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Tripob Luangrattanacharoen, 21 Feb 2013

GIS Transmission Basics

GIS Basics Basic metal enclosed concepts


Hybrid SS (SS Laufenburg, CH)

System concepts:

DTB Hybrid (MTS) GIS

Combined single- and three-phase enclosed GIS (ELK-14 / 252)

GIS concepts:

Single-phase enclosed Three-phase enclosed Combined single- and three-phase enclosed

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 2

GIS Basics GIS Development


Reduced dimensions Increased Reliability Improved economics Extension of usage for


Outdoor Container Hybrid Mobile

Integration of modern digital bay control Integration of latest sensor technology for voltage and current measurement Integration of monitoring functions

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 3

Metal Enclosed Product-Lines


GIS
Circuit Breaker Current Transformer Voltage Transformer Disconnector Earthing Switch Busbar / Busducts Exits

HYBRID

Value Creation

Circuit Breaker Current Transformer Voltage Transformer Disconnector Earthing Switch

DTB
Circuit Breaker Current Transformer

Functional Integration

Circuit Breakers AIS, DTB and GIS circuit breakers

High center of gravity Interrupter on high potential

Low center of gravity Interrupter at earthed potential Connection via bushings to high potential

Low center of gravity Interrupter at earthed potential Connection via GIS components to other equipments

ABB Month DD, YYYY | Slide 5

Benefits of Gas Insulated Switchgear Overview


Low space requirement Low environmental impact Low Life Cycle Costs High energy efficiency High safety level High quality standard

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 6

Benefits of Gas Insulated Switchgear Urban Centers GIS Installation


Very compact substation

Installation in small buildings Small installation footprint for expensive city areas Installation near urban centers Supply of power on high voltage level to city centers with high energy need Aesthetic reasons Vandalism

Your benefits Higher acceptance Lower line losses Security

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 7

Benefits of Gas Insulated Switchgear Off-shore GIS Installation


Applications Wind parks, like Nord E.on 1 Oil platforms Features Long maintenance intervals Reliable, gas-insulated equipment Most compact switchgear

Your benefits No outages at off-shore substations Cost savings by reduced space


ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 8

Benefits of Gas Insulated Switchgear Container GIS Installation


Delivery of factory assembled GIS in a container housing Applications Bypass existing substations that need refurbishment Strengthen grids on short notion

Your benefits All interfaces and integrated control cubicles available Fast installation Civil engineering planning minimized Short delivery time Small footprint
ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 9

Benefits of Gas Insulated Switchgear Mobile GIS Installation


Delivery of factory assembled GIS on a Truck Applications Bypass existing substations that need refurbishment Strengthen grids on short notion

Your benefits All interfaces and integrated control cubicles available Small footprint Can include all functions and power transformer Short delivery time, Fast installation
ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 10

Benefits of Gas Insulated Switchgear Underground GIS Substation

Why:

To make it not visible (esthetic or security) To save space or To give unused space a efficient use Under a building In a Park house At a road underpass or road crossing Under a park or in a green area In a mountain Underground, Earth work, Civil work Costs Cooling and HVAC (Transformer, Building) Impact of electrical and magnetic fields

Where

Speciality:

ABB Month DD, YYYY | Slide 11

GIS References Dow Plaquemine, USA

Business case

Electrical infrastructure for operation of chemical plant Strict regulations for safety and environmental protection

ABB solution

230 kV GIS substation with 15 bays in 1-breaker arrangement 60 Hz, 4000 A, 63 kA

Customer benefits

Reliable electricity supply Suitable for outdoor application Resistant to environmental influences Withstands hurricanes

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 12

GIS References Manzanillo, Mexico


Year of commissioning: 2006

Business case Highly reliable power supply for the entire state of Colima and significantly for Mexico Thermoelectric power plant at the seashore Periodic earthquake activity Replacement of timeworn AIS ABB solution 420 kV GIS substation with 10 bays in 1-breaker arrangement Seismic withstand capability tested Customer benefits Similar GIS withstood a quake measuring 7.6 on Richter scale Trustworthy electrical supply, as blackouts became a thing of the past Safe and maintenance-free GIS Free space after dismantling AIS

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 13

GIS References Three Gorges HPP, China

Business case

High availability and reliability for total power transfer of 18.2 GW Space saving design Efficient damping of switching overvoltage

