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National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication and Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control using Fuzzy Logic based Moving Sliding Surface
Abdul Kareem

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6 Engineering

Department of Electronics & Communication

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication and Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

Abstract A new method to the super-twisting sliding

mode control of dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. The idea behind this method is to utilize a sliding surface function with time varying slope. The adjustment of the linear sliding surface slope is achieved by a simple single input- single output fuzzy logic inference system so that the sliding surface is rotated in such a direction that the tracking performance of the system under control is improved. Computer simulations are performed on a system with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The results are compared with a conventional supertwisting sliding mode controller with a fixed sliding surface. The results have shown the improved performance of the proposed approach in terms of a decrease in the reaching and settling times and robustness to disturbances as compared with the conventional super-twisting sliding mode controller.
Keywords super-twisting sliding mode control, fuzzy logic, chattering, uncertainties, Lyapunov function.

sliding surface function compared to second order sliding mode controllers [1]-[6].

INTRODUCTION In recent years, the super-twisting sliding mode control theory has become very popular and therefore, it has been studied widely for the control of dynamic uncertain systems. The reason for this popularity is the attractive features of super-twisting sliding mode control; its robustness to parameter variations, external disturbances, fast error convergence characteristics and inherent stability. Also, it has the advantage of less chattering compared to sliding mode control as it is a second order sliding mode control and allows for finite time convergence to zero of not only the sliding variable but its derivative as well [1], [2]. Abdul Kareem Applied Electronics St.peters University Email Id:afthabkareem@gmail.com . This sensitivity can be minimized if the reaching mode duration is minimized. Moreover it is tedious to find the optimum value of the sliding surface slope and it is a complicated task. A successful sliding surface design method for improving the controller performance is to use time varying sliding surfaces instead of constant ones [7], [8]. Thus, the method of adjusting sliding surface online is an important topic in the supertwisting sliding mode controlled systems.

Moreover, super-twisting sliding mode control method offers a simple algorithm for the easy implementation as it does not require the derivatives of

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication and Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

In this paper, a method of sliding surface slope adjustment of the super-twisting sliding mode control using a single input-single output fuzzy logic system is presented. The main advantage of the proposed control method is that the slope of the sliding surface is varying, it is changed continuously according to the values of the error variables, and the sliding line rotates in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction to achieve the desired performance. The slope change is computed by fuzzy logic rules using one dimensional rule base. Hence the algorithm is very simple and the computation time is very less. Finally, the computer simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control method over the conventional constant slope super-twisting sliding mode control method. SUPER-TWISTING SLIDING MODE CONTROL Super-twisting Sliding Mode algorithm (STA) is a second order sliding mode control algorithm which is a unique absolutely continuous sliding mode algorithm, ensuring all the main properties of first order sliding mode control for the systems with Lipschitz matched uncertainties with bounded gradients and eliminates the chattering phenomenon [1], [2].

FUZZY LOGIC BASED MOVING SURFACE SLOPE SUPER-TWISTING CONTROLLER In this section, the attractive features of supertwisting sliding mode control and fuzzy logic control are combined to introduce a super-twisting sliding mode control strategy based on varying sliding surface [9][14]. Consider the sliding surfaces given in Fig. 1. It is clear that the controller with minimum slope leads to slower error convergence and longer tracking time. On the other hand, the controller with maximum slope leads to faster error convergence, but the tracking accuracy can be degraded. Therefore there is a trade-off between error convergence time and tracking time. The rotation of the sliding surface can be achieved if the value of slope is updated according to the values of the error and its derivative with a condition that the positiveness of the slope must be preserved. The slope of the sliding surface can be computed by fuzzy logic inference system with e(t) and its first derivative as inputs and (t) as output. Assume that e(t) and its first derivative are scaled down to unit range of [-1,1] before applying them as fuzzy inputs to fuzzy logic controller. It is to be noted that the inputs to fuzzy logic controller can have negative and positive values, but the output must be always positive due to positive slope requirement for stability. Hence, the rule base of the fuzzy logic controller plays a very important role and should be constructed such that the performance of the system is improved. The membership functions for the inputs are represented by negative big (NB), negative medium (NM), negative small (NS), zero (ZE), positive small (PS), positive medium (PM), positive big (PB) as shown in Fig. 2, and that for the output are represented by very very small (VVS), very small (VS), small (S), medium (M), big (B), very big (VB) and very very big (VVB) as shown in Fig. 3. The rule base is given in Table 1.

