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N A S A

CONTRA CTOR REPORT

LOAN COPY: RETURN TF AFWL (WLIL-2j KlRTLAND AFB, N ME:;;..

SATELLITE APPLICATIONS TO MARINE GEODESY


by A. G. Mour&, N. A. Frazier, J. H. Hold&, F. W. Someroski, m d A. T. Hopper z
Prepared by

BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE Columbus, Ohio


for

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND

SPACE ADMINISTRATION

WASHINGTON, D. C.

JANUARY 1 9 6 9

NASA CR-1253

SATELLITE APPLICATIONS TO MARINE GEODESY

By A. G. Mourad, N. A. F r a z i e r , J. H. Holdahl,
F. W. Someroski, and A. T. Hopper

Distribution of t h i s report is provided in the interest of informationexchange.Responsibilityfor the contents resides in th.e author or organization that prepared it.

Prepared under Contract No. NASr- 100 (11) by BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE Columbus, Ohio for
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE ADMINISTRATION
For sale by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information C F S T I p r i c e $3.00 Springfield, Virginia 22151

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The valuable contributions to t h i s study and the cooperation of m a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a n d i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d Also, s p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e d u e to M i s s D o l o r e s L a n d r e m a n , t e c h n i c a l e d i t o r a t B a t t e l l e , for her useful suggestions.

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TABLE O F CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION

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REPORTORGANIZATION

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SECTION I PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES APPROACH

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DESCRIPTION O F MARINE GEODESY

REASONS FOR CONSIDERING POSSIBLE SATELLITE APPLICATIONS MARINE GEODESY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION I1 SUMMARY O F RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS RESULTS

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Requirements Identified and Needs . . . . . . . . M a j oP o s i t i o n i n S y s t e mA v a i l a b l e r g s . . . . . . . . Application to Marine Geodesy GEOS-I1 Satellite Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning and RECOMMENDATIONS

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SECTION I11 REQUIREMENTS AND NEEDS . PRECISE POSITIONING AND MARINE GEODESY GEOPHYSICSANDGEOLOGY

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Requirements . . . . . . . . i P C o s t s r i s i n g From E r r o r s n o s i t i o n A Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satellite Applications

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HYDROGRAPHIC AND BATHYMETRIC CHARTSAND MAPS

. . . Requirements Accuracy . . . . . Application of S a t e l l i t e s


PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Requirements . . . Application of S a t e l l i t e s

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T A B L E OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page . TRACKING, ACQUISITION, LOCALIZATION S e a r c hR e s c u e and Deep Submersibles Space cking Tra . AND IDENTIFICATION

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A N D EVALUATION

EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION TEST. GEODESY

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P r e c i s i o n - M e a s u r e m Tn t h n o l o g y e ec Marine Geodetic Standards . . Marine Geodetic Control . . . Boundary Determination . . . G r aM ey s u r e m e n t s vit a . . . Deflection of the Vertical Geoid and

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SECTION I V MAJOR POSITIONING SYSTEMS ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEMS INERTIAL SYSTEMS ACOUSTIC SYSTEMS CELESTIAL SYSTEMS SATELLITE SYSTEMS

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SECTION V GEOS-I1 SATELLITE CAPABILITY . APPLICATION TO MARINE GEODESY AND POSITIONING DOPPLERMETHOD SEGOR METHOD RADAR METHOD OPTICAL METHOD LASER METHOD

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BY GEOS-I1

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OPPORTUNITIES PRESENTED

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TABLE O F CONTENTS (Continued) Page APPENDIX A COMMENTARIES ON POSITIONING AND MARINE GEODETIC REQUIREMENTS APPENDIX B DESCRIPTIONS O F S A T E L L I T E METHODS

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B-1

APPENDIX C
REFERENCES.

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C-1

LIST OF TABLES

T a b l e 1. T a b l e B- 1.

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S t a tP d s i t i o n i Ag c u r a c i e s eo nc

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B-3

Range Signals T a b l e B-2. SECOR Modulation T a b l e B-3. R e s u l t s of SECOR Operation Pacific in the C T a b l e B-4. T e c h n i c a l h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Table B-5.

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of Radar Components of R a d a r

B-13
B-20

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B-27
B-28

T r a c k i n a n E r r oC h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g d r

T a b l e B-6. C o m p a r i s o n of R a d a ra n g er r o r s R E T a b l e B-7. P r i n c i p aC a m e r aU s e d l s T a b l e B-8.

. B-29

i the n United States

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C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P r i n c i p a l C a m e r a s U s e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s

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B-47

Equipped Retroreflectors With Table B-9. Satellites

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LIST OF FIGURES

F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 3. F i g u r e B-1.

P r o j Ac tp r o a c h ep M a r i ne o d e s y Ge Conceptual Ranges DopplerCurve Shift

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LIST O F FIGURES
(Continued) Page . F i g u r e R.2 F i g u r e B3 . F i g u r e B4 . F i g u r e B.5 F i g u r e B-6 F i g u r e B-7 F i g u r e 1. 38 Figure

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D o p p l e rr i n c i p l e P

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B-4 B-6 B-7


B- 9

M e a s u r e m e n t of Doppler Shift Range a s a Function of T i m e s

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M e a s u r e m e n t of Doppler Integral SECOR P h a s e M e a s u r e m e n t

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B-12

SECOR ransmit-Receiver attern T P Trispheration

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B-16 B-16
B- 17 B-23
B-23
13 -38

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B9 .

Simultaneous Observations SECOR Orbital Method

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F i g u r e B- 10

F i g u r e B- 11 F i g u r e B- 12 F i g u r e B- 13

CODA SECOR Three-Satellite-Position Solution CODA SECOR Two-Satellite-Position Solution Simultaneous Observation Method Optical Orbital Method

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F i g u r e B- 14

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B-39
B-40

Method F i g u r e B-15 . Short-Arc

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EXECUTIVE S U M M A R Y

T h e r e s u l t s of the Battelle study of the potential for application of s a t e l l i t e s t o precise positioning in the oceans and to marine geodesy indicate that many attractive possibilities are unesploited. Information contained in this summary report was compiled from personal interviews with individuals representing about 45 p r i v a t e a n d Government organizations, from the open literature, and from available reports. hfarine geodesy is that part of geodesy which deals with geodetic methods, sea. Marine geodesy, therefore, has the same scientific objectives, and applications at and practical aims as land geodesy: determination of the s i z e a n d s h a p e of t h e e a r t h a n d i t s g r a v i t y f i e l d , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of geodetic control which i s t h e b a s i c f r a m e w o r k required for accurate and reliable mapping, and development of p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t technology and computation needed to satisfy these aims. kfarine geodesy does have some unique problems; work must be performed in the dynamic and complex environment of the ocean. Most marine geodetic work must, therefore, be conducted using a ship or surface platform. Consequently, accurate ship positioning is a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n o l o g y , w h i c h is i n t u r n a requirement for marine geodesy. The oceans occupy over 70 p e r c e n t of t h e E a r t h ' s surface. Precise ship positioning and marine geodesy will certainly play major roles in effective exploration and exploitation of t h e o c e a n a n d t h e i l r e s o u r c e s . Satellite methods were investigated during this study in the light

of:

( 1 ) Problems and needs related to precise positioning in the oceans and to marine geodesy

( 2 ) S o u r c e s of t h e s e p r o b l e m s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o m a j o r t y p e s positioning systems.

of s u r f a c e - b a s e d

( 3 ) Role of m a r i n e g e o d e s y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o b l e m s a n d n e e d s i n v a r i o u s areas.

The potential for satellite use in marine geodesy and precise positioning is almost without limit. Satellites should make possible development of e i t h e r a r e l a t i v e o r a n a b s o l u t e g e o c e n t r i c c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m b a s e d on accurate underwater geodetic control points

Satellite-based positioning system could .overcome some of the limitations inherent in surface-based systems with respect to range, local shore control, and 24-hour capability. Satellite-based systems would also offer a distinct advantage in that all ocean work could be related to a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e d a t u m , Accuracies reported for satellite position fixes have ranged from 100 to 1 0 0 0 meters, depending upon the corrections applied, with perhaps the range between 200 and 400 m e t e r s b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . A c c u r a c y f r o m 100 t o 150 m e t e r s a p p e a r s possible if ship speed i s known to about one-quarter of a knot. On t h e b a s i s of t h e s e numbers, it seems that satellite-based systems within the present state of t h e art could meet many of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s s t i p u l a t e d b y p o t e n t i a l u s e r s f o r 2 0 0 - m e t e r accuracy in positioning in the open ocean.

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In terms of reoccupying a p o s i t i o n , p r e s e n t satellite c a p a b i l i t y a p p e a r s t o b e outside of, or just approaching, the least stringent of the r e q u i r e m e n t s s t a t e d . Also, existing satellites do not provide continuous positioning capability, the desirability of w h i c h w a s s t r e s s e d b y m o s t of those interviewed. T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m a r i n e c o n t r o l p o i n t s w i l l r e q u i r e m u c h h i g h e r a c c u r a c y is not known how a c c u r a t e l y t h e s e (10-30 meters) than might be possible at present. It control points can be established using satellite-based systems. However, satellites apparently do have the potential for satisfying such accuracy requirements. They also have an obvious advantage in that the control points could be established either p r o g r e s s i v e l y o r s i m u l t a c e o u s l y in d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of the world oceans using the same satellitesystem.Scveralsupercontrolpointscouldbeestablishedatsea to completnent the points being established under the National Geodetic Satellite Program (NGSP), thus helping to meet the geometric and gravimetric geodesy goals of the NGSP and also contributing t o the establishment of g e o d e t i c s t a n d a r d s a t s e a .

Response to Revealed Needs

Effective response to the needs revealed by the study would necessitate that geodetic standards he established at sea; that there be optimum combination of s a t e l l i t e s i n t e r m s of a r e a l c o v e r a g e a n d f r e q u e n c y of position fixes; and that positioning operations be espanded to include the use o i multisystems involving satellite, inertial, acoustic, geodetic-control and surface-based-electronic systems.

of Future accomplishments will depend, to a great extent, upon clearer definition p r o b l e m s t h a t h a v e b e e n r e v e a l e d by experience s o far: u n m e t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a c c u r a c y a n d p r e c i s i o n , l a c k of s t a n d a r d s , a n d s h o r t c o m i n g s of specific types of equipment andsystems.Threemajorareas of i n t e r e s t s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d : e c o n o m i c , r e s e a r c h and development, and geodetic.

Economic Interests E c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u r v e y e d g e n e r a l l y d i c t a t e a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r r e c o v e r y of position within 30 t o 100 meters in continental shelf areas throughout the world. These organizations, although they have at t h e i r d i s p o s a l t h e m o s t sophisticated surface-positioning systems available, are nevertheless unsatisfied. D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e s y s t e m s a r e r a t e d as having capabilities well within the r a n g e of 30 to 100 meters as g e n e r a l l y s p e c i f i e d , t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e i s seldom adequate is causing increasing concern because in ac,tual field operations. This inadequacy drilling and mining technology now p e r m i t s e x t e n d i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o g r e a t e r d e p t h s a n d to greater distances from shore. Some potentially productive continental-shelf areas extend 200 t o 400 miles from land. Economic exploitation o these areas depends on f development of reliable positioning capability beyond the rated capability of t h e b e s t p r e s e n t s u r f a c e s y s t e m s b y a factor of about 2 t o 4. E c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s a l s o d i c t a t e e x a c t l o c a t i n g of geographic positions when lease boundaries, drainage areas, geologic structures, drill sites, and mineral deposits are involved. In some c a s e s e r r o r s s h o u l d b e n o greater than about 100 m e t e r s ; in o t h e r s they should be much less.
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Research and Development Interests E a c h of the multitude of c u r r e n t a n d p l a n n e d r e s e a r c h - a n d - d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s a n d t e s t - a n d - e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t s its own positioning requirements. In general, s u c h o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e c a p a b i l i t y f o r r e c o v e r y of p o s i t i o n w i t h a b o u t t h e s a m e a c c u r a c y asoperationsreflectingeconomicinterests.However,requirementscanrange down to the minimum error feasible. Some programs. also require location of actual positions i n a geocentric, geodetic, o r local system or with respect to shore control stations. Many p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e s u l t s b e i n g a c h i e v e d . They want better positioning capability and will use it i f it b e c o m e s a v a i l a b l e . T h e v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e i n m a j o r p o r t i o n s of oceanographic work i s very significant; r e f e r e n c e s u r f a c e s a r e n e e d e d w i t h a c c u r a c y f r o m 1 m e t e r down to the least n u m b e r of decimeters possible.

Geodetic Interests Basically, there are two possibilities for the geodetic application of s a t e l l i t e s : ( 1 ) to provide geodetic standards at s e a i n t h e f o r m of a marine geodetic range for testing, evaluating, and comparing positioning systems and various types of equipment and methods when the errors in distance or position variables must be known, and ( 2 ) to provide one or more geodetic control points in an area of operation. If control points were to be established, the hardware could be either of the recoverable type or of the permanent type intended to be left i n p l a c e . The expense of increasing positioning capability to an appropriate degree would be difficult, if not impossible, to justify for the construction of a s i n g l e m a p o r c h a r t o r f o r ahy single and relatively small ocean operation, However, collectively considered, present ocean operations involving data gathering and related activities represent expenditures of many millions of d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y , a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a n y m e a s u r e t o reduce all-over expense is readily apparent. For example, many interests would benefit i f the need for repeating surveys were eliminated or i f all positioning data were based on the same reference system. Mapping and charting requirements vary according to the scale involved. Requirem e n t s f o r m a p a c c u r a c y r a n g e f r o m 2 0 to 3 0 0 m e t e r s , w i t h a definite trend toward requirements for the lower numbers. In general, satisfying needs means making observations at a c c u r a c i e s of about one-half of t h e s e n u m b e r s . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y to begin planning for systematic mapping of the ocean floor. Although the use of s a t e l l i t e s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of marine geodetic control a p p a r e n t l y h a s g r e a t p o t e n t i a l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of some work involving photographic methods, there has been no experimental evaluation of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h e r e s u l t s of the l i m i t e d w o r k that has been done on the photographic method indicate an accuracy of 10 to 20 m e t e r s r e l a t i v e t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n D a t u m ( N A D ) i s possible. The Doppler satellite method offers most immediate promise because Doppler satellites are already operating; -they have all-weather capability; they offer relative ease of o p e r a t i o n ; a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n w o r k e d o u t t o s o m e degree; and the amount of positioning experience at s e a is considerable. Theoretically,

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it appears that the use of D o p p l e r s a t e l l i t e f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of geodetic control at sea could also provide nearly the accuracy achieved on land (10 to 30 m e t e r s in a geocentric coordinate system).

Specific Recommendations

The following specific recommendations

a r e b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s of the Battelle

Precise geodetic measurement capability t h e b a s i s of a m a r i n e g e o d e t i c r a n g e

at sea should be established on

The feasibility of using the GEOS-I1 s a t e l l i t e t o e s t a b l i s h a m a r i n e c o n t r o l point should be evaluated experimentally Various systems (e. g., satellite-based, intertial, acoustic) should be used in combination to achieve maximum positioning capability T h e p o s s i b l e a d v a n t a g e s of l a u n c h i n g a d d i t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e s f o r g r e a t e r areal c o v e r a g e a n d g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y of fixes should be explored

All o c e a n m a p s a n d s u r v e y s s h o u l d b e r e f e r e n c e d t o

a single datum

Some standard method should be devised for expressing accuracy ratings, requirements, and achievements.

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SATELLITE APPLICATIONS TO U R I N E GEODESY

INTRODUCTION

The NASA Office of space Science and Applications (OSSA) has within the overall objectives of its National Geodetic Satellite Program three specific goals: ( 1 ) Geometric Geodesy Goal - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of geodetic station locations in worldwide datum accurate to 1 1 0 meters and referenced to the Earth's c e n t e r of mass and mean rotational axis.

( 2 ) Gravimetric Geodesy Goal - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the coefficients of t h e E a r t h ' s gravity potential up to the 15th degree.
( 3 ) Earth-Science and Application Support - application of geodetic satellite knowledge to solid Earth geophysics and geology, meterorology and aeronomy, space dynamics and astronomy, and oceanography.

The great potential for utilization of space science and technology for the benefit of o t h e r s c i e n c e s a n d e n g i n e e r i n g a n d t o p r o m o t e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n realized for some time. However, evaluation of t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of specific facets of the information obtained and actual transfer are tasks of l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s . E f f e c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e s e t a s k s w i l l r e s u l t i n b e t t e r m e n t f o r m a j o r s e g m e n t s of t h e w o r l d population. F o r e x a m p l e , b e n e f i t s a r e now being realized from the application of satellites to navigation at sea and to weather forecasting. Applications of s p a c e c r a f t technology to other endeavors, such as c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , o c e a n o g r a p h y , a n d o i l a n d m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n a r e a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s of evaluation. T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e p o r t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s t e p t a k e n b y NASA toward new and practical use of s a t e l l i t e s . T h i s s t u d y h a s r e v e a l e d how s a t e l l i t e s m i g h t b e u s e d f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of geodetic control at sea. This work, in conjunction with o t h e r NASA work on s a t e l l i t e a l t i m e t r y , c o u l d b e of far-reaching significance to oceanography, to the infant science of m a r i n e g e o d e s y , a n d t o p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s at sea. Most important, studies of t h e t y p e r e p o r t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t a n o t h e r f a c e t of the many investigations directed toward developing capability for realization of the benefits that will ultimately evolve from the ordered understanding and development of the over 70 p e r c e n t of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w h i c h t h e o c e a n s r e p r e s e n t .

REPORT ORGANIZATION

R e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t i n f i v e m a j o r s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n I , i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g , d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m a n d its background and gives over-all project objectives. The approach used during the program is also outlined and the new science of m a r i n e g e o d e s y i s described. The specific reasons for considering the possibility of u t i l i z i n g s a t e l l i t e s t o a d v a n c e t h i s i n f a n t s c i e n c e a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d .

Section I1 contains the major findings of the study and the recommendations based on them. Section I11 c o n c e r n s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d n e e d s of those involved in IV deals with major p r o b l e m s of precise positioning and geodetic control at sea. Section V examines in some detail positioning systems used in marine operations. Section possible applications of s a t e l l i t e s t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d n e e d s d e s c r i b e d i n Section 111. Appendix A c o n t a i n s c o m m e n t a r i e s on t h e m o s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the interviews c o n d u c t e d a s p a r t of this study. Appendix B provides a detailed review of the technology of applicable satellite methods; it is a compilation of background information are l i s t e d i n Appendix C . u s e d i n p r e p a r i n g S e c t i o n V. R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e

. ..

SECTION I

PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND BACKGROUND

Projected growth in world population, will bring about a trend to depend more and m o r e on the sea for both life-sustaining elements and employment. This trend will include a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d t o o r d e r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d u t i l i z a t i o n of m a r i n e r e s o u r c e s . Orderly development will depend on the capability to explore and map the oceans. The u s e f u l n e s s of ocean survey data must be maximized in time and in the number of u s e r needs which data from specific surveys can fulfill. T h e r e is no ingredient of exploration and mapping that is more basic than the ability to display properly positioned thematic data on maps. The degree of o r d e r w h i c h can be achieved in the development of m a r i n e r e s o u r c e s , t h e n , is d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to precise positioning capability and the availability of geodetic control upon which mapping and surveying is ultimately based. T h e p u r p o s e of t h i s study was to explore the potential inherent in satellites for enhancimg positioning capability and for providing a means for establishing marine geodetic c o n t r o l . R e s u l t s of the study indicate that the potential is considerable and it i s recommended that this potential be effectively exploited with as much urgency as is feasible.

