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Chapter 1 Three phase system

Week 2
Interconnections of three phase system (star and delta),
Relationship between line and phase values
Balanced load


v(t)
V
m
-V
m
t 2t 3t 4t
et
Phasor
diagram
Which one is:
V
m
= ?
V
inst
= ?
u = ?

+V
-V
3
A three-phase system is superior economically and
advantage, and for an operating of view, to a single-
phase system. In a balanced three phase system the
power delivered to the load is constant at all times,
whereas in a single-phase system the power pulsates
with time.
Three-Phase System
In a three phase system the source consists of three
sinusoidal voltages. For a balanced source, the three
sources have equal magnitudes and are phase
displaced from one another by 120 electrical degrees.
Advantages of 3- u compared to 1- u system
High efficiency
For same power at the transmission line,
less conductor and lighter
Construction and maintenance, minimum
(cheaper)
Starting behavior and operation of 3-u
equipment better or more stable than 1- u
5
Generation of Three-Phase
Three separate windings or coils with terminals R-R, Y-Y and B-B are
physically placed 120
o
apart around the stator.
Y
B
Y
B
Stator
Rotor
Y
R
B
R
R
N
S
6
It has 3 conductor loops
that is R (red), Y (yellow) and
B (blue).
The conductor loop will
move in circle and then cut
off the magnetic flux.
It will produces the
electromagnetic force e.m.f
in the conductor.
Maximum e.m.f is when the
conductor loop is 90 with
magnetic flux line.
7
v(t)
120
et
v
R
240
o
v
Y
v
B
The instantaneous e.m.f. generated in phase R, Y and B:
v
R
= V
R
sin et
v
Y
= V
Y
sin (et -120
o
)
v
B
= V
B
sin (et -240
o
) = V
B
sin (et +120
o
)
8
Phase sequences : RYB and RBY
120
o
-120
o
120
o
V
R
V
Y
V
B
e
o
) rms ( R R
0 V V Z =
o
) rms ( Y Y
120 V V Z =
o
) rms ( B
o
) rms ( B B
120 V
240 V V
Z =
Z =
V
R
leads V
Y
, which in turn leads V
B
.

This sequence is produced when the rotor rotates in
the counterclockwise direction.
(a) RYB or positive sequence
9
(b) RBY or negative sequence
o
) rms ( R R
0 V V Z =
o
) rms ( B B
120 V V Z =
o
rms Y
o
rms Y Y
V
V
120
240
) (
) (
Z =
Z = V
V
R
leads V
Y
, which in turn leads V
B
.

This sequence is produced when the rotor rotates in
the clockwise direction.
V
120
o
-120
o
120
o
V
R
V
B
Y
e
Simulation of current flow in 3 phase system
3 phase generator
12
Connection in Three Phase System Star and Delta
Star Connection ()

Also known as Y connection (wye)

Usually been used in system that needs high voltage and
low current

There are two types of Y connection, i.e:
i) 3 wire star connection
ii) 4 wire star connection
13
R
Y
B
Z
R
Z Y
Z
B
3 wire star connection

Use 3 line wire, that are R, Y and B.

All of the conductor loop source is connected in similar reference
point S.
14
R
Y
B
Z
R
Z Y
Z
B
Star/wye Connection
a) Three wire system
Voltage
source Load
No Neutral wire
E,N S
V
RY
V
YB
V
BR
V
RN
V
YN
V
BN
V
RS
V
BS
V
YS
I
R
I
Y
I
B
15
V
RN
V
BN
V
YN
Z
R
Z Y
Z
B
R
B
N
Y
4 wire star connection

Use 4 line wire, that are R, Y , B and N.

N wire is connected to reference point S.
16
Star Connection
b) Four wire system
V
RN
V
BN
V
YN
Z
R
Z Y
Z
B
R
B
N
Y
Neutral wire
Voltage
source
Load
V
RY
V
YB
V
BR
V
RN
V
BN
V
YN
N
I
R
I
Y
I
B
17
Star/wye connection of Load
Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
R
B
Y
N
Load
Z
3
Z
1 Z
2
R
Y
B
Load
N
or
18
Delta Connection ()

Usually been used in system that need high line current and low
phase current.
Connect all the conductor in series.
No neutral line
Generator
Load
19
Delta Connection
R
Y
B
Y
B
R
Voltage
source
Load
V
RY
V
BR
V
YB
V
RY
V
BR
V
YB
I
YB
I
RY
I
BR
I
R
I
R
I
Y
I
Y
I
B
I
B
I
RY
I
YB
I
BR
20
Delta connection of load
Z
c
Z
a
Z
b
R
B
Y
Load
Z
c
Z
b
Z
a
R
Y
B
Load
21
Line Voltage (V
L
) : Potential different between two line.

Phase Voltage (V
ph
) : Potential different between two
phase or voltage across load in each phase.

Line Current (I
L
): Current flow in each line.

Phase Current (I
PH
): Current flow in each phase or load.

3 phase system definition
22
Line Voltage
Potential between line to line, Star and
Delta
V
RY
between line R and Y
V
YB
between line Y and B
V
BR
between line B and R

23
Balance 3 phase system
In balance three phase system:

The system will have same value of load in
each phase.

Each phase voltage will have same magnitude
and phase different 120.

Each phase current will have same magnitude
and phase different 120.

