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AP Biology Plants Unlike animals plants do this Unity within Diversity Among basic life processes organisms carry them out in a different manner Plants Angiosperm o A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary. Gymnosperm o A vascular plant that bears naked seedsseeds not enclosed in specialized chambers. Vascular Plants o A plant with vascular tissue. Vascular plants include all living plant species except mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. o veins help moving things around Roots, stems and leaves in all plants room for variation o Meristem area of rapid cell division unique structures that come out of plants come from varied reproduction Radicle o gives rise to roots Hypocotyl o gives rise to stems Epicotyl o gives rise to leaves

Reproduction in plants seed has embryo need zygote to get to embryo Zygote= 2n aka. diploid need egg and sperm which are both haploid sporophyte o In organisms (plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes. o The sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytes. o can claim a flower is in the sporophyte stage Male and female structures in flowers, most plants but some dont have both o Megaspore - female A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte. haploid Goes through mitosis and divides 3 times and produces 8 nuclei Only one nuclei is a peanut o Microspore male A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte. haploid o Mega and micro spores are called gametophytes In organisms (plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis. The haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophytes. o To produce gametes gametophytes go through meiosis o In mitosis the plants do not go through cytokenesis and hence do not divide

o Plants

this means the gamete is multinucleated Pollen and pollen tube from microspore is a gametophyte structure that contains two sperm

Development is influenced by external factors Root system o can be above ground o how do parts define it as root system? o Roots increase absorption and surface area o Variations of roots snorkel roots Involved in gas exchange support Chute systems o Strawberries chutes branching from main plant asexual reproduction o Onion layers series of modified leaves Leaves o Simple leaf o Compound leaf

Doubly compound Axillary bud and Petiole in all three leaves Photosynthetic in Nature leaves o Epicotyl part Tendrils modified leaves for support Spines protection Succulent Hold water and store salts Poinseta Red leaves are used for attraction Tissues o Dermal tissue Protection Absorption regulation o Vascular tissue movement of materials o Ground Tissue support Cells o Parenchyma Cells thinnest cell walls

o o

flimsy enormous amount in leaves absorption and photosynthesis palisade parenchyma contain different organelles and carry out biological processes Collenchyma cells Cell wall stronger ground tissue provide significant support stalk of flower Sclerenchyma cells Multiple cell walls wood is solid cells Xylum cells cells are dead trachied cells tendency to not be alive and to be connected like celery phloem cells Are alive but dont have the organelles to stay alive Have companion cells that help them carry out processes Companion cells have the necessary organelles to live Plasmodesmata

Passage ways between companion cells and sieve cells sieve plate important in how the phloem Meristematic activity in roots and leave system need Meristimatic activity that allows for growth there is a ring of meristematic area that goes throughout the plant closely linked with vascular tissue


Roots o Zone of maturation o Zone of Elongation o Zone of cell division Endo dermis of monocot root in vascular tissue o Creates wax o Wax layer prevents material thats bad from getting in new structure originate in vascular tissue not epidermis Monocot roots o grass o corn o Endo dermal layer Transport and absorption by root system Pericycle

o new root hairs originate from here all new structures come from vascular structure Stem o Vascular bundles are all scattered Cross section of leaf o Number of Layers epidermis The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder. Cuticle Wax does not allow for oxygen absorption Stoma Allows for oxygen absorption Pallisade parenchyma A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type. Additional pages (755-56) o difference between plants and animals o Development Initial stage different Early development Animal Cleavage Morphogenesis Differentiation


Cleavage (Growth) plants divide different cells at different rate and elongate different cells Morphogenesis (radicle, epicotyl, hypocotyl) Differentiation

Plant Transport Effective at moving water at quick rates basics o two direction roots to leaves leaves to anywhere else o Leaves ultimately decide when to create more root hairs o Exchange of gases in leaf and root system Sometimes in chute system o Absorption of water and minerals by roots minerals NO3 - nitrate K+ - potassium PO4 phosphate Transport Need to move salt before water can be moved Transporting ions across the membrane

Proton pump like cell resperation and photosynthesis necessary for the effectiveness of moving other ions requires ATP o Anion uptake NO3 needs hydrogen o Cation Uptake K+ o Transport of Neutral solute needs hydrogen moving sucrose Cell Compartments Tissue Compartments o Symplastic In plants, the continuum of cytoplasm connected by plasmodesmata between cells. from one cell membrane to the next Plasmodesmata required like a pathway regulated flow o Apoplastic Moving through the cell walls In plants, the continuum of cell walls plus the extracellular spaces. uncontrollable flow