OBJECTIVES

The overall objective of.this study was to provide NASA with information for use in planning related to satellite applications. The specific objectives were to ascertain the following:
(1)

Capabilities of m a j o r m a r i n e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s Requirements for precise positioning and geodesy at sea Role of marine geodetic control points in the light of t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s

(2)
(3)
(4)

P o s s i b l e r o l e of satellites in establishing marine geodetic control points and in precise positioning.

APPROACH

T h e a p p r o a c h w a s b a s i c a l l y o n e of identifying requirements and matching them a g a i n s t c a p a b i l i t i e s ( s e e F i g u r e 1). Requirements were identified from two sources of information (left branch of F i g u r e 1 ) : ( 1 ) interviews with individuals of i n d u s t r i a l , governmental, university, and private organizations, the scope of t h e s a m p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide variety of o c e a n - r e l a t e d p u r s u i t s , a n d (2) review of l i t e r a t u r e a n d r e p o r t s . Capabilities of p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s a n d s a t e l l i t e m e t h o d s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s a m e

APPROACH

MISSIONS/OPERATIONS Surveying, Mapping, Charting Geodesy, Control , Gravity Tracking, Acquisition, Localization & Identification Equipment, Calibration & Evaluation

SATELLITE METHODS Doppler Secor Opt icdl Laser Radar

SOURCES

B
G.

SOURCES Literature

tise

Government Agencies Industrial Research Organizations Literature

% .. \c .-

INTEGRATION OF RESULTS R EPORTl NG


A-55816

FIGURE 1.

PROJECTAPPROACH

procedure discussions with persons expert in the subjects and review of literature and reports (right branch of F i g u r e 1). Interviews were held with one o r m o r e p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g a t o t a l O f 45 organizations prominent in marille activities. In addition, discussions were held with numerous A contains excerpts from persons during attendance at technical meetings. Appendix the trip reports covering the most representative of t h e v i s i t s .

DESCRIPTION O F MARINE GEODESY


~

Marine geodesy i s that part of geodesy which deals with geodetic methods, object i v e s ,a n da p p l i c a t i o n sa ts e a .T h es c i e n c e ,t h e r e f o r e ,h a st h es a m es c i e n t i f i ca n d determination of the shape and size of t h e e a r t h a n d its practical aims as land geodesy g r a v i t y f i e l d , a n d p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t a n d c o m p u t a t i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of geodetic control which is the basic framework required for accurate and reliable mapping. Marine geodesy does have some unique problems: work must be performed in the dynamic and complex environment of the ocean.

An a r t i s t s c o n c e p t of marine geodesy in action is shown in Figure 2 . P o r t r a y e d at the left is an aircraft measuring the distance (airborne DME) between two ships positioned over and with respect to bottom points to become marine control points by t r i l a t e r a t i o n m e t h o d s . In t h e c e n t e r , a satellite is shown used in geodetic mode to extend geodetic control to sea. At the right a p h o t o m a p p i n g a i r c r a f t i s p o r t r a y e d t y i n g fixed surface features, such as offshore platforms, into geodetic points on land using photogrammetric methods.
A marine geodetic control point is a point to be located on o r r e f e r e n c e d t o t h e s e a f l o o r i n t e r m s of geographic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and depth) or in an absolutethree-dimensionalcoordinatesystem.Gravitymeasurements,deflection of the vertical components, and geoidal reference determinations are also desirable quantities t o be associated with the control point. In one configuration, a control point could cons i s t of one o r s e v e r a l u n d e r w a t e r a c o u s t i c t r a n s p o n d e r s p l a c e d o n o r slightly above the ocean floor and powered with a long-life power source. To be of u s e , a control point must have capabilities to acquire, identify, and/or return signals transmitted from a ship. This can be accomplished in several ways, as described in literature(68,69):: and in Section 1 1 1.

REASONS FOR CONSIDERING POSSIBLE SATELLITE APPLICATIONS TO MARINE GEODESY

E a r t h s a t e l l i t e s o f f e r g r e a t p r o m i s e f o r o v e r c o m i n g t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of other methods in that they have the range capability and singularity of the reference datum needed for precise geodetic measurement and large-area surveys, for intercontinental datum connection, etc. Distances of t h e o r d e r of thousands of m i l e s c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g satellite geodetic techniques. If t h e a c c u r a c y of s a t e l l i t e m e a s u r e m e n t s o v e r t h e o c e a n s ,
References are in Appendix C.

n o t y e t c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e a c c u r a c y of s a t e l l i t e m e a s u r e m e n t s a c h i e v e d o n l a n d , c a n b e improved, satellites will offer the solution to many problems involved in operating on the oceans. One outstanding potential advantage of s a t e l l i t e s is that of reducing cost. The establishment of t h e m a r i n e c o n t r o l o r d a t u m c o u l d b e m a d e p r o g r e s s i v e l y o r s i m u l taneously i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s u s i n g t h e s a m e t e c h n i q u e ( s a t e l l i t e ) , w i t h e a c h s e p a r a t e chartdatumreferencedtothesamegeocentriccoordinatesystem.Theresulting of today would be compatible with those which economic benefit is obvious: the charts will be made in the future, thus eliminating the traditional and current problem of continual conversion of l a n d m a p s f r o m o n e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m t o a n o t h e r .

SECTION I1

SUMMARY O F RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

On t h e b a s i s of this study i t a p p e a r s t h a t s a t e l l i t e - b a s e d s y s t e m s o f f e r c a p a b i l i t i e s that can play a significant role in meeting the requirements identified for precise positioning, establishment of geodetic control in the deep ocean, and overcoming some of the limitations inherent in other systems. Although no single system can meet all requirements, the potential for use of satellifes, in varying combinations with inertial electronic or acoustic systems, or with geodetic control, appears to be limitless. Table 1 shows the range of a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d i n f o u r s p e c i f i c a r e a s .H o w e v e r .b e c a u s e of t h e v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s , e v a l u a t i o n s , t e r m s , a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c c u r a c i e s , a n d b e c a u s e of the many types of ocean activities represented, these numbers pertain to a necessarily generalized and broad view of r e q u i r e m e n t s . M o r e o v e r , i t p r o v e d n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t e x p r e s s e d s o that they could be presented uniformly. Nevertheless, despite needs in some areas the fact that Table 1 i s g e n e r a l a n d f a r f r o m c o m p l e t e , a valid picture of the situation i s presented. By a n d l a r g e , t h e n u m b e r s r e p r e s e n t a l l o w a b l e e r r o r s i n e i t h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o r r e c o v e r y of positions. Data obtained during the survey were not amenable t o computation of s t a n d a r d a c c u r a c i e s s u c h a s c i r c u l a r , s p h e r i c a l , o r m a p a c c u r a c y b e c a u s e n o standard error components in the coordinates of points were cited. Individually, and collectively, the requirements identified provide strong evidence of the need for improving precise positioning capability at sea. The results and recommendations presented here are arranged in the same way a s t h e d i s c u s s i o n of the related subjects in Sections 111, I V . and V.

RESULTS

Reauirements and Needs Identified

Three major requirements or needs common to all areas identified:


(1)

of i n t e r e s t w e r e

Continuous positioning information with world-wide coverage, preferably with reference to a single system and with much less dependence on local shore control Greater positioning accuracy than obtainable at present

(2)

(3) S t a n d a r d s f o r e v a l u a t i o n of positioning equipment, measurements, and resultant products such as thematic data and maps.

TABLE 1.

STATED POSITIONING ACCURACIES

Area Topic Geodesy Control and Standards Geoid (direct measurements) Gravity measurements Gravity base stations Boundary determination Surveying and Mapping Hydrographic and Bathymetric Seismic Gravimetric Magnetic Geologic Oceanographic Tracking Space Search and Rescue Deep submersible Equipment Test and Calibration Acoustic Electronic Inertial

Range of Accuracy Range Required, m


a

of Accuracy Achieved, m

10-30 ( a s good a s land) 0 . 1-5 (in vertical coordinates)


50-200 15- 50 5- 100

Not known Not known 200-600 Not known 50- 300

10- 100 20-200 20-.200 60-400 30- 200 20- 1,000

60- 600 150- 600 100- 300 300 100-600 300-2,000

10- 150 10- 20 0 . 3 - 10

200-

12-200 20-

0 . 3- 10 1 . 0 - 100 Near perfect

Not known Not known 200-2,000 m / h r

10

Geophysics and Geology Requirements identified with respect to geophysics and geology are:
(1)

The ability to recover positions within the general limits 100 m e t e r s The ability to recover positions within errors that are

of 30 t o

(2)
(3)

known

The ability to employ a single worldwide system providing 24-houra-day continuous positioning capability.

Freedom from dependence on traditional shore-control installations, particularly in foreign areas, is also desired. Accuracy requirements for positions are 30 m e t e r s o r l c s s in situations involving lease boundaries, lease drainage, drill sites, geologic structure, or mineral recovery. Moreover, the urgency of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s is increasing as operations move farther out from shore. Positioning accuracy actually achieved with present equipment and methods is g e n e r a l l y not known b e c a u s e of lack of standards for evaluation, except when seismic tie lines are near. Except for ideal situations and near-shore operations, the accuracy achieved is often several factors less than required. T h e u s e of s a t e l l i t e s , s i n g l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s y s t e m s , f o r s o l u t i o n to positioning problems in geology and geophysics i s being viewed with great anticipation and enthusiasm. Satellites at present can meet range requirements and have 24-hour capability. Satellite accuracy has not yet been evaluated for geophysical e x p l o r a t i o n . b u t e x p r e s s e d e r r o r s of t h e o r d e r of 100 t o 500 m e t e r s h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d from other endeavors. Continuous positioning is not available with existing satellites. M a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s a r e of considerable interest, but their capability and utility must first be demonstrated.

Hydrographic and Bathymetric Charts and Maps Requirements identified for hydrographic and bathymetric surveying relate to the type,scale,andpurpose of m a p s , G e n e r a l l y , t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e f o r i m p r o v e d a c c u r a c y in positioning and development of a means for geodetic control. particularly 2 0 t o 200 m e t e r s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e m a p s in broad ocean areas. Accuracies desired are between 1:2,000 and 1:40,000 and 100 to 200 meters for small- scale maps between Emphasis was placed on s y s t e m a t i c m a p p i n g of t h e o c e a n s 1:250,000 and 1:1,000,000. on a 1:1,000,000 scale and on the development of an operational marine geodetic control? preferably one using a single positioning or surveying system with one reference datum. T h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e s o u r c e of technical problems confronting surveying and m a p p i n g t e a m s w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e a c c u r a c y of positioning because of the lack of means for determining definitely the accuracy of p o s i t i o n s a t s e a . A c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d w a s n o t knownin m o s t c a s e s . S o m e i n t e r v i e w e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t often a r e p e a t a b i l i t y of 300 m e t e r s , w h i c h w a s t h e m a x i m u m a l l o w a b l e e r r o r , w a s not achieved.

11

Satellite applications for ocean mapping are being viewed favorably, particularly for the deep ocean, to provide a reference datum. Satellite use in conjunction with other systems for continuous positioning is desired. The largest sources of e r r o r s i n using satellites were attributed to error in determining the velocity of the ship. This will always limit to some degree the resultant position accuracy until the development of marine geodetic control points provides sufficient information that will allow the velocity of t h e s h i p t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s w i l l m a k e p o s s i b l e t h e a c c u r a c y o b t a i n a b l e w i t h s a t e l l i t e - b a s e d s y s t e m s f o r t h e c h a r t d a t u m w h i c h i s of s u c h g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . With such capability, survey patterns and procedures already employed to provide s o m e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of charts and maps could satisfy most accuracy requirements.

Physical Oceanography To derive more useful results from oceanographic measurements, a horizontal positioning accuracy of 200 m e t e r s i n a n e a r t h - c e n t e r e d c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m a n y w h e r e in the world oceans is required. Numerous special types of studies require much h i g h e r a c c u r a c i e s on r e l a t i v e o r l o c a l d a t u m s . With r e g a r d t o v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g , studies of m e a n s e a l e v e l a n d m a n y o t h e r o c e a n o g r a p h i c p a r a m e t e r s r e q u i r e r e f e r e n c e s u r f a c e a c c u r a c i e s of 0 . 1 t o 1. 0 m a t e r . Satellite-based systems for horizontal positioning are looked upon with favor by those concerned with physical oceanography. Studies in s a t e l l i t e a l t i m e t r y h o l d p r o m i s e for determining reference surfaces and for comparisons of m e a n s e a l e v e l s .

Tracking, Acquisition, Localization, and Identification Tracking, acquisition,. localization, and identification are involved in many ocean activities such a s r e s c u e o p e r a t i o n s . Both deep submersibles and space vehicles are dependent on accurate position information.

Rescue Operations. Requirements for rescue are very stringent and of high priority, particularly where international politics or national prestige and security are A need for position accuracies between 10 and 20 m e t e r s w a s r e v e a l e d . T h i s atstake. needed accuracy might be achievable with surface-based positioning systems under ideal conditions and near shorelines. However, because of the numerous positioning problems which have arisen recently during the search for lost objects and submarines, a such as the Thresher and the nuclear weapon, interviewees expressed the desire for positioning system independent of s h o r e i n s t a l l a t i o n s a n d a v a i l a b l e a t a l l t i m e s o n a worldwide basis. Establishment of a n u n d e r w a t e r g r i d s y s t e m b a s e d o n a bottommarker system which can be located speedily and geodetically would help meet requirem e n t s . It w a s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e u s e of s a t e l l i t e s a n d p e r h a p s i n e r t i a l s y s t e m s with this underwater control system could possibly give the capability needed for s e a r c h and rescue operations.

Deep Submersibles. For deep submersible vehicles a need was expressed for c a p a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t h e p o s i t i o n of a s e n s o r o r ' d a t a g e n e r a t e d t o a surface ship's posiA need exists first to locate an object intermixed tion and with respect to the bottom.

with topographic effects and second to return to that point as required. Simultaneous accurate positioning (0. 1 td 10 m e t e r s ) i n r e a l t i m e f o r s u r f a c e , s u b s u r f a c e , a n d bottom vehicles and compatibility of equipment precision is a l s o n e e d e d . An ultimate goal of the Navy Deep Submersible program i s a positioning capability of 0 . 1 m e t e r .

Space Tracking. Requirements for horizontal positioning of Apollo ships are s t a t e d a s * 3 0 0 m e t e r s 99. 9 5 p e r c e n t of t h e t i m e i n a n E a r t h - c e n t e r e d c o o r d i n a t e s y s tem and 20 arc seconds in ship attitude with respect to the true vertical. The need for e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a few marine geodetic control points in the Apollo ships' tracking a r e a s w i t h a n a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y of a t l e a s t *150 m e t e r s a n d 5 a r c s e c o n d s f r o m t r u e vertical has also been pointed out. These needs can be viewed within the perspective of a few "super control points" t o be used as ship-tracking stations. They could also be used with low-orbit satellites. S a t e l l i t e o r b i t d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o a n a c c u r a c y of *1 m e t e r s e e m s t o be becoming a r e a l i s t i cg o a l .T r a c k i n gc a p a b i l i t i e s ,p a r t i c u l a r l yi nt h es o u t h e r nh e m i s p h e r e ,a r e quite limited because of a lack of land areas for tracking sites. Marine geodetic cont r o l p o i n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a possibility for providing such tracking capability.

EquipmentTest,Calibration,andEvaluation Requirements in this area relating to standards for test, calibration, and evaluaA tion of p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h g e o d e s y . need to calibrate an acoustic positioning system of *1 meter was indicated. The best is u n a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . available surface positioning system near shore M o r e o v e r , t h e l a c k of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n h a s c a u s e d m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data reliability e s t i m a t e s a n d d u p l i c a t i o n of efforts to the extent that hardware has been modified to meet requirements as stated by different investigators. A d e s i r e f o r t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e a systems approach in positioning operations was e x p r e s s e d . If s u c h a n a p p r o a c h i s u s e d , t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of equipment and hardware ) m u s tb ec o m e m p l o y e d( s u r f a c e ,s u b s u r f a c e ,a i r b o r n e ,s a t e l l i t e ,e l e c t r o n i c ,e t c . of patible and designed to operate in an ocean environment. Positioning accuracies components should also be determined and evaluated using a s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h . Satellite use could also speed up information collection in the vast oceans. This rapid collection should be complemented by j u s t a s r a p i d a m e a n s of p r o c e s s i n g , analyzing, digesting, and evaluating the voluminous data obtained.

Geode s v

P r e c i s e M e a s u r e m e n t T e c h n o l o g i e s . A need was identified for development of p r e c i s e - m e a s u r i n g t e c h n o l o g y t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l l a s p e c t s of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c and oceanographic measurements, particularly to provide horizontal and vertical cont r o l on the sea floor for surveying, mapping, and other operations. The desired a c c u r a c y of m e a s u r e m e n t s w a s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d by i n t e r v i e w e e s a s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t on land. Whether or not this is a c h i e v a b l e i n m a r i n e m e a s u r e m e n t s is yet to be determined. This cannot be established while standards at sea are lacking.

13

Marine Geodetic Standard. A need exists f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a geodetic standard at s e a by w h i c h a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a a n d s y s t e m s c a p a b i l i t i e s c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d . A marine geodetic range, for example, could offer a " y a r d s t i c k " f o r test, calibration, and a marine geodetic range evaluation of a l l t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s . T h e r e f o r e , should be established and tied to the continental geodetic system. Major stations of so s i t u a t e d t h a t s h o r t , i n t e r m e d i a t e , a n d l o n g - r a n g e s h o r e - b a s e d the range should be positioning systems can be tested, compared, and rated.

No method of adhieving an undisputed standard is enMarine Geodetic Control. visioned that does not involve fixed geodetic control points at sea. Three or four of t h e s e p o i n t s c o u l d f o r m a useful marine geodetic range, Although the advantage of having marine control points would be n u m e r o u s , a s c a n be deduced from the usefulness of their counterparts on land, the hardware for their determination i s not available and attainable and their accuracies are not known. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o m a k e evaluations and to definitely assess potential benefits. Whatever the hardware used and the design of m a r i n e c o n t r o l p o i n t s c h o s e n , t h e y s h o u l d b e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h s u r f a c e based equipment and applicable for use by s u r f a c e , s u b m e r g e d , a n d a b o v e - s u r f a c e craft.
Although the accuracy at which marine control points can be established and the accuracy that can be achieved in their application are not yet known, potential users would like to have them placed in their areas of operation. Their possible use with satellite-based systems was often projected or stated as the ultimate in fulfilling the most stringent accuracy requirements, particularly for operations in deep water. A few of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n c e p t of marine control points, but t h e y w e r e a w a r e of t h e a d v a n t a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a n d p o i n t s a n d c o u l d i n f e r t h e u s e fulness of such points at sea. Some indicated that they would like to see their capability demonstrated, Several indicated that they presently have no real need for marine geodetic control points; however, they said they would be able and happy to use them if they were available.

