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This is to certify that the project of Study of Inverting Adder using Opamp Contains the bonafied works of ____________________________________________

Who has worked on the project and completed the same In the academic year 2009-10. His/her project work is in Electronics Discipline as per The Maharashtra State Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education, Pune; Syllabus.

Principal Department

Head of the

Project Guide

It adds to my pleasure to acknowledge the persons who have helped me while the project work was in progress! First of all I am thankful to Mr. D. S. Vidyasagar sir, our Project sir Guide, who has helped us in bringing out this project in present status! Our xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, who has also encouraged us and helped xxxxxxxxxxxxxx us during the completion of this project, for which we are also thankful to her. I am grateful to our Head of the department, xxxxxxxxxxx, for providing us the facility of excellent lab instruments and relevant accessories. I am also deeply grateful to our xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, whose discipline has created regularity in us, so as to complete the project in time. Last but not the least; I am thankful to xxxxxxxxxxxxxx for his help in this project work.

Block diagram of opamp

The differential amplifier is the basic building block of operational amplifier (OpAmp). The opamp has two input terminals: inverting input terminal (input-1) and the non-inverting input terminal (input-2) with one output terminal (w.r.t. ground) as shown above. 1) First & second differential amplifiers the first differential has differential output (i.e. double-ended output). This block is provided with a constant current source. It has high & stable gain w.r.t. time & temperature. It has high input resistance, large bandwidth* and high C.M.R.R. The second differential amplifier has single ended output. Since the two differential amplifiers are cascaded the total gain & C.M.R.R. of the circuit becomes very high. 2) Emitter follower it has very high input resistance and low output resistance. But its voltage gain is ALMOST UNITY. Thus, it provides high current output and avoids overloading. 3) DC Level shifter this block forces output voltage to zero, when there is no input signal. This is necessary because, when multi-stage amplification* is used, the level of DC voltage in output signal increases. Then at output of emitter follower, the DC level becomes so high that it is almost equal to supply voltage. To avoid this problem DC level shifter is used. The group of second differential, emitter follower and level shifter is called as INTERMIDIATE STAGE. 4) Output stage it consists of push-pull amplifier. It output resistance is low. So it gives maximum current and voltage to load across output terminals. Thus, it satisfies the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.

4
Concept of virtual ground in opamp when opamp is used as amplifier with feedback, it produces virtual ground at its inverting input terminal, automatically.

Feedback is generally used in amplifier circuit. Feedback means connecting a fraction of output quantity (like output voltage) back to input terminal through a device like resistor or capacitor. There are two types of feedbacks: positive feedback and the negative feedback. Both types of feedbacks can be used in opamp circuit. However, when negative feedback is used in opamp, a virtual ground is produced due to cancellation of +ve and ve voltages at inverting input terminal. So zero potential is created other than real ground. Thus, both types of ground terminals have different properties. They are compared as follows Virtual ground
1) The virtual ground terminal has zero potential w.r.t. real ground. 2) It does not absorb current into it. 3) It is produced due to cancellation of +ve and ve voltages; thus to produce zero potential at the inverting terminal.

Real ground
1) Real ground terminal has zero potential w.r.t. itself. 2) It sinks or absorbs current into it. 3) It is basically the property of a power supply or battery due to which it exits on its own.

Parameters of operational amplifier 1) Input offset voltage (Vio) when input voltages to an opamp are zero, the output voltage must also be zero. But due to some error in practical circuit, the output voltage is other than zero. To force this error in output voltage back to zero, some input voltage (either +ve or ve) is applied at input terminals. This applied input voltage is called Input Offset Voltage. 2) Output Offset Voltage (Voo) when input voltages to an opamp are zero, the output voltage must also be zero. But due to some error in practical circuit, the output voltage is other than zero (i.e. either +ve or ve). This error voltage in output is called Output Offset Voltage. 3) Input bias current (IB) it is defined as average value of biasing currents (i.e. the currents absorbed by input terminals of a practical opamp) of both input terminals of opamp.

IB+ + I B 2 4) Input offset current (Ios) it is defined as difference between bias currents of inverting and noninverting inputs of operational amplifier. This current is measured at zero output voltage and at 25C room temperature. IB = I os = I B + I B

5 5) Open loop gain (AOL) it is defined as the gain of opamp without feedback. It is the ratio of output voltage to differential input voltage.
V AOL = o v

Where, v = differential voltage across inv. & non-inv. terminals

6) Closed loop gain (ACL) it is defined as the gain of opamp with feedback. This is called as closed loop gain. 7) Frequency response frequency response of an operational amplifier, means a range of frequencies to which opamp gives good and faithful response. The graph shows frequency response at output of opamp due to change in input frequency. The gain of opamp is expressed in dB (decibel).

8) Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) when CMRR is infinite, common signals applied to both inputs of opamp gives zero output voltage. Thus, it is defined as the ratio of differential voltage gain to common voltage gain of operational amplifier. A A C.M .R.R. = DM CMRR = d Or ACM Ac 9) Slew rate it is defined as maximum rate of change of output voltage. When slew rate for an opamp is low it produces distortion* at high frequencies. Following figure shows distortion at output of opamp when slew rate is low. It is mainly produced due to internal capacitance and unwanted feedback in operational amplifier. It is expressed in terms of volts/sec.

slew rate =

dVo t

Opamp as Inverting adder This circuit is similar to inverting amplifier except that it has more than one input. Different input signals are connected to inverting terminal () through number of input resistors and non-inverting terminal (+) is grounded. The output is 180 OUT OF PHASE with respect to input. Hence, the feedback is negative. Suppose V1, V2 and V3 are input signals and Vo is output signal, as shown. Let V1, V2, V3 are three input signals at R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Due to the inputs, three currents I1, I2 and I3 are produced. The currents can be calculated as follows
V I1 = 1 . . . . . . . . . (1) R1 V I 2 = 2 . . . . . . . . . (2) R2
If =

V I 3 = 3 . . . . . . . . . (3) because VA = 0 R3

And If is feedback current flowing from point A to output terminal of opamp. It is given by
Vo . . . . . . . . . (4) Rf

These currents mix at point A, to produce feedback current. Hence, I1 + I 2 + I 3 = I f . . . . . . . . . (5) Putting the values of currents of equations (1), (2), (3) and (4) in equation (5) we get
V1 V2 V3 Vo + = + . . . . . . . . . (6) R 1 R2 R3 R f

Let R1 = R2 = R3 = Rf , then equation (6) becomes: Vo = (V1 + V2 + V3). This is the required equation for output voltage of opamp.

Costing of the Project


The costing of components, used in this project is as follows

Sr. Nos . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10 )

Item

Price

Opamp IC 741 Transformer 6-0-6V/500mA

(step

down) Banana sockets Resistors ( carbon composition) Capacitors (all types) Socket of IC Mains cord (9 feet) Sunmica board Indicator LED Miscellaneous, nut bolts, flexible wire etc.

The prices given here are according to the bill-receipt obtained from the shopkeeper. The above said material was purchased on / / 2009. And the material was purchased from ________ market.

Signature of the student

References

Linear Integrated Circuits: By Ramakant Gaikwad Peoples Publishing House, N. D.

Nomenclature of ICs and transistors: S. Ramabhadran S. Chand and Co. New Delhi, 1987.

Linear applications of integrated circuits Millman & Hawkins Eastern Economy Edition