Wax o

Casparian Strip Waxy layer stops apoplastic flow apoplastic is uncontrollable flow o Water goes into the cell but cant get out because of casparian strip o Creates water pressure in the plant Force for moving water o Root pressure plants ability to move nitrates phosphates and potassium across symplastically into the cell Guttation o Water loss in a leaf o The exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure in certain plants. o What are the conditions which allow water to leave or preserve the water Transpiration Pull o Evapo-transpiration o The evaporative loss of water from a plant. o stomata open o Enough light or heat energy to excite water molecules to evapo-transpiration o Water pulls more molecules cohesion Means if you move a water molecule in the leaf one moves in the stomata o Stomata needs to be open to do this Capillary Action

o o

Force that keeps things down adhesion

o Plants absorb water in the spring and then disperse the sugar across each other
Mix = sap Maple tree Stomata opening and closing o

o Pump of potassium helps regulate gas exchange and evapotranspiration rate

Transport Phloem Pressure Flow in a sieve tube Bulk movement Sugar driven by pressure which is established by concentration gradient Source o leaves or meristems Sink o chutes o roots Plant Hormones Tropism Phototropism Gravitropism Hormones

o need receptor in cell membrane

o o detection of hormone to receptor is called reception reaction producing second messengers

o o o o o

exp. cyclical AMP called signal transduction Response of signal transduction is called Response auxin Target cells and source cells produced by source influences the target cell Hormones produced in leaves or meristems Went experiment Auxin removed sunlight to try to influence direction of growth auxin exposed to only one side and the side grew Chute system promotes cell growth

Auxin o

o stimulates movement of hydrogen ions o Hydrogen elongates cells through expansions which are pressed apart by the hydrogen ions
Cells exposed to sunlight pump auxin away from them Trees o If you remove auxin it promotes lateral branching but not up

A.P. Biology Plant Notes Basic Characteristics: Multicellular Eukaryotes, photosynthetic autotrophs, cell walls contain cellulose, food reserve that is starch stored in plastids, chloroplasts with photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids), gas exchange via stomata, waxy cuticle to prevent desiccation Overview of Groups Nonvascular Plants: (Bryophytes) haploid gametophytes is dominant generation, gametangia protect developing gametes, lack woody tissue Division Bryophyta Division Hepatophyta Division Anthocerophyta Mosses Liverworts Hornworts

Vascular Plants: Seedless Vascular Plants: sporophyte (diploid) dominated life cycle, is the familiar leafy part of the plant, small gametophytes that grow beneath surface of soil, formed the coal forests of the carbinoferous period o Division Lycophyta Division Sphenophyta Division Pterophyta o Lycophytes, club mosses, ground pines Horsetails Ferns Seed Plants: o seeds replaced the spore as the main means of dispersing offspring; pollen is vesicle for sperm cells, Gymnosperms: lack enclosed chambers (ovaries) in which seeds develop o Division Coniferophyta Division Cycadophyta Division Ginkgophyta Division Gnetophyta Angiosperms: most widespread and diverse, 250,000 species, refined vascular tissue, flowers, fruit o Division Anthophyta Dicotyledons o Monocotyledons taproot 1 cotyledon, parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3, scattered vascular bundles, fibrous root system Origin and Evolution -Evolved from green algae -Alternation of generations in plants may have originated by delayed meiosis -Adaptation to shallow water pre-adapted plants for living on land (waxy cuticles, protection of gametes, and protection of embryos) -Eventually, accumulated adaptations (regional specialization of plant body (roots and plant body), structural support, vascular system, pollen, seeds) allowed terrestrial plants to live above water line on dry land which opened new adaptive zone with: o -Sunlight unfiltered by water and algae o -Soil rich in minerals o -Absence of terrestrial herbivores Vascular Seed Plants: Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Plant tissues Ground Tissues: the general cells of the plant cell wall, function in photosynthesis, storage, and support o Parenchyma Cells: most common, least specialized, lack secondary walls (thin walls), where photosynthesis takes place, food storage o Collenchyma Cells: thick flexible cell walls, lack secondary walls, grouped in cylinders to support young growth, elongate as the stems and leaves they support grow o Sclerenchyma Cells: main function is support, thick secondary cell walls strengthened by lignin Dermal Tissues: single layer of tightly packed cells covering and protecting the young parts of the plant

o Root hairs: specialized for water and mineral absorption near root tips o Cuticle: waxy, helps retain water Vascular Tissues: xylem and phloem that function in transport and support, is continuous throughout the plant, found in bundles o Xylem: conduction of water and minerals, primary and secondary cell wall for strength, pits (absent 2o cell wall) for water movement, dead a maturity, made up of two types of cells Tracheids: long, thin, tapered, lignin hardened with pits, water flows from cell to cell through pits, support Vessel Elements: wide, short, thin walled, aligned end to end, end of cell is pitted for end to end transmission of water, efficient, more found in flowering plants o Phloem: conduction of sugars, living at maturity o Sieve Tube members: chains of phloem cells that transport sucrose, organic compounds, and some minerals, in angiosperms: sieve tube has pores and is called sieve plate to facilitate movement between cells