Boundary Determination. Disputes and litigation can arise over political A need exists for development of capability to mark boundaries and lease claims. and identify international, national, and local boundaries. A desire was expressed for having hypothetical lease boundary lines on maps correspond to actual bottom conditions. Marine geodetic control points could serve as the corner stones for identificai f such a s y s t e m is t o be completely operational and as good a s the tion. However, control-point system on land, the positioning capability needed for marking the lines between adjacent sea points must be developed. The areas of h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y a r e t h o s e of immediate economic potential, nationally and internationally.

Gravity Measurements. Gravity measurements on a worldwide basis are required by the Department of D e f e n s e . T h e l a r g e s t e r r o r s i n g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s a t s e a , whether measurements were obtained with shipboard or airborne systems, have been 0. 1 knot of E - W component in attributed to navigational uncertainties. Knowledge to the velocity of surveying vehicle is desired. Open-ocean gravity base stations are needed for control, coordination, and improvement in the accuracy of ship-based and airborne gravity survey programs. Marine geodetic control points could serve ideally as gravity base stations. Positioning accuracy requirements for these stations have b e e n s t a t e d a s being between 15 and 50 meters. Satellites could be used in establishing

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these gravity base stations progressively and concurrently with marine gravity of o p e r a survey operations. Use of s a t e l l i t e s c o u l d a l s o m a k e p o s s i b l e g r e a t e r s p e e d tion, greater areal coverage, and probably greater accuracy.

Deflection of Vertical and Geoid. A need was expressed for the development and i m p r o v e m e n t of methods employing astrogeodetic measurements at sea from stabilized p l a t f o r m s a b o a r d s h i p s f o r d i r e c t m e a s u r e m e n t of deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l a n d tilt i n the sea surface. A need to obtain deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l f r o m i n e r t i a l p l a t f o r m s and gravity measurements was also expressed. There are also requirements for geoid determination at sea by direct altitude measurements from satellites to ocean surface. In addition, geoidal determination w*ith s a t e l l i t e g e o d e t i c t e c h n i q u e s a n d o n t h e b a s i s of s u r f a c e g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s is needed. Accuracy requirements of 1 t o 5 m e t e r s a r e w a n t e d by g e o d e s i s t s , In t h i s area satellites hold promise for achieving requirements. Oceanographers, on the other (0. 1 to 1 meter). This must be a goal of the future, hand, require even better accuracy however, when satellite-based equipment becomes more refined.

Major Positioning Systems Available

Over 100 p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s h a v e b e e n o r a r e i n u s e a t s e a . T h e y c a n b e c l a s s e d into five groups:


(1) E l e c t r o n i c (2) I n e r t i a l ( 3 ) Acoustic
( 4 ) Celestial

( 5 ) Satellite.

Analysis of t h e r e s u l t s of the study indicates that no single system can meet all the positioning requirements stated for the many ocean operations and missions of i n t e r e s t . Except for the continuity criterion, the Doppler satellite system apparently comes the c l o s e s t t o s a t i s f y i n g m a n y of t h e s t a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e A p o l l o t r a c k i n g s h i p s c o n tainmanysophisticatedpositioningsystems,includingDoppler,radar,inertial/star trackers, and bathymetric systems. These could be of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e f o r f u t u r e marine geodetic applications.

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Electronic

Positioning

Systems

S e v e r a l t y p e s of s u r f a c e - b a s e d e l e c t r o n l c s y s t e m s a r e u s e d t o p o s i t i o n oceanographic and survey data which are ultimately displayed on maps and charts in t e r m s of geographic coordinates, The positions assigned to these data, whatever the position fixing method and datum involved, are either converted to or arbitrarily assigned as geographic coordinates. Electronic positioning systems are subject to range, environmental, and/or geometrical limitations which act singly or in varying c o m b i n a t i o n s t o d e g r a d e t h e q u a l i t y of positioning data. Generally speaking, the rated capability of h i g h - f r e q u e n c y s y s t e m s i s c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h o r e x c e e d s m o s t of the accuracy requirements identified during the a few m e t e r s t o 50 m e t e r s at survey. Reported positioning capabilities vary between

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d i s t a n c e s 50 to 75 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e . H o w e v e r , e v e n a t s u c h d i s t a n c e s , t h e o c c u r 50 to r e n c e of e r r o r s and uncertainties in positioning is not uncommon, Beyond 7 5 miles from shore, it is questionable whether or not the position fixes of m o s t s y s t e m s a r e of sufficient accuracy. In the broad ocean areas only low-frequency and very-low-frequency systems such as Loran and Omega are available, These systems are used primarily for navigation. Reported positioning capabilities at long ranges vary between 200 and 2 , 000 meters. At p r e s e n t t h e r e i s s e l d o m a n y i n d e p e n d e n t m e a n s a v a i l a b l e f o r a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y determination and operational evaluation of e!ectronic and other systems. Moreover, the lack of r e d u n d a n c y a n d t h e n e e d f o r r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the evaluation of positioning data obtained. In general, positioning accuracies achieved a r e unknown and cannot be determined; only relative comparisons of s y s t e m s a r e sometimes undertaken.

Inertial Svstems Inertial systems are looked upon favorably and can perhaps play an increasing role in future positioning and surveying programs. In particular, they can be useful for ship-velocity determination, continuous positioning between control points, and satellite fixes. Therefore, they have the potential for meeting the often-stated continuous-positioning requirements. Inertial platforms in current use accumulate errors with time due to gyro drift even in the absence of vehicle motion. Therefore, is n e c e s s a r y . T h e periodical updating of p o s i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s of t h e e x t e r n a l s y s a c c u r a c y of i n e r t i a l s y s t e m s is affected by gravity, the accuracy tem used to update position information, and the frequency of resetting. Information obtained must be carefully used and corrections must be made for deflection-of-thevertical effects if they exceed accuracy specifications. Growth rate of e r r o r s i n i n f o r mation obtained with unclassified inertial systems was reported a s between 200 and 2,000 meters per hour.

Acoustic Systems F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y t h e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i n a c o u s t i c s y s t e m s i s f o r local positioning, i. e. , r e l a t i n g s h i p p o s i t i o n o r s u r f a c e i n s t r u m e n t - v e h i c l e p o s i t i o n t o bottom-mounted acoustic transponders. Acoustic systems for geodetic application have not been fully evaluated. They have been used for local navigation and for search and, recovery operations, Their use in surveying and mapping is just beginning. Rep o r t e d r m s e r r o r s i n r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g of a s h i p w i t h r e s p e c t t o u n d e r w a t e r t r a n s p o n d e r s a r e b e t w e e n 3 and 10 m e t e r s , w i t h e x t r e m e s of 50 to 100 m e t e r s .

Celestial Systems A c e l e s t i a l s y s t e m w h i c h h a s found application on board ships and is worthy of mention is a s t a r - t r a c k e r s y s t e m . S u c h a system is used on Apollo ships coupled with SINS. Potential application to marine geodesy has not been evaluated.

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Satellite Systems R e s u l t s of the application of satellite methods a r e given in the following section which relates specifically to the GEOS-I1 satellite, the components of w h i c h r e p r e s e n t five major methods. The GEOS-I1 contains Doppler equipment, the equipment on which the Navy navigation satellite system is based.

GEOS-I1 Satellite Capability - Application to Marine Geodesy and Positioning


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The GEOS-I1 satellite, which was designed for land-geodesy purposes, contains t h ef i v em a j o rt y p e s of satelliteequipment:Doppler,SECOR,radar,optical,and l a s e r . A l l five were investigated for their possible application to precise ship positioning and establishment of geodetic control at s e a , T h e m a i n c r i t e r i a u s e d i n evaluating the capabilities of t h e s e s a t e l l i t e m e t h o d s a r e a c c u r a c y , a r e a l c o v e r a g e , and continuous positioning. Results of the study reveal that only the Doppler method o f f e r s p o t e n t i a l f o r m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of both positioning and control points establishment. For continuous positioning, however, a s y s t e m of 2 4 D o p p l e r s a t e l l i t e s would be needed.

Doppler Met hod For precise positioning, the Doppler satellite is the only operational system with which considerable experience has been obtained at sea. Present geocentric positioni n g a c c u r a c y i s r e p o r t e d t o be between 200 and 400 m e t e r s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t f o r t h e n e a r f u t u r e u s e of the Doppler system in ship positioning will be accuracy limited to 100 t o 150 m e t e r s , a s s u m i n g t h a t s h i p v e l o c i t y i s known to about 1/4 knot. The most s e r i o u s a c c u r a c y l i m i t a t i o n s r e s u l t f r o m e r r o r s i n e x t r a p o l a t i o n of o r b i t a l e l e m e n t s , f r o m u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t e a r t h p a r a m e t e r s , a n d f r o m i n c o r r e c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of ship velocity. The first two types of e r r o r a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g r e d u c e d . T h e s h i p v e l o c i t y e r r o r , t h e l a r g e s t , i s a function of t h e g e o m e t r y of satellite pass and is affected by ocean currents. The measured velocity of a ship going through water is not its true velocity over the earth. This error has been estimated as 400 t o 1 , 0 0 0 m e t e r s a t a of D o p p l e r p o s i t i o n i n g , e r r o r s velocity of 1 k n o t . T h e r e f o r e , t o i m p r o v e t h e a c c u r a c y in ship velocity must be minimized. Existing satellite systems have worldwide coverage capability, but give position information only at fixed intervals. This does not satisfy the requirements of m o s t surveying teams for continuous positioning. Either a s y s t e m of 24 D o p p l e r s a t e l l i t e s o r t h e u s e of existing satellites in conjunction with inertial, acoustic, or electronic positioning systems is r e q u i r e d . F o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of geodetic control at sea, the Doppler method offers great potential for overcoming the limitations due to continuous positioning and uncertainty in ship velocity. In this case, positions at fixed intervals would be s a t i s f a c t o r y . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e u s e of b o t t o m - m o u n t e d ( f i x e d ) u n d e r w a t e r a c o u s t i c t r a n s p o n d e r s , p o s s i b l y t h e m a i n e l e m e n t s of t h e d e s i r e d m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s , c o u l d m a k e feasible determination of t h e t r u e v e l o c i t y of t h e s h i p o v e r t h e e a r t h , F u r t h e r m o r e , s e v e r a l satellite p a s s e s c o u l d b e m a d e o v e r a p e r i o d of time while a ship i s positioned w i t h r e s p e c t t o a bottom control point (local datum); thus allowing calculation of

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statistical averages. With this approach, the accuracy of the Doppler method can be improved by a n o r d e r of magn'itude. Accuracy approaching that achieved on land (10 t o 50 m e t e r s ) of could be obtained to satisfy the more stringent requirements marine geodesy.

SECOR Method The SECOR method, unlike the Doppler, has not been used at sea for precise positioning. However, several approaches for its application at sea have been proposed. These approaches involve adaptations of the basic SECOR ranging technique. Unfortunately, the present cost and great size of a SECOR setup restrict its practical application by most potential users. Also, three satellite positions obtained from two different satellite orbits would b e r e q u i r e d f o r a position fix. This would limit use of SECOR while the ship is in motion. F o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of marine geodetic control, SECOR could present an opportunity. Since the highest precision i s r e q u i r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of control points, the SECOR s e t u p a l r e a d y u s e of s e v e r a l i n d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r i n g m e t h o d s is d e s i r a b l e . T h e exists on land and the GEOS-II satellite also contains a SECOR transponder. An experiment with this method at sea might prove useful i f it could be conducted without excessive cost.

Radar Method For precise ship positioning, only the ranging mode of C-band or S-band radar offers potential. For certain classes of ships, such a s the Apollo ships which have radar on board, radar could be used a s a back-up system for SINS/star trackers be(1 t o 9 m e t e r s ) . A s w i t h c a u s e of t h e i r s m a l l r a n d o m e r r o r i n r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s is in motion. For establishment of m a r i n e SECOR, use would be limited while the ship a few days and several passes geodetic control, the ship would be kept on station for could be obtained.

Optical Method F o r p r e c i s e s h i p p o s i t i o n i n g t h e o p t i c a l m e t h o d , a l t h o u g h h a v i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e of u s i n g e i t h e r t y p e s of a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e s a t e l l i t e s , a p p e a r s t o b e i m p r a c t i c a l b e c a u s e of complexity of equipment, the need for favorable weather conditions, and the long time required to obtain observations and reduce data. W i t h r e s p e c t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t of marine geodetic, control, limited experiments have been performed on ships, and the results obtained indicate definite potential for such application. Accuracies of 10 t o 2 0 m e t e r s i n s h i p s t a t i o n l o c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the North American Datum have been reported. The limitations of t h e m e t h o d a r e not a s s e r i o u s i n t h i s c a s e a s i n t h e c a s e of ship positioning.

Laser Method For precise positioning the same limitations are inherent as in the optical method. In addition, there are other limitations due to the narrowness of t h e l a s e r b e a m .

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Because knowledge of station coordinates would be only approximate, use for precise positioning would be r e s t r i c t e d . T h e u s e of laser method for establishment of geodetic control is just becoming o p e r a t i o n a l o n l a n d ; t h e r e f o r e , n o a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n t o its application at sea.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are made on the basis of information obtained and requirements and needs identified during the study: Precise geodetic measurement capability at sea should be established. On t h e b a s i s of t h i s c a p a b i l i t y , s t a n d a r d s f o r t e s t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , calibrating, and comparing marine positioning and surveying systems should be developed. Efforts should be so planned that a marine geodetic range able to selve a m a j o r i t y of ecoL.anic, defense, and other interests will be provided. A p r o g r a m t o d e t e r m i n e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g GEOS-I1 s a t e l l i t e c a p a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h a marine geodetic control point should be planned and carried out under controlled conditions that will permit meaningful evaluations of m e t h o d s , s y s t e m s , a n d o f f - t h e - s h e l f e q u i p m e n t . An Apollo ship would be ideally suited for this experiment from the standpoints of availability of appropriate on-board equipment and current mission accuracy requirements. Positioning capabilities should be expanded to involve multiple- system use. For exampl.e, satellite-based equipment could be used with geodetic control points at sea, inertial systems with these control points, satellite- based equipment with inertial and acoustic equipment, and satellite- based equipment with surface electronic equipment. The possible advantages of launching additional satellites to provide m o r e o p t i m u m c o m b i n a t i o n s of a r e a l c o v e r a g e a n d g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y of fixes (approaching continuous positioning capability) should be explored. Concentrated efforts should be devoted to referencing all ocean mapping and surveying to one datum. In collaboration with other organizations, NASA should make efforts to bring about some standardization in the expressing of a c c u r a c y r a t i n g s , requirements, and achievements.

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...

..

..

SECTION 111

PRECISE REQUIREMENTS AND NEEDS POSITIONING AND MARINE GEODESY

Describing the positioning requirements associated with the many objectives and m i s s i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o r k i n g a t sea involves discussion of m a n y p e r m u tations and combinations. The requirements described in t h i s s e c t i o n a r e m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d a s n e e d s of individual organizations than as formally established r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e l a c k of f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g w h a t i s n e e d e d i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . Many thousands of people with a g r e a t v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s a r e e n g a g e d i n , c o l l e c t i n g d a t a of at sea. Although annual multimillion-dollar expenditures are involved, the diversity interests makes identifying common interests difficult.(32) With s o m e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y g r e a t i n t e r e s t a p p a r e n t l y h a s not been shown in: ( 1 ) a s s e s s i n g the effect of p o s i t i o n i n g e r r o r s on the integrity of d a t a and ( 2 ) maximizing the utility of the data from both the technical and economic standpoints, taking into consideration the facts of obsolescence and the large number of potential u s e r s of specific types of d a t a . T e s t i m o n y t o t h i s i s t h e d e a r t h of p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l relative to positioning accuracies actually being achieved. Development of a rationale concerning the significance of p o s i t i o n a l e r r o r s f o r t h e integrity of t h e m a t i c d a t a p o r t r a y e d in t e r m s of geographic positions on c h a r t s a n d m a p s seems to have been largely neglected in t h e l i t e r a t u r e . In c o n t r a s t , a n a l y s i s of d i s cussions with numerous people (see Appendix A) su ests that they are concerned and that rationales do exist or have started to evolve.( 8 t 7 . T h e r e s u l t s of t h e s u r v e y r e p r e s e n t a beginning toward formalization of r e q u i r e m e n t s . In addition, the survey revealed a requirement for developing and applying standard evaluation criteria.
is b a s e d M o s t of the information relating to accuracy compiled during the survey on d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s a n d r e p r e s e n t s a wide spectrum of t e r m i n o l o g y . T h e n u m b e r s obtained can not be converted in t e r m s of c i r c u l a r , s p h e r i c a l o r m a p a c c u r a c y s t a n d a r d s a s defined by G r a e n ~ a l t . ( ~ h e)r e f o r e , i t w a s c o n s i d e r e d b e s t t o r e p o r t a c c u r a c y T~ numbers as stated. Sometimes these accuracy numbers pertain to needs, sometimes to equipmentratings,andsometimestoachievements. In t h e f i e l d , h o w e v e r , o p e r a t o r s have not been able to obtain the accuracies they have been led to expect by equipment r a t i n g s .T h e r e f o r e ,t h e i rn e e d sa r eu n s a t i s f i e d .A l t h o u g hr e q u i r e m e n t ss t a t e dc a nn o t b e r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d in t e r m s of a n a b s o l u t e a s s e s s m e n t of n e e d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r horizontal positioning, they offer proof that the technical community desires improved positioning capability. The numbers are valid in that they reveal a real gap between what is needed and what has been achieved. The scope of t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with the Doppler satellite method of navigation and position fixing is concrete evidence of t h e d e s i r e f o r s t a n d a r d s .

D i s c u s s i o n s of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a r i n e g e o d e s y a n d p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n i n g a r e p r e s e n t e d a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of the following topics:


( 1 ) Geophysics and Geology ( 2 ) Hydrographic and Bathymetric Charts and Maps ( 3 ) Physical Oceanography

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( 4 ) Tracking,Acquisition,LocalizationandIdentification ( 5 ) EquiptnentTest,Calibration,andEvaluation ( 6 ) Geodesy

GEOPHYSICS AND GEOLOGY

The geologist, geophysicist, and those interested in soil mechanics deal with bottom and subbottom data versus position. All have the task of r e f e r r i n g t h e s e d a t a t o a ship position. The ship, in t u r n , i s p o s i t i o n e d by one o r m o r e m e t h o d s in some type of horizontal coordinate system.

