: Phrasal Verbs


Objectives At the end of this topic, you will be able to: understand the functions of active and passive voice and use them in writing and speaking effectively.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

UNITAR 2012

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

UNITAR 2012

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

UNITAR 2012

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

UNITAR 2012

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

UNITAR 2012

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

UNITAR 2012

Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 Summary In this topic, you have learned: use simple phrasal verbs correctly and effectively. apply phrasal verbs in writing and speaking practices appropriately.

Choose whether or not each phrasal verb is separable or not separable (in the context of each sentence). If both responses are acceptable, choose "BOTH ARE CORRECT": 1. Which is correct? a) I made up that story. b) I made that story up. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 2. Which is correct? a) I drove to his house up. b) I drove up to his house. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 3. Which is correct? a) The police blew up the car. b) The police blew the car up. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 4. Which is correct? a) The thieves broke in at around midnight. b) The thieves broke at around midnight in. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 5. Which is correct? a) Are you going to come back later? b) Are you going to come later back? c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 6. Which is correct? a) I was trying to speak, but he cut off me. b) I was trying to speak, but he cut me off. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 7. Which is correct? a) I mix up those words all the time. b) I mix those words up all the time. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 8. Which is correct? a) Thomas' grandfather passed away last month. b) Thomas' grandfather passed last month away. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT. 9. Which is correct? a) We took after breakfast off. b) We took off after breakfast. c) BOTH ARE CORRECT.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 Topic 2: Reported Speech Objectives At the end of this topic, you will be able to: understand and use reported speech correctly and effectively for written and spoken discourses. understand and use correct time signifiers and reporting verbs for reported speech.

2.1 Introduction Reported Speech (also referred to 'Indirect Speech') refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English. In other words, in reported speech, we report what is said by the speaker without reproducing the exact words used. Below are the examples:

In contrast to reported speech is direct speech. Direct Speech In direct speech, we quote the actual words used by the speaker.

2.2 Tenses in Reported Speech If the reporting verb (i.e. said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (i.e. says) the tense is retained.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 If reporting a general truth, the present tense will be retained.

The following chart includes sentences changed from quoted speech to reported speech using a past form. Pay special attention to sentences marked with "*". Note: Simple past, present perfect, and past perfect all change to past perfect in the reported form.

2.3 Changing from Direct Speech to Reported Speech When changing from direct speech to indirect speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

It is also important to change time words (signifiers) when referring to present, past or future time to match the moment of speaking.

Below are the list of adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change:

2.4 Reporting Question When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/no questions connect the reported question using 'if'. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question word.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

Summary In this topic, you have learned: understand and use reported speech with the right time signifiers, pronouns and reporting verbs in reported speech. change from a direct speech sentence to a reported speech sentence correctly.

2.5 Tutorial Activities and Exercises


Change the following direct speech into the correct form of indirect speech. 1. I saw her the day before yesterday, he said. _____________________________________________________________. 1. Ill do it tomorrow, he promised.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 _____________________________________________________________. 2. Im starting the day after tomorrow, mother, he said. _____________________________________________________________. 3. She said, My father died a year ago. _____________________________________________________________. Reading Passage and Exercise 'Croc hunter' was powerful voice for conservation By Deborah Zabarenko, Environment Correspondent WASHINGTON (Reuters) - With his trademark cry of "Crikey!" and his ebullient persona, television naturalist Steve Irwin was an atypical but powerful voice for animal conservation, wildlife experts said on Tuesday. line 3 Irwin, known to viewers as the "Crocodile Hunter," died on Monday after a stingray's serrated barb pierced his heart while he was filming at the Great Barrier Reef off Australia. line 6 His talents as an entertainer served the conservationists' cause well, said M. Sanjayan, lead scientist for The Nature Conservancy. line 9 "I absolutely think he counts as a naturalist and he counts as a conservationist," Sanjayan said in a telephone interview. "And people who tell you otherwise are just simply jealous of the success he's had." line 13
"Crocodile Hunter" host Steve Irwin in a 2004 photo. Fatally injured by a stingray, Irwin pulled its barb out of his chest before losing consciousness and dying, his manager said on Tuesday. (REUTERS/Will Burgess)