The super-twisting sliding mode controller perturbation and chattering elimination is given by

for

(1)

(2) where is the sliding surface and is the upper bound of perturbation [1], [2].
ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6 Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication and Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

Fig. 2. Input membership functions. Output membership functions.

Fig. 3.

SINGLE INPUT FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL BASED ADAPTIVE SUPER-TWISTING SLIDING MODE CONTROL From a careful observation of the rule base in Table 1, it can be observed that the rules in each quadrant are mirror images of the rules in the adjacent quadrants [7]. This property can be made use to reduce rule base to 1dimensional rule base with absolute magnitude difference between error e(t) and its first derivative, forming a single input and slope of super-twisting sliding mode controller as the output. We define a new variable ed(t) which is the magnitude difference in error variables ie;

Fig. 1. Time-varying Sliding surfaces. e(t)/ NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

M S VS VVS VS S M

B M S VS S M B

VB B M S M B VB

VVB VB B M B VB VVB

VB B M S M B VB

B M S VS S M B

M S VS VVS VS S M

(3)

Table 1. 2-dimensional fuzzy rule base.

The 1-dimensional rule base to compute slope (t) is given in Table 2. The centroid defuzzification method can be used to convert fuzzy value of sliding surface slope to crisp value and it can be given to super-twisting sliding mode controller. Obviously, the calculation of the time varying slope of the super-twisting sliding mode controller is less complicated compared to the case of having a 2-dimensional rule base.

The proposed method is super-twisting sliding mode control method with sliding surface slope varying based on error variables. Hence the conditions given in (2) along with (t)>0 ensures that the equilibrium point is reached in finite time from every initial condition.

ed(t) (t)

NB VVB

NM VB

NS B

ZE M

PS S

PM VS

P B V V

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication and Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

S Table 2. 1-dimensional fuzzy rule base.


I. SIMULATIONS A. Model Description

where v is the super-twisting control given by (1). The controller gains are selected as = 8.38 and = 6.14 to satisfy (2).
C. Simulation Results

A mass-spring-damper system consists of two masses, three springs, one damper as shown in Fig. 4. The dynamics of the system is

(4) The nominal values for the parameters are M1 = 1.28 kg, M2 = 1.05 kg, K1 = 190 N/m, K2 = 780 N/m, K3 = 450 N/m, B= 15 Ns/m. The control objective is to maintain the position of mass M1 fixed at x1(t) = x1d despite of the behavior of mass M2, that can be considered as a perturbation. The change of co-ordinates given by Equation (5) brings mass M1 system to the regular form.

For comparison, two different controllers are simulated using Matlab: A Super-twisting sliding mode controller with constant sliding surface slope with =3 and the proposed controller. For the simulations, at time t=0, a reference position x1d = 0.01m is demanded. The simulation results are given in Fig. 5 to Fig. 10. From the comparison, it is clear that both the controllers are able to achieve the objective, but the proposed controller exhibits fast dynamic response and it can be considered as an indication of shortening the reaching mode time, thereby improving the robustness compared to super-twisting sliding mode controller with constant sliding surface slope. The results are tabulated in Table 3.

Output

Proposed Controller

Constant gain super-twisting sliding mode Controller 1.84

(5)

Fig. 4. Mass-Spring-Damper system.


B. Control Design

Time taken to reach 90% of the steadystate value (s) Time taken to reach the steadystate value (s) steadystate error

1.75

2.27

4.77

The linear sliding surface given by Equation (6) is selected so that the equilibrium point will be reached exponentially fast, and with a desired performance.

