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Lecture 41 Structural Systems & Engineering Practice

Long Span One Way Structural Systems Long span structures typically refer to spans exceeding 60 feet. A oneway structural system is characterized by relatively large linear spanning elements in one direction. Smaller spanning members are used to carry loads to the primary members. Typically, one-way structural systems are used in rectangular framing bays. Most of our discussion of structural members has been one-way systems. Below is a summary of typical long span one-way systems:

Long Span One-Way Structural Systems


System: Steel beams & girders Steel rigid frame Flat steel truss Pitched steel truss Steel arch Steel bar joists Steel joist girders Prestressed concrete single T beam Prestressed concrete double T beam Concrete arch Wood glulam beams Flat wood trusses Pitched wood trusses Wood arch Typical Spans, feet 10 72 30 150 40 300 40 150 50 500 20 144 20 100 20 120 20 60 40 300 10 60 40 120 40 100 50 250 Typ. Depth-toSpan Ratio: 1/20 1/20 1/10 1/8 1/100 1/24 1/12 1/25 1/25 1/50 1/24 1/10 1/6 1/40

Design Considerations for One-Way Systems: 1) Lack of redundancy A serious problem with one-way systems is the possibility of catastrophic collapse if one of the primary members were to fail. Redundancy means having a secondary load path in case of such failures. 2) Stability During Construction Temporary shoring and other methods are often necessary to prevent toppling of large structural members during construction. 3) Stability After Construction Additional lateral bracing, bridging, shear walls or other permanent methods of maintaining stability is typically necessary.

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4) Connections Most failures of one-way systems occur at connections. Special attention is required to shop drawings for fabrication of connections (typically performed by fabricator NOT the engineer). 5) Ponding A real problem with flat roofs, ponding occurs when water has no place to go. The weight of water creates deflection which in turn allows more water to collect. This cycle continues until failure occurs. 6) Temperature Movement A relatively short structural member of 25 feet subjected to temperature variations will have very negligible temperature movement. However, long span members must be able to flex by a significant amount that must be accounted for. 7) Tolerances Long span members often require some tolerances to allow for fit. These tolerances are accomplished by making slotted bolt holes, shims, additional seat angles, etc. 8) Shipping One-way structural members tend to be very big and heavy. Delivering these large members to the construction site can be very problematic.

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Long Span Two-Way Structural Systems As its name implies, a two-way system distributes load across two or more members. All members in a two-way system are considered to be primary members. A two-way system is most efficient when the shape is square so that there is equal distribution along the supporting members. In a rectangular shape, the members spanning the short path carry more of the load. Two-way structures have MUCH more redundancy than one-way structures. They are also MUCH more difficult to analyze and design because of their static indeterminacy.

P P/2

P/2

Simple one-way system

P P/4 P/4

P/4 Simple two-way system

P/4

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Types of two-way structural systems: 1) Space Frame Basically, it is a 3-dimensional truss. Lots of redundancy built into this type of truss system. Very difficult to erect since there are many members framing into a single point.

2) Dome Probably the most efficient structural system. A circular dome (as shown below) has vertical meridian lines that act like vertical arches in compression and horizontal hoops that act in tension. Load

Meridians

Hoops

Circular dome
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Geodesic Dome Computer model

Geodesic Dome

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3) Thin-Shell Structures Carries shear, compression and tension in the plane of the shell. These structures are deformation resistant based on their shape. Examples of thin-shell structures are vaults, hyperbolic paraboloids and folded plates.

Computer generated model of barrel vault structure

Groin vault

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Computer generated 3D plot of hyperbolic paraboloid

Hyperbolic paraboloid membrane structure roof

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Folded plate structure

Thin shell concrete structure Empire State Plaza The EGG

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4) Membrane structures Similar to thin shell structures, membrane structures are also considered to be form resistant. However, these fabric-like membranes can carry tension ONLY. They are extremely lightweight. Their biggest disadvantage is that they change shape based on loading and can also flutter in the wind. Membrane structures can come in various forms, including tents, air-supported structures, domes, etc.

Membrane roof

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Membrane roof

Air-supported membrane roof Carrier Dome

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Structural Engineering Practice 1) Architect Structural Engineer Relationship A structural engineer works in a team-like environment with the architect, owner, contractor, subcontractors, consultants and vendors. He (or she) will generally work for the architect, but may also be hired directly by the owner. Normally, the architect will select the structural system to be used, but will confer with the structural engineer before committing to the concept. Sometimes the structural engineer will select the structural system especially for complex or large projects. 2) Coordination and Cooperation The structural engineer usually works in SUPPORT of the functional relationships of the building. These include architectural, mechanical, electrical, and all other functions. As such, the structural engineer must coordinate the design of the structure with any and all of these requirements and be willing to make last-minute adjustments as necessary. Cooperation is expected on the part of ALL construction team participants so that problem solving can occur. Remember that it is rare (if ever) that every portion of the original design is carried completely through construction. 3) Preparation of Construction Documents The following structural information shall be included on the construction documents (i.e., drawings and specifications) as per IBC Section 1603: a. Fully dimensioned plans, sections, elevations, details and other information pertinent to the structural design of all elements b. Floor live load c. Roof line load d. Roof snow load e. Wind design data f. Earthquake design data g. Other loads as required h. Live loads conspicuously noted in areas within industrial & commercial buildings where the live load exceeds 50 PSF 4) Shop Drawings Upon completion of design documents, the contractor will hire manufacturers to prepare production drawings (shop drawings) that show exact cut lengths, product data, and details not shown on the design documents. The engineer is responsible for checking the design content but NOT the minute dimensional detail and quantities necessary for fabrication, and will sign-off that the information is approved or not.

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Shop Drawing Approval Stamp

5) Construction Inspections Depending on the scope of the project, a structural engineer will normally be required to perform at least some construction inspections. Poured-in-place concrete construction generally requires a lot of inspection because of the on-site quality control issues, while pre-engineered metal buildings generally require a minimum of quality control inspections. 6) Engineering Licensure All 50 states require licensure before a person can legally call himself Engineer. Reciprocity is usually allowed between states. Generally, licensure involves the following sequence: a. Education 4-year B.S. degree from an accredited ABET engineering program. Under the recently approved ASCE Policy 465, the educational requirements will be increased to a Masters degree gradually being grandfathered into law by 2020.

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b. EIT Exam This 8-hour Engineer In Training is the Part A of 2 exams that must be passed and is sometimes called the Fundamentals of Engineering exam. It includes 120 general engineering questions including math, physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, statics, dynamics, fluid dynamics, electrical theory, computer programming, engineering economics and other subjects typically during 4 years in an engineering program. It may be taken during the last semester of senior year in college. c. Apprenticeship After graduation from college, a minimum of 4 years of documented experience working under the supervision of a PE. d. Principles & Practice Exam This is the 8-hour Part B exam. It is taken ONLY after required apprenticeship is approved. It consists of 8 problems relating to specific field of engineering, i.e., civil, electrical, mechanical, chemical, etc. Upon passing this exam, a PE license is granted. e. Continuing Education Many, if not most states now require professional engineers to participate in about 10 12 hours of continuing education per year to maintain licensure. This education is usually in the form of attending seminars, workshops, college classes, etc.

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Below is a list of licensure requirements in New York.

A total of 6 years of credit is required for admission to the Fundamentals of Engineering examination (Part A) A total of 12 years of credit is required for admission to the Principles and Practice examination (Part B) for licensure.

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