Sanjayan said most professional conservationists appreciate those like Irwin who "charismatically bring conservation to life," but he questioned whether raising public awareness is enough to make any measurable difference to wild animals and their habitat. line 17 Irwin's animal programs often featured the "Crocodile Hunter" wrestling snakes or crocodiles, but also offered messages about saving the natural environment where such creatures live. line 20 His approach was different from more traditional wildlife documentaries, which kept filmmakers and observers at a safe distance without close interaction with animals. line 22 ROUGH-HEWN AND WATCHABLE Ginette Hemley, vice president for conservation at World Wildlife Fund, praised Irwin for popularizing the notion of protecting animals even as he wrestled with them onscreen. line 25 Irwin was the antithesis of the mild-mannered natural scientist, quietly doing field work, Hemley said by telephone. line 27

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 "He certainly was rough-hewn. He was a larger-than-life personality. ... He was eminently watchable," Hemley said. "For that reason I think he only helped advance the cause that we're committed to, which is conservation." line 30 She agreed with Sanjayan that Irwin's conservation impact would to difficult to measure, but Hemley was gratified that television viewers tuned in to the "Crocodile Hunter" rather than programs unconcerned with protecting wildlife. line 33 Rod Mast, a marine biologist and vice president of the environmental group Conservation International, said Irwin's prime conservation role was to influence people. line 35 "The real issue in conservation is changing human attitudes about nature and human behaviors in relation to nature, and one of the things he did superbly was to make wildlife cool," Mast said. line 38 Sanjayan said he feared Irwin's legacy might be numerous copycat programs like the "Crocodile Hunter," but Mast said even these could have positive effects. "I don't have a problem with that," Mast said. "The more wildlife you see on TV, the more people get excited about wildlife."

1995-2005 Star Publications (Malaysia) Bhd (Co No 10894-D) Change each of statements below about the late Steve Irwin into the correct forms of Indirect Speech. 1. "I absolutely think he counts as a naturalist and he counts as a conservationist," Sanjayan said in a telephone interview. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. "He certainly was rough-hewn. He was a larger-than-life personality. ... He was eminently watchable," Hemley said. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. "The real issue in conservation is changing human attitudes about nature and human behaviours in relation to nature, and one of the things he did superbly was to make wildlife cool," Mast said. ___________________________________________________________________

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Your Say!
In your own opinion how might have Steve Irwin and his show the Crocodile Hunter help the wildlife? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Topic 3: Active and Passive Voice


Objectives At the end of this topic, you will be able to: understand the functions of active and passive voice and use them in writing and speaking effectively.

3.1 Introduction The Uses of Active Voice Active Voice emphasizes the subject of a sentence, i.e. the "doer". In this kind of sentence, the subject or "doer" is mentioned or known in the sentence.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 3.2 Formation of Active Voice The active voice is formed by placing an emphasis on the subject in a sentence. This is done by beginning a sentence with a subject. Let's look at the examples below:

Divide each sentence into subject-verb-object and change the sentence from active voice to passive voice. Subject e.g : The lion/ verb killed/ object the mouse. The mouse was killed by the lion.

1. Amran/ ate /

the mangoes. _____________________________________________

2. Mrs. Chang/cut/ the potatoes. _____________________________________________ 3. The teacher/ corrected/ the note-books. ___________________________________________ 4. Ramon/ drove/ the lorry. _____________________________________________ 5. The baker/ bakes/ the cake._____________________________________________ 6. Miss Joyce/took/the pictures.____________________________________________ 7. The thief/ stole/ the bag. _____________________________________________ 8. Marina /clean/ the carpet._____________________________________________ 9. Chrissa /write/ the poem. _____________________________________________

10. Mother /wash/ the plates._____________________________________________

3.3 The Passive Voice

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 Contrary to the Active Voice, the Passive Voice emphasizes on the object rather than the subject of the sentence. The Passive Voice is used in a sentence when the doer of the action is known and does not need mentioning. Example:

In addition to this, the Passive Voice is also used when the doer of the action is not known or has been forgotten.