(6) The equivalent control is

Table 3. Comparison of performance of controllers. (7)


ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6 Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication and Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013
0.01 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0

9 8 7 6

x 10

-3

Velocity x2 (m/s)

Position x1 (m)

5 4 3 2 1 0

4 Time (s)

4 Time (s)

Fig. 5. Position of mass M1 using the proposed controller.


6 5 Control force (N) 4 3 2

Fig. 6. Velocity of mass M1 using the proposed controller.


0.01 0.009 0.008 0.007

Position x1 (m)
0 1 2 3 4 Time (s) 5 6 7 8

1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0

4 Time (s)

Fig. 7. Control force of mass M1 using the proposed controller.


8 7 6 x 10
-3

Fig. 8. Position of mass M1 using the constant slope super-twisting sliding mode controller.
6 5 4 3

Velocity x2 (m/s)

Control force (N)


0 1 2 3 4 Time (s) 5 6 7 8

5 4 3 2 1

2 1 0 -1 -2 -3

-4

4 Time (s)

Fig. 9. Velocity of mass M1 using the constant slope super-twisting sliding mode controller. CONCLUSION In this paper, a new super-twisting sliding mode control using a simple single input- single output fuzzy logic controller based sliding surface slope adjustment is introduced. It is shown that the dynamic response and the robustness of the controller can be improved by

Fig. 10. Control force of mass M1 using the constant slope super-twisting sliding mode controller. rotating the sliding line in phase plane by a simple single input-single output fuzzy logic control. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through computer simulation results using a dynamic uncertain system. The simulation results show that the proposed controller exhibits fast dynamic response and it can be considered as an indication of shortening the reaching

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

mode time, thereby improving the robustness compared to super-twisting sliding mode controller with constant sliding surface slope. REFERENCES

[12]

[1] Tenoch Gonzalez, Jaime A. Moreno, and Leonid Fridman,

Variable gain super-twisting sliding mode control, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2100-2105, August 2012. [2] Jaime A. Moreno, and Marisol Osario, A Lyapunov approach to second-order sliding mode controllers and observers, 47th IEEE conference on decision and control, Cancun, Mexico, December 9-11, 2008. [3] I. Boiko, L. Fridman, A.. Pisano, and E. Usai, Analysis of chattering in systems with second-order sliding modes, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 52, no.11, pp. 2085-2102, November 2007. [4] G. Bartolini, A. Pisano, and E. Usai, An improved second-order sliding mode control scheme robust against the measurement noise, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1731-1736, October 2004. [5] E. Plestan, E. Moulay, A. Glumineau, and T. Cheviron, Robust output feedback sampling control based on second-order sliding mode, Automatica, vol. 46. No. 6, pp. 1096-1100, 2010. [6] A. Polyakov, and A. Poznyak, Reaching time estimation for super-twisting second order sliding mode controller via Lyapunov function designing, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1951-1955, August 2009. [7] Hasan Komurcugil, Rotating-sliding-line-based slidingmode control for single-phase UPS, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 3719-3726, October 2012. [8] Eksin, M. Guzelkaya, and S. Tokat, Sliding surface slope adjustnent in fuzzy sliding mode controllers, Proceedings of the 10th Mediterranean conference on control and automation- MED 2002, Lisbon, Portugal, July 9-12, 2002. [9] Mohamed Amine Fnaiech, Franck Betin, Gerard-Andre Capolino, and Farhat Fnaiech, Fuzzy logic and slidingmode controls applied to six-phase induction machine with open phases, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 354-364, January 2010. [10] Tie-Shan Li, Shao-Cheng Tong, and Gang Feng, A Novel robust Adaptive-Fuzzy-Tracking Control for a class of nonlinear multi-input/multi-output Systems, IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 18, no.1, pp. 150160, February, 2010. [11] Tzuu-Hseng S. Li, and Yun-Cheng Huang, MIMO adaptive fuzzy terminal sliding-mode controller for robotic manipulators, Journal of Information Sciences, Elsevier Science INC, vol. 180, issue. 23, pp. 51-62, December 2010.