Requirements

Positioning requirements vary according to the purpose and objectives of t h e s u r veys, both quantitatively and with regard to continuity (continuous positioning, day, night, e t c . ). In m a n y c a s e s , t h e m o s t s t r i n g e n t n e e d s w e r e s t a t e d a s r e c o v e r y of a position after various time intervals, up t o f i v e y e a r s a f t e r i n i t i a l s u r v e y s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o m m u n i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d p e r m i s s i b l e e r r o r s in this need in s e v e r a l "*15 m e t e r s , * 3 0 m e t e r s " , ways - "the best we can get", "reoccupy the same position", "*50 m e t e r s " , " * I 0 0 m e t e r s " , e t c . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e in exploration for oil and gas, for which purpose the stated needs usually fall between the limits of * 3 0 and * l o 0 m e t e r s of e r r o r in r e c o v e r y of position. M e m b e r s of the scientific and academic communities were often less explicit than "*30 t o 6 0 m e t e r s r e industrial representatives, but some needs were described as c o v e r y of position", "rms 15. to 30 m e t e r s in geographic coordinates", "*50 m e t e r s r e c o v e r y when i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s a r e d i s c o v e r e d on ocean floor", "surface position *lo00 meters relative", and "*30 meters geogrLphic". One u s e r s t a t e d t h a t a n a c c u r a c y of 1 mile would be sufficient for gravity work. R e q u i r e m e n t s in geophysical exploration have been treated by Burg.(21 seismic work, for example he states the following: Geodetic location repeatability accuracy CEP 5 0 0 feet, 9 5 p e r c e n t of t h e t i m e Position fixing sequential position fixing a c c u r a c y C E P 5 0 feet, 95 p e r c e n t of t h e t i m e , 20 feet preferred Service area - 200 miles from the coast, 400 miles preferred Utilization

For

24 h r / d a y , a l l w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s .

These requirements are not being met. Burg has also pointed out that the performance of s h i p b o r n e g r a v i t y m e t e r s h a s b e e n i m p r o v e d t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e a c c u r a c y i s c o n t r o l l e d

22

by e r r o r s in d e t e r m i n a t i o n of Eatvbls effect. To meet minimum requirements, ship heading should be known t o b e t t e r t h a n 1 d e g r e e a n d s h i p s p e e d t o 116 knot. O i l a n d m i n e r a l l e a s e s a r e i s s u e d on t h e b a s i s of a c r e a g e b l o c k s d e f i n e d b y g r i d l i n e s c o n s t r u c t e d a n d s u p e r i m p o s e d ona m a p in accordance with map projection procedures. These are hypothetical Lines representing geographical coordinates in that their traces and intersections are not identifiable with physical markers or topographic features. In addition to the needs expressed for recovery of p o s i t i o n , n e e d s w e r e a l s o s t a t e d in t e r m s of l o c a t i n g d r i l l s i t e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l e a s e b o u n d a r i e s . I n t h i s c a s e , a c t u a l g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s a r e d e s i r a b l e in o r d e r t h a t d r i l l s i t e s a r e n o t c l o s e r t h a n legally specified distances (often 300 f e e t ) f r o m a lease boundary. This is significant f r o m s e v e r a l view points including the possibiLities of leasing wrong blocks and drilling a t w r o n g l o c a t i o n s o r in w r o n g b l o c k s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t w h e n p r o d u c i n g f i e l d s a r e located in m o r e than one lease. I t i s d e s i r a b l e when "staking" the location for drilling that the site, when possible, be positioned by relatively accurate optical or m i c r o w a v e m e t h o d s . T h e s e m e t h o d s or land necessitate line-of-sight observations between the site and offshore platform stations previously tied into geodetic control. Depending on the situation, this method can introduce uncertainties if t h e p l a t f o r m s a n d l a n d s t a t i o n s a r e i n g e o d e t i c s y s t e m of coordinates and the drill site is selected on the basis of a g e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e c o m p i l e d from data at many points positioned by electronic coordinates. Each of these points h a s a n unknown g e o d e t i c e r r o r t h a t a r i s e s f r o m u n e v a l u a t e d c o m b i n a t i o n s of r a n g e , geometry, and environment. Accordingly, the actual drill site could be staked at an unfavorable location if t h e g e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s s h i f t e d ( o r d i s t o r t e d in s h a p e ) b e c a u s e of unknown b i a s ( o r v a r y i n g g e o d e t i c e r r o r a t e a c h d a t a p o i n t ) in e l e c t r o n i c coordinates. Seismic lines can be run to check on the above situation. Also seismic tie lines are run during the surveying and exploration stage as a check to eliminate discrepancies in data. In e i t h e r c a s e , t h i s i s a n a d d e d e x p e n s e . Other problems are unique to exploration in f o r e i g n a r e a s . T h e s e i n c l u d e p o s i tioning equipment available, lack of land control, additional expenses of o p e r a t i n g o v e r s e a s , e t c . In a r e a s n o t c o v e r e d by s h o r t - r a n g e s u r f a c e s y s t e m s c o s t s c a n a m o u n t t o $ 3 0 , 000 p e r m o n t h t o i n s t a l l a n d o p e r a t e e q u i p m e n t o v e r a n d a b o v e c o s t s of establishing Land control., a l l w i t h i n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s a r e c o o p e r a t i v e a n d w i l l permit land installations. R e q u i r e m e n t s in g e o p h y s i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n c a n b e s u m m a r i z e d a s t h e d e s i r e f o r a single type of p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m f o r a l l a r e a s w i t h e r r o r s i n r e c o v e r y of position within 30 t o 100 m e t e r s or b e t t e r , b u t f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t w i t h e r r o r s t h a t a r e k n o w n . W i t h i n l i m i t s , e r r o r s t h a t a r e known can be taken into account in a m e t h o d i c a l m a n n e r . T h e system should have 24-hour-a-day continuous positioning capability, have long-range coverage: and not require shore control stations (in the same sense as surfacepositioningsystems).Requirementsforscientificworkaresimilar.Positioningwithin 30 t o 1 0 0 m e t e r s is wanted. Requirements for geographical accuracy were not too numerous but with one or two exceptions were between 15 to 30 m e t e r s .

23

C o s t s A r i s i n g F r o m E r r o r s in Positiorl

C o s t s a r i s i n g f r o m p o s i t i o n i n g e r r o r s a r e n o t known. Examples have been r e ported, however, of test drilling being done in the wrong lease block; the wrong drilling could represent losses up to $2 million. If d i s c r e p a n c i e s in g e o p h y s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s occur and can not be eliminated, it is necessary to perform additional surveys which can cost about 3 t o 1 0 p e r c e n t of t h e o r i g i n a l s u r v e y c o s t s . A s s o c i a t e d c o s t s f a l l b e t w e e n e x t r e m e s of $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 a n d $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s i t u a t i o n . F r o m p a r t i a l r e s u r v e y s , w h e n e r r o r s a r e d i s c o v e r e d t o be not too serious and when they have a s y s t e m a t i c c h a r a c t e r , the cost of r e a d j u s t i n g s u r v e y d a t a f r o m a n a r e a c a n r a n g e u p t o $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . O t h e r e x a m p l e s of c o s t s a r i s i n g f r o m p o s i t i o n i n g e r r o r s i n c l u d e t h e l e a s i n g of wrong blocks with a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s of lease, surveying, and data analysis.

Accuracy

Positioning accuracy being achieved is generally not known and not evaluated. Only r e l a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n of o n e m e t h o d o r s y s t e m t o a n o t h e r i s u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e . A r e a s close to shore have coverage available from electronic systems whose repeatability capabilities are usually stated to be about 2 5 t o 5 0 f e e t o r l e s s o v e r r a n g e s out to about 5 0 to 7 5 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e . Y e t , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s , as s t a t e d a b o v e , u s u a l l y a r e b e t w e e n 1 0 0 and 3 0 0 f e e t , a n d t h u s a r e l e s s s t r i n g e n t by a n o r d e r of magnitude than the rated system capability. Accordingly, if these numbers are reasonably correct, there should be, seemingly no problem with regard to recovering a position. The reasons for these apparent discrepancies possibly stem from a combination of f a c t o r s , e . g . , r a n g e , g e o m e t r y , a n d e n v i r o n m e n t ; r e s o l u t i o n o r r e p e a t a b i l i t y of g e o p h y s i c a l m e t h o d s ; c a r e a n d c h e c k s e x e r c i s e d b y o p e r a t o r s , p l o t t i n g e r r o r s e t c . P e r h a p s one of t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i s t h a t s y s t e m c a p a b i l i t i e s c a n b e r a t e d u n d e r idealized and controlled situations whereas the systems must be used under much less than ideal conditions.
is t h a t t h e p r e s e n t c o n c e r n o v e r The conclusion to be drawn regarding accuracy e r r o r s in positioning is based on e x p e r i e n c e u t i l i z i n g t h e m o s t c a p a b l e s u r f a c e s y s t e m s available under least stringent range conditions, i.e., at distances from shore less than 5 0 to 75 m i l e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a greater concern is that the distance from shore of the areas being subjected to economic exploration and development is constantly increasing. Oil production capability now exists to 600-foot depths. Drilling capability exists in much greater water depths. Technology-wise, then, oil and gas can even now be produced from 600-foot depths. In t e r m s of d i s t a n c e , t h i s i n c l u d e s a r e a s of 2 0 0 to 4 0 0 miles from shore. The magnitude of e r r o r s a t t h e s e d i s t a n c e s c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o i n crease by several factors up to an order of magnitude. Every 100-foot increase in depth capability can increase these distances considerably. Oil companies now hold l e a s e s in 1200-foot w a t e r s .

Satellite Applications

T h e u s e of satellites for solution to positioning problems is being viewed with great anticipation and enthusiasm. Satellites at present can meet range requirements

24

and have 24-hour capability because they are not environment limited. Satellites have a n a d d i t i o n a l a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e in t h a t a l l s u r v e y i n g d a t a c o u l d b e p l a c e d on a common reference system. S a t e l l i t e e r r o r s a r e e x p r e s s i b l e in t e r m s of geocentric position. Opinions differ on t h e c u r r e n t m a x i m u m e r r o r m a g n i t u d e s of a s a t e l l i t e u s e d in the position-fixing mode, b u t g e n e r a l l y t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s b e t w e e n 1 0 0 a n d 5 0 0 m e t e r s . If ship speed can be determined to within about 0. 1 k n o t , t h e a s s o c i a t e d e r r o r u n d e r f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i s r e p o r t e d t o b e r e d u c a b l e t o a b o u t 4 0 to 50 m e t e r s . T h e s e l a t t e r v a l u e s a r e a b o u t t h e s a m e m a g n i t u d e a s o t h e r e r r o r c o m p o n e n t s i n v o i v e d in a s a t e l l i t e f i x ( e . g . , o r b i t a l , earth coordinate system, etc. ).
On t h i s b a s i s s a t e l l i t e s b e g i n t o approach only the upper litnit of the 3 0 - to 100m e t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s in the ability to recover a position. If ship speed is known then the situation is greatly improved. Operationally, the use of only satellites to reoccupy a a position has additional limitations, i. e., the time required to navigate and maneuver ship to reoccupy a given position in a n a r e a of i n t e r e s t v e r s u s t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l of and between a s a t e l l i t e p a s s .

Satellites have the potential to provide near-continuous positioning capabilities anywhere in the world if a sufficient number of s a t e l l i t e s a r e in p r o p e r o r b i t s i m u l t a neously (e.g., a postulated24-satellitesystem). At p r e s e n t , m i n i m u m t i m e p o s s i b l e between fixes is in the neighborhood of 1 hour. A s would be expected, there is no single solution to all positioning problems. Rather, the answers lie in a s e r i e s of solutions, often involving multiple systems to match specific types of r e q u i r e m e n t s , e . g . , s a t e l l i t e s u s e d in conjunction with surfacebased positioning equipment, inertial systems, Dopprer sonar, or acoustic beacons. Marine geodetic control either in t h e f o r m of a g e o d e t i c r a n g e ( s t a n d a r d ) a t s e a o r of a temporary point( s ) in a n a r e a of o p e r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by s a t e l l i t e o r a i r b o r n e distance-measuring methods are viewed as possible partial solutions, e.g., the use of such control for positioning in conjunction with inertial or satellites methods and for a b s o l u t e c o m p a r i s o n of surface-based equipment. In essence, then, numerous combinations of p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e m a i n t o b e e x p l o r e d , e v a l u a t e d , a n d o p t i m i z e d b e f o r e a v a i l a b l e s t a t e of t h e a r t i s e x h a u s t e d . A p p l i c a t i o n s of s a t e l l i t e s c o n s t i t u t e a significant part of t h i s s t a t e of t h e a r t .

HYDROGRAPHIC AND BATHYMETRIC CHARTS AND MAPS


I-

Probably the most important requirements for scientific investigations and effective exploration and exploitation of t h e o c e a n s a n d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s lie in the availability of accurate maps and charts. The most important criteria by which the value of m a p s a n d c h a r t s ab e d g ea r e e ar c u r a c y , e q u a ca n d m yu j dt h i c ad y 20) Accuracy de pends on quality of f i e l d s u r v e y s . A n a u t i c a l c h a r t o r a m a p c a n n o t b e m o r e a c c u r a t e is compiled. In t u r n , t h e s e than the hydrographic or bathymetric data from which it c r i t e r i a d e p e n d on the availability and quality of geodetic control and the positioning s y s tems used.

25

The distinction between hydrography and bathymetry is not constant among the b a s i c t r e a t i s e s on t h e s e s u b j e c t s . I n s o m e c a s e s , t h e t e r m s s e e m t o b e u s e d i n t e r changably. In g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , h y d r o g r a p h y r e f e r s t o c o l l e c t i o n of b a s i c d a t a u s e d to compile charts for the navigator showing point depths, shoal waters, currents, channels,hazardstonavigation,etc.Alsohydrographicsurveysoftenrefertosurveys within the 200-meter or 100-fathom line. Bathymetry usually deals with collecting depth data i n order that the bottom can be contoured. Traditionally, bathymetric surveys have b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e a s of d e e p w a t e r , b u t t h i s n e e d n o t be t h e c a s e , e . g . , C&GS 1967 s e r i e s of b a t h y m e t r i c m a p s off the California Coast. Whatever the distinction between the two, both require the same type of b a s i c d a t a , e . g . , a reference datum, geodetic control, and precise positioning. Most of the U . S. n a u t i c a l c h a r t s a r e b a s e d on the adjusted North American Datum which in t u r n i s b a s e d on t h e C l a r k e ' s e l l i p s o i d . T h i s e l l i p s o i d , h o w e v e r m a y n o t b e a U. S . hydrographic surveys, horizontal best fit for the vast ocean areas. For most geodetic control which provides their datum is based at least, on t h i r d - o r d e r t r i a n g u lation. Vertical control datum for depth and height measurements is determined by t i d a l m e a s u r e m e n t s r e f e r r e d t o M e a n Low Water (MLW), Mean Lower Low w a t e r (MLLW) or Mean High Water (MHW).(45) In conducting hydrographic or bathymetric surveys, two important operations: (1) measurement of deptll (soundings), and ( 2 ) d e termination of h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n i n g a r e c a r r i e d o u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . U s i n g t h e v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n I V , m a r i n e s u r v e y s l e a d t o m a p s a n d c h a r t s on which a r e d i s p l a y e d t h e m a t i c d a t a r e f e r e n c e d t o g e o g r a p h i c c o o r d i n a t e s .

Requirements

Mapping requirements vary according to purpose and scale. Most of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s of n e e d s f o r : ( 1 ) s e v e r a l t y p e s of m a p s of varying scales, ( 2 ) b e t t e r p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m . a c c u r a c y , a n d ( 3 ) development of a m e a n s f o r b e t t e r g e o detic control, particularly in the broad ocean areas. Several statements were made in regard to map-accuracy requirements which varied from specific numbers of *20 m e t e r s to * 3 0 0 m e t e r s t o m o r e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s s u c h a s I t a s h i g h a s c a n obtained apbe proaching that of land requirements". I n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s of s u r v e y s a r e b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a n d t h e r e i s a trend toward larger scale maps and charts and greater detail surveys for use by n u m e r o u s e n t e r p r i s e s p e r f o r m i n g a v a r i e t y of m i s s i o n s . A n e e d w a s e x p r e s s e d by s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r s e v e r a l - p u r p o s e m a p s of l a r g e a n d m e d i u m s c a l e s . T h e s e m a p s r a n g e d f r o m s c a l e s of 1:2, 000 to 1:40, 000 w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c i e s ( s o m e t i m e s s t a t e d a s s t a n d a r d m a p a c c u r a c i e s ) of * 2 0 m e t e r s t o * 2 0 0 m e t e r s f o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n , d e e p submersibles, search and recovery, military and other uses. Smaller scale maps from 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 s c a l e s t o 1 : 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a n d a r d m a p a c c u r a c y of *200 meters for general use were also indicated. It was further stated that to achieve a 200-meter map accuracy, observations must be made to better than 100 meters. Since maps cannot yet be established overnight, as one investigator indicated, plans for actual systematic mapping of t h e o c e a n f l o o r s h o u l d s t a r t a s s o o n a s i t i s p r a c t i c a b l e . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s of an international conference on mapping which indicated that only 15 t o 2 0 p e r c e n t of e x i s t i n g o c e a n m a p s a t t h e 1 : 1 , 000, 000 s c a l e m a y be 'kwable", and that even coastal maps in s o m e f o r e i g n a r e a s s u f f e r t h e s a m e p r o b l e m s .

Hydrography is u s u a l l y a p p l i e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y f r o m t h e l a r g e s t t o t h e s m a l l e s t s c a l e s it may not be possible delineating as much as possible certain information. Therefore, to establish the smaller scale maps before the larger ones. One of t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a p p i n g i s a c c u r a c y in positions. Obviously, a knowledge of the depth is useless for charting purposes without the knowledge of the geographic position at which the depth was measured. Therefore, a need was identified not only for continuous positioning information for depth soundin'gs and in real time but also an instantaneously translatable electronic or other coordinate to geographic coordinates of m a p s . Often it w a s r e i t e r a t e d b y s o m e e x p e r t s t'hat t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e s o u r c e of p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g m o s t m a r i n e o p e r a t i o n s a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y m a p p i n g is the uncertainty in the a c c u r a c y of p o s i t i o n s a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e n o m e a n s a t p r e s e n t t o d e f i n i t e l y know the accuto r a c y of p o s i t i o n s a t s e a . P o s i t i o n a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a p s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g m a p s c a l e s , b u t i t w a s s t a t e d a s a r u l e of thumb, the observational accuracy should be at least about one half the map accuracy requirement. For small-scale mapping, *50 meters was stated as "more than we can dream for now". A c c u r a c y of 1 0 - 2 5 m e t e r s may be desired for important areas, but these are for engineering scales and relative accuracy within the local area is all that is needed. Another operator involved in hydrographic mapping stated that the positioning requirements imposed on h i s o p e r a t i o n a r e a b o u t k l 5 t o 20 m e t e r s in t h e b r o a d o c e a n a r e a s . M i n i m u m a c c e p t a b l e a c c u r a c y i s 300 meters which is often difficult t o get. The need for precise positioning capability is also expressed as the limiting factor in p r e s e n t s y s t e m s f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e r e q u i r e d a c c u r a c y p a r t i c u l a r l y in b r o a d o c e a n a r e a s . T o o v e r c o m e s o m e of these limitations a t r e n d t o u s e s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s a n d impose several survey patterns is developing for precision surveys in the deep ocean. The purpose is to make these surveys at least internally consistent by applying adjustment procedures. The problem, of c o u r s e , s t i l l r e m a i n s a s t o w h e r e t h e s u r v e y i s located on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n o t h e r s u r v e y . B y n o m e a n s i s t h e need f o r a c c u r a t e p o s i t i o n s u n i v e r s a l f o r all missions. However, the opinion was often expressed that positioning requirements should be looked at in t e r m s of a l l u s e r s c o l lectively, with varying interests, rather than in t e r m s of individual and parochial needs. E x t r e m e a c c u r a c y o u t in the middle of the oceans by individuals or a s i n g l e g r o u p m a y seem difficult to justify. It is doubtful perhaps, except for national defense, that any single operation or mission can justify the costs involved with highly accurate measurem e n t s in the open oceans. However, the U . s. a l o n e i s m a k i n g m e a s u r e m e n t s w i t h o v e r 1 0 0 oceanographic ships which are operated by various organizations and agencies for d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s a t a c o s t of $500 to $6000 p e r d a y f o r e a c h s h i p , S o m e , b y t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r w o r k , h a v e m o r e s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a c c u r a t e p o s i t i o n i n g t h a n o t h e r s . T h e s e would r e p r e s e n t a s i z a b l e t o t a l e f f o r t a n d e x p e n d i t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , in t e r m s of t o t a l n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d s h o u l d b e of such quality to satisfy the widest s c o p e of p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e u s e r s i n t e r e s t s . An i n t e r e s t e d u s e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t o u t of every four ships with oceanographic missions only one is involved in hydrography. Most of the oceanographic ships could make excellent survey platforms. Because of t i m e a n d a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s i n v o l v e d in m a r i n e s u r v e y i n g a n d m a p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s , o c e a n o g r a p h i c ships should have multimission capability. R e q u i r e m e n t s for the development of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c p o i n t s t o c o n t r o l o c e a n s u r veying and mapping were expressed by practically all people directly involved in t h e s e operations, Some indicated that they have used underwater acoustic transponders for l o c a l c o n t r o l in detailed surveys which proved to be better than bottom features. However, their problems still relate to where the surveys are located geographically.

