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CHEMISTRY To memorize: First 20 elements.

OH- = Hydroxide and NH4+ = Ammonium CHEMICALS AND THEIR PROPERTIES Chemistry study of properties of matter and how it is physically and chemically changed. Matter anything which occupies space and has a mass. Fundamental Theory of Chemistry Particle Nature of Matter a) Matter consists of tiny particles with large spaces between the particles. b) Particles are constantly moving and will move faster when heated and slower when cooled. c) Different types of matter have different particles. d) Particles of Matter are attracted to each other. e) Particles of Matter can change to form new particles when particles combine into larger particles or larger particles break apart into smaller particles. Physical Property a description of a substance that does not involve forming a new substance. Examples: colour, texture, density, smell, solubility, taste, melting point, and physical state Chemical Property a description of what a substance does as it changes into one or more new substance(s) in combination with other substance(s). Example: gasoline will burn when placed near oxygen and ignited. Physical Change A change which only changes form/shape or state of matter. The particles dont change, but the space between particles or the speed the particles are moving changes. Example: Liquid ammonia changes state to ammonia gas when heated. Example of a Physical Change: Water boils Chemical Change A change which produces a new product (new particles) with different physical and chemical properties. Example. NH3+H2O NH4++OHEvidence of Chemical Change: colour, heat/light, precipitate forms, new gas Example of a Chemical Change: Ammonia reacts with water to create Hydroxide, a base.

Preliminary Terms

electron this is a negatively charged particle that is very small. Electrons are what change the charge of an element. proton this is a positively charged particle that determines the identity of the element. pure substance A substance composed of only ONE type of particle element A substance composed of only ONE type of atom compound A substance that is composed of multiple types of atoms bonded together solution A substance that is composed of many types of particles that looks like one substance valence electron: - number of valence electrons increase by one moving right across the periodic table (skipping the transition metals) mechanical mixture: mixture of different types of pure substances that are not bonded with each other. A mechanical mixtures distinctive characteristic is that it can be separated without change of state or chemical changes.

Periodic Table The Periodic Table is divided into periods and groups. Each group of elements have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons. Elements are more metallic the further left, and the further down they are on the periodic table. Bohrs Model of Atom Bohrs model of the atom took into account two important developments that were relatively new at that time. The first were Rutherfords experiments which established the nuclear nature of the atom and Einsteins work, which showed that light can be described as chunks (quanta) of energy called photons. Each wavelength (colour) of light has a specific quantum of energy. a) The electron of a hydrogen atom moves about the central proton in a circular orbit. An electron orbits at a certain radius from the nucleus at a certain energy. An electron in one of these orbits is said to be in an allowed energy state. b) In the absence of light/heat energy, the electron remains in an allowed energy state called the ground state. When an atom absorbs light/heat energy, the electron undergoes a change from one allowed energy state to another. Key concepts from Water and Tuning Fork Demonstration: a) Some molecules consist of charged atoms (ions) called ionic compounds and some molecules consist of neutral atoms called covalent compounds. b) ions usually dissolve (separate) in water c) atoms usually do not dissolve (separate) in water d) non-metals have a tendency to form negative ions (gainers of electrons) e) metals have a tendency to form positive ions (losers of electrons) f) metal ions may sometimes gain electrons (depending on what you put them with) g) non-metal ions may sometimes lose electrons (depending on who you put them with) Key Terms:

atom: the name of the neutral charged particles that define elements. ion: an atom or a group of atoms (i.e. polyatomic ions; ex. bicarbonate) that has a charge anion: negatively charged ion: more electrons than protons ex. O-2 cation: positively charged ion: more protons than electrons ex. Na+1 ionisation: the process of becoming an ion (gaining/losing [an] electron[s]) through the process of being bombarded by electrons. electrolyte: a solution with ions

Ionic Compounds Ionic Compounds are compounds created when atoms bond by exchanging electrons. solid at room temperature high melting point high/no boiling point soluble in water conductive solutions with water Note: Ionic compounds have a high melting point because there are stronger attractive forces between particles; the opposite applies for molecular compounds. Metals tend to lose electrons in their outer energy level (valence). Non-metals tend to gain electrons in their outer energy level so that they have 8 electrons to stabilize (like noble gases. Note, hydrogen only need two electrons in their outer shell to stabilize. Metals combine with non-metals so that the charge is neutral; this bond is called an ionic bond and a crystal lattice is usually formed. Molecular Compounds (or covalent compounds) are compounds formed when two atoms bond by sharing electrons. They are made of non-metals only. Their properties are: - state at room temperature may vary - low melting point - low/no boiling point - generally insoluble in water - non-conductive solutions (when soluble) The combining capacity of a nonmetal is the number of electrons required to have 8 electrons in the outer energy level. (ex. Chlorine has 7 electrons; therefore the combining capacity is 1.) Two non-metals will combine to form a molecular compound. The combining is often described as a sharing of electrons, between the two atoms to achieve 8 electrons in the outer energy level of each atom. This sharing of electrons is called a covalent bond. Total combining capacity from each atom must be the same so that 8 or octet of electrons occupies each energy level. Note: Many atoms can combine to form one molecular compound. Note: Carbon atoms are able to share electrons many different patterns.