The Seed

Embryo: Epicotyl: top portion of embryo, becomes the shoot tip Plummule: attached to epicotyl, young leaves Hypocotyl: below epicotyl, attached to cotyledons, young shoot Radicle: develops below the hypocotyl, develops into root Coleoptile: in monocots, protects epicotyl Seed Coat: formed from integuments of ovule, outer layer of seed Endosperm or Cotyledons: cotyledons formed by digesting storage material in endosperm o Monocots: most of storage tissue is endosperm, single cotyledon to transfer nutrients from endosperm to embryo Dicots: two fleshy cotyledons (most of what you see when you look at two halves of pea seed), remainder is a small embryo Germination and Development: after a seed reaches maturity, it remains dormant until environmental cues such as water, fire, temperature, light cause germination to begin Germination: begins with absorption of water, seed swells, seed coat cracks, radicle produces roots, elongation of hypocotyl to form young shoot Primary Growth: in young seedling, growth at roots and shoots called apical meristems, meristematic cells (actively dividing) create the primary growth Root Growth: Root cap protects apical meristem, dividing cells in apical meristem from zone of cell division, behind is zone of maturation where cells mature into xylem, phloem. Primary Growth vs Secondary Growth: Primary growth occurs in monocots and occurs in primary tissues (xylem and phloem) that originate from apical meristem and occurs vertically. Secondary Growth (conifers and woody dicots) in addition to primary growth extends laterally and is origin of woody tissue. Lateral meristems, vascular cambium, and cork cambium, is origin of secondary growth

Vascular cambium produce secondary xylem and secondary phloem. Cork cambium gives rise to periderm (protective material that lines outside of woody plants. Plant Morphology Primary Structure of Roots: leads to formation of the following tissues: o Epidermis: lines outside surface of root, root hairs (from zone of maturation) increase absorptive surface area, constantly grow o Cortex: bulk of root, storage of starch o Endodermis: ring of tightly packed cells that control water movement and confine to vascular bundle, has casparian strip (water-impenetrable) strip on outside of cells o Vascular Cylinder: (stele), tissue inside endodermis, pericycle (outer part of vascular cylinder, form lateral roots) Monocots: xylem cells alternate with phloem cells in groups in rings around the center tissue area called the pith Dicots: Xylem cells form a big X across center, Phloem occupy regions between the lines of the X Primary Structure of Stems: similar to root, except most lack endodermis and casparian strip because they are designed for water absorption. Other differences from roots: Epidermis: with a waxy cutin to protect cuticle Cortex: ground tissue that contains chloroplasts Vascular Cylinder: differing arrangements of xylem and phloem Secondary Structure of Roots and Stems: Vascular cambium between xylem and phloem becomes a cylinder of meristematic cells on inside and outside of cambium cylinder. Cells on inside become secondary xylem (increases girth of stem and root as accumulates), outside become secondary phloem. This growth pushes outside tissues as xylem girth continues, they break apart as separate from root or stem. Periderm: cells produced by cork cambium to cover epidermis Wood: dead xylem tissue, sapwood is new xylem is for water transportation, heartwood is old xylem for support Annual Rings: alternation of growth and dormancy, number and size of rings is related to age and amount of water Structure of the Leaf: Epidermis: protective covering, covered by cuticle (cutin) to reduce transpiration Palisade mesophyll: parenchyma cells with chloroplasts for photosynthesis tightly packed near upper surface Spongy mesophyll: loosely arranged parenchyma cells below palisade cells, spaces for CO2 to cells Guard Cells: specialized epidermal cells that control stomata (gas exchange) Vascular Bundles: xylem and phloem contained within bundle sheath