Example:

Furthermore, the Passive Voice is used when we are more interested in or concerned with the action than the person who does it. Example:

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 3.4 Formation of the Passive Voice Passive Voice is formed by putting the verb into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. For example:

In addition to this, Passive Voice is usually preceded by the word "by" when the agent is mentioned. For example:

The passive of continuous tenses is formed by adding the present continuous forms of the verb to be. Examples are as below:

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

3.5 Forming Tenses of Passive Verbs The Passive Voice always consists of two parts:

Put the verbs into the correct passive tense. Simple Present (passive) : is + (verb participle)

e.g: The cake (bake) by John. The cake is baked by John.

1. English (teach) in this school. ___________________________________ 2. The room (clean) every day. ___________________________________ 3. A party (give) every Saturday. ___________________________________ 4. This magazine (published) every month. ___________________________________ 5. The letters (deliver) every morning. ___________________________________ 6. English (speak) in many countries. ___________________________________

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7. These buildings (paint) every year. ___________________________________ 8. Smoking (not permit) here. ___________________________________ 9. This exhibition (hold) every year. ___________________________________ 10. Our compositions (correct) every day. ___________________________________
Simple Past (passive) : was + verb participle e.g: The music (compose) beautifully. The music was composed beautifully.

1. This book (write) _____________ by a famous artist. 2. The books (return) _____________ to the library. 3. A bank (rob) _____________yesterday. 4. The lost dog (find) _____________ last night. 5. My house (build) _____________ in 1960. 6. She (send) _____________to a school in England. 7. We (invite) _____________ to a party yesterday. 8. This road (repair) _____________last year. 9. My car (steal) _____________last week. 10. Hamlet (write) _____________by Shakespeare.
3.6 Changing from Active Voice to Passive Voice

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

Change from active into passive voice. 1. We may do it tomorrow ________________________________________________________________. 2. They teach foreign languages here.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 ________________________________________________________________. 3. You cant find such things in England. ________________________________________________________________. 4. My brother has sent me many letters. ________________________________________________________________, 5. He has given us a difficult exercise.

_____________________________________________________________.
3.7 Changing from Passive Voice to Active Voice

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

3.8 Active vs. Passive?

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012

Summary In this topic, you have learned: The functions of active and passive voice and use them in writing and speaking effectively.

3.9 Tutorial Activities and Exercises


A. Change each sentence below into the passive form. 4. Khalil Gibran wrote that prose. ____________________________________________ 2. Jay will invite Norman to the party. ____________________________________________ 3. Yashmin is preparing that report. ____________________________________________ 4. Waitresses and waiters serve customers. ____________________________________________ 5. The teacher is going to explain the lesson. ____________________________________________ 6. Mogana has suggested an idea ____________________________________________ 7. Two horses were pulling the farmers wagon.

____________________________________________

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B. Reading Passage The Choking Dog

The Choking Dog


"Come on, come on, move it, idiot!"

Joanne beat impatiently on the steering wheel of her Mercedes sports car. How stupid she was to get caught up in the rush hour! She had planned to leave work early this afternoon, at three o'clock, to give herself a chance to relax and have a bath before going out to a meeting of her local tennis club. But just at ten to three a client had arrived, and it was two hours before she had finished dealing with the man. When she came out of her office, all the other staff in the Highlight Advertising Agency had already left. Now she was stuck in a traffic jam in central Birmingham at 5:30, and at 6:30 she was expected to be chairing a meeting of the tennis club. There would be no time for any hot bath.

Ahead of her, the traffic was moving at last, and she swung quickly out into the centre lane to turn right, and raced the last half-mile through the quiet suburban streets to her house. Pulling up on the driveway, she leapt out of the car and ran for the house. As she opened the door, she nearly tripped over Sheba, who was standing behind it.

"Hey, Sheba, hello," she said, bending down to stroke the large alsatian dog's head, "I've got no time for you now, but I'll take you out as soon as I get back from the tennis club."

It was then that she noticed something worrying about the dog. Sheba seemed to be coughing or choking, her stomach pumping repeatedly as if she was trying to vomit something up. She was obviously in real discomfort and could hardly breathe; her sad eyes gazed up at Joanne helplessly.