24
Star connection
Line Voltage
V
RY
: Line voltage between R & Y
V
YB
: Line voltage between Y & B
V
BR
: Line voltage between B & R

Phase Voltage
V
RN
: Phase voltage R
V
YN
: Phase voltage Y
V
BN
: Phase voltage B
25
Star connection
V
RN
is take as the reference point in positive rotation



120 120
120 120
0 0
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
Ph BN BN
Ph YN YN
Ph RN RN
V V V
V V V
V V V
From Kirchhoff Law:
( )



30 3
120 1 0 1
120 0
Z =
Z Z =
Z Z = =
Ph
Ph
Ph Ph YN RN RY
V
V
V V V V V
26
Star connection

150 3
90 3
Z = =
Z = =
P RN BN BR
P BN YN YB
V V V V
V V V V
As conclusion :

30 3 Z =
P L
V V
For a balance star
connection.
Line voltage (V
L
) has magnitude \3 Vph and is leading phase voltage (V
PH
)
with 30.
With the same method ;
27
Star connection
Phasor diagram for phase voltage and line voltage;
28
Line Current = Phase Current

Current flow in each line is:
I
R
: Line current R.
I
Y
: Line current Y.
I
B
: Line current B.

Phase current : Current that flow through each phase loop or
load.

For star connection;
Star connection
current) (Phase current) (Line
P L
I I =
29
Delta Connection
Line Voltage,
V
RY
Voltage across conductor RR.
V
YB
Voltage across conductor YY.
V
BR
Voltage across conductor BB.

In delta connection, Line voltage is also the
phase voltage , So:
voltage) (Phase voltage) (Line
P L
V V =
Delta Connection
30



120 120
120 120
0 0
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
P BR BR
P YB YB
P RY RY
I I I
I I I
I I I


30 3
120 0
: load At the
Z =
Z Z =
=
P
P P
BR RY R
I
I I
I I I
Phase current , I
RY
, I
YB
dan I
BR
Current flow through each conductor loop in
each phase.
And I
RY
always be taken as the reference current, so ;
31

90 3
150 3
; Then
Z = =
Z = =
P YB BR B
P RY YB Y
I I I I
I I I I
Line Current (I
L
) lagging current phase (I
PH
) with 30.
Magnitude I
L
= \3 I
PH
.

30 3 Z =
P L
I I
For balance delta
connection
Conclusion :
32
Delta Connection
Example
A positive phase sequence three-phase
voltage source connected in a balanced Y has
a line voltage of V
RY
= 415 Z-45 V
rms
.
Determine the phase voltage.
V(t) = Vmax sin ( et 45
o
)

Example
A balanced Y-connected load is supplied by a
balanced Y-connected source with a phase
voltage of V
RN
= 220 V
rms
. If I
R
= 5 Z-30 A.
Determine the phase and line voltages, phase
and line currents. Subsequently, sketch
phasor diagram with positive sequence phase.
A balanced A-connected load is
supplied by positive phase sequence
balanced three-phase A-connected
source with V
RY
= 415Z0 V
rms
, If the
current flowing through phase RY, I
RY

= 5Z0 A, determine phase and line
voltages, phase and line currents.
Hence sketch the phasor diagram.

35
Example
Balanced Load Connection in
3-Phase System
Balance Power Supply
/ / / / / /
3 2 1
Z Z Z = =
3 2 1
Z Z Z
u u u Z = Z = Z
Y Y connection
Y - A connection
A - A connection
A - Y connection
V
RN
V
BN
Z
1
Z 2
Z
3
R
B
N
Y
V
YN
I
R
I
Y
I
B
I
N
B Y R N
I I I I + + =
For balanced load system,
I
N
= 0 and Z
1
= Z
2
= Z
3
3
o
BN
B
2
o
YN
Y
1
o
RN
R
Z
120 V
I
Z
120 V
I
Z
0 V
I
Z
=
Z
=
Z
=
BN YN RN phasa
phasa BN
phasa YN
phasa RN
V V V V where
120 V V
120 V V
0 V V
= = =
Z =
Z =
Z =
Voltage and Current at Star Connected Balanced Loads
a) Four wire system
Voltage and Current at Star Connected Balanced Loads
b) Three wire system
R
Y
B
Z
1
Z 2
Z
3
I
R
I
Y
I
B
V
RY
V
YB
V
BR
S
0 I I I
B Y R
= + +
3
o
BS
B
2
o
YS
Y
1
o
RS
R
Z
120 V
I
Z
120 V
I
Z
0 V
I
Z
=
Z
=
Z
=
BS YS RS phasa
phasa BS
phasa YS
phasa RS
V V V V where
240 V V
120 V V
0 V V
= = =
Z =
Z =
Z =
Voltage and Current at Delta-Connected Balanced Loads
Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
R
Y
B
V
RY
V
YB
V
BR
I
R
I
RY
I
BR
I
YB
I
B
I
Y
Phase currents:
3
o
BR
BR
2
o
YB
YB
1
o
RY
RY
Z
120 V
I
Z
120 V
I
Z
0 V
I
Z
=
Z
=
Z
=
Line currents:
YB BR B
RY YB Y
BR RY R
I I I
I I I
I I I
=
=
=
line B Y R
phasa BR YB RY
I I I I and
I I I I where
= = =
= = =