Chang, W., Park, J. B. Joo, Y. H. and Chen, G., Design of robust fuzzy-model based controller with sliding mode control for SISO nonlinear systems, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Elsevier 125, pp.1-22, 2002. [13] Ch-Lin Kuo, Tzuu-Hseng S. Li, and Nai Ren Guo, Design of a novel fuzzy sliding-mode control for magnetic ball levitation system, Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Springer, Vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 295316, 2005. [14] Hai-Ping Pang, Cheng-Ju Liu, and wei Zhang, Sliding mode fuzzy control with application to Electrical Servo Drive, Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA'06) Jinan, China, October 16-18, 2006.

Performance Analysis of Transceiver Design with Cooperative Diversity for Free Space Optical Communication
G. Aalin Joys1 ,T. Anne Ramya2

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6 Engineering

Department of Electronics & Communication

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6 Engineering

Department of Electronics & Communication

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013 Abstract- Free space optical communications attracted significant attention as a promising solution for the last- mile problem. A major impairment that severely degrades the free space optical link performance is fading that results from the variations of the index of refraction due to the inhomogenities in temperature and pressure changes. In order to maintain acceptable performance levels over FSO links,fading-mitigation techniques must be employed. Hence, the cooperative diversity technique is investigated as a candidate solution for combating turbulence induced fading over Free- space optical links. In particular,a one-relay cooperative scheme is proposed and analysed for noncoherent FSO communications with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD). The error performance is derived in the semi-analytical and closed-form expressions in the presence and absence of background radiation, respectively. Results show the enhanced diversity orders that can be achieved over both Rayleigh and lognormal fading models.

Over the years, a number of statistical channel models have been proposed to describe weak and strong atmospheric induced turbulence fading. It is well known that to mitigate efficiently channel fading, one can make use of diversity techniques. Two primary challenges are attached to free space optical communication. First, the narrow beam width implies the need for careful pointing and perhaps a need for active pointing and tracking mechanisms to combat building sway, etc. second is the need to combat link fading due to scattering and scintillation. Even in clear sky conditions, links may experience fading due to the index of refraction in the optical beam; one may view these pockets of in homogeneities as refraction zones that distort the phase front of the optical field, leading to interference patterns in space at the detector location. Surveys of optical-propagation effects are found in [5]. Another solution is to employ cooperative diversity for fading reduction. Aperture averaging can be seen as a simple form of spatial diversity. In this paper, Cooperative diversity is being deployed in the case of free Space optical communication in order to combat fading and the effect of scintillation. Particularly, decode -and forward strategy is used with one relay over the FSO link. The links are provided with the aid of intensity modulation and direct detection at the receiver end. The reasons that encourages the implementation of this proposed scheme in the case of FSO links is that, the solution is cost effective compared to the MIMO-FSO links as it is obvious that it does not require the addition more apertures at the transmitter and at the receiver end. Secondly, it does not allow the channel to be correlated since FSO links are much more directive. Even the presence of small cloud can induce fading in the information signal. Hence a solid solution in this case is the use of cooperation. Thirdly, the use of MIMO-FSO links can impose the disadvantage of requiring additional power since the sources in the MIMO-FSO link must be strictly narrow to couple sufficient power from the transmitter to the receiver. The sources must also be wider enough to illuminate all the detectors at the receiver end so as to maintain channel independence. This problem is eliminated by deploying the proposed cooperative scheme and it can constitute a good practical solution. II. TRANSMITTER STRUCTURE AND SYSTEM MODEL

Keywords -- Free space optics, cooperative diversity, Spatial diversity, atmospheric turbulence, fading.