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T h e i m p o r t a n c e of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l w a s o f t e n c o m p a r e d t o t h a t of land. F o r e x a m p l e " a t p r e s e n t t h e r e i s n o d i s p u t e a b o u t t h e n e e d f o r c o n t r o l on land, why sea in a n a r e a of operation a r e d e should it be any different at sea? Control points at finitely desired". Others pointed out that the development of p r o c e d u r e s f o r s y s t e m a t i c ocean mapping in which positioning is coupled with marine geodetic points could be s u m m e d up a s " o t h e r w i s e we will have wildcat operations with everyone going in his own direction". A need for identifying datums of v a r i o u s m a p s w a s a l s o e x p r e s s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , for foreign areas. The datum should be the same for near shore and for distant areas at sea. General priority areas requiring accurate mapping are listed as continental shelf, s l o p e , d e e p w a t e r , s t a r t i n g f i r s t w i t h U . S.

Accuracy

of lack of a s t a n d a r d f o r c o m T h e a c c u r a c y achieved was often not given because p a r i s o n o r b e c a u s e the u s e r did not know how to evaluate it. However, general statements indicated dissatisfaction with accuracies being achieved in the open ocean for detail work. One user stated 500 feet (150 meters) as repeatable accuracy was achieved using the best system (used most existing systems) compared with prominent bottom f e a t u r e s . In s p e c i a l c a s e s w h e n r e p e a t a b i l i t y of 300 m e t e r s ( m a x i m u m a l l o w a b l e ) w a s not achieved, the survey ship moved to a new location and started over again. In terms of c o s t t h i s w a s e s t i m a t e d a s a t o s s of about $5000 per day. Generally speaking, most users were satisfied with existing positioning systems up to distances of 5 0 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e e v e n in s o m e d e t a i l e d s u r v e y s w h e r e g e o m e t r y 5 0 t o 75 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e , h o w e v e r i t a p p e a r s of systems were good. Beyond about questionable whether the majority of e l e c t r o n i c s y s t e m s c o u l d m e e t t h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u racy requirements, particularly for large-scale mappings. As distances increased further to sea only the Loran and Omega positioning systems had the range capability but nowhere could they meet the accuracy of * 5 0 t o 1 5 0 m e t e r s r e q u i r e d f o r l a r g e s c a l e maps. Although some standards or rather specifications for hydrographic and bathymetric maps are available, only qualitative evaluation could be made by examining such factors as geographic datum, depth, plane of r e f e r e n c e , p u r p o s e a n d c h a r a c t e r of s u r v e y , c o m U . S. p r o p o s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c u r a c y s t a n d a r d s ( 4 5 ) f o r pilationprocedures,etc.The h y d r o g r a p h i c s u r v e y s a r e s t a t e d in t e r m s o f :
( 1 ) Maximum errors for depth measurements

( 2 ) Scale of s u r v e y s f o r c o a s t s a n d o c e a n s

( 3 ) Spacing for intervals

of sounding lines

( 4 ) F r e q u e n c y of i n t e r v a l of plotted soundings

( 5 ) Sampling of b o t t o m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

( 6 ) Position fixes (maximum spacing, maximum plotting


e r r o r s and location of s h o r e c o n t r o l ) ( 7 ) Reference' of s o u n d i n g s t o v e r t i c a l d a t u m .

Application of S a t e l l i t e s

Satellite applications to mapping operations were viewed favorably by most users particularly in the deep ocean. The use of o n e s y s t e m s u c h a s t h e s a t e l l i t e t o p o s i t i o n the soundillgs and to establish the needed horizontal geodetic control would place all s u r v e y s a n d r e s u l t a n t m a p s on one datum and relate them together to a specified accuracy. Hence, the propagation of e r r o r s c o u l d b e c o n t r o l l e d a n d w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d by a d justment procedures. T h e u s e of d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s in positioning and datum reference of c h a r t s c r e a t e additional problems which if n o t c o r r e c t e d c o u l d r e s u l t i n l a r g e e r r o r s . F o r e x a m p l e positions obtained by t h e D o p p l e r s a t e l l i t e o r a s t r o n o m i c m e t h o d s r e f e r t o a n e a r t h c e n tered reference system. Current maps based on e l e c t r o n i c p o s i t i o n i n g a r e on the North American Datum which is based on the C l a r k e ' s e l l i p s o i d . T h e two r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m s may differ considerably. A n e e d e x i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in f o r e i g n a r e a s , t o i d e n t i f y t h e d a t u m r e f e r e n c e u s e d on v a r i o u s c h a r t s a n d m a p s , Not to be overlooked also is satellite capability to provide vertical control. Satell i t e a l t i m e t r y , if successful could be very significant in deep ocean tide measurements. Contrary to the old belief that tides are negligble in the open ocean, values as high as 5 . 6 f e e t ( q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t ) w e r e d i s c o v e r e d in an exper.iment by C & G S a t d i s t a n c e s of 100 miles from shore.(l0,41) In s u m m a r y , s a t e l l i t e s c a n o f f e r s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s : Range can be extended to any distances Singular horizontal datum can be provided to all surveys Geocentric coordinate (absolute) system can be obtained A c c u r a c y of t h e o r d e r of a magnitude or better than obtained by V L F a n d c e l e s t i a l fixes can be achieved.

PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

T h e o c e a n w a t e r s c o n s t i t u t e a dynamic environment. The validity of t h e i r d e scription rests upon the ability to ascertain, measure, or compute environmental dea s c r i p t o r s ( d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ) a s function of position in a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m a n d of time, P r o b l e m s o l u t i o n s a r e sought either in t e r m s of o b s e r v a t i o n s at given positions with time varying, or at instants of time with positions varying.

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Requirements

Oceanographers characteristically have worked with one, to five miles horizontal positioning capability in the open sea. Although not satisfied with this capability, they have "to get on with the tasks at hand" using whatever means of p o s i t i o n i n g t h a t a r e available. As a r e s u l t , l i m i t s in what they can do with their data has prevented them from maximizing the benefits of oceanography. Oceanography deals with variables whose utility and benefit are sensitive to errors in position. The significance of this sensitivity, and thus positioning requirements, depends upon many factors including status of knowledge, objectives, phenomena being investigated,andmapscales.Today'soceanographicliteratureabounds in r e s e a r c h marking the transition from an era of g r o s s a r e a l o r w o r l d - w i d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the oceans to one of m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d c o m p a r a t i v e l y m i n u t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of a l o c a l o r regional extent. Evolving therefrom are more stringent needs for precise horizontal p o s i t i o n i n g a t s e a . A s a g e n e r a l c a s e , a horizontal positioning capability of a t l e a s t 200 meters is needed for oceanography. As this capability becomes available, the utility and benefit of o c e a n o g r a p h i c d a t a w i l l i n c r e a s e i n a p r o p o r t i o n a l m a n n e r . In u n d e r w a t e r s o u n d p r o p a g a t i o n s t u d i e s , t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g results, for applied and practical purposes. Assessment and evaluation of t h e s e r e s u l t s can be greatly improved if the distance or position variables can be held constant or accurately evaluated. Acoustic positioning is playing a g r e a t e r r o l e in the execution of g . , positioning bottom numerous operations. Needs were expressed in various ways, e. i n s t a l l a t i o n s t o c i r c u l a r s t a n d a r d e r r o r ( C S E ) of *50 feet relative to land points; positioning within an earth coordinate system, or positioning relative to features on the ocean floor. In s o m e c a s e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t is m o r e s t r i n g e n t by a n o r d e r of magnitude. Missions involving deep submersibles as a research or operational platform are becoming more numerous and complex. The success of s o m e of t h e s e m i s s i o n s r e q u i r e s precise positioning in the horizontal and/or vertical with variations being positioning is the with respect to a s u r f a c e s u p p o r t s h i p o r t o t h e b o t t o m . S o m e w h a t a k i n t o t h i s p r o b l e m of d e t e r m i n i n g p o s i t i o n s f o r d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m m e a s u r e m e n t s o r s e n s o r s r e mote to a s u r f a c e s h i p . As a ship is conducting a s u r v e y , a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e r e m o t e s e n s o r o r s e n s e d d a t a t o t h e s h i p s p o s i t i o n d e t e r m i n e s o r l i m i t s t h e u l t i m a t e u s e f u l n e s s of oceanographic data. This problem can become critical at large surveying scales. Among the myriad of other activities in oceanography i-s the use of floating buoys t o s t u d y o c e a n c u r r e n t s a n d of t r a c e r d y e s in .diffusion s t u d i e s . P r o b l e m s in horizontal positioning can limit the effectiveness of these types of investigations. Turning now t o t h e v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e , r e f e r e n c i n g m e a s u r e m e n t s a t s e a t o a level surface has constantly plagued the oceanographer. Oceanographers work on o r f r o m a physical sea surface which departs in a time-dependent manner from an equipotential s u r f a c e ,e . g . ,t h eg e o d e s i s tg e o i d , in fourways:periodic,synoptic,climatological, a n d s e c u l a r d e p a r t ~ r e s . ( 9 ~ ) T h e m e a n s e a l e v e l is a n o t h e r s u r f a c e of g r e a t i n t e r e s t . is n o t s t r i c t l y t r u e b e c a u s e of difAlthough often called an equipotential surface, this ferences in water densities and the effects of long t e r m m e t e o r l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h e Coast and Geodetic Survey readjusted 50, 000 m i l e s of c o n t i n e n t a l f i r s t - o r d e r l e v e l i n g holding fixed a single mean-sea-level station. Results showed that the Pacific Ocean at

.the w e s t c o a s t of the U. S. is higher by a n a v e r a g e of 2 feet t h a n w a t e r a t t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean and the Gulf of M e x i c o c 0 a s t s . ( 4 ~ ) P r e c i s e l e v e l i n g a c r o s s P a n a m a g a v e h e i g h t difference of 18 and 22 cm between the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea sides.(40) Running a l e v e l l i n e a c r o s s a body of w a t e r i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r , h o w e v e r , a n d n o m e t h o d e x i s t s at p r e s e n t f o r c o m p a r i s o n s of m e a n - s e a - l e v e l d a t u m s a c r o s s o c e a n s a n d between islands. T h e g e o d e s i s t w o u l d l i k e t o know the geoid to 1 meter or less but would be reasonably satisfied with 5 m e t e r s on a worldwide basis. The oceanographer on the other hand needs to determine a mean sea surface to within a few decimeters or less. Using the Gulf Stream as one example Knauss, in some geostrophic calculations, showed that reducing slope value by one part in 18 ( IOm6 radian in this case) changed the computed volumetransportbyabout 1 p a r t in 4 . ( 5 4 ) F u r t h e rr e d u c t i o n in theslopebyradian caused a f u r t h e r c h a n g e i n t r a n s p o r t in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n by about 1 p a r t i n 5. M o r e o v e r , t h i s s e c o n d c h a n g e a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a c o u n t e r c u r r e n t w i t h t r a n s p o r t in the opposite direction. A d i r e c t m e t h o d of determining volume transport reported b y Richardson and Schmitz utilizes differences in position to compute a d i s t a n c e . ( 8 4 ) C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s a s is approxthe only source of e r r o r i n t h e m e t h o d , t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r i n v o l u m e t r a n s p o r t imated by the relative error in the distance separating the points of s u b m e r g e n c e a n d e m e r g e n c e of the instrumentation. In a r e a s c o v e r e d by p r e c i s e s h o r t r a n g e p o s i t i o n s y s t e m s t h i s s o u r c e of e r r o r s h o u l d b e q u i t e s m a l l , t h e c h i e f p r o b l e m b e i n g o p e r a t i o n a l in that position fixes of points of e m e r g e n c e a n d s u b s e q u e n t e m e r g e n c e d o w n s t r e a m a r e made with respect to instrumentation on t h e b o a t . E r r o r c o u l d i n c r e a s e t o s e r i o u s p r o is u s e d , e . g . , a t g r e a t e r portions i f other than the most precise positioning equipment distance from shore, unless the downstream run of t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s i n c r e a s e d . T h i s in turn, however, would defeat the purpose of the method if m u c h d e t a i l i s t o b e r e t a i n e d . Von A r x , in s e v e r a l w o r k s , h a s d e v o t e d m u c h a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v a l u e of and need for a level reference surface' at sea and for ability to determine regional sea-surface slopes.(95,96,97) Illustrating the difficulty of t h e p r o b l e m , h e c i t e s s e a - s l o p e m a g n i b e expected synoptic from influences. range radian These from to tudes to ( 1 arc second is equal to about 5 x 1 0 - 6 radian). Using an inerto-optical technique, Von of 5 x radian A r xr e p o r t ss e n s i n gt h ed i r e c t i o n of g r a v i t ya ts e aw i t ha na c c u r a c y o r about 10 a r c s e c o n d s , a n d h o p e s t h a t t h e f u t u r e h o l d s a n i m p r o v e m e n t by two o r d e r s of magnitude to 0 . 1 a r c s e c o n d . If s o , using direction of g r a v i t y a s a v e r t i c a l r e f e r e n c e , h e f o r e s e e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y in the future of m e a s u r i n g , by his technique of observing the 1 arc second. horizon, sea surface slopes whose magnitudes are larger than

ADDlication of Satellites

T h e u s e of s a t e l l i t e s a s a p l a t f o r m f o r o p t i c a l a n d m i c r o w a v e a l t i m e t r y o v e r t h e oceans is under investigation for application to determination of s u r f a c e s l o p e s , r e f e r ence surfaces, and geoidal studies at sea.(6,34,62) The ultimate success of t h e s e methods will be determined by knowledge of the geocentric distance of a s a t e l l i t e a n d by the accuracy achievable in measuring the height of a s a t e l l i t e a b o v e t h e s e a s u r f a c e v e r s u s t h e m a g n i t u d e of q u a n t i t i e s s o u g h t , t h e i r r a t e s of change, and the scale of interest. A t p r e s e n t , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of m e a s u r i n g s a t e l l i t e h e i g h t s a b o v e t h e sea with a n rms e r r o r of *1 meter a r e viewed with optimism.

31

Over the oceans the amplitude and wavelength of geoidal undulations derived from s a t e l l i t e m e t h o d s r e p r e s e n t s m o o t h e d f e a t u r e s of the geoid. Thus, if b y s a t e l l i t e altime t r y , a s u r f a c e of m e a n s e a l e v e l c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d t h e r e s u l t a n t w i l l b e a n i r n p r o v e ment over present knowledge of the geoid provided that the sum of differences between the geoid and mean sea level and of the e r r o r s i n s a t e l l i t e h e i g h t s i s l e s s t h a n t h e e r r o r s i n knowledge of the geoid. Approaches in s a t e l l i t e a l t i m e t r y i n c l u d e a s s i g n m e n t of a s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d value to each of n u m e r o u s a r e a s ( e . g . 1 x 1 degr,ee, 2 x 2 d e g r e e , e t c . , s q u a r e s ) on the b a s i s of a n u m b e r of h e i g h t m e a s u r e m e n t s in e a c h a r e a . A g r o s s f e e l i n g f o r t h e s e n sitivity of s l o p e v a l u e s t o e r r o r s i n p o s i t i o n a l o n g a satellite height profile can be obtained by considering the differences in height of two positions on t h e s e a s u r f a c e c o n verted to a plane. These differences can be approximated by the a r c length of a c i r cular segment whose radius is the distance d - between the two positions:' assuming errors in h e i g h t t o b e e q u a l , T h e m a x i m u m r e l a t i v e e r r o r in the slope is then approximately the first term, Ad/d, of a p o w e r s e r i e s in t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r of the distance. In this sense, slope error is sensitive to slope and distance magnitudes and error in position. The significance of t h e s l o p e e r r o r d e p e n d s on the phenomena and scale of investigation. Among the numerous studies on the applications of s a t e l l i t e s i s t h a t of the Interrogation, Recording and Location System (IRLS). In t h i s s y s t e m a satellite would be used to interrogate and transmit to a central station data from numerous sensors including ships and buoys. IRLS has a positioning capability of approximately 2 kilometers.(9) Should the capability of a version of t h i s s y s t e m b e i n c r e a s e d b y a factor of 10 o r m o r e t h e n s y s t e m a t i c o c e a n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y m i c r o l e v e l s would be a distinct possibility through remote sensing. Application of satellites to horizontal positioning and of m a r i n e g e o d e s y a r e t r e a t e d i n o t h e r p a r t s of t h e r e p o r t , m u c h of which is applicable to oceanography.

TRACKING,ACQUISITION,LOCALIZATION

AND IDENTIFICATION

Various activities at sea involve tracking, acquisition, localization and identification require precise positioning. These activities are described under the following topics : ( 1 ) Search and Rescue ( 2 ) Deep Subtnersible

( 3 ) S p a c eT r a c k i n g .

