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Kardiyono 1)

Abstract Indonesian population is already more than 200 millions, where one of the crucial problems to be solvent is to fulfill the very high demand of housing. As the consequence of population, the demand of material building and the requirement of a method to speed up the construction are important issue in this period. The cost reduction of material can be achieved by using local material and the speed can be increased by developing a non-traditional method. One of the solution for fulfill this requirement is by using no-fines concrete technology for constructing the wall. In this study, some researches of no-fines concrete have been carried which were emphasized on the application of the plenty-unused local material such pumice in Bawuran and cinder aggregate in the area around Merapi Volcano in Yogyakarta for the application in low cost mass housing. Some test were conducted in University of Gadjah Mada and the result showed that the most suitable no-fines concrete made of the above material could be achieved if uniform gradation with the maximum aggregate of 20 mm was applied. To see its applicability on site, a prototype of house funded by Sleman Government has also been build. It is concluded that no-fines concrete is superior to the conventional brick masonry. No-fines concrete is cheaper and easy to be constructed that can speed up the construction. Keywords: No-fines concrete, pumice, cinder aggregate, low cost mass housing. Abstrak Jumlah populasi Indonesia saat ini sudah mencapai 200 juta jiwa, dimana masalah yang paling krusial untuk dipecahkan adalah pemenuhan kebutuhan akan perumahan. Sebagai konsekuensi dari jumlah penduduk, kebutuhan akan material bangunan dan kebutuhan akan metode yang tepat untuk mempercepat konstruksi merupakan isu penting dewasa ini. Penurunan reduksi dari material dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan local material dan kecepatan dapat dicapai dengan mengembangkan metode non tradisional. Satu dari solusi ini adalah dengan menggunakan beton kualitas rendah untuk konstruksi dinding. Pada kasus ini, beberapa penelitian mengenai beton kualitas rendah dilakukan dengan menitikberatkan kepada aplikasi dari bahan-bahan yang tidak digunakan seperti lava dingin di Bawuran dan agregat debu di sekitar Gunung Merapi di Yogyakarta untuk mengaplikasikan perumahan masal dengan harga murah. Beberapa percobaan dilakukan di Universitas Gadjah Mada dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar dari beton kualitas rendah dapat dicapai jika gradiasi uniform dengan maximum agregat 20 mm. Untuk melihat pelaksanaan di lapangan, sebuah prototype dari rumah dibangun oleh pemerintah Sleman. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa beton kualitas rendah lebih baik ketimbang batu bata konvesional. Beton kualitas rendah ini pula lebih murah dan mudah dipakai dalam pelaksanaan serta mempercepat konstruksi. Kata Kunci: Beton kualitas rendah, lava, aggregate debu, rumah masal harga murah

1. INTRODUCTION Indonesian population is already more than 200 millions, where one of the crucial problems to be solved is to fulfill the very high demand of housing. As the consequent, there are high, demand of material to be used and requires a method to speed up the construction, yet to keep the cost as low as possible. In the process, the cost of wall can be minimized by using local material and the speed can be increased by developing a non-traditional method.

Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

On the other side, there are many natural aggregate which not yet been exploited, for example rock pumice in Pleret, Bantul district, south of Yogyakarta, and stone of volcanic cinder in Merapi Volcano inside, north-side of Yogyakarta. The aggregate is unused because its strength is low, disqualification to make the normal concrete. One of the solutions to fulfill this requirement is by using no-fines concrete technology from local aggregate that not be used yet, for constructing the wall. Although this technology has already been popular in overseas a quite sometimes ago, no or rare house is yet to be built in Indonesia.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE STUDIES Macintosh et al., (Macintosh et al., 1956) explained that no-fines concrete could be defined as a concrete from which the fine aggregate is almost, if not entirely, omitted. The aggregate is of a single size, usually 20 mm in Britain. In this paper it is explained that the type of concrete can be used for both external and interior partition walls, and it is normal for all window and doorframes, beams, and other fixtures that are to form part of the wall to be fixed between the forms and the no-fines concrete to be poured around them. The concrete is usually made with water-cement ratios 0.35 to 0.50 and the aggregate-cement ratios 6 to 10. The compressive strength is between 7 14 MPa, and the weight about 1500 kg per cubic meter. According to Moss (Moss, 1979), the first no-fines concrete houses were built in the Netherlands after World War I with crushed clinker as the aggregate. Later about 50 houses were built in Scotland using the same material. In 1937 the Scottish Special Housing Association was set up to provide work for unemployment coal miners. As the labor was inexperienced in construction, traditional methods of building were discharged in favor of the no-fines system, but the construction manager decided to use crushed whinstone-plenty-fully available there. About 900 houses were built by this method in Scotland before World War II and these are still in good condition. It is noted that no-fines concrete system needed minimum of labor and yet without sacrificing design standard to build 2 to even 10 stories of homes or apartment. Based on this background, some researches of no-fines concrete have been carried out in the Department of Civil Engineering, Gadjah Mada University. The researches were emphasized on the application of the plenty-unused local material such pumice in Bawuran village, Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Province, and cinder aggregate in the area around Merapi Volcano in Yogyakarta for the application in low cost mass housing.

3. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH RESULTS In this section, some research, which has done in laboratory, will be submitted successively. 3.1 Water/cement ratio In the year 1992 a research of about no-fines concrete with the aggregate from ceramic tile fraction has been done (Kardiyono, 1992). The tile fraction which the size between 5 until 40 mm and specific gravity 1.8 and also its water absorption 17 percent has been made for no-fines concrete with the aggregate-cement ratio by volume were varies from 6 to 10, and water-cement ratio by weight were varies from 0.3 until 0.46. From this research is obtained that the specifics gravity of the no-fines concrete are varies 1.4 until 1.7, the porous is varies between 20-25 percent, and the compressive

strength were varies between 4 MPa and 10 MPa, with the maximum compressive strength at the water-cement ratio around 0.38-0.42 (see Figure 1). This matter is similar with Raju (Raju, 1983) guide, that water-cement ratio range from 0.37 and 0.45. 3.2 Pumice aggregate In the year 2000 a research to study of no-fines concrete that is made from pumice aggregate obtained from Bawuran Village, southern Yogyakarta, was done (Sulistiyowati, 2000). The aggregates specific gravity is 1.20 and the water absorption is 35 percent. With this aggregate that the size 5-20 mm and the aggregate-cement ratio by volume varies from 2 until 10 and water-cement ratio 0.4 was obtained that the no-fines concrete weight is about 1600 1700 kg per cubic meter, the pore volume is varies among 1.6 - 3.0 percent, and the compressive strength is varies between 7-20 MPa (see Figure 2). Its elasticity modulus is varies about 3,200-10,000 MPa.(see Figure 3). Cement requirement is varies 173 -593 kg per cubic meter concrete (see Figure 4) depend on the aggregatecement ratio. The pore volume is small and the cement requirement is great because its aggregate is brittle.



Co mp ressive stren g th (MPa)

Compressive strength (MPa)


Cin d er ag g reg ate (Su b kh an n u r,2002)

20 15 10 5 0

Pu mice ag g reg ate (Su listyo w ati,2000)

Note: A/C=aggregate/cement ratio

0 0,34 0,36 0,38 0,4 0,42 0,44 0,46 0,48 Water/cement ratio

4 6 Ag g reg ate/cemen t ratio b y vo lu me

Figure 1. Relationship of Water/Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength (Kardiyono,1992)

35 30
E l asti ci ty modul us (1000 MP a)

Figure 2. Relationship of Aggregate/Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength

6 00

5 00

25 20

4 00

3 00

Pumice aggregate (Sulistyowati,2000)

2 00

1 00

Cinder aggregate (Subkhannur,2002)

5 0
2 4 6
Aggregate/cement ratio by volume
0 2 4 6 A ggre ga t e /c e me nt rat io by v olume 8 10


Figure 3. Relationship of Aggregate/Cement and Elasticity Modulus

Figure 4. Relationship of Aggregate/Cement Ratio and Cement Requirement

3.3 Cinder aggregate In the year 2002 a research to study of no-fines concrete that is made from cinder aggregate from Merapi volcano, northern Yogyakarta city, was done (Subkhannur, 2002). Result of this aggregate inspection obtained that its specific gravity is 2.06 with the water absorption 10 percent, and hardness is 29 percent (with Rudeloff tube tester) and abrasion value is 70 percent (with Los Angeles machine tester). This aggregate is uniform size of 10 - 20 mm. The volume aggregate-cement ratio is varies from 2 until 10 and water-cement ratio is 0.4. The weight of no-fines concrete obtained is varies from 1790 2260 kg per cubic meter, porosity volume is varies among 1.06 25.67 percent, and the compressive strength is varies between 5 - 32 MPa (see Figure 2), elasticity modulus is varies about 7,500 25,000 MPa (see Figure 3). Cement Portland requirement is varies 136 - 605 kg per cubic meter of concrete (see Figure 4). The variation is depended on the value of the aggregate-cement ratio.