I. INTRODUCTION Free-space optical (FSO) communication is a license free and cost-effective access technique, which has attracted significant attention recently for a variety of applications. Channels in FSO systems have wider bandwidth and therefore are able to support more users compared to radio frequency counterparts. Through relaying techniques, outdoor FSO optical transceivers can also cover large distances[7],[9].with its high-data-rate capacity and wide bandwidth on unregulated spectrum, FSO communication is a promising solution for the last-mile problem, however its performance is highly vulnerable to adverse atmospheric conditions. Atmospheric turbulence occurs as a result of the variations in the refractive index due to the in homogeneities in temperature and pressure changes. This results in rapid fluctuations at the received signal, i.e known as fading or scintillation, impairing the system performance particularly for link ranges for 1km and above.

1.Aalin Joys, M.E, Student, St.Peters University 2.T.Anne Ramya , Lecturer, St.Peters University

Co-operation is proposed among the transceivers on buildings (1), (2) and (3) where the transceivers on building 2 can help in transmitting an information message from (1) to (3). Note how, given the non-broadcast nature of FSO Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013 transmissions, one couple of FSO transceiver units is dedicated

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signals, which results that cooperative diversity becomes antenna diversity that uses distributed antennas belonging to other user nodes. User cooperation is an another definition of cooperative diversity. User cooperation considers an additional fact that each user relays the other user's signal while cooperative diversity can be also achieved by multi-hop relay networking systems. Cooperative diversity is the cooperative multiple antenna technique that exploits user diversity. Cooperative diversity allows the destination node to decode information using the combination of both the relayed signal and the direct signal in wireless multi-hop networks. A conventional single hop system uses direct transmission where a receiver decodes the information only based on the direct signal while regarding the relayed signal as interference, whereas

for each link.

Fig. 1. An example of a mesh FSO network.

the cooperative diversity considers the other signal as contribution. That is, cooperative diversity decodes the information from the combination of two signals. Hence, it can be seen that cooperative diversity is an antenna diversity that uses distributed antennas belonging to each node in a wireless network. Note that user cooperation is an another definition of cooperative diversity. User cooperation considers an additional fact that each user relays the other user's signal while cooperative diversity can be also achieved by multi-hop relay networking systems. The decode-and-forward strategy allows the relay station to decode the received signal transmitted from the source node, re-encodes and forwards the re-encoded signal to the far destination station. We consider a wireless relay system that consists of source, relay and destination nodes. It is assumed that the channel is in a full-duplex, orthogonal and decode-andforward relaying mode.For cooperative decoding, the destination node combines two signals received from the source and the relay nodes which results in the diversity advantage. The whole received signal vector at the destination node can be modeled as:

In the figure produced above, consider three neighboring the building (1),(2) and (3). Assume that a FSO links exists between each building and between its two neighboring buildings. Given the high directivity and non-broadcast nature of FSO transmissions , one separate transceiver is entirely dedicated for the communication with each neighboring building . We assume that the transceivers on building (2) are available for cooperation to enhance the communication reliability between buildings (1) and (3). Hence each building has two transceivers each denoted by, TRx(1,1) and TRx(1,2) etc. similarly they are denoted according to the buildings. By abuse of notations ,buildings (1), (2) and (3) will be denoted by source (S), relay (R) and destination (D), respectively. For cooperative diversity, neighbor users relay their received signal to a user to which the transmitter intended to transmit. Diversity is obtained by decoding the combination of the relayed signals and the direct signal. Cooperative diversity is available for multi-hop networking systems which include user relay as a basic function. The conventional single hop system uses direct transmission where a receiver decodes the information only from the direct signal. While the single hop system regards the relayed signal as interference. The cooperative diversity considers the other signals as the contribution. Cooperative diversity systems can decode the information from the combination of two ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

(1)

where rd,s and rd,r are the signals received at the destination node from the source and relay nodes,respectively. As a linear decoding technique, the destination combines elements of the received signal vector as follows: Department of Electronics & Communication

Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013 Typical values of S.I. range between 0.4 and 1. In the Rayleigh model, the pdf of the path gain ( > 0) is: where W is the linear combining weight which can be obtained to maximize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the combined signals subject to given the complexity level of the weight calculation.