Plant Hormones: 5 classes of plant hormones: Auxin (IAA): indoleacetic acid, promotes growth by elongation, influences phototropism and geotropism, is also active in leaves, fruits and germinating seeds Gibberellins: gibberellic acid, 60 types, promote shoot growth, fruit development, and seed germination, inhibits aging of leaves Cytokinins: stimulate cyotkinesis, growth of lateral buds, and organ development, produced in roots Ethylene (CH2): gas promotes ripening of fruit, production of flowers, and leaf abscission (aging and dropping of leaves) Abscisic acid (ABA): growth inhibitor, maintains dormancy in winter, and seeds Functions in the Plant Life: Transport of Water: Enters root by osmosis in root hairs, then to center or root by either: Apoplast: path of water through nonliving cell walls without leaving cells Symplast: path of water through living portion of cytoplasm through plasmodesmata (tubes that connect cytoplasm of adjacent cells) Mechanisms of Water and dissolved minerals in plants: Osmosis: from soil through root into xylem due to concentration gradient from water that is constantly leaving the root xylem up the plant, force is called root pressure Capillary Action: results from adhesion force of water Cohesion-tension theory: explains most of water movement: Transpiration causes a negative pressure (tension), to cause the cohesive water in the column to bulk flow through the xylem cells as the water is pulled by evaporation, so the sun is the driving force for water movement Control of Stomata: controls gas exchange, transpiration, sap and photosynthesis, controlled by guard cells as water diffuses into and out of cells controlling the shape. Controlled by the some of the following: Stomata: close when temperatures are high, reduces loss of water, no photosynthesis Stomata: open when CO2 are low inside leaf Stomata: close at night, open during day in response to CO2 fluctuation due to photosynthesis Stomata: open when K+ ions diffuse into guard cells, this gradient causes water to move into guard cell Transport of Sugars: translocation is movement of carbohydrates through phloem from source to sink, is described by a pressure flow hypothesis: Sugars enter sieve-tube members: from palisade mesophyll by active transport, creates a higher concentration of sugars at source Water enters sieve-tube members: as a result of movement of solutes to move water down concentration gradient Pressure in sieve-tube members at source moves water and sugars to sieve-tube members at the sink though sieve tubes: by bulk flow Pressure is reduced in sieve-tube members at the sink as sugars are removed for utilization by nearby cells: pressure relieved as sugars are used in sink, and water is removed by diffusion

Sugars stored as starches (water insoluable) Plant Responses to Stimuli: Tropism: a growth pattern to an environmental stimuli Phototropism: response to light, controlled by auxin Gravitropism (Geotropism): response to gravity, controlled by auxin and gibberellins Thigmotropism: response to touch Photoperiodism: changes in the plant to the length of light and darkness controlled by circadian rhythm, controlled by phytochrome (Pt or 660 or Pfr or 730) that is photoreversible depending on the red light (wavelength 660 nm) or far red (wavelength 730 nm) o Pfr appears to reset the circadian-rhythm clock Pr is the form of phytochrome synthesized in plant cells (in the leaves) Pr and Pfr are in equilibrium during daylight: Pr accumulates at night At daybreak, light rapidly converts the accumulated Pr and Pfr Night length is responsible for resetting the circadian-rhythm clock Flowering plants initiate flowering according to changes in photoperiod as follows: Long-Day Plants: flower in the spring and early summer when daylight is increasing Short-Day Plants: flower in late summer and early fall when daylight is decreasing Day-Neutral Plants: flower in response to temperature, or water Animals Theme o Unity within diversity o Recurring on Essay questions Animals are o Bilateral

Humans Radial Starfish Development o early stages symmetry is established Cross section of a starfish o Gastrula Cell layer migrated internally Cell layer outside digestive tract has only one opening different in bilateral organism orientation of cells early adds to chances Bilateral o flat problem o Round issues with transport o Celum space where tissue fluid can flow Sponges o animals o cant move o Filter feeders o The organism has adaptations to meet its biological needs o

Gastrovascular cavity digestive transport o violates general rule of division of labor o structure that forms two functions digestion and transport takes longer this way Jelly fish o Never get thicker than 2 or 3 cell layers o Cannot swim against currents Plankton o Cant swim against current Flat worms o primitive respiratory system o Internal cavity and single opening o diffusion of gases in an out of its skin o Ganglia Nervous system describes collection of nervous cells Rotefer o microscopic o but has complex system o pumping mechanism to move fluids around it o complex structures but very very small Clam

Phylum mollusk o Complex digestive tract o food goes in one area and comes out the other o circulatory hearts pretty primitive o circulatory system removing of pressure o uses shell to establish pressure o blood is bathed in its own blood Snails Mollusk o Osmotic balance Excretory system Screw up balance by salt Why have a digestive system? o break down things we consume so they are small enough to pass across a membrane Plants o k+ o N03 o PO4 o CO2 o H20 all small enough to go across membrane Animals o Polymers that cant be broken down immeadiately

Carbohydrates Monomer: Monossacharide Proteins Monomer: Amino Acids Lipids Monomer: Glycerol and fatty acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Monomers in simplest form o Vitimins o H20 o Minerals Need to know Digestion needs enzymes o enzyme where its produced what it does subtrate Product Evolutionary Advances of the Digestive System o Intracellular vs. Extracelluler o Intracellular Ameoba Perimicium Can carry out intracellular digestion

Digestion within a cell Extracellular In cavity but outside of a cell One way digestive tract vs. Two Way digestive tract Two Way sponges sea anenome gastrovascular cavity flat worm food comes in one way and goes out the other Hydra Cells that secrete enzymes into cavity but also engulfs small molecules both intra and extracellular One Way digestive tract Worm Mouth consumes through ingestion just past the pharynx has a crop Crop thin walls o flexible no enzymes being secreted storage location o evolutionary advantage o conservation of energy