- Carbon has 4 valence electrons; its combining capacity is 4. - Oxygen has 6 valence electrons; its combining capacity is 2.

- Combining 2 oxygen atoms with 1 carbon atom will provide 4 electrons for the carbon and 2 for the oxygen atoms for a total of 4 electrons from the carbon. Covalent bonding process: Proper diagram: ex. Bonding of C2H2. Diatomic Elements The following elements are diatomic, as in they come in pairs in elemental form: Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Chlorine (Cl2), Bromine (Br2), Iodine (I2) Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are covalently bonded molecules (molecular compounds) that do not have a full octet in the valence shell. They function like chlorine and sodium ions. Particles such as Ammonium and Hydroxide are examples of this. They are generally bonded to other elements and are only alone in water. Some examples of polyatomic ions and their charges: Phosphate PO4 (-3) Sulfate SO4 (-2) Nitrate NO3 (-1) Carbonate CO3 (-2) In grade 10, you must know AMMONIUM NH4+ and HYDROXIDE OH-. Polyatomic Ions In hydroxide, the bond between hydrogen and oxygen is covalent. However, covalent bonds seem to only form to generate a full octet. Hydroxide ions seem to form only when separated by water in certain bonds. Kevins explanation: (Simplified version, as you do not need to understand this yet) Polyatomics form because, as an example, when Ammonium Hydroxide forms, it creates full octets in all the elements. However due to atomic structure and different pairings of covalent bonds there happens to be an ionic bond that is created. Put into even simpler terms, Atoms dont need to find full octets in the most efficient way, they can do whatever the hell they please as long as the end products result in octets formed. This is why polyatomics form, and it is also why large chains of carbon form, because theres no restriction on how the atoms can combine themselves when given enough energy to do so.

Chemical Nomenclature Ionic Naming

The name of the more metallic atom is written first followed by a space and the name of the less metallic atom is written second. The last part of the name is changed to -ide. (ex. Sodium metal and chlorine gas react to produce sodium chloride.) This applies to ionic bonds, and also includes polyatomic atoms. Hydroxide in this type of formula doesnt change. It will continue to be sodium hydroxide. Molecular Naming The name of the more metallic atom is written first followed by a space. Depending on the number of molecules, you have to add a prefix: Prefix Number Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Note: You never add the prefix mono to the FIRST atom in the name ex. CO2 is not Mono-Carbon Dioxide, rather just carbon dioxide. Like the ionic bonds, you change the suffix into -ide after the root of the element ex oxygen -> ox-ide

Chemical Reactions A Chemical Reaction is a process in which substances interact to form a new substance. ex: Iron will react with oxygen to form iron oxide (rust)

A word equation is a way of describing a chemical equation using the names of the reactants and products ex: Iron + Oxygen Iron (II*) Oxide *Note: the transition metals (groups 3 - 12) can have different outer valences. This shows the outer valence of these metals. A chemical equation is a way of describing a chemical reaction using the formulas of the reactants and products ex: Fe(s) + O(g) FeO (s) A reactant is a chemical present at the start of a chemical reaction that is used up ex: Iron and Oxygen in the above equation are the reactants A product is something that is produced during a chemical reaction. ex: Iron Oxide is the product The arrow () inside the equations represents the direction is going. It means yields, forms, or produces. State Symbols: State symbols are ways to tell scientists what state a certain section of an equation is in. This only applies to chemical equations.

(s) means that this is a solid substance (g) means that this is a gas (l) means this is a liquid (aq) means it is dissolved in water.

Substances on the left are the reactants, while substances on the right are the products The plus signs are ways to distinguish different reactants and products Law of Conservation of Mass (Balancing Equations) In any given chemical reaction, the mass of products = the mass of the reactants In order to comply with this law, many equations need to be balanced ex. Sodium + Chlorine Gas forms Sodium Chloride, or Na (s) + Cl2 (g) NaCl (g) However, if you count the number of atoms on the left, and the number of atoms on the right, you gather that there are 3 atoms on the left, while there being only 2 on the right. How do we fix this? 2Na (s) + Cl2 (g) 2NaCl (s) We add a coefficient to the front of the product and in front of one of the reactants. This means that in every reaction between the products, there will be any number of a certain product, based on the number of the coefficient. However, the only thing you can change is the