"Oh damn, this is all I need now," said Joanne to herself, dropping her briefcase and bending down to take a closer look, "a sick dog, today of all days!" On closer examination, Sheba did look very sick, and Joanne realised she would have to take her down to the vet immediately. Luckily, the vet's surgery was only a few streets away, and Joanne quickly loaded the dog, still coughing and choking, into her car for the short drive.

When she got there, the surgery was just about to close for the day. Luckily, Dr. Sterne had not left yet, and when he saw the state of Sheba, he brought her quickly into his office. "It looks like something is stuck in her throat," said Dr. Sterne. It shouldn't take me too long to get it out."

"Listen, doctor, I'm really in a rush to get to a meeting -- can I leave her with you, and go and get changed? I'll be back in ten minutes to pick her up, then I'll take her on to the meeting with me. Is that OK?"

"Sure," said the doctor. "You get going. I'll see you in ten minutes."

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Joanne jumped back into her car again, and made the quick trip round to her house in a couple of minutes. As she was once more entering the hallway, the phone on the table by the door began to ring. She picked it up, annoyed by this additional interruption to her plans.

"This is Dr. Sterne," said an anxious voice. "Is that you, Joanne?"

"Of course it's me," said Joanne, surprised at the sound of his voice, "no-one else lives here."

"I want you to get right out of that house immediately," said the doctor's voice. "Right now. I'm coming round right away, and the police will be there any time now. Wait outside for us." The phone went dead. Joanne stared at it. She was confused, but she was also a little frightened by the obvious fear in the voice of the doctor. She replaced the receiver, then quickly backed out of the door and ran into the street.

At that moment, a police car with its lights flashing swung round the corner and screeched to a stop outside the house. Two policemen got out. After briefly checking that she was the owner of the house, they ran into the house through the still open door, without explaining anything. Joanne was by now completely confused and very frightened. Then the doctor arrived.

"Where's Sheba? Is she OK?" shouted Joanne, running over to his car.

"She's fine, Joanne. I extracted the thing which was choking her, and she's OK now." "Well what's this all about? Why are the police in my house?"

Just then, the two policemen reappeared from the house, half-carrying a white-faced figure, a man in a dark grey sweater and jeans, who, it seemed, could hardly walk. There was blood all over him.

"My God," said Joanne, "how did he get in there? And how did you know he was there?"

"I think he must be a burglar," said the doctor. "I knew he was there because when I finally removed what was stuck in Sheba's throat, it turned out to be three human fingers. I don't think he's a very happy burglar."

Circle on the answer you think is correct. 1. Where did Joanne work? a) an advertising agency b) a vet's surgery

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 c) a Mercedes dealer's office d) the text does not say 2. Why was she angry at the beginning of the story? a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) She was lost. She had lost a client at work. She was stuck in a traffic jam. Her dog was sick. It was time for Sheba's checkup. The dog couldn't breathe properly. She wanted to get her out of the house. The doctor had asked to see her.

3. Why did she take the dog to Dr. Sterne's surgery?

4. Why did she leave the dog at the surgery a) She wanted to catch a burglar. and drive home again? b) The dog was too sick to come home. c) The doctor wanted to keep her. d) Joanne wanted to change her clothes. 5. How long did it take Joanne to drive home a) two minutes from the surgery? b) ten minutes c) an hour d) the text does not say 6. What happened as she arrived home for the second time? a) b) c) d) The police arrived. The phone rang. The dog died. A burglar was just escaping.

7. Why did the doctor tell her to get out of the a) There was a dangerous dog in there. house? b) It was on fire. c) He knew there was a burglar inside. d) He wanted to meet her outside. 8. Why did the burglar look very sick? a) The police had caught him, and he would probably have to go to prison. b) He had caught a disease from the dog. c) He hadn't found any valuable things to steal. d) The dog had bitten off his fingers. a) stared b) cried c) barked

9. The story says that the dog "gazed up at Joanne helplessly". "Gazed" means

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 d) laughed 10. A "vet's surgery" is probably a) b) c) d) a serious operation a minor operation an animal doctor's office a police station