Gizzard thick wall Muscular mechanical break down no secretions just mechanical breakdown increasing surface area increased surface area=more digestion (chemically) Intestinal Tract half the length of the body two features o Length Time- Gives you time to digest stuff o Fold in intestine tract increase surface area Greater absorption rate Human Digestion enzymes all about enzymes peristalsis throughout Enzyme o Where its produced o Where it works o what its substrate is o product Mouth o Carbohydrates saliva amount produced based on sugar in your mouth

salivary amylase produced by salivary glands breaks carbs into breaks down into disaccharide

Esophagus o Heart Burn o o Epiglottis blocks food from going into trachea o Peristalsis wave like muscle contractions not just esophagus but entire digestive system Stomach o Proteins broken down Pepsin breaks down proteins o Thick walled very muscular glangeral cells glangeral cells parietal cells chief cells Produce pepsinogen pepsinogen o inactive form of pepsin o inactive to avoid digesting itself o HCl removes piece from pepsinogen and creates pepsin

No cells produce HCL Cells pump out h+ and cl- ions and when those come together they produce HCL Denatures proteins o Protein to polypeptide o Mechanical movement o Liquify food with acid o Mucus membrane o Very low ph because of HCL o Used for storage 2-6 hrs o Muscular valves sphincters regulate movement of food heart burn when food/acid goes back through stomach valves Small intestine o upper end called Dodenum gets chyme exocrine gland Secrete things into cavity o Liver secrete solution and bathes the acidic chyme Produces bile Bile involved in increasing surface area

works upon lipids composed of salt Emulsification simple process of creating liquid droplets out of lipids increasing surface so lipidase can work on it

Pancreas Lipase breaks lipids down into glycerol and fatty acids Nuclease Breaks down nucleotides into nucleic acids Amylase Breaks starch down into disaccharides Polypeptidase Breaks polymers into amino acids Villi folds in small intestine that have epithelial cells that can produce their own enzymes have their own capillary beds monosaccharides have to be water soluable to get into capillaries Lymphatic systems Lipids need to become water soluable Combine with other things to become water soluable in the i micro villi mini folds Epithelial cells

Sucrase Breaks Lactase breaks disaccharides to monosaccharide Maltase breaks disaccharides to monosaccharide o Absorption look at pathways organic molecules take in regards to absorption Large Intestine o E coli in gut o remove vitamins specifically vitamin k o Water o Vitamins o Minerals Associate structures and their diet o carnivore o herbivore o omnivore o teeth Differences in pit and hinge o Appendix cecum similar to appendix cecum varies over time

Cows o o o

Cecum helps digest cellulose

elaborate digestive tract bacteria cells inside that help break down cellulose Throw up and rechew it to help bacteria break it down

Gas exchange and circulation Gills 4 issues to gas exchange o 1. Moisture gases must be dissolved in water to be able to exchange o 2. Surface Area gas exchange relatively slow need to increase surface area to allow for gas exchange o 3. Thin Membrane Diffusion of gases can only occur from 1-3 cell layers o 4. Protection Delicate structure Jellyfish o gastrovascular cavity inefficient grooves small cells that have cilia that move cells back and forth

Open vs. Closed Circulatory system o Open Problems Dont have a lot of pressure slow blood rate blood remains in cavity of exoskeleton blood isnt circulating evenly Cant efficiently pump oxygen Grasshopper doesnt carry oxygen in blood o Closed Worm Capillary bed Allows for diffusion and exchange slow movement of blood complex system Heart o Atriums receive blood from other parts of body thin walls o Ventricles thick walls generate pressure send blood through the body

Fish Heart o Atrium to the ventricle o ventricle pumps blood to gills to get oxygen o Very slow and inefficient at moving oxygen rich blood o blood pressure is extremely slow o Cold blooded dont need oxygen levels we do o Arteries go away from heart and towards capillaries o Veins go to heart and away from capillaries Amphibian Heart o Three chambers repressurized every time keeps blood pressure good Two atriums and one ventricle Issue Blood is mixing oxygen rich and oxygen poor are mixing in one ventricle inefficient process o cold blooded because they cant keep the oxygen demand Mammals o two atriums o two ventricles o ceptum

extension that separated the ventricles into two parts Separates oxygen rich and oxygen poor

Humans o Warm blooded majority of oxygen goes to keeping this in homestasis Path of Blood o Right atrium o atrial ventricle valve o Right ventricle o Goes through semi lunar valve o atrial ventricular valve o Pulmonary artery o Lungs capillaries o Pulmonary veins to right atrium o to right ventricular valve o valve to aorta o One capillary bed and then comes back o Constant branching and constant returning to heart for repressurization Heart o Tendons in heart attaches to flap of valves to keep them from going backwards Systemic Pulmonary Hear valves when they close

o Lub dub only valves closing Systolic and Dystolic blood pressure o Systolic Contraction o Diastolic relaxation Heart Beat o Atrial and ventricular diastole both chambers fill up with blood both relaxed and filling up with blood o Atrial Systole ventricular diastole Atrium contract and ventricle relaxation Atrium puts pressure on ventricles strong walls and this produces pressure o Ventricular systole atrial diastole ventricles compressed and pump blood because of pressure Coranary Artery o branches of aorta o feeds the heart o artery is the blood supply for heart Cardiac cycle o SA Node Synoatrial pacemaker generate electrical current Can cause cells around it to contract