Search and Rescue

T h e s e a r c h e s f o r t h e T h r e s h e r off the U . S. Atlantic coast, for the nuclear weapon off the coast of Spain, for the explosive ship, Stevenson, off the coast of A l a s k a , a n d f o r
*Positions are actually an area illuminated by a wave front. Other factors stare, .crabilkation of the satellite, pointing m o r , ctc. are also involvcd in satellite altimetry such as sea

32

t h e n u c l e a r s u b m a r i n e S c o r p i o n s o m e w h e r e in the Atlantic have proven the need for m o r e a c c u r a t e p o s i t i o n i n g c a p a b i l i t y a n d f o r s o m e f o r m of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l in rescue operations. The Thresher search and location operations took one year. The recovery of the nuclear weapon off the coast of Spain took about 3 months; significantly, it required about 3 w e e k s a f t e r t h e l o s s of the nuclear weapon before deep-ocean equipment and adequate surface-navigation techniques could be established. Even after the establishment of s u r f a c e - n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m s , l a r g e e r r o r s w e r e r e p o r t e d w h e n a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e t o get back to the same position. Positioning problems in search and recovery are many, as reported in the literature and as stated by people involved in t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s . T h e n e e d a n d d e s i r e f o r p o s i is tioning accuracy of t h e o r d e r of k 3 0 f e e t ( 1 0 m e t e r s ) w a s e x p r e s s e d . T h i s a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e d f o r a s e a r c h p a t t e r n t h a t w i l l a s s u r e e f f e c t i v e c o v e r a g e of a l l d e t a i l s of an area, make it possible to avoid the cost of o v e r l a p p i n g s e a r c h , a n d e l i m i n a t e t h e r i s k of m i s s i n g an a r e a . S e a r c h e r s a r e often told to find an object of i n t e r e s t a t a n y c o s t , particularly where international politics or national prestige or security are at stake. Needed accuracy should be achievable with surface-based electronic systems provided careful operations and necessary corrections are applied under idealized conditions such as, near coastal areas, short period of o b s e r v a t i o n s , p r o p e r t r a n s m i t t e r g e o m e t r y , e t c . A n a c c u r a c y in s u r f a c e p o s i t i o n s of *lZ feet ( 4 m e t e r s ) h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d a s achieved during the search for the Thresher. S t a t e m e n t s s u c h a s "We w e r e lucky in locating the bomb", were made regarding the discovery of the nuclear weapon off t h e c o a s t of S p a i n . P e r h a p s s u c h r e f e r e n c e s a t r a i l o n the ocean floor about were made t o the fact that the bomb parachute left 1000 m e t e r s long. This simplified the localization, once the trail was observable, by the deep-submersible vehicle. A surface-based navigation system had to be installed and become operational before effective search could begin.(90) Therefore for such operations it is desirable to have a positioning system independent of s h o r e i n s t a l l a t i o n s available at all times. Also a precise bottom charting and positioning system is needed. ( 9 0 ) The most attractive solution for search and recmvery problems in a general area i s t o e s t a b l i s h a g r i d s y s t e m b a s e d ona b o t t o m - m a r k e r s y s t e m . ( 9 0 ) M a . r k e r s c a n b e located speedily geodetically (in geographic coordinates to avoid duplicating the search area), or at least, with respect to each other. The best approach suggested is use of a s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of the control points and use of a combination of s a t e l l i t e a n d a c o u s t i c s e a r c h p a t t e r n s . W h a t e v e r t h e s y s t e m u s e d , a need exists for control points and for a s a t e l l i t e c a p a b i l i t y f o r t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t .

Deep Submersibles

T h e r o l e of d e e p s u b m e r s i b l e s in s e a r c h and recoi7ery operations continues to take on m o r e a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n c e . O b t a i n i n g t h e f u l l b e n e f i t s f r o m u s e of these vehicles in exploration and in s e a r c h a n d r e s c u e m i s s i o n s i s d i r e c t l y d e p e n d e n t upon a c c u r a t e c o n t r o l and positioning in all three dimensions of t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t . When a s h i p i s conducting a s u r v e y o r i s t o w i n g a s u b m e r g e d o r s u r f a c e s e n s o r p l a t f o r m , t h e a b i l i t y t o relate the position of the sensor and the data generated to the ship's position bears

33

d i r e c t l y on the integrity of t h e r e s u l t a n t t h e m a t i c m a p s a n d c h a r t s . S t a t e m e n t s m a d e during interviews indicateasome inadequacies of p r e s e n t s y s t e m s a n d p o i n t o u t t h e n e e d for new developments in t h i s a r e a . A n e e d e x i s t s t o f i r s t l o c a t e an object intermixed with topographic effects and second to return to that point as required. Simultaneous accurate positioning in r e a l time for surface, subsurface, and bottom vehicles and equipment in a l s o n e e d e d . A l s o needed is compatibility of the equipment and systems involved s o t h e r e w i l l b e n o i n t e r f e r e n c e o r h i n d r a n c e of o p e r a t i o n s . T h e a r e a s n e e d i n g m o s t a t t e n t i o n a r e f o r e i g n coastal areas and the deep ocean. The ultimate goal, as stated, is to develop a capability for positioning underwater vehicles to within 1 foot ( 0 . 3 m e t e r ) . ( 9 0 ) T o m e e t t h i s t y p e of requirement, the Navy has under development a local navigation system complex consisting of m u l t i s e n s o r s such as Doppler/sonar, an altitude/depth sonar, a miniature precision inertial platform, digitial computer and underwater acoustic transponders.(26) Although preliminary tests show the system is still far from achieving such accuracy goals, nevertheless, this Navy approach is ; s t e p in the right direction and some potential has been shown. I Surface-positioning capabilities must also be perfected to provide an effective worldwide system.

Space Tracking

Several space operations which will take place in o c e a n i c a r e a s w i l l r e q u i r e h i g h a c c u r a c y in p o s i t i o n i n g ; t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t c a n b e m e t o n l y b y a p p l i c a t i o n of m a r i n e g e o d e t i cm e t h o d s .T h e s eo p e r a t i o n si n c l u d e :


( 1 ) Apollo ship tracking

( 2 ) R e c o v e r y of l o s t o b j e c t s a n d r e t r i e v a l

of s p a c e s h i p s a t s e a

( 3 ) Location of n e w s a t e l l i t e - t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s .

The location and positioning of the Apollo ships during the injection, insertion and r e e n t r y p h a s e s of t h e s p a c e c r a f t in the earth-centered coordinate system will be quite important. Continuous spacecraft position and velocity information will be required with reference to both the earth and the moon. The role of shipboard tracking stations in the world wide tracking network will be vital for the success of the moon-landing mission and the safety of t h e a s t r o n a u t s . F i v e A p o l l o s h i p s l o c a t e d a t v a r i o u s a r e a s i n t h e b r o a d oceans, within a few degrees from the equator and beyond the range of good surfacebased positioning system, will have to meet the most stringent accuracy tests. The a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e A p o l l o m i s s i o n a r e s t a t e d a s * 3 0 0 m e t e r s in h o r i z o n t a l position with respect to an earth-centered coordinate system and 20 arc seconds in ship a t t i t u d e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t r u e v e r t i c a l f o r a b o u t 9 9 . 9 5 p e r c e n t of t h e t i m e o r ( 3 c) ( 2 3 ) r. T h e a c c u r a c y of m e a s u r e m e n t m u s t b e m a i n t a i n e d f o r t i m e p e r i o d s a p p r o a c h i n g 2 weeks on station. T h e n e e d f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a few marine geodetic control points with an absolute a c c u r a c y of a t l e a s t * 1 5 0 m e t e r s , ( i n d e p t h s r a n g i n g f r o m 1 0 0 0 t o 6000 meters) and 5 a r c seconds from the true vertical has also been stated for marine geodesy.(23) The potential of marine geodesy and adequacy of t h e s t a t e of t h e a r t of off-the-shelf hardware s h o u l d b e e x p l o r e d in a n e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o g r a m .

34

T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e t r i e v a l of s p a c e c r a f t a t s e a a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of s e a r c h and recovery and will not be discussed further. New t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s a t s e a w i l l b e e s s e n t i a l for c o m p l e t e s a t e l l i t e o r b i t a l p r e dictions. Orbit determination to an accuracy of *l m e t e r or b e t t e r is becoming a realistic goal. Tracking capabilities, particularly in the southern hemisphere, are quite limited due to lack of l a n d a r e a s f o r p l a c e m e n t of sufficient tracking stations. Marine geodetic control points might provide the base from which suc,h tracking capability could be provided through ships or p l a t f o r m s , T h e s e c o n t r o l p o i n t s c o u l d , i n t u r n , b e p o s i tioned and included a s a n i n t e g r a t e d p a r t of the worldwide super-control-point system on land

EQUIPMENT TEST, CALIBRATION AND "_


"
~~ ~~

EVALUATION

T h e t r e n d in e q u i p m e n t a n d h a r d w a r e is toward development of t h e s y s t e m a p p r o a c h to positioning operations. A beginning in u s e of t h e s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h , a t l e a s t f o r a local-area positioning involving the Deep Submersible Program, is being made. The advantage of a system approach to positioning is that it can point out areas of lags in the design of various components or s u b s y s t e m s . One application of t h e s y s t e m a p p r o a c h i s in t h e a r e a of surveying and mapping operations. The final results from such operations a r e u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d on c h a r t s o r m a p s f o r d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n on the charts must be compatible not only within the charts themselves but also with other charts. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of equipment and hardware employed in positioning thesesurveys(forexample,satellites,surface-basedelectronics,shipboardelectronic and acoustic subsystems, sonars, underwater systems) must also be compatible with in an integrated fashion. The system approach each other s o that results can be obtained helps to identify wide gaps in equipment and subsystem precision or a c c u r a c y . When m u l t i p l e i t e m s of e q u i p m e n t a r e u s e d in a s i n g l e m i s s i o n , w h i c h i s o f t e n t h e c a s e , t h e f i n a l a c c u r a c y of the product cannot be better than the accuracy of t h e l e a s t a c c u r a t e component. Therefore, it is of little value to attempt to improve accuracy of a l l o t h e r components if o n e i n a c c u r a t e c o m p o n e n t i s s o l a r g e t h a t i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n is dominating in t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s . A l s o t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e s y s t e m a p p r o a c h is the effect of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t in positioning with surface-based electronic equipment. For most ocean areas, the largest factors affecting the accuracy of e l e c t r o n i c s y s t e m s , in addition to range limitations, are environmental effects. T h e e x i s t e n c e a n d u s e of many types ,of equipment for positioning requires a m e a n s for their calibration and evaluation against a standard. The desire fo, a marine geod e t i c r a n g e a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l e q u i p m e n t a n d s y s t e m s c o u l d b e t e s t e d a n d e v a l u a t e d in an o p e r a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h o u t a n y r e s t r i c t i o n w a s e x p r e s s e d by many potential users. T h e c o n c e r n w a s of c o u r s e , r e l a t e d t o t h e u l t i m a t e u s e a n d p u r p o s e of the equipment. Many of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d e x p r e s s e d t h e i r w i s h f o r a s "good a s you can get". In one instance, a user was interested in calibrating his acoustic system against a highly accurate microwave surface positioning system at a d i s t a n c e of 5 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e . Although a *1 foot p r e c i s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t f o r h i s a c o u s t i c s y s t e m w a s d e s i r e d , h e w a s

35

unable to calibrate it to that precision. Others expressed the need for a s t a n d a r d so that they would better know the capabilities and limitations of their equipment. The lack of standardization has caused misinterpretation of d a t a r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s a s w e l l a s duplication of e f f o r t s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h a r d w a r e h a s b e e n m o d i f i e d t o m e e t r e q u i r e m e n t s a s s t a t e d by a different investigator. The use of satellites to collect and transmit data from the oceans and to report inf o r m a t i o n f r o n l l a n d r e s o u r c e s in a s h o r t t i m e i s d e s i r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s p e e d o f a c q u i sition possible. Acquisition data rates, however, impose several problems of t h e i r own; n a m e l y , ( 1 ) r a p i d m e a n s of p r o c e s s i n g in r e a l t i m e a n d on ship, using computers, and ( 2 ) quick means of analysis and evaluation of obtained data. The speed of information collection for the vast oceans should be complemented by just as rapid a m e a n s of p r o .cessing and digesting it.

GEODESY

The following discussion deals both with the requirements of marine geodesy and with geodetic approaches to meeting requirements of other topical endeavors. Consequently, requirements are discussed within the context of

( 1 ) G e o m e t r i c m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e through a c o m m o n r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m , T h e s e i n v o l v e p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n o l o g y , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c of standards (e. g . , marine geodetic ranges), establishment marine geodetic control, and boundary determinations.
( 2 ) P h y s i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the gravity field of t h e e a r t h , i t s d e . v i a t i o n f r o m n o r m a l f i e l d , a n d i t s e f f e c t on and support of g e o m e t r i c m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e s e i n v o l v e d e t e r minations of the geoid and deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s .

Precision-Measurement Technology

Geodesy by nature deals with methods and systems for making precise measurements. Precise-measurement technology must be incorporated into all aspects of T o state the accuracy requirement of s y s t e m s marine geodesy in proper perspective. is not sufficient; the capability and limitations of t h e s e s y s t e m s m u s t a l s o b e known. For example, crude measurements can be made with a p r e c i s e " r u l e r " , s u c h a s a light so interference comparator used for geodetic base-line measurements; however, to do might not be economically advisable. Conversely, accurate geodetic measurements are not possible with crude llrulers''. The ideal is to select and integrate the proper equipment and components for the specific task. But, what is the proper equipment? How precise is current measurement technology at sea? Can the precision of v a r i o u s s y s t e m s b e d e t e r m i n e d a n d c o m p a r e d in s o m e a b s o l u t e m a n n e r s o t h a t a c c u r a c y would be determined?

E s t a b l i s h e d g e o d e t i c c r i t e r i a on land based on m a n y y e a r s of use, offer only a starting point for marine geodetic measurement. What is r e a l i s t i c a t sea in t e r m s of capabilities, realistic requirements, and economics? By accuracy criteria do we mean one p a r t in 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , one p a r t in 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , o r one p a r t in 25, O O O ? I n t e r m s of a c c u r a c y ordersatsea,arecriteriaof,first,second,orthirdorder,etc,realistic?Many of those who a r e involved in s e a o p e r a t i o n s w a n t a n o r d e r of a c c u r a c y a t s e a e q u i v a l e n t t o o r a p p r o a c h i n g t h a t on land. Should the orders of g e o d e t i c a c c u r a c y on land be applied at sea on an equivalent basis, or is first order at sea equivalent, capability wise, to third or lower order on l a n d ? A c c u r a c y o r d e r s of p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n o l o g y a t s e a n e e d t o b e d e v e l o p e d and defined for purposes of m a r i n e g e o d e s y , b u t t h e s e o r d e r s c a n o n l y b e d e f i n e d a f t e r T o provide a basis for definition, marine geodetic measurements have been made. some standard must be available. Land geodesy has had many types of s y s t e m s a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t s , i . e . ,s u r f a c e - b a s e d ,a i r b o r n e ,a n ds a t e l l i t e ss y s t e m s . With s a t e l l i t es y s t e m s ,a n a c c u r a c y of t h e o r d e r of a f e w m e t e r s h a s b e e n p o s s i b l e on land in determination of coordinate of points separated by thousands of kilometers. High-accuracy land measurements have been made on the basis of established high-order geodetic standards. But what about the application of s a t e l l i t e s a n d o t h e r m e a s u r i n g s y s t e m s a t s e a ? How c a n the status of m e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n o l o g y b e e v a l u a t e d a n d m a t c h e d a g a i n s t m a r i n e r e q u i r e is to eliminate present voids and establish a geodetic ments? The obvious approach s t a n d a r d a t s e a a s a beginning, i . e . , a marine geodetic range.

Marine Geodetic Standards

3 ) . All S e v e r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c r a n g e s a r e p o s s i b l e ( s e e F i g u r e involve a n e t w o r k of lines formed by connecting a s e r i e s of permanent bottom reference points or surface platforms (stations). A n u m b e r of t e m p o r a r y r e f e r e n c e s t a t i o n s would so also be required to achieve a specified accuracy. The reference stations could be d i s t r i b u t e d t h a t p e r m a n e n t s t a t i o n s would be located a t d i s t a n c e s f r o m s h o r e c o r r e sponding to short, medium, and long r a n g e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t considerations with respect to the range are: location; orientation, direction and configuration; geometry; accuracy; hardware; cost and potential user benefits.

M a n y i n t e r v i e w s a f f o r d e d s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l a c k of a g e o d e t i c s t a n d a r d a t s e a a n d / o r t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o r p o t e n t i a l a d v a n t a g e s of e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a m a r i n e g e o d e t i c range. Such a r a n g e w i l l n o t s o l v e a l l of t h e p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o p r e c i s e - m e a s u r e m e n t technology, but it will certainly be a s i g n i f i c a n t a n d f i r s t s t e p in the right direction. On a short-term basis, the greatest single benefit to be derived from a range is likely to be the upgrading of positioning and surveying systems by providing a m e a n s f o r t h e i r c a l i bration, test and evaluation. However, over a long t e r m t h e u s e f u l n e s s of the range to the sciences and technologies involved in precise measurements at sea could easily be the greatest single benefit provided. Obviously, in t h e l a t t e r c a s e i t wouldbe m o s t d i f ficult, if not impossible, to predict the quantitative benefits. Even s o , this difficulty can not reduce the necessity for advancing the national capability for making precise marine measurements. Because of t h e s e r i o u s p u s h t o w a r d g r e a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t of the sea w h i c h h a s a l r e a d y s t a r t e d , t h e s u b j e c t of p r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t s c a n n o t b e a v o i d e d . Needs will create pressures. Planning in advance of p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e w i l l p e r m i t a n efficient approach.

37

Coast line

a Coast- Parallel Range Shelf only

b One- Direction Range ( shallow and deep water)

Legend

0 Permanent

stations Auxiliary (temporary) stations

c Multidirection Range (shelf and deep water)

A-55817

FIGURE 3.

CONCEPTUAL RANGES

38

Marine Geodetic Control

T h e a d v a n t a g e s of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s a r e easily recognized, but the accuracy with which these points can be established is not yet known. 'The applicability of v a r i o u s t y p e s of h a r d w a r e f o r m a r i n e g e o d e t i c p u r p o s e s h a s n o t b e e n f u l l y e x p l o r e d . Also, procedures available have not yet been used extensively at sea, and it is not now possible to evaluate them or to assess achievable accuracy and benefits. T h e m a j o r i t y of the people interviewed during the survey were familiar with the meaning of marine geodetic control points. Many felt that the use of s a t e l l i t e s f o r p o s i tioning along with inertial systems and control points will be the future trend for most accurate marine operations: "Satellites and marine geodetic points are here to stay". Such a combination should fulfill most of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d e t a i l e d m e a s u r e m e n t a n d microstructure analysis. Some reported their need is for means for calibration of s y s t e m s and equipment. Control of a l l o c e a n m a p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s s e e m e d to be of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e in the estimation of m a n y . A few of the interviewees were unfamilar with marine control points but knowledgeable concerning land geodetic control from which they drew inferences on the usefulness of marine geodetic points. Some indicated that they would like to see the capability of marine control points demonstrated. Others indicated no real present need for marine geodetic control points, but would be happy to use them i f available. I t a l s o s e e m s a p p a r e n t t h a t a n e e d e x i s t s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a few "sup,er control points'' in p r i o r i t y a r e a s of the oceans. These would be particularly useful for ship tracking of l o w - o r b i t s a t e l l i t e s ( l o w - o r b i t t r a c k i n g s u f f e r s b e c a u s e of lack of landtracking sites). Control points should also be located in a r e a s of specific operations. Such control points could be semipermanent or temporary, recoverable types. Since they could not be established at random but careful planning and site selection would be n e c e s s a r y , d e s i g n c r i t e r i a w o u l d h a v e t o b e c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d a n d e v a l u a t i o n of e v e r y program would be necessary; F o r a n y g i v e n c l a s s of requirements involving marine geodetic control points, certain steps must be followed to arrive at an optimum solution. For example, a given t a s k m u s t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d in t e r m s of e x i s t i n g p o s i t i o n i n g m e t h o d s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d cost, These approaches could involve one or more temporary points through consideration of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e d e s i g n , s u c h a s a c c u r a c y , p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , preliminary solutions, and density and spacing of points. The optimization of r e s u l t s would then involve a trade-off analysis of r e q u i r e m e n t s , c o s t of control points, and potential use. In some cases, the hardware and design of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s should be suitable for use by surface, submerged, airborne, and satellite systems. In s u m m a r y , m a r i n e c o n t r o l p o i n t s they have potentia1 to: would provide numerous advantages in that

S e r v e a s c a l i b r a t i o n p o i n t s a t g r e a t d i s t a n c e s f r o m s h o r e in a c t u a l a n e a s of operations and permit frequent updating or position fixing of s u r r o u n d i n g s u r v e y s F u r n i s h a yardstick for comparing and evaluating electronic positioning and inertial systems Furnish independent accurate control for bottom mapping and other oceanographic missions

39

( 4 ) Provide gravity base stations in the oceans (needed but not now available for shipborne and airborne gravity measurenlents)

( 5 ) Provide capability which should be useful of a n a t i o n a l m a r i n e g e o d e t i c r a n g e

in t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t

( 6 ) Provide a test range for improving


transmission and propagation)

SOFAR (long-range sound


of t i m e a n d

( 7 ) Provide precise positioning capability independent environment.