3.4 Moment strength and ductility of reinforced no-fines concrete beam A research to obtain moment strength and ductility of reinforced concrete beam from no-fines concrete with the aggregate of expanded clay (shale) have been done by Tjokrodimuljo (Tjokrodimuljo, 1995). No-fines-concrete is made with the aggregate-cement ratio 4 and watercement ratio 0.40. Weight of the concrete is 1600 kg per cubic meter, and the compressive strength is 15 MPa. The concrete beam specimens are width 150 mm, height 200 mm, and length 2000 mm (span length 1800 mm and tested with two points load apart 600 mm). Five beams are with upper and lower reinforcements of equal size, which are 2D8, 2D10, 2D12, 3D12, and 3D16. The test result is indicated that the concrete beam have the moment strength which is equal to ordinary concrete beam (by compressive strength 15 MPa.), that are maximum elastic moment successively 4.9 kN-m, 7.4 kN-m, 12.5 kN-m, 18 kN-m, 26 kN-m, and maximum plastics moment are 5.1 kN-m, 7.7 kN-m, 14 kN-m, 20 kN-m, 30 kN-m (see Figure 5). The value of beam ductility is great enough. It can be seen that the greater area of steel reinforcement the greater stiffness of the concrete beam, this matter because of low concrete elasticity modulus, so that the influence of steel reinforcement is very dominant. 3.5. Shear strength of reinforced no-fines concrete beam A research to obtain shear strength of reinforced concrete beams from no-fines concrete with the aggregate of expanded clay (shale) has been done by Basewed (Basewed, 1997). At this research the experiment concrete beams are width 150 mm, height 200 mm, and length 2000 mm (span length 1800 mm and tested with two points load apart 600 mm) with the longitudinal steel reinforcement 4D16, as tensile and compressive reinforcement. The specimens are ten concrete beams. Five first beam with the shear steel reinforcement of the diameter 6 mm with the distance 50 mm, 75 mm, 100 mm, 125 mm, and 150 mm. As for five second beam with the steel reinforcement is the diameter 8 mm with the distance varies, equal to the five first beams. The yield strength of the steel are 320 MPa and 420 MPa for 6 mm and 8 mm steel diameter successively. The compressive strength of no-fines concrete is 15 MPa. Result of this research is indicated that the shear force can be supported by the no-fines concrete beams are among 30-48 kN (that are 55-80 percent of theoretically analysis for normal concrete). Observation during experiment indicated that the damage type is brittle (see Figure 6). Thereby, no-fines concrete beam has to be prevented from shear crack or needed by the way to increase the shear strength.


30 25 20 15

tensile steel reinforcement: 3D16 compr. steel reinforcement: 3D16


S hear force (kN)




10 5

2D10 2D8


Note : 1 : specimen 2 : specimen 3 : specimen 4 : specimen 5 : specimen

1 2 3 4 5

10 20 30 40 Displacement at mid span of beams (mm)

Displacement at mid span (mm)

Figure 5. Moment-Displacement Curves at Mid Span of The Five Experimental No-Fines Concrete Beams (Tjokrodimuljo,1995)

Figure 6. Shear Force-Mid Span Displacement Curves of Beams with 6 mm Ties (Basewed and Kardiyono, 1997)

3.6 Reinforced no-fines concrete column A research to study the properties of reinforced no-fines concrete column has been done by Setiyawan (Setiyawan, 2002). The both end parts of column experiments are made from a normal concrete in order not to destroy effect of examination. Fifteen columns with the dimension 150 mm x 150 mm and length 2000 mm, additionally head both its back part with the wide dimension 450 mm, length 200 mm, have been made. Five given by the first column group of longitudinal reinforcement 4D8, five of the second column group 4D10, and five third column group 4D12. All columns given by the shear reinforcement with the ties diameter is 6 mm with the distance 160 mm. Examination done with the axial load with the eccentricity distance varies for each specimen tested, that are 75 mm, 150 mm, 225 mm, 300 mm, and 375 mm. The testing of no-fines concrete indicated that the concrete compressive strength is 9 MPa., the modulus of elasticity is about 13.300 MPa, and the strain at maximum load is about 0.0009. The the yield of reinforcing steel are 293 MPa, 403 MPa, and 361 MPa for the steel of diameter 8 mm, 10 mm, and 12 mm successively. From this research, its can be seen that load-displacement relationship diagram is equal to theoretic analysis result (see Figure 7). Column fractures are occurred by concrete compressive failure.