coefficient. Do not add any subscripts. You also cant add any extra products, such as changing it from: Na (s) + Cl2 (g) 2NaCl (s) (THIS IS RIGHT) to Na (s) + Cl2 (g) NaCl (s) +Cl (THIS IS WRONG) or Na (s) + Cl2 (g) Na2Cl2 (g) (THIS IS WRONG) Another example of balancing: FeBr3 + Na -> Fe + NaBr to FeBr3 + 3Na -> Fe + 3NaBr Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis A synthesis reaction is portrayed by the equation (A + B AB), where A is a metal and B is a non-metal*. The definition of a synthesis reaction is when two reactants combine to form a more complex product. The reactants can be atoms, or molecules. *Note: As in all types of chemical reactions, A and B can be single atoms or polyatomic ions that act as single particles. Note: There is also complex synthesis, in which metal oxides combine with water to produce acids and non-metal oxides combine with water to produce bases. Example of a synthesis reaction: sodium + chlorine sodium chloride Carbon dioxide + Water Hydrogen Carbonate (bicarbonate) Decomposition opposite of a synthesis reaction, this reaction is portrayed by the general equation (AB A+B); again, where A is a metal and B is a non-metal. The definition is when a reaction in which a large or more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more simpler products. Example: Water + Energy Hydrogen and Oxygen

Single Displacement A single displacement reaction is portrayed by the general equation (A + BC AC + B). The definition of this is when one element displaces an element in a preestablished compound. Non-metals replace non-metals; alternatively, metals replace metals (or ions that act as metals).

Example: Magnesium + Carbon Dioxide Magnesium Oxide + Carbon. Note: In a single displacement reaction between an ionic compound and a metal, the positive ion is the one that is replaced and vice versa. Double Displacement A double displacement reaction is portrayed by the equation (AB + CD AC + BD). The definition of this is when two elements- one from each compound- replace each other. (C and B replace each other.) The replacing elements are either both metal or nonmetal. Example: Calcium Chloride + Sodium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate + Sodium Chloride Combustion A combustion reaction is a rapid reaction that produces heat and light in the form of flame. It can also produce sound. A complete combustion only produces CO2(g) and H2O(g) and nothing else. Incomplete combustion can produce combinations of CO2, H20, CO and C. Incomplete combustions happen when there is not enough oxygen General equation: Hydrocarbon + O2 (+ energy) H2O + CO2 Note: Reactants are hydrocarbons and oxygen (gas). Example: Complete Combustion: C3H8 + 5O2 -> CO2 + H2O Incomplete Combustion: C4H10 + 5O2 -> 2CO2 + 5H20 + CO + C Neutralisation Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid reacts with a base. It follows a double displacement (HB + COH CB + H2O) pattern, but does not create a solid precipitate, but instead produces a salt and water. (A salt is an ionic compound of a metal and a non-metal.) Examples: HCl (aq) + NaOH (s) NaCl + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + 2H2O Note: You can only see a neutralisation reaction when there is an indicator that changes colour.

Acids and Bases Acids An acid is a compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water (i.e. a solution that has hydrogen ions). It is the presence of hydrogen ions in solution that give acids their chemical properties.

ex. hydrochloric acid hydrogen ions (aq*) + chloride ions (aq*) Chemical Properties of Acids: - Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas. - Acids react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas. - Acids react with blue litmus and turn it red. - Acids react with bromothymol blue and turn it yellow. - Acids have low pH values. - Acids react with methyl orange and turns it red. Bases A base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water (i.e. a solution that has hydroxide ions). It is the presence of hydroxide ions that gives bases their chemical properties. ex. sodium hydroxide sodium ions (aq*) + hydroxide ions (aq*) *Note: it is important to note that all acids and bases are dissolved in water. Outside of water, they are generally solids and do not portray any of the physical characteristics shown above. Chemical Properties of Bases: - Bases dont react with metals at all - Bases react with red litmus and turn it blue. - Bases react with phenolphthalein and turn it pink. - Bases have high pH values.

The pH Scale pH: the measure of the concentration (number of particles dissolved in 1L of water) of the H+ ion. It measures how acidic a solution is. Concentration: the amount of particles dissolved in a given amount of water (or other solvent) Characteristics of the pH scale:

A pH increase of 1 unit is a dilution of the H+ ion by a factor of 101. A pH increase of 2 units is a dilution of the H+ ion by a factor of 102. The pH scale does not go up linearly. A pH increase by the factor of 1.5 will result in the pH to increase by 101.5 which is 31.62 times (AKA, it isnt linear). Similarly, a pH decrease of 1 unit is a concentration increase of the H+ ion by a factor of 10. The H+ ion concentration is inverse to the OH- concentration. However, the pH scale technically only measures the presence of the H+ ion, the OH- concentration can be inferred. H+ and OH- ions are always present when water is the solvent. Something is considered acidic when their pH is below 7. Something is considered basic when their pH is above 7. Something is considered neutral when their pH is 7. The pH scale is generally between 1 - 14. It is possible to go below pH 1, and higher than pH 14.

Methods of testing Acidity/Basicity There are many ways to test if a liquid is acidic or basic. Indicator Bromothymol blue Phenolphthalein red litmus (paper) yellow colourless red Acid blue pink blue blue orange/yellow Base

blue litmus (paper) red methyl orange pH paper red

<7 (more reddish) >7 ( more purplish or dark)

Both acids and bases are conductive.