Boundary Determination

Probably one of t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h w i l l r e q u i r e t h e b e s t m a r i n e geodetic techniques for solution is boundary determination. Geodetic networks on land serve for locating international, national, state, and local boundaries and determining positions and making maps with respect to them. At sea, boundary lines at present are drawn in accordance with map projection procedures. These lines, however, are hypothetical lines representing geographical coordinates. Unlike land boundary lines, their traces and intersections are not identifiable with physical markers or topographic features.

A need exists to have a capability to establish bottom control points as a means to identify boundaries and to provide a m e a n s of accurately positioning boundary lines between the established fixed points. There is much concern over the boundary problem. Litigation and disputes can arise over political boundaries and lease claims.
F o r e x a m p l e , a t p r e s e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a lease boundary on the continental shelf is the responsibility of t h e l e a s e e who is usually granted a number block on a m a p r e p r e senting his lease. With oil leases, because of d r a i n a g e , u n e x p l o i t e d a r e a s m a y not c a u s e much concern until production approaches adjacent lease boundary lines of c o m p e t i t o r s . In s u c h c a s e , e v e r y m e t e r of exploitation may be economically significant. On the other of l e a s e hand, i n m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n w h e r e d r a i n a g e i s n o t p o s s i b l e , e v e r y s q u a r e f o o t is economically significant. Position errors can lead to undesirable and costly situations involving international and territorial boundaries and waters, domestic and international lease boundaries, surveying, military operations, and search and recovery missions. The ability to avoid e r r o r d e p e n d s on positioning and geodetic capabilities. Over and above the military a s p e c t s , the a r e a s of m o s t p r i o r i t y a r e n o doubt those of itnmediate economic potential, nationally and internationally.

Gravity Measurements

G r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e u s e d f o r m a n y r e a s o n s i n c l u d i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the of f i g u r e of t h e E a r t h , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an absolute coordinate system, and computation of t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s satellite orbits and missile trajectories. For effective utilization for such determinations, gravity surveys must be m a d e e v e r y w h e r e o n t h e E a r t h s

40

surface, and the sea represents over 7 0 p e r c e n t of t h e E a r t h ' s ~ u r f a c e . ( ~ 9 ) F r o m the point of view of g e o d e s y , t h e a c c u r a c y of g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s m u s t b e b e t w e e n *O. 01 m g a l a n d *5 mgals, depending on t h e p u r p o s e . Gravity measurements at sea are made with surface-ship, Submarine, underwater, and airborne instruments. Most of t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e g r a v i m e n t e r s u s e d w i t h s t a bilized platforms or gimbal suspension. Pendulum instruments have been used in subm a r i n e s by s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s , but only the Soviets have used pendulums aboard surface ships. Accuracie's of g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s at s e a h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d t o b e on the o r d e r of *O. 1 to A l . 0 m g a l f o r b o t t o m i n s t r u m e n t s , * l t o * 5 m g a l f o r s u b m a r i n e i n s t r u m e n t s , *2 to *IO m g a l f o r s u r f a c e - s h i p i n s t r u m e n t s , a n d *5 to *IO m g a l f o r a i r b o r n e instruments. Most of t h e e r r o r s in g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t a t s e a on s u r f a c e s h i p s a r e attributable to inaccuracy in navigation. Marine gravity ranges have been established on t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f n e a r s h o r e s for the evaluation of s h i p b o a r d g r a v i t y - m e t e r s y s t e m s . ( 7 8 ) T h e m o s t c r i t i c a l e r r o r i n t h e u s e of s h i p b o a r d g r a v i m e t e r s i s d u e t o i n a c c u r a c y in t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the velocity vector of the survey vehicle. The east-west component of t h i s v e l o c i t y v e c t o r ( E s t v g s c o r r e c t i o n ) m u s t b e k n o w n to about 0. 1 of a knot if o n e - m g a l a c c u r a c y i s d e s i r e d . S u c h velocity measurements may be achieved at present only in reference to fixed points on the ocean bottom. Expressed desired accuracy for positioning shipboard gravity measurements varied between 1 0 0 feet and 6 0 0 f e e t ( 3 0 to 2 0 0 m e t e r s ) w i t h o n e e x t r e m e of 2000 meters. The most stringent positioning accuracy requirements in g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s i s being related to the establishment of base stations. Gravity-base stations and ranges in the open oceans would be of great impcrrtance for the colltrol, evaluation, and improvelnent of a c c u r a c i e s of m a r i n e g r a v i t y o b s e r v a t i o n s . ( 5 3 , 6 9 ) In land geodesy and geophysics, many base stations are needed for effective measurements. It can easily be seen that for gravity measurements at sea, many accurate marine control points and gravity-base stations will also be needed if i n s t r u m e n t a l c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e ' t o be fully utilized. For gravimetric surveys, marine control points could provide accurate base stations to control open-ocean airborne and surface-ship-based surveys. The density and distribution of g r a v i t y b a s e s t a t i o n s n e e d e d i s n o t k n o w n , b u t t h i s c a n b e d e t e r of o p e r a m i n e d . A s a f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n , a s t a t i o n e v e r y 1 0 " by 1 0 " f o r t h e g i v e n a r e a tion may be considered as desirable.(69) At each base station, surface-ship or submarine instruments could be employed to measure in detail the gravity over an area of p e r h a p s 1 by 1 d e g r e e . A t t h e c o n t r o l - p o i n t s t a t i o n , f o r a more precise base value, an underwater gravity instrument could be used. The end result would be a s y s t e m a t i c network of d e t a i l e d g r a v i t y s u r v e y s o v e r t h e o c e a n s w h i c h c o u l d b e u s e d t o c o n t r o l a i r borne measurements which have still more stringent position and velocity determination requirements. The satellite, again, can offer the speed of o p e r a t i o n s , t h e a r e a l c o v e r a g e , a n d perhaps the accuracy needed for establishment of b a s e s t a t i o n s . If a satellite technique and capability can be developed in conjunction with a bottom-mounted control system, base stations will be feasible and can easily be established progressively and concurrently with marine gravity surveys operations.

Deflection of the Vertical and Geoid

F r o m m e a s u r e m e n t of g r a v i t y on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e E a r t h , g r a v i t y a n o m a l i e s (Ag's or differences between properly reduced observed and theoretical values) are N (geoidundulations), 4 , and (deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l determined, and the quantities components) are computed. These quantities are important in t h e a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a tion of t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e a n d s h a p e of t h e E a r t h a n d c o u l d b e i m p o r t a n t in the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an absolute coordinate system and correction for inertial and star t r a c k e r s . ( 3 9 , 66)
On land, these quantities have also been determined by a s t r o g e o d e t i c m e t h o d s ( r e l ative N , 4 , and q). A beginning toward utilizing the astrogeodetic technique at sea has been made possible through the use of an inertio-optical system to determine deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l . ( 9 7 ) T h e m e t h o d r e q u i r e s g e o d e t i c p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e d by of the astronomic positions obelectronic o r satellite methods. Currently the accuracy tained in the open s e a w i t h t h i s m e t h o d i s of t h e o r d e r of *6 t o * 1 0 a r c s e c o n d s . T h i s is of t h e s a m e o r d e r a s s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n a l a c c u r a c y of * 2 0 0 m e t e r s . T h i s m e a n s o n l y a large deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s c a n b e d e t e c t e d . I m p r o v e m e n t in the method to * I a r c s e c o n d is f o r e c a s t . ( 9 7 )

Deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s a n d g e o i d u n d u l a t i o n s a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d from gravity measurements using Stokes and Vening Meinesz formulas. However, this r e q u i r e s d e n s e g r a v i t y s u r v e y s a r o u n d t h e p o i n t of determination to some distances f r o m t h e p o i n t a n d l e s s e r d e n s i t y of g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s a w a y f r o m t h e a r e a . The determination of a s u r f a c e a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h a t of the geoid by direct altitude measurements from a satellite to the sea surface is under investigation.(6,34,62) This r e q u i r e s a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the satellite orbit and continuous ranging from a satellite-borne altimeter (laser or microwave radar) to t h e s e a s u r f a c e . F u t u r e p r e c i s i o n i n m e a s u r e m e n t s t o a b o u t *10 centimeters would aid tremendously oceanographic work. Present studies indicate that precision of *I t o *5 m e t e r s is, possible. This should be most welcomed by the geodesist's for geoid determination. According to Lundquist, at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, present computer programs for r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e being expanded to include altitude measurements. ( 6 2 ) This is possible since the range to the satellite is a function of s t a t i o n c o o r d i n a t e s , o r b i t a l i s a l s o a function of o r b i t a l elements, geophysical parameters, and time. The altitude elements,geophysicalparameters,andtime.Therefore,measurement of altitude are w r i t t e n f o r * O . 5 m e t e r should not be a p r o b l e m , s i n c e e x i s t i n g r a n g e p r o g r a m s precision. ( 6 2 ) It is not yet determined whether marine control points could aid in these altitude measurements. Nevertheless, geodesy will benefit .from such accurate and d i r e c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n s of the geoid.

42

SECTION I V

MAJOR POSITIONING SYSTEMS

P o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s c a n a r b i t r a r i l y be grouped under five types: supface electrom a g n e t i co re l e c t r o n i c ,i n e r t i a l ,a c o u s t i c ,c e l e s t i a l ,a n ds a t e l l i t e .T h er o l e of t h e s e s y s t e m s i n o c e a n a c t i v i t i e s h a s b e e n a n d w i l l b e of great importance. Without positioning information the value of all s u r v e y s w o u l d b e u s e l e s s a n d a l m o s t all purposes and objectives might not be realized. Over 100 positioning and surveying systems have been o r a r e i n u s e a t s e a t o d a y ;all have strong points and limitations and no s i n g l e s y s t e m can satisfy all purposes. Various criteria are applied in evaluating these systems, e. g., accuracy, areal coverage, continuity of positioning, and reliability and maintainability. All of t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e of i n t e r e s t , b u t f o r p u r p o s e s h e r e t h e a c c u r a c y a n d a r e a l c o v e r a g e c r i t e r i a a r e p e r h a p s of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e . T h e a c c u r a c y of positioning and surveying systems on land, although not a simple procedure, can be and is often computed on the basis of established geodetic standards. T h e r e a r e no g e o d e t i c s t a n d a r d s at s e a . A c c u r a c y s t a t e m e n t s o r c l a i m s m a d e w i t h r e gard to marine positioning systems, unless caution and understanding is applied, can be interpreted incorrectly or in a misleading manner. These statements often represent i n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h e p r e c i s i o n of t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m a n d i t s a b i l i t y to repeat measurements under similar and often idealized field conditions. Sometimes t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e s y s t e m i s g i v e n i n t e r m s of e r r o r c o n t o u r s w h i c h r e f l e c t o n l y t h e effect of s y s t e m g e o m e t r y . P o s i t i o n f i x e s a t s e a a r e n o r m a l l y o b t a i n e d by t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c l i n e s of p o s i t i o n s f r o m b a s i c a l l y a c i r c u l a r o r h y p e r b o l i c g e o m e t r y . T h e c o o r d i n a t e s o b tained by surface electromagnetic positioning systems are in terms of electronic coordinates. These cbordinates are converted to geographic coordinates mathematically. M a n y f a c t o r s m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c c u r a c y of the resultant geographic of coordinates with the precision of the electronic fix a s only one factor. The accuracy a fix could be determined, for example, in terms of geographic coordinates related to a n e s t a b l i s h e d g e o d e t i c s y s t e m ( r e l a t i v e ) o r i n t e r m s of absolute coordinates (geoconc e n t r i c ) r e l a t e d t o t h e c e n t e r of m a s s of the Earth. To get this type of c o o r d i n a t e s f r o m electromagnetic systems one must consider several factors (most of which a r e n o r m a l l y neglected in everyday operation) affecting the accuracy of t h e s y s t e m . E x a m p l e s of these factors are velocity along propagation path, atmospheric conditions, shore stationandbase-lineaccuracies,geometry,instruments,computations,procedures, o p e r a t o r s , etc. A c c o r d i n g l y t h e r e p o r t e d a c c u r a c y of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s y s t e m s w h i c h m a y b e s t a t e d i n t e r m s of a few feet could not possibly be the accuracy of t h e r e s u l t a n t a position fix i s often the survey or position fixes on a geographic chart. Moreover, r e s u l t of o n e o b s e r v a t i o n ( e . g . , i n t e r s e c t i o n of two lines of p o s i t i o n s ) f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s no m e a n s t o d e t e r m i n e i t s a c c u r a c y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e n u m b e r s r e l a t e d t o a c c u r a c y reported in the following discussion will represent most often the system precision and/or repeatability. (15) A r e a l c o v e r a g e r e l a t e s to the ability of t h e s y s t e m to give reliable positioning information under normal operations in a given area. Coverage can be local or worldwide a g i v e n a r e a it i s g i v e n i n t e r m s of d i s t a n c e s f r o m s h o r e depending on the system, In stations.

43

ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEMS

E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s y s t e m s d e p e n d o n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n of radio waves which obey the basic formula X =

- f
V

w h e r e >. = wave length,

v = velocity of propagation, and

f = fre-

quency. The basic measuring techniques to obtain positions at sea involve time meas u r e m e n t s m u l t i p l i e d b y v e l o c i t y of p r o p a g a t i o n . T w o b a s i c m e a s u r i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e available :
( 1 ) The pulse technique - the time interval between received electromagnetic pulse is measured

a transmitted and a

( 2 ) The phase-comparison technique - the phase of continuous unmodul a t e d e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s is c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l to determine the time delay. In both techniques the accuracy of m e a s u r e m e n t s i s dependent on the velocity of propagation of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s , t h e a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s , l a n d a n d w a t e r a l o n g the propagation path, timing, geometry of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s w i t h r e s p e c t to the receive r s , a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s . (55) Normally, the higher the frequency used, the better t h e a c c u r a c y of m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d t h e s h o r t e r t h e r a n g e ( d i s t a n c e ) . H i g h - f r e q u e n c y systems use line-of-sight transmissions and employ small antennas. Lowering the frequency increases the range but decreases accuracy. C i r c u l a r s y s t e m s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t ofa master station aboard ship and. two shore stations. The master interrogates the shore stations (shore control) which, in turn, g e n e r a t e c i r c u l a r l i n e s of positions. Two i n t e r s e c t i n g l i n e s f r o m s h o r e c o n t r o l a r e needed to d e t e r m i n e a position fix. C i r c u l a r s y s t e m s t r a n s m i t f r e q u e n c i e s b e t w e e n 2 M c / s a n d 3, 000 M c / s . H y p e r b o l i c s y s t e m s c o n s i s t of o n e m a s t e r a n d two s e c o n d a r y s t a t i o n s a l l l o c a t e d on shore. The system receivers are normally located on s h i p s . To obtain a position f i x , t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t w o h y p e r b o l a s i s n e e d e d . T h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e i s f o r t h e s h i p to measure the difference in transmission times for signals from the master and from onesecondarystation.Thus,onelineofposition(hyperbola)isdetermined.Thesecond hyperbola is measured from the master and the other secondary station. The interof the ship. section of the two hyperbolas gives the position High-frequency systems are used extensively for offshore oil explorations and in extending horizontal control from land out to 50, 7 5 , o r 1 0 0 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e . R e ported positioning capability of t h e s e s y s t e m s v a r i e s f r o m a f e w m e t e r s to 5 0 m e t e r s . T h e p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e s e s y s t e m s i n n e a r - s h o r e a r e a s i s o f t e n r e p o r t e d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y . E r r o r s up to a m i l e o r s o h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d b y v a r i o u s o p e r a t o r s a t a b o u t 50 m i l e distances, but some of t h e s e e r r o r s c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o p o o r g e o m e t r y , v a r i a t i o n s i n propagation path, carelessness in operations, loss of lane counts, and lack of sufficient calibration points.
In one case, the difierence between the indicated positions of two ships, side by side and equipped with the same system. was reported to be o n t h e o r d e r of *lo00 feet at near-shore distances. Examples of high-frequency systems are the Tellurometer, Raydist,HiFix,LORAC,Shoran,Hiran,Lambda,etc.Some of t h e s es y s t e m sp r o v i d e c o v e r a g e a t d i s t a n c e s up to 2 0 0 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e w i t h p o s i t i o n i n g c a p a b i l i t y r e p o r t e d to b e f r o m *30 to * 1 5 0 m e t e r s .

44

Low- and very-low-frequency systems, such as LORAN, Omega, and Decca, transmit waves along the curvature of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . T h e s e s y s t e m s e m p l o y hyperbolic geometry which allows extended areal coverage making it possible for many ships simultaneously to use a single system. Positioning capabilities of t h e s e s y s t e m s have been reported to be of t h e o r d e r of *lo0 to * 2 0 0 0 m e t e r s . A c c u r a c y is s a c r i f i c e d of t h e o r d e r of 1 to 5 m i l c s h a v e b e e n r e to achieve increased range, and large errors ported at long ranges. The Omega system i s the only surface system which has worldwide coverage capability once all transmitters are established. Its main purpose is general navigation at extreme long ranges (2000 to 6000 n m i ) . T h e O m e g a s y s t e m m a y have application for determining ship velocity but only limited work has been done on this topic to date.