Causes atrial contraction picked up by purkinje fibers and cause ventrical contraction SA Node regulated by the brain o AV Nodes atrial ventricular node AV controls contra via lead and sets the heart to be at 68 beats per minute Lead fell out of heart to cause grandpa to go on the floor Blood Pressure o Influence in exchange o where blood pressure is lost o Arteries thick smooth muscle inflexible neither easily expanded or crushed Blood flow through artery pressure isnt changing highest area of pressure o Capillaries High flexibility Low pressure greatest surface greatest amount of friction Blood flows the slowest in capillaries slow is good for exchange o Vein

a little thinner ability to compress veins have valves arteries dont The rate of blood flow is inversely proportional to the cross sectional surface area of the vessels through which it flows Blood pressure in veins slow Why can blood pick up in terms of the speed of flow through vein 1. Movement o Veins run near skeletal muscles o muscles kind of squeeze veins 2. Valves o valves close allows the squeezing skeletal muscle in the veins to go in one direction 3. Breathing o creates suction o vaccum Purpose of this lab is to determine relative cardiac fitness o sphygmometer Muscles squeeze veins to create pressure to drive blood through system Veins have valves to also create pressure Exchange of materials in capillary beds or just outside of capillaries arterioles o smaller and smaller arteries Significant amount of pressure in arterioles

Arterioles are much thinner and susceptible to leakage Surrounding arterioles is tissue fluid Tissue Fluid o Lymph Movement of materials via liquid medium Occurs through blood stream and lymphatic system Need to be an exchange Arteriole end o so much pressure that fluid in arteriole leaks out o determines force to get other fluid to move o the fluid in arteriole has stuff in it Low pressure in veinule end o fluid flows in to venule end o allows for adequate exchange throughout body This movement based on blood pressure Tissue fluid needs muscle contraction to go throughout body Capillaries dont always do the exchange Components of Blood Blood is a tissue Made up of a bunch of different types of cell Circulatory o muscle o epithelial o connective tissue

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets all develop from a single population of cells, pluripotent stem cells, in the red marrow of bones, particularly the ribs, vertebrae, breastbone, and pelvis. o Pluripotent means that these cells have the potential to differentiate into any type of blood cells or cells that produce platelets. o This population arises in the early embryo and renews itself while replenishing the blood with cellular elements. A negative-feedback mechanism, sensitive to the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues via the blood, controls erythrocyte production. o If the tissues do not produce enough oxygen, the kidney synthesizes and secretes a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), which stimulates production of erythrocytes. o If blood is delivering more oxygen than the tissues can use, the level of erythropoietin is reduced, and erythrocyte production slows. As atherosclerosis progresses, arteries become more and more clogged and the threat of heart attack or stroke becomes much greater, but there may be warnings of this impending threat. o For example, if a coronary artery is partially blocked, a person may feel occasional chest pains, a condition known as angina pectoris. o This is a signal that part of the heart is not receiving enough blood, especially when the heart is laboring because of physical or emotional stress. Gas Exchange 4 problems Surface area Protection o structural doesnt have to be o Behavioral worm living under ground Moisture Thin Membrane o diffusion has difficult time meeting needs of a cell if its going beyond three layers Some animals, such as earthworms and some amphibians, use the entire outer skin as a respiratory organ. Just below the moist skin is a dense net of capillaries. However, because the respiratory surface must be moist, the possible habitats of these animals are limited to water or damp places. Animals that use their moist skin as their only respiratory organ are usually small and are either long and thin or flat in shape, with a high ratio of surface area to volume.