Axial load (kN)



0 0





Mid Column Displacement (mm)

Figure 7. Axial Load Mid Column Displacement Curves For Column With 4D8 Reinforcement and 300 mm Eccentricity (Setiyawan, 2002)

3.7 Reinforced no-fines concrete wall Research to obtain the behavior of no-fines concrete wall was done by Baasir (Baasir, 2005). In this research, the walls tested are thickness 100 mm, length 3000 mm, and high 3000 mm (see Figure 8). The bottom side of wall set by a horizontal beam of size 150 mm x 300 mm (with the longitudinal reinforcing steel of upper side to the 2D10 and of lower side of 3D14). In upper side of the wall is given a horizontal beam 100 mm x 100 mm (with the reinforcing steel 4D8), and both wall besides given by the column of size 100 x 100 mm (with the reinforcing steel 4D8). The specimens are two no-fines concrete walls. The first wall is without reinforcing steel, and the second wall is with horizontal reinforcing steel. The steel bars are diameter 6 mm with the vertical distance 200 mm. The weight of the no-fines concrete wall is 1500 kg per cubic meter, compressive strength is 4.45 MPa, tensile strength is 0.248 MPa, and initial elastic modulus 1600 MPa. Tensile test of reinforcing steel indicated that yield stress is 281 MPa, maximum tensile stress is 398 MPa, and the modulus of elasticity is 194983 MPa.

linear gauge

concrete beam (100X100) loading frame hydraulics jack load cell


concrete column (100X100) concrete beam (150X300)

3000 mm

rigid floor

Figure 8. Arrangement of No-Fines Concrete Wall Experiment (Baasir, 2005)

These walls are tested with static horizontal load at side to the unidirectional of wall area. Results of these wall tests are can be seen in Figure 9 and Table 1. From these data it can be seen that first crack on 2.972 kN for wall without reinforcing steel and 15.716 kN for wall with reinforcing steel.
Top horizontal load (kN) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

No-fines concrete wall with reinforcing steel

No-fines concrete wall without reinforcing steel





Top w all displacement (mm)

Figure 9. Top Horizontal Load Top Wall Displacement Curves of No-Fines Concrete Wall (Baasir, 2005) Table 1 Experiment Result of No-fines Concrete Wall (Baasir, 2005). No-fines Concrete Wall without No-fines Concrete Wall With Reinforcing Steel Reinforcing Steel Horizontal Crack width (mm) Horizontal Load (kN) Crack width Load (kN) (mm) 2.972 0.230 15.716 0.510 First Crack 22.268 2.172 51.909 1.662 Yield Condition 28.851 9.045 59.978 3.740 Maximum Load 25.175 17.379 47.983 6.299 Fracture Load

4. FIELD EXPERIMENTS IN YOGYAKARTA AREA After these researches have finished in laboratory, then field experiments are carry out. Antecedent attempt in this field executed near the aggregate quarry, were in Bawuran Village, and in Purwobinangun Village. Both villages are in Yogyakarta Special Province (see Figure 10). Bawuran Village is in the location of pumice quarry, southern of Yogyakarta city (see Figure 11). Around this

countryside there are some mounts of pumice, that are about 25 million meter cubic (Widiasmoro et al., 1993). The other location is in Purwobinangun Village, northern of Yogyakarta city. Purwobinangun Village is in the slanting side of Merapi Volcano, close to Boyong River where the volcanic cinder is taking over (see Figure 12). There is volcanic cinder aggregate about 750 thousand cubic meter (Setiawan, 2003).

10 km Borobudur Temple

Centre Jawa Province

Merapi Volcano Purwobinangun Village Sleman Yogyakarta City Bantul Prambanan Temple



Yogy a S p e c ka rta ia l P r o v in c e

Bawuran Village

Figure 10. Map of Yogyakarta Special Province

Figure 11. Pumice Hill in Bawuran Village.

Figure 12. Boyong River Near Purwobinangun Village in The Slanting Side of Merapi Volcano

The first attempt was to train local community to make no-fines concrete block with length 400 mm, width 200 mm, and thickness 100 mm (see Figure 13, Figure 14, and Figure 15). The second attempt was to train the local community to make a wall from no-fines concrete block (see Figure 16). The third attempt was to train the local community for constructing no-fines concrete column and no-fines concrete wall for making low cost mass housing (see Figure 17 and Figure 18). Later the activity was to train the local community for practicing this method for constructing a low cost mass house from no-fines concrete (see Figure 19).