ABB response

Delivery of total 39 + 34 bays (left and right bank) in 1- circuit breaker arrangement Substation integration into the dam in 3 elevation levels Largest 550 kV GIS substation (each bank contains 400 m long GIS)

Customer benefits

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 14

Improved grid reliability Reduced risk of energy shortage in eastern and central part of China

ABBs Action for SF6 Reduction


SF6 is a greenhouse gas, and losses shall be minimized

Minimize the operation losses by:


Design improvements Layout optimization Quality process Revised service strategy predictive maintenance of flanges for outdoor Reduced openings Use of state of the art SF6 service equipment Periodic training of people Product development with type-testing

Minimize the handling losses:


manufacturing installation Service Smart gas-segregation concept

-> avoid huge gascompartments -> insist on bay-wise gas-segregation

GIS consists of a closed pressure system

New generation of GIS have proven to be < 0.1% gasleakage per year
ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 15

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Circuit Breaker

Function:

Interrupt continuous current Interrupt short circuit current Close on short circuit current Self-blast (auto-puffer) breaker Puffer breaker Closing resistors for damping over voltages during closing long overhead lines grading capacitors for equal voltage distribution of breakers with more than 1 interrupting unit Line to ground capacitors for line breakers with high short circuit interruption current

Interrupting principles

Design parameters

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 16

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Circuit Breaker


Auto Puffer Two gas volumes Less switching energy required Available for up to 170 kV 63 kA

Puffer One gas volume for arc extinction Robust and reliable Available for GIS up to 1100 kV 80 kA
ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 17

GIS Basics Circuit breaker drive technologies

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 18

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Disconnector


Functions

Isolating function for personnel safety during maintenance


Disconnecting window available (not required per IEC) Power kinematic chain type test with 1.5 times the max. torque of the motor

Switching on and of without load Switching of small portion of busbars (capacitive loads) less than 0.5 A

Due to the small speed of the disconnector, reignicions will be produced, causing very fast transients electrical parts and secondary equipment has to be protected against VFT

Busbar disconnector used in a DBB scheme must also be capable to switch transfer currents under a transfer voltage

In GIS it is 1600A at 40 V, but can also be higher (up to 80% of the rated current; voltage depending of layout) The trend is going towards higher values

disconnector
ABB Group Month DD, Year | Slide 19

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Disconnector: Bus Transfer Current


Exemple: Transfer load from disconnector 1 to disconnector 2 Step 1: Close bus-coupler Both busbar are synchrounious Step 2: Close disconnector 2 Current is flowing in both disconnectors (no preignition at low voltage) Step 3: open disconnector 1 1600 A at 20 to 40 Volt producing born-off of contact with low-speed disconnector

Definitions

Loop current is defined as:

80% of the rated current, but not exceeding 1600 A (is typically to be switched)

Tho loop voltage in GIS is appr. a factor of 10 lower compared to AIS/Hybrid (see below)

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 20

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Maintenance Earthing Switches


Functions and applications

Reliable earthing of the High voltage, active part in case of maintenance and/or repair

Short circuit current carrying capability of rated continuous (3 sec. or 1 sec) and peak withstand current

Optionally equiped with isolating function to have access to the active part for

Contact resistance measurement Measurement of operating time of circuit breaker

Earth electroede often to be used for PD measurement (depending on design)

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 21

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Fast Acting Earthing Switches


Functions and applications

Reliable earthing of the High voltage, active part in case of maintenance and/or repair

Short circuit current carrying capability of rated continuous (3 sec. or 1 sec) and peak withstand current

Switching of small capacitive and inductive coupling currents

Slow operating opening is sufficient for such requirements Contacts have to be erosion resistive

Earthing switches which requires to close on short circuits or to earth bigger capacitive loads are called fast acting earthing switches, and are applied at

Line entrances Long portions of busbars to eath big capacitances

Optionally equiped with isolating function to have access to the active part for

Contact resistance measurement Measurement of operating time of circuit breaker

ABB Group Month DD, Year | Slide 22

Earth electroede often to be used for PD measurement (depending on design)

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Instrument Transformers


Functions and applications

Applied for measuring and protection purpose State of the art technology is the inductive type of measuring principle for both, I and U. Especially for I measurement, very high secondary burdens are still specified in many customer specs.