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(2)

fA() = 22

Consider first the link S-D and denote by(0) = [(0)1 , . . ., (0) ] the -dimensional vector whose -th component (0) corresponds to the number of photo electron counts in the -th slot. Denote the transmitted symbol by {1, . . .,}. The decision variable (0) can be modeled as a Poisson random variable (r.v.) with parameter 20/3+ while (0) (with = ) can be modeled as a Poisson r.v. with parameter .

Fig. 2. The proposed cooperation scheme. The cooperation strategy is depicted in Fig. 2. It is worth noting that the transceivers at (R) are not deployed with the objective of assisting (S). In fact, these transceivers are deployed for (R) to communicate with (S)

(4) where (resp. ) corresponds to the average number of photo electrons per slot due to the light signal (resp. background radiation anddark currents):

and (D); if (R) is willing to share its existing resources and (R) has no information to transmit then it can act as a relay for assisting (S) in its communication with (D). The cooperation strategy is as follows: a sequence of symbols is first transmitted to the relay. At a second time,(R) transmits the decoded symbols to (D) while (S) transmits the same symbol sequence simultaneously to(D). considering the figure above, a0, a1 and a2 denote the path gains between source and destination,source and the relay and the relay and the destination respectively. We adopt two fading models namely Rayleigh and lognormal Fading models.In the lognormal model, the probability densityfunction (pdf) of t he path gain ( > 0) is given by:

(5)

where is the detectors quantum efficiency assumed to be equal to 1 in what follows, = 6.6 1034 is Plancks constant and is the optical center frequency taken to be 1.941014 Hz (corresponding to a wavelength of 1550 nm). stands for the symbol duration, stands for the optical Power that is incident on the receiver and corresponds to the

(3) Where the parameters and satisfy the relation

incident background power. Finally, = / corresponds to the received optical energy per symbol corresponding to the direct link S-D. In the same way, we denote the decision vector corresponding to the S-R link by (1) = [(1)1 , . . . , (1) ] where the parameter of the Poisson r.v. (1) is Department of Electronics & Communication

= 2 so that the mean path intensity is unity:


E[] = E[2] = 1. The degree of fading is measured by the scintillation index defined by: S.I. = 42 1. ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

Engineering

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013 given by the following relation.,where 1 is a gain factor that follows from the fact that (S) might be closer to (R) than it is to (D). In other words, the received optical energy at (R) corresponding to (that corresponds to the S-D link) is 1. where with corresponding to the distance between (R) and (D). Finally, note that the normalization of by3 ensures that the total transmit power is the same as in non-cooperative systems. Using Ritov theory, a lognormal power intensity distribution function has been derived for the spatial distribution of light propagation through a turbulent

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atmosphere. This is the basis of much analytical and empirical research. (6) Performing typical link budget analysis shows that () =((2(+1)/2)/ ()).a >0,
(1)/2

. 1(2(), ,

III. RECEIVER STRUCTURE where and stand for the distances from (S) to (D) and (S) to (R) respectively. The maximum-likelihood (ML) decision rule at (R) is given by: A. Detection in the Absence of Background Radiation In the absence of background radiation, (0) and (2) contain at least 1 empty slots each . In this case, the detection procedure at (D) is as follows. If one component of (0) is different from zero, this will imply that the symbol was transmitted in the corresponding slot since in the absence of background radiation the only source of this nonzero count is the presence of a light signal in this slot. On the otherhand, if all components of (0) are equal to zero, then the decision will be based on (2). If one component of (2) is different from zero, then with probability 1 this component corresponds to and with probability , this component corresponds to an erroneous slot. Since 1 is assumed to be greater than (since << 1), then the best strategy is to decide in favor of the nonempty slot of (2). Finally, if all components of (0) and (2) are equal to zero, then (D) decides randomly in favor of one of the slots.

(7)

The relay transmits the symbol along the link R-D implying that the corresponding decision vector can be written as

Where B.Detection in the Presence of Background Radiation is a Poisson r.v. with: In this case, the background radiation results in nonzero counts even in empty slots necessitating a more complicated detection procedure. The optimal ML detection procedure must take into consideration that might be different from . Note that = with probability 1 while can correspond to a certain slot that is different from with probability /1.