The Choking Dog: Exercise on Passive Voice 1. A client delayed Joanne when she was leaving the office. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. The tennis club was holding a meeting at 6.30. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 4. Joanne had to take Sheba to the vet.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 5. Her condition worried the vet.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 6. The dog was treated by the vet while Joanne went home.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 7. The vet told Joanne to get out of the house.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 8. The telephone call confused Joanne. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9. The police captured the burglar. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 10. The dog had bitten off his fingers. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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Topic 4: Gerunds and Infinitives

Objectives At the end of this topic, you will be able to: understand and use gerunds and infinitives correctly and effectively in writing and speaking practices distinguish the functions of gerunds and infinitives apply gerunds and infinitives appropriately for written and spoken discourse purposes

4.1 Introduction to Gerunds Gerund is usually associated with verbs that end in "ing". However, when a verb ends in "ing", it may be a gerund or a present participle. Therefore, it is important for you to understand that they are not the same. When we use a verb in "ing" form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund. Below are the examples for you to see:

In addition to this, a verb in "ing" form may function as a continuous tense or an adjective.

A gerund is an "ing" form of a verb that is used as a noun rather than as a verb. Because it is used as a noun, it can appear in any sentence position that any noun can occupy. Look at the examples below:

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4.2 The Use of Gerunds

I. Gerunds as Subject, Object or Complement

Try to think of gerunds as verbs in noun form. Like nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence: Smoking costs a lot of money. subject I don't like writing. writing. My favourite occupation is reading. reading.
object

complement

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But, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole expression [gerund + object] can be the subject, object or complement of the sentence object object gerund Smoking cigarettes costs a lot object object of money. I don't like writing letters. letters. gerund My favourite occupation is reading detective stories. stories. object object

gerund

II. Gerunds after Prepositions

If we want to use a verb after a preposition , it must be a gerund. It is impossible to use an infinitive after a preposition. So for example, we say: I will call you after arriving at the office. Please have a drink before leaving. I am looking forward to meeting you. Do you object to working late? Tara always dreams about going on holiday. Notice that you could replace all the above gerunds with "real" nouns:
I will call you after my arrival at the office. Please have a drink before your departure. I am looking forward to our lunch. Do you object to this job? Tara always dreams about holidays. .

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III. Gerunds after Certain Verbs

We sometimes use one verb after another verb. Often the second verb is in the infinitive form, for example: I want to eat.

But sometimes the second verb must be in gerund form, for example: I dislike eating

Common verbs that followed by gerunds Many common verbs are followed by gerunds. These verbs may be one-word verbs or two-word verbs.

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IV. Gerunds in Passive Sense


We often use a gerund after the verbs need, require and want. In this case, the gerund has a passive sense. want.

I have three shirts that need washing. washing. This letter requires signing. signing. The house wants repainting. repainting.

need to be washed

needs to be signed need to be repainted

4.3 Introduction to Infinitives In contrast to gerunds, infinitives are formed with "to":

An infinitive is the word "to" and the SIMPLE/BASE/DICTIONARY form of a verb.

Click here to know more about verbs followed by infinitives. Many verbs that are followed by an infinitive may take a noun or pronoun between them. Below are the examples:

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Click here to know more about common verbs followed by noun/pronoun and infinitives. In the negative form, the word "not" comes before the infinitive. Below are the examples:

4.4 The Functions of Infinitives

Below are the examples:

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Below are the examples:

Summary In this topic, you have learned: use simple gerunds and infinitives correctly and effectively. apply gerunds and infinitives in writing and speaking practices appropriately.

4.5 Tutorial Activities and Exercises

Exercise on Gerunds
1. Sue is in charge of _______ (organize) the meeting. 2. I have stopped _______(study) last minute before any examinations or tests. examinations 3. Would you mind ______ (shut) the door behind youHe told a really funny joke. We could not stop _______ (laugh). 4. _______ (have) confidence is important in public speaking. 5. _______ (surf) the net is what the youngsters today like doing the most. doing 6. If you keep on _______ ( work) you will get exhausted. 7. We can leave as soon as it quits ________ (rain). 8. I am looking forward to ________ (meet) him tonight. 9. I gave up _______ (try) to woo her. Shes not even interested to have interested lunch with me.