Are related to old protection relays With todays modern protection relays, the protection is overburdened and is not working in an optimum range any more

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 23

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Arresters

Protection against

athmospheric overvoltage Switching over-voltages

Location in AIS technology


At the line entrance At the transformer entrance

Location in GIS technology

At transformers with transformer direct connections At cable connections, if requested

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 24

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Busbars

ELK-14 / 300 Disconnector/Earthin g switch in the busbar compartment

They are connect the bays with each other In GIS normally we are using mainly

double-busbar schemes (high reliablity) or SBB schemes (lower reliability for small substations or 1 1/2 CB schemes for very high reliablity Active busbar: 1- or 3-pole insulated busbar including switching components in the active current path

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 25

GIS Basics Basic Equipment GIL

Busduct has identical design to busbar used in GIS (at ABB) Have much higher current currying capability compared to cable Horizontal and vertical arrangement possible All aluminum design lightweight, reduced civil No welding at site - no risk of flawed welding, no fire risk, no particle pollution requirements Largest vertical gas compartment is 30 meters - no excessive static gas pressure Complete preassembled and tested units minimal site activity

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 26

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Exit Connections Bushings

Bushings with hollow insulators


Porcellan Composite

RIP Bushings

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 27

GIS Basics Basic Equipment Cable End Termination


Main features:

Interface and limit of supply between GIS and cable manufacturer according IEC 62271-209 for fluid-filled or try type cableend terminations GIS and HV-cable can be tested independently Additional flange available to apply a test bushing

from cable supplier

Benefits

Cable-end box can be adjusted to any size of the cable-end terminations Easy accessibility to remove the link

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 28

GIS Basics Transformer Connection


Main features:

Interface and limit of supply between transformer/reactor and GIS according IEC 61639 The GIS and the transformer can be tested independently by removing the link Transfer of vibration from transformer tank into the GIS are prevented by:

Flexible copper straps Spring assemblies

from transformer supplier

Benefits

Efficient decoupling of transformer vibrations Space-saving transformer connection

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 29

GIS Basics Partition & Support Insulators


Partition insulator

Function

Carry return current Partitioning of gas compartment Barrier of internal arc Positioning and supporting of current conductor Dielectric Isolation Mechanical Resistant against thermal cycles Withstand dielectric stress Withstand mechanical stress Low losses Resistant against decomposition products


Support insulator

Requirements

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 30

GIS Basics Support Insulators for Switchgear


Support insulator

Function

Mechanical support High dielectric strength

Requirements

Withstand dielectric stress Withstand mechanical load


Static dynamic

Low losses Resistant against decomposition products

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 31

GIS Basics Special Service conditions


Altitude -> effects external insulation (correction factor ka) Pollution Temperature and humidity

a) 50 C and +40 C for very cold climates; b) 5 C and +55 C for very hot climates.

Vibrations, shock or tilting Wind speed

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 32

GIS Basics GIS Testing Type Testing


The type tests are for the purpose of

proving the ratings and characteristics of switchgear and control gear, their operating devices and their auxiliary equipment.

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 33

GIS Advantages and Benefits Product Certificate

Proving the conformity with


all required Type Tests the design and construction guidelines the routine testing all internal manufacturing processes according the certified management system ISO 9000

Signed by an independent organization with technical experts

Benefits

No additional approvals from external consulting companies High class type test reports with external witness

ABB Group February 22, 2013 | Slide 34

GIS Basics GIS Testing Routine Testing


The routine tests are for the purpose of

revealing faults in material or construction. They do not impair the properties and reliability of a test object. The routine tests shall be made wherever reasonably practicable at the manufacturer's works on each apparatus manufactured, to ensure that the product is in accordance with the equipment on which the type tests have been passed. By agreement, any routine test may be made on site. The routine tests given in this standard comprise

a) dielectric test on the main circuit in accordance with 7.1; b) tests on auxiliary and control circuits in accordance with 7.2; c) measurement of the resistance of the main circuit in accordance with 7.3; d) tightness test in accordance with 7.4; e) design and visual checks in accordance with 7.5.

ABB Group Month DD, Year | Slide 35

GIS Basics GIS Testing - Onsite Tests


Metal enclosed test set-up

Purpose of HV tests onsite:

It is the last quality check, before the GIS will be put in service Find all dielectric relevant damages and particles released during transportation, assembly errors and material defects. It is not replacing the type-test, routine-test or any other type registration test Particles, Edges Parts, not connected to potential (floating) Defects (voids, cracks, .) Wrong material

Open test set-up

Type of errors located


ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 36

ABB GIS >30y service life Failure rates

ABB Group Month DD, Year

| Slide 37