(8)

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6 Engineering

Department of Electronics & Communication

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013

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IV. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Because of the symmetry of the PPM constellation, we evaluate the error performance of the proposed scheme assuming that the symbol = 1 was transmitted. The performance of such a FSO link is analysed under no background radiation and with background radiation. Both Rayleigh and log normal models are considered. A. Without Background Radiation For log normal fading, a closed form solution can be written as, Pe=Q-1/Q[Pe,0Pe,2+Pe,0Pe,1-Pe,0Pe,1Pe,2] V. RESULTS Similarly, for the case of Rayleigh fading model the solution is given by the following equation. Fig. 3 shows the performance of 4-PPM in the absence of background radiation over Rayleigh fading channels. This figure shows the good match between simulations and the exact SEP expression. The slopes of the SEP curves indicate that cooperation results in an increased diversity order of two for various distances of (R) from (S). Even in the case where (S) is as far from (R) as It is from (D) (1 = 1), a gain of about 8 dB at a SEP of 103 can be observed relative to non-cooperative systems. An excellent match between simulations and can be seen in Fig. 4 where a similar simulation setup is adopted in the case of lognormal fading with S.I. = 0.6. Results in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show that cooperation is more beneficial in the case of Rayleigh fading compared to lognormal fading where the performance gain can be realized at smaller error rates. This result is desired since the Rayleigh distribution is used to model the scenario of severe fading while the lognormal model corresponds to the less severe fading scenario. Fig.4 Performance of 4-ppm lognormal fading case(S.I=0.6) with no background radiation

Pe=Q-1/Q[1/(1+s/3)(1+2s/3) +1/(1+s/3) (1+1s/3)1//(1+s/3) (1+1s/3) )(1+2s/3)] B. With Background Radiation In the presence of background radiation, the conditional probability of error is given by:

Pe/A=(1-pe)Pe/A,s=1=pePe/A,s1

Define the vector Z as: Z=[Z1,,ZQ]=Z(0)+Z(2).

VI. CONCLUSION

Fig.3 Performance of 4-ppm rayleigh fading case with no background radiation

The performance of the 2 by 1 MIMO-FSO links that deploy repetition coding and that are capable of achieving a full transmit diversity order is also included as a benchmark. While the assumption of channel independence can be justified in MIMO wire-less RF system, there is a wide agreement that this assumption is not valid in MIMO-FSO system and consequently, the high gains Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

ISBN 978-81-908343-4-6

National Conference on Emerging Trends on Information Communication And Computing (NCETICC 2K13) March 7-8 2013 promised by MIMO techniques might not be realized in practice. This point is investigated that compares cooperative system with 2 by 1 MIMO-RC system in the presence of channel correlation. Results show that, for relatively large values of Es, the cooperative scheme shows approximately the same performance as the MIMO-RC system. Despite the non-broadcast nature of FSO transmissions, this work showed that cooperative diversity can result in significant performance gains over the noncooperative 1x1 FSO links and over the 2x1 MIMO-FSO links that suffer from correlated fading. It was proven analytically that a full transmit diversity order can be achieved in the nobackground radiation case. In the presence of background radiation, numerical integration of the conditional ESP showed that the proposed scheme can maintain acceptable performance gains especially in the case of Rayleigh fading. The value of the scintillation index is to be reduced below 0.6 and to be analysed in both the scenarios. That is in the presence of back ground radiation and in the absence of back ground radiation. It is to be verified using log normal and Rayleigh fading models. Once the fading or scintillation index value is reduced the signal degradation becomes lesser leading to high quality signal transmission. The degree of fading is measured by the scintillation index. It is expressed as,

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[3]. D. Kedar and S. Arnon, Urban optical wireless communications networks: the main challenges and possible

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The typical values of scintillation index range from0.4 and 1. Considering the scintillation value to be 0.4, the model is to be analysed for both log normal and Rayleigh fading models in the presence and absence of back ground radiation at the receiver end.

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