Gas exchange at the gill surface is enhanced by the opposing flows of water and blood at the gills. This flow pattern is countercurrent exchange. As blood moves through a gill capillary, it becomes more and more loaded with oxygen, but it simultaneously encounters water with even higher oxygen concentrations because it is just beginning its passage over the gills. All along the gill capillary, there is a diffusion gradient favoring the transfer of oxygen from water to blood. The countercurrent exchange mechanism is so efficient that the gills can remove more than 80% of the oxygen from water to blood. Reverse blood flow never get to 50-50 equilibrium instead Always have a concentration gradient Grasshopper Has open circulatory systems Grasshoppers inhale and exhale through abdomen Speraricles allow for air to enter into body o Trachioles The tracheal system of insects is composed of air tubes that branch throughout the body. o The largest tubes, called tracheae, open to the outside, and the finest branches extend to the surface of nearly every cell where gas is exchanged by diffusion across the moist epithelium that lines the terminal ends. o The open circulatory system does not transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. o Within exoskeleton for protection Alternating contraction and relaxation of flight muscles compresses and expands the body, rapidly pumping air through the tracheal system. The flight muscles are packed with mitochondria, and the tracheal tubes supply each with ample oxygen. Humans System Nose Air enters through the nostrils and is then filtered by hairs, warmed and humidified, and sampled for odors as it flows through the nasal cavity. The nasal cavity leads to the pharynx, an intersection where the paths for air and food cross. When food is swallowed, the larynx moves upward and tips the epiglottis over the glottis. The rest of the time, the glottis is open, and air enters the upper part of the respiratory tract. The wall of the larynx is reinforced by cartilage.

In most mammals, the larynx is adapted as a voice box in which vibrations of a pair of vocal cords produce sounds. These sounds are high-pitched when the vocal cords are stretched tight and vibrate rapidly and lowpitched when the cords are less tense and vibrate slowly. From the larynx, air passes into the trachea, or windpipe, whose shape is maintained by rings of cartilage. The trachea forks into two bronchi, one leading into each lung. Within the lung, each bronchus branches repeatedly into finer and finer tubes, called bronchioles. The epithelium lining the major branches of the respiratory tree is covered by cilia and a thin film of mucus. The mucus traps dust, pollen, and other particulate contaminants, and the beating cilia move the mucus upward to the pharynx, where it is swallowed. At their tips, the tiniest bronchioles dead-end as a cluster of air sacs called alveoli. Gas exchange occurs across the thin epithelium of the lungs millions of alveoli. These have a total surface area of about 100 m2 in humans, sufficient to carry out gas exchange for the whole body. Oxygen in the air entering the alveoli dissolves in the moist film and rapidly diffuses across the epithelium into a web of capillaries that surrounds each alveolus. Carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction. Alveoli o Surfactant Satifies problem of moisture so the alveoli dont collapse Disrupts water bonds o Very thin and covered by capillaries o Diffusion works to do gas exchange Breathing o Negative pressure system allows us to breath aka vaccum increase volume of an area and area has to come in and occupy that space o Rib cage expands tissue layer connected to rib cage is pulled out when cells between ribs expand

Diaphragm o Sheet of muscle o flexing it goes down o chest cavity expands first then air goes Highly inefficient o Two way tract is inefficient o air moves in and comes out problem Never totally complete gas exchange process Breathing in an out mixing gases in our lungs Birds o Lack alveoli o one way directional flow of gases o Ventilation is much more complex in birds than in mammals. o Besides lungs, birds have eight or nine air sacs that do not function directly in gas exchange, but act as bellows that keep air flowing through the lungs. o The entire systemlungs and air sacsis ventilated when the bird breathes. o Air flows through the interconnected system in a circuit that passes through the lungs in one direction only, regardless of whether the bird is inhaling or exhaling. o Instead of alveoli, which are dead ends, the sites of gas exchange in bird lungs are tiny channels called parabronchi, through which air flows in one direction. Brain o Pons and Medulla Medulla ensures that you breath pons varies the rate that you breath has pH receptors that can measure CO2 Speed o goal to get c02 out of blood

o brain has ability to detect where the ph is low o CO2 levels detrimental to the brain Transport of oxygen in blood stream to cells and lungs Hemaglobin o carries oxygen called oxyhemaglobin o Protein o 4 polypeptide chains o each has iron which allows it to carry oxygen o Can carry 4 02 molecules o Shape initial bind to first O2 molecule changes shape to have a higher affiinity to bind to 02 o Speed at which oxygen can be realsed increases after first initial oxygen Bohr Shift shift in the affinity in the molecule toward and away from molecule speed depends on first molecule o What can influences the rate at which you can aquire and dump off this molecule o How do RBCs know when to give or provide oxygen o CO2 heat energy released in cellular respiration o change shape of protein Increases speed after heat is produced and first oxygen binds Reverse Oxygen pickup

concentration difference allows for diffusion quite readily of oxygen into lungs

How to get rid of C02 Realistically not efficient Ability of the body to get rid of CO2 CO2 transported through cells by hemoglobin Diffusion gets blood out RBCs can create bicarbonate from CO2s Bicarbonate can dissolve in blood plasma Bicarbonate can also reconvert to CO2 and get rid of CO2 Three ways o efficient at getting rid of CO2 o need to protect brain from acidity Things to remember Arteries connective tissue have elastin and veins do not have elastin but still have connective tissue Plasma ph is 7.4 o Proteins clotting factors and antibodies Albumin carrier protein facilitate things osmotic balance and ph buffering Clotting factors o ions 45% red blood cells