Figure 13. Training Community in Bawuran Village

Figure 14. Pouring No-fines Concrete in to Concrete Block Mould

Figure 15. Concrete Block of (400 mm x 200 mm x 100 mm) Size

Figure 16. Wall That is Made From No-fines Concrete Block

Figure 17. No-fines concrete column and wall during construction

Figure 18. Column and wall of low cost mass housing have finished

Figure 19. Prototype of Mass House that was Made From No-fines Concrete in Sleman

5. CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENTARY By these antecedent attempts had been done in the field can be elaborated local community in the location of aggregate intake can accept. The process of constructing wall from no-fines concrete with pour in place is easier, quicker, and cheaper than traditional method that is it constructed from red brick. Making wall from no-fines concrete can replace the ordinary society habit that make the wall from red brick. The replacement will stop the damage process of rice field because of the red brick is made of rice field land, and in the other side, using of materials that not be used before is produced. Next attempt is socialize of newly method is being developed to low cost house contractors in Special Province of Yogyakarta and Indonesian country.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author acknowledges many supporters from Academic Staff, Students, and Laboratory Technicians of Gadjah Mada University. These laboratory researches and field attempts were carried out with Gadjah Mada University Students in Research Program and in Community Service Activity Program, and supported by Local Government Regency. Partly author fund aid was accepted from Portland Cement Factory of Semen Nusantara. Grateful thanks are to: Lecturers, Students, and Technicians of Engineering Material Laboratory, in Civil Engineering Department of Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, The Government of Bantul District, The Government of Sleman District, The Community of Bawuran Village and Purwobinangun Village, Portland Cement Factory of Semen Nusantara, and whosoever assisted these attempts to develop of no-fines concrete in Indonesia.

7. REFERENCES Baasir, H. (2005) Characteristic of Post Elastics of No-fines Concrete Wall with Horizontal Reinforcing Steel under Static Loading, Thesis, Masters Program, Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Basewed, F., Kardiyono (1997) The Influence of Shear Reinforcement to The Strength of No-fines Concrete Beam with Expanded Shale Aggregate. Forum Teknik, Technological Journal, Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta; 21(2), Kardiyono (1992) No-fines Concrete made from Aggregate of Ceramic Tile Rubble. Research Report, Engineering Faculty, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Macintosh, R. H, Bolton, J. D., Muir, C. H. D. (1956) No-fines Concrete as A Structural Material, , Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Paper No. 6136, London. Moss, J. K. (1979). No-fines Building Gives Energy-Conserving Homes, A System that Saves Both Energy and Cement. International Construction Sutton, Surrey, England, Publication#C790123, Copyright1979,The Aberdeen Group. Raju, N.K. (1983) Design of Concrete Mixed. Second Edition, College Book Store Publishers & Distributors, Delhi. Setiawan, Y. R. (2003) Geology of Purwobinangun Area of Pakem sub-District of Sleman District of Yogyakarta Special Province and Calculation of Reserve of Resource Cinder Aggregate, Research Report, Research Program and Community Service Activity Program, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Setiyawan, P. (2002) Behavior of No-fines Concrete Column under Eccentric Axial Load.Thesis, Masters Programme, Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Subkhannur, A. (2002) Cinder Aggregate from Merapi Volcano as Aggregate in Making of No-fines Concrete., Final Report, Civil Engineering Department of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Sulistiyowati, E. E. (2000) Use of Pumice of Size Measure 5mm-20mm as Aggregate in Making Nofines Concrete, Final Report, Civil Engineering Department of Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Tjokrodimuljo, K. (1995) Strength and Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beam from No-fines Concrete with Expanded Shale Aggregate. Media Teknik, No.1. Year of XVII of April Edition 1995 ISSN No:0216-3012, Four Monthly Magazine of Engineering Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Widiasmoro, Tjokrodimuljo, K., Fatimah, S. (1993) Study On Petrology, Potency, and Application of Pumice Conglomerate in Piyungan, Yogyakarta, for Basic Raw Material for Light Bricks and Light Tile. Challenging The Frontier Geology in Indonesia, The Twenty Second Annual Convention Indonesian Association of Geologists (IAGI), December 6-9, 1993, Bandung