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Rewrite sentence 1- 10 in gerund form.


1. It is difficult to read Japanese. ___________________________________ It is essential for a business person to have a laptop computer. computer. ___________________________________ It is depressing to be poor. ____________________________________ It was exciting to climb the Eiffel Tower. ____________________________________ It will be hard to pass the test. ____________________________________

2.

3.

4.

5.

7. It is not right to make noise in the library. ____________________________________ 8. It is hazardous to smoke. ____________________________________ 9. It is a trend to be health conscious nowadays. ____________________________________ 10. It is mind-invigorating to watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire mind____________________________________ 11. It is normal for infants to sleep 18 to 20 hours a day. ____________________________________

Reading Passage and Exercise Eddie was a carpet fitter, and he hated it. For ten years he had spent his days sitting, squatting, kneeling or crawling on floors, in houses, offices, shops, factories and restaurants. Ten years of his life, cutting and fitting carpets for other people to walk on, without even seeing them. When his work was done, no-one ever appreciated it. No- one ever said "Oh, that's a beautiful job, the carpet fits so neatly." They just walked all over it. Eddie was sick of it. He was especially sick of it on this hot, humid day in August, as he worked to put the finishing touches to today's job. He was just cutting and fixing the last edge on a huge red carpet which he had fitted in the living room of Mrs. Vanbrugh's house. Rich Mrs. Vanbrugh, who changed her carpets every year, and always bought the best. Rich Mrs. Vanbrugh, who had never even given him a cup of tea all day, and who made him go outside when he wanted to smoke. Ah well, it was

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 four o'clock and he had nearly finished. At least he would be able to get home early today. He began to day-dream about the weekend, about the Saturday football game he always played for the local team, where he was known as "Ed the Head" for his skill in heading goals from corner kicks. Eddie sat back and sighed. The job was done, and it was time for a last cigarette. He began tapping the pockets of his overalls, looking for the new packet of Marlboro he had bought that morning. They were not there. It was as he swung around to look in his toolbox for the cigarettes that Eddie saw the lump. Right in the middle of the brand new bright red carpet, there was a lump. A very visible lump. A lump the size of -- the size of a packet of cigarettes. "Blast!" said Eddie angrily. "I've done it again! I've left the cigarettes under the blasted carpet!" He had done this once before, and taking up and refitting the carpet had taken him two hours. Eddie was determined that he was not going to spend another two hours in this house. He decided to get rid of the lump another way. It would mean wasting a good packet of cigarettes, nearly full, but anything was better than taking up the whole carpet and fitting it again. He turned to his toolbox for a large hammer. Holding the hammer, Eddie approached the lump in the carpet. He didn't want to damage the carpet itself, so he took a block of wood and placed it on top of the lump. Then he began to beat the block of wood as hard as he could. He kept beating, hoping Mrs. Vanbrugh wouldn't hear the noise and come to see what he was doing. It would be difficult to explain why he was hammering the middle of her beautiful new carpet. After three or four minutes, the lump was beginning to flatten out. Eddie imagined the cigarette box breaking up, and the crushed cigarettes spreading out under the carpet. Soon, he judged that the lump was almost invisible. Clearing up his tools, he began to move the furniture back into the living room, and he was careful to place one of the coffee tables over the place where the lump had been, just to make sure that no-one would see the spot where his cigarettes had been lost. Finally, the job was finished, and he called Mrs. Vanbrugh from the dining room to inspect his work. "Yes, dear, very nice," said the lady, peering around the room briefly. "You'll be sending me a bill, then?" "Yes madam, as soon as I report to the office tomorrow that the job is done." Eddie picked up his tools, and began to walk out to the van. Mrs. Vanbrugh accompanied him. She seemed a little worried about something. "Young man," she began, as he climbed into the cab of his van, laying his toolbox on the passenger seat beside him, "while you were working today, you didn't by any chance see any sign of Armand, did you? Armand is my parakeet. A beautiful bird, just beautiful, such colors in his feathers... I let him out of his cage, you see, this morning, and he's disappeared. He likes to walk around the house, and he's so good, he usually just comes back to his cage after an hour or so and gets right in. Only today he didn't come back. He's never done such a thing before, it's most peculiar..." "No, madam, I haven't seen him anywhere," said Eddie, as he reached to start the van. And saw his packet of Marlboro cigarettes on the dashboard, where he had left it at lunchtime.... And remembered the lump in the carpet.... And realised what the lump was.... And remembered the hammering.... And began to feel rather sick.... Answer these questions based on the text. 1.Why did Eddie hate being a carpet-fitter? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 2. What did Eddie think of Mrs. Vanbrugh ?