Get a cut o platelets come and start recruiting clotting factors o fibrin and helps in clotting Cooperative o when one binds it makes the second want to bind Low ph decreases affinity for 02 called Bohr Shift Hemocyanin used in some invertebrates copper based

Immune System Cell to cell communication Physical Contact Focus on cells themselves o because pathways are very confusing Pathogens o Something that creates an immune response Antigen on pathogens o Antigen allows us to recognize pathogens Most are proteins, sugars, Two Levels o Innate immunity o Acquired Immunity First line Spread of Pathogens o Air

Preventions Mucus Nose Hair Cilia that line the lungs


Can effect many systems Preventions Saliva and enzymes in saliva Lysozymes in saliva Gastric Juice HCL Direct Contact Preventions Skin oil and sweat Aids Flu

Virus o o

cause by HIV

Swine Flu Bacteria o Bacterial Menengitis o Pneumonia o Staf infections

Chicken Pox caused by Herpes

Fungus o Ringworm o Athletes foot Brain eating amoeba Second Line of Defense Non Specific Capillaries are dilated so phagocytic white blood cells can go to the wound Capillaries have tight junctions between cells Tight junctions between them Chemicals are released around cells Cause capillaries to Dilate Capillaries get wider and spread junctions out creating gaps where fluid and WBC and platelets can get to cut Histamine causes swelling o take antihistimine to stop swelling Increase in temperature around areas that are hurt Stops bacteria from invading 3rd Line Specific pathway with many variations Bacteria o bacteria in tissue fluid o bacterias have proteins that are antigens o Recognized as foreign particles

o o

B cells and macrophages have the ability to take in parts of the bacteria Macrophage can engulf bacteria called phagocytosis stores it in vacuole use lysosome to digest it Non-specific B Cells Must have antigen receptors that are identical to antibodies Binding sites receptors can bind with specific cells T cells helper t cells Initiate communication by contact help the b cells and macrophages

MHC II o Major histocompatibility complex Protein Display a fragment of the original bacterial cell cleve off antigen of bacteria o Foreign antigen is presented on macrophage and b cell TLRs and MHC o Weak bond Two major groups are important

o require cd4 protein to establish bind between helper t cells and phagocytic cells o and receptor protein Response o T cell produces hormone protein called interleukins or cytokinins o cytokinins cause B cells to divide Into to categories Plasma cells produce antibodies short lived and attack the cells mass produce produce antibodies that are like the original b cells antibodies Memory cells long lived Bind to same bacteria and immediately be able to produce antibodies at a great concentration Antibodies o two binding sites o Clump together bacterial cells macrophages can come and eat them bacterial cells unable to reproduce and are getting eaten by macrophages Antibiotics o produce antibodies Epitope o area of antigen that binds to a specific receptor

A small, accessible region of an antigen to which an antigen receptor or antibody binds; also called an antigenic determinant. in b cells

Virus vs. Cancer Body Cell o if cell becomes cancerous there are proteins on the membrane that are being displayed when its under attack o MHC I are the proteins Pathway for Virus o Cells that can recognize MHC I Two types of T cells Cytotoxic T cells (non-activated) receptor on cell can recognize MHC I receptor Needs help cuz it cant do it by itself checks and balances system Cd8 cell o Helper T cells Recognize foreign MHC receptor no response unless helper t cell recognizes it helper t cell releases cytokinins causes cytotoxic t cells to divide one is Memory T cells one is Activated cytotoxic t cells o Perforin released by activated cytotoxic t cells perforin can lyse membranes Day 3 Immune Antibodies

o inhibit reproduction or release of toxin o indirectly can kill cells o clump bacteria together so macrophages can go to work Blood Type o A, B, O, AB o A A antigen o B B antigen o O No antigen o AB Both A and B o A and b antigens have epitopes similar to cells in body design antibodies that are opposite of it o Type A blood akes B antibody o Type B blood makes A antibody o Type O blood produces A and B antibody o Type AB produces neither antibody o Resistance to certain diseases because of blood type in the olden days o O is universal donor Nothing the body can reject


universal receiver because no antibodies in blood that would reject anything Organ transplant and skin graphs o Nobody has same MHC I or II o Change in liver would make cytotoxic cells just go crazy and start killing everything o Body cells seen as foreign o Doctors give u suppressants Bone Marrow Transplant will try to kill o will attack the new host o Kill current bone marrow transplant Autoimmune o Own immune system attacks you Attacking yourselves T cells attack beta cells beta cells produce insulin rheumatoid Arthritis Multiple sclerosis wbcs attack nerves Hiv o Host cell need recognition site host cell is helper T can also occupy macrophage and nervous CD4 protein recognized by Hiv can either remain dormant or destroy t cells People who have Aids die from flu, bacterial pneumonia, fungal infections, cancer can mutate and change its antigens everytime it replicates