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 3. Why was Eddie called "Ed the Head" by his friends? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 4. What did Eddie want to do when he had finished fitting the carpet? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 5. Why didn't Eddie remove the carpet to take out the thing that was causing the lump? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 6. What did Eddie do with the hammer? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 7. What was Mrs. Vanbrugh worried about? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 8. What was really under the carpet? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. 9. "Eddie was determined...." means that he .Choose the best answer. a) b) c) d) had no idea decided for sure felt very angry couldn't decide

10. "Peculiar" in the sentence "He's never done such thing before, it's most peculiar..." means: a) normal b) c) d) like a bird difficult strange

Change the word in the brackets into gerund. 1. Eddie didn't enjoy (be) ________ a carpet fitter. 2. He disliked (work) _________ for Mrs Vanbrugh. 3. As a football player, Eddie was very good at (head) ___________ the ball. 4. He considered (take) __________ up the carpet again, but decided it would be too much trouble.

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5. He kept (hit) ___________ the lump until it was flat. 6. Eddie worked quickly because he didn't want Mrs Vanbrugh to see him (hammer) _____________ the carpet.

Topic 5: Transitional Words

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 Objectives At the end of this topic, you will be able to: understand the functions of active and passive voice and use them in writing and speaking effectively.

English transition words are essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or conclusion, etc. in the line of argument. The transition words and phrases (also called devices) have been assigned only once to somewhat artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category. To improve your writing (in essays, (scientific) reviews, (research) papers, letters, abstracts, reports, thesis, etc), it is essential to understand how, transition words can be used to combine ideas in writing. It is also fundamental to be aware of the sometimes subtle meaning of transition words within the english language.

Usage of Transition Words in Essays


Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays, papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and structure (see also: a List of Synonyms). All english transition words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs') do the same work as coordinating conjunctions: they connect two words, phrases or clauses together and thus the text is easier to read and the coherence is improved.

Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation: a semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'.
Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile.

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Example 2: However, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts.

Use a semicolon to connect sentences, only if the group of words on either side of the semicolon are a complete sentence each (both must have a subject and a verb, and could thus stand alone as a complete thought).

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Complete the sentences below with an appropriate transition. Remember to use correct punctuation! Print this exercise with your score. Discuss your answers with a tutor. 1. The United States doesn't usually have very good soccer teams the U.S. won the World Cup this year. 2. The Sacramento Kings are a very good basketball team this year. ticket prices to see the games have gone up. 3. Michael Jordon is a great basketball player. he plays baseball quite well. 4. Maria is an excellent volleyball player she just won an award for being the most valuable player on her team. 5. Many schools have excellent athletic programs for women. University XYZ offers many scholarships for women to play on their teams. 6. Maria loves to play sports. Her brother prefers to read.

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Coursenotes Preparation Guidelines Version 1.0 Date: 10-01-2012 7. Jose played college football from 1980-1984. a professional football team drafted him and paid him millions in 1985. 8. Many college athletes focus on sports and ignore their studies. their grades often suffer. 9. Athletes must have a good diet and exercise regularly to play well it's important that they don't smoke. 10. The Olympics has no tolerance for athletes that use drugs. they test all athletes that participate in the games.

1.vwo

2. o

3. noiibb ni

4. ni

5. lqmx o 9. omu

6. bn o no 10. bbni

7. ylnupdu

8. lu

Summary In this topic, you have learned:

use transitional words correctly and effectively. apply transitional words in writing and speaking practices appropriately.

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