INERTIAL SYSTEMS

Shipboard Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS) are used o n s o m e s h i p s a s t h e p r i mary means for position determination. They are self-contained and can be used worldwide. Starting from an initially known p o s i t i o n , s u c c e s s i v e p o s i t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d f o r ward through an inertial navigator which employs accelerometers to s e n s e c h a n g e s i n motion and gyroscopes to provide direction references. Inertial platforms in current u s e a c c u m u l a t e e r r o r s w i t h t i m e d u e t o g y r o d r i f t e v e n i n t h e a b s e n c e of vehicle motion, and therefore, depend on periodical position updating information from external sources s u c h a s LORAN a n d s t a r t r a c k e r s . T h e a c c u r a c y of i n e r t i a l s y s t e m s i s a f f e c l e d by the shape of the geoid and by the accuracy of s y s t e m s u s e d to update positions, and by the frequency of position updating. The geoid surface, to which the direction of g r a v i t y i s a l w a y s p e r p e n d i c u l a r , i s determined from gravity anomalies. The direction of gravity i s then normal to the geoid and the deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l ( 6 ) can be shown to be 6 = - a T

y as,

w h e r e y i st h et h e o -

r e t i c a l g r a v i t y on the ellipsoid surface, S i s t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i r e c t i o n to which deflection r e f e r s , a n d T is the potential due to the disturbing masses of the Earth which cause geoid undulations. Other means of determining the geoid at sea by d i r e c t r a n g e m e a surements from satellites or from astrogeodetic measurements are under investigations. ( 6 , 34, 9 7 ) The charts, maps, and mathematical computation models of n a v i g a t i o n a l d a t a a r e LORAN and r e l a t e d t o an e l l i p s o i d a l s u r f a c e . T h e h o r i z o n t a l c o o r d i n a t e s o b t a i n e d f r o m o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s u s e d f o r . u p d a t i n g a r e a l s o r e f e r e n c e d to the ellips o i d , s u r f a c e of the earth but S I N S r e f e r s t o t h e g e o i d . T h i s m a k e s a c c u r a c y e v a l u a t i o n of i n e r t i a l n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m s q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d . If i n e r t i a l s y s t e m s a r e i m p r o v e d t o near perfection, positioning systems used to update them should also be improved, and reduced to the same basis so that results obtained could be meaningful. Otherwise, to update SINS with a l e s s a c c u r a t e s y s t e m would be like calibrating an "inch ruler" with a "yard stick". ( 7 0 ) P u b l i s h e d e r r o r g r o w t h r a t e s i n c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e SINS have been reported to be about 200 to 2 0 0 0 m e t e r s p e r h o u r . (24, 65) E x t r e m e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l values of 1 minute of a r c , w h i c h c o u l d c a u s e a shift in geodetic position of 1 m i l e h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d at s e a n e a r i s l a n d a r c s . I n e r t i a l s y s t e m s w h i c h s e e k t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l

45

c o u l d b e i n l a r g e e r r o r w h e n r e s e t i f not c o r r e c t e d f o r t h e s e v a l u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o M a c o m b e r t h e a v e r a g e s l p p e f o r a l a r g e o c e a n area, computed from the geoid undulations of t h e s a t e l l i t e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d , is about 7. 5 a r c s e c o n d s . ( 6 3 ) This slope, i f not corrected for when resetting an assumed mechanically perfect inertial navigator to Lhe given geodetic position, would result in a p o s i t i o n e r r o r of t h e o r d e r of 114 of a m i l c o r a b o u t 450 m e t e r s a f t e r a p e r i o d of 42 m i n u t e s . S i m i l a r l y , f o r a 3-arc-second d c f l c c t i o n , a n e r r o r of 1 / 1 0 of a m i l e o r a b o u t 200 m e t e r s would result. He further states that resetting the inertial navigator to the geodetic position is still unsatisfactory since the navigator's position will then oscillate with twice the amplitude of the deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l . I n s t e a d , t h e n a v i g a t o r s h o u l d b e r e s e t t o t h e a s t r o n o m i c p o s i t i o n and then the angular velocities to be used would be those defined by the astronomic latitude and longitude rates.

To obtain accurate geodetic positions, it b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y to determine the deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l a n g l e s a n d c o r r e c t t h e a s t r o n o m i c p o s i t i o n s by t h a t amount according to the following well-known relationships:

4=@'-0
*)

(X' - X) c o s QI

w h e r e E, and T ) a r e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s i n t h e m e r i d i a n a n d p r i m e v e r t i I of t h e s a m e c a l p l a n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , Q' and X ' are the astronomic latitude and longitude point.

all t h e s e c o r Obviously, use of the SINS in general navigation does not require r e c t i o n s . H o w e v e r , i f SINS i s to be used in precise ship positioning or to provide cont r o l f o r c e r t a i n a d v a n c e d m a r i n e s u r v e y s w h i c h r e q u i r e a high degree of a c c u r a c y , e i t h e r g r a v i t y s u r v e y s i n t h e a r e a of i n t e r e s t s h o u l d b e m a d e f r o m w h i c h d e f l e c t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l c h a r t s w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d o r o t h e r m e a n s of m e a s u r i n g d i r e c t l y t h e d e f l e c tion of t h e v e r t i c a l m u s t b e a v a i l a b l e t o m a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y c o r r e c t i o n s . ( 1 7 ) A d d i tionally, for SINS to be effective worldwide, other positioning systems of worldwide capability are needed to reset the system.

ACOUSTIC SYSTEMS

P o s i t i o n i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b o t t o m t o p o g r a p h y o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o a s e t of underwater acoustic beacons or hydrophones on the sea bottom i s accomplished by measuring depth to the bottom, the rate of c h a n g e of d e p t h , o r s l a n t r a n g e s . O n e a p p r o a c h i n v o l v e s p r o f i l e s r e f e r e n c e d t o a c o n t o u r m a p of the area m a d e f r o m p r e v i o u s b a t h y metric surveys. The primary interest in acoustic positioning is relating the ship's position or the This can be accomi n s t r u m e n t v e h i c l e at the surface to an underwater control point. plished by s e v e r a l m e t h o d s . O n e m e t h o d i s similar in principle to the solution of a three-dimensional intersection problem in geodesy. Shipboard sonar measures at least three ranges to the underwater devices and the position i s then computed relative to the bottom. ( 6 8 )

46

Two b a s i c t r a n s p o n d e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n s y s t e m s h a v e b e e n u s e d . ( 8 9 ) In one method t r a n s p o n d e r s r e p l y t o a s h i p at one of t h r e e f r e q u e n c i e s ( 1 0 . 0, 10. 5, o r 1 1 . 0 k c p s ) ; the reply is at 1 2 k c p s . I n t h e 0 t h e r ( ~ 7 , 2 5 ) , t h e s h i p i n t e r r o g a t e s at 16 kc s and the t r a n s p o n d e r s r e p l y at d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s v a r y i n g f r o m 9. 5 to 12 kcps. (21j, 2 5 ) R e l a tive accuracies achieved in positioning a ship w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b o t t o m t r a n s p o n d e r s i n t h e d e e p o c e a n h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d f r o m m e t e r s t o * l O m e t e r s r m s ( 9 3 , 8 9 , 25) to *3 s t a n d a r d e r r o r of about 1 p a r t i n o n e t h o u s a n d ( 3 8 ) . Other methods which have been applied involve acoustic 'line crossing techniques o r v a r i a t i o n s of t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o d e t e r m i n e m i n i m u m d i s t a n c e . (31, 38) T h e u s e of a single source unit i s also possible, as was done in the Mohole Program(82), if interferometry-type equipment can be provided on the ship. Another acoustic technique operates on the principle of dead reckoning; the ship's t r a c k is d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s of the heading of t h e s h i p t h r o u g h w a t e r a n d c u r r e n t . This method involves Doppler sonar to determine the speed and, when used with a g y r o - c o m p a s s to determine heading, can provide the basis for continuous positioning information. ( 2 ) The above methods are applicable for relative ship positioning over short ranges (10-20 miles) and can be applied in local areas on a worldwide basis. For long-range a technique that can be acoustic positioning, one method in particular, SOFAR, is applied for long-distance measurements and position fixes in the ocean. SOFAR propagation depends on the existence of a sound channel in the ocean. Sound from explosives i s g e n e r a t e d at the axis of the sound channel and can be propagated for thousands of miles. The sound rays are usually confined to a region of minimum sound velocity along is r e c e i v e d a t s h i p o r s h o r e s t a t i o n s t h e a x i s of the channel. The propagated sound through hydrophones lowered to or placed in the axis of the channel. Triangulation can be established through such a method. The relative accuracy of t h i s m e t h o d i s a b o u t 1 - 5 k i l o m e t e r s i n 1 0 0 0 - k i l o m e t e r d i s t a n c e s a n d i s a f f e c t e d by the velocity of propagation of s o u n d , t i m e m e a s u r e m e n t s , a n d d i s t a n c e v a r i a t i o n s . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n of this technique to marine geodesy will be very limited. On the other hand, marine geodesy, through the establishment of a fixed distance by other means, would aid in minimizing t h e e r r o r s d u e t o v e l o c i t y of sound propagation, the largest source of e r r o r i n t h i s method.

CELESTIAL SYSTEMS

C e l e s t i a l n a v i g a t i o n i s t h e o l d e s t a n d m o s t u s e d m e t h o d of positioning at sea. L i n e s of position a r e determined by sighting at c e l e s t i a l o b j e c t s s u c h as the sun, moon, planets, and stars for which astronomic positions and relative motions are known as a function of time. Continuity is affected by weather but the method has been used worldwide for many years. The most common instrument used is the sextant. The accuracy of the method is of t h e o r d e r of 1 - 5 k i l o m e t e r s a n d i s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m a r i n e g e o detic applications. A celestial system which has some applications in marine geodesy is the star tracker. Star trackers have been used in military aircraft navigation for position fixing and heading correction since 1946. (9l) Star trackers have found their applications on board ships. For example, the Apollo ships employ star t r a c k e r s w h i c h c a n b e o p e r a t e d e i t h e r m a n u a l l y o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y a n d w h i c h a r e also coupled with SINS.

47

B a s i c a l l y , star t r a c k e r s a r e d e v i c e s t h a t c a n d e t e c t , a c q u i r e , a n d t r a c k a celestial body. Position fix can be acquired by measuring and processing stellar angular arguments measured with respect to the local vertical and time. The on-board computer on a 60-star catalog. Measurements with star trackers yield the Apollo ships retains a s t r o n o m i c p o s i t i o n s f i x e s t h e a c c u r a c y of which is of c o u r s e a f f e c t e d by the deflection of t h e v e r t i c a l . A c c u r a c y f i g u r e s o n t h e s e s y s t e m s w e r e n o t i d e n t i f i e d .

SATELLITE SYSTEMS

At the present time satellites used for navigation at sea are based on the Doppler navigation satellite. The positioning accuracy is affected by the knowledge of s h i p speed, orbital uncertainties, and other factors. Accuracies reported range from *lo0 to * 5 0 0 m e t e r s a n d d e p e n d o n a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h s h i p s p e e d c a n be m e a s u r e d . O n e l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t m o s t u s e r s a r e interested in continuous position information. With e x i s t i n g s a t e l l i t e s a fix is p o s s i b l e o n l y a t i n t e r v a l s of 1 / 2 hour to 2 h o u r s . S a t e l l i t e s are treated in more detail in the next section.

48

SECTION V

GEOS-I1 SATELLITE CAPABILITY -APPLICATION TO MARINE GEODESY AND POSITIONING

The GEOS-I1 satellite methods investigated for their potential applications to ( 1 ) Doppler, ( 2 ) S E C O R , ( 3 ) r a d a r , ( 4 ) optical,and ( 5 ) l a s e r marinegeodesyare: methods. Except for radar, these methods have been used extensively in land geodesy to establish a worldwide geodetic datum accurate to *lo meters in an Earth-centered i s r e q u i r e d f o r m a n y t y p e s of coordinate system. Since the greatest possible precision marine geodetic measurements, the use of t h e G E O S - t y p e s a t e l l i t e i s d e s i r a b l e . O t h e r satellites, particularly those with Doppler, such as the Navy Navigation Satellite System and the French Doppler Satellites, can also be used effectively. Special types of G e o c e i v e r s , a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e , a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e c e i v e t h e m u l t i p l e t r a n s m i t t e d Doppler frequencies from these satellites.
A review of the above methods, including discussion of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e r r o r s , i s given in Appendix B . T h e s e m e t h o d s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d h e r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r m s of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u s e i n m a r i n e g e o d e s y i n two different, but r e l a t e d , applications: ( 1 ) Precise ship positioning, where the ship obtains position fi,xes while in motion ( 2 ) Establishment of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s , w i t h t h e s h i p positioned relative to underwater acoustic markers for a given p e r i o d of t i m e .

A l s o p r e s e n t e d i s a s u m m a r y of the opportunities for applying these satellite methods to marine geodesy.

DOPPLER METHOD

Of all the satellite methods, the Doppler is the only operational method which has been applied in precise ship positioning. This method has also definite potential for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s at s e a . of the satellite and the The Doppler method i s used for determining both the orbit location of p o i n t s ( p o s i t i o n s ) o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e s a t e l l i t e . Its use in ship positioning involves primarily a shipboard receiver to measure accurately the Doppler shift of r a d i o f r e q u e n c y t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m t h e s a t e l l i t e a n d a c o m p u t e r t o compute the geocentric coodinates of t h e o b s e r v e r . T h e m a i n s o u r c e of error, in addition to those mentioned in Appendix B relative i s the uncertainty with respect to ship ~ e l o c i t y ( ~ ~ T h i~ e r r o r , ~ s ) . to land positioning, is a complicated function of t h e g e o m e t r y of t h e s a t e l l i t e p a s s ( p r i n c i p a l l y of the maximum elevation angle of t h e s a t e l l i t e ) . T h i s e r r o r is a l s o d e p e n d e n t o n t h e d i r e c t i o n of the error in ship velocity(51). For use i n the computations, the ship velocity is

49

resolved into its two components - o n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p a t h of t h e s a t e l l i t e ( c r o s s t r a c k c o m p o n e n t ) a n d t h e o t h e r p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e p a t h of t h e s a t e l l i t e ( a l o n g - t r a c k c o m i s not a s s e r i o u s as that ponent). The effect of t h e c r o s s - t r a c k e r r o r c o m p o n e n t , B v l , 01t h e a l o n g - t r a c k e r r o r c o m p o n e n t , S v l l (74: 7 6 ' . The main problem is due to the iact that the measured ship velocity through the w a t e r is not t h e t r u e v e l o c i t y o v e r t h e e a r t h . T h e m o s t s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i s d u e t o t h e existence of unknown currents(''). T h e m a i n e f i e c t of the component 6vll is to change the relative speed at closest a p p r o a c h f r o m v to v - hvll This results in an error in the slant range of 26vllp / v and a c r o s s - t r a c k e r r o r , Er,, in the ship's position of:

where

x is the elevation

of the satellite at t h e t i m e of c l o s e s t a p p r o a c h ( 7 4 ) . is given by:

The along-track error in the ship's position,

(2)
where pg i s t h e g r o u n d d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e o b s e r v e r on the ground(74). to the projected orbit of the satellite

The cross-track error in positioning results rom an along-track error in the ship velocity and vice versa. (The along-track error in ship velocity produces a negligible along-track error in ship position.) The factors (2p/v sec X) a n d p g / v ) a r e g i v e n in units of t i m e , t h e f o r m e r b e i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e l a t t e r . T y p i c a l v a l u e s for (2pv sec range around 0 . 16 h o u r , b u t c a n r e a c h a s h i g h a s 0. 5 hour for a p a s s with an elevation of 7 5 d e g r e e s . T h i s w o u l d r e s u l t i n a c r o s s - t r a c k e r r o r of 0. 16 m i l e A to 0 . 5 m i l e ( 4 0 0 t o 1, 000 m e t e r s ) f o r 1 - k n o t e r r o r i n t h e v e l o c i t y m e a s u r e m e n t . t y p i c a l v a l u e f o r ( p g / v ) i s 0 . 0 4 hour(74, 7 6 ) . To obtain higher accuracy than presently possible in ship positioning, the error resulting from the determination of ship velocity must be minimized.

x)

of Besides the uncertainties in ship velocity, there are several minor sources e r r o r s u c h a s t h e r e f l e c t i o n of waves and angular motion of the ship. If r a d i a t i o n e n t e r s is measured, the result is an the receiver after being reflected and the reflected wave of waves should apparent displacement of the antenna from its true position. Reflection not be a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w i t h a suitably designed and located antenna, unless the ship i s rolling heavily. Angular motion of t h e s h i p o c c u r s w h e n t h e a n t e n n a is not placed at t h e c e n t e r of m a s s of t h e s h i p . T h i s m o t i o n m a y be m e a s u r e d by t h e o b s e r v e r a n d included i n the computations. The only error, then, is t h a t d u e t o e r r o r i n t h e m e a s u r e ment. These errors are not a s l a r g e a s t h o s e d u e t o s h i p v e l o c i t y ( 7 6 ) .

Relative positioning can be used to eliminate the errors due to the satellite's position (and atmospheric refraction). It provides a m e a n s of checking the internal cons i s t e n c y of t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s , p r o v i d e d t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e m a d e f r o m t h e s a m e s a t e l l i t e p a s s ; o r it can be employed for determining the position of an unknown station(77). For the former case, the positions, RTA and K T B , o r stations A and B would be r e q u i r e d A and B would then be: information. The distance between

50

R e c e i v e r s s i t u a t e d at both stations can receive Doppler data. If t h e s t a t i o n s are close, t h e o r b i t of t h e s a t e l l i t e c h a n g e s v e r y l i t t l e b e t w e e n m e a s u r e m e n t s at the two stations. The measured position, RMA and RMB, of A and B could be expressed as:

R
and

~ ~

+ e + e = eo R c ~ ~ r

t
J

R~~

= R

+ e + e + e ~ o ~ c r

w h e r e KTA and KTB are the true positions of A and B, eo i s t h e e r r o r d u e t o t h e i n c o r rect satellite position, e, i s t h e e r r o r due to the coordinate system of t h e E a r t h , a n d er'l and e r 2 a r e r a n d o m e r r o r s ( 7 7 ) . The measured distance, dM, b e c o m e s :

As can be seen in Equation ( 6 ) , when d i s small, t h e o n l y e r r o r p r e s e n t is that due to the random errors, Using Equations ( 3 ) and ( 6 ) ,

dM = e'l

- e

r2

. A s "d" i n c r e a s e s , t h e e r r o r s c a u s e d b y t h e o r b i t c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m
and RMB will not "cancel" each other, and a maximum error will in determining o c c u r w h e n t h e s e two v a l u e s a r e o p p o s i t e i n s i g n f o r t h e t w o stations. If the position of station A were known and that of B unknown, Equation ( 6 ) could be solved for R T B + e,; i. e., the position of B, including a r a n d o m e r r o r t e r m , c o u l d be determined. Here, again, the total error would increase as the distance of t h e unknown station from the known marine control point increased, but most of t h e t i m e this error could be expected to be less than that error i f only one station measurement were used. The main factors to be considered in using satellites for marine geodesy are:
(1) A c c u r a c y

MA

( 2 ) A r e a lc o v e r a g e ( 3 ) Continuouspositioning. Ship-positioning requirements vary widely from one operation to another as noted in Section 111. P r e s e n t D o p p l e r s a t e l l i t e u s e i n s h i p p o s i t i o n i n g w i l l be accuracy limited It i s possible, to about * l o 0 to *I50 meters in the geocentric coordinate system. however, to obtain accuracies comparable to those achieved on land with the Doppler m e t h o d ( * l o t o *30 meters) only if used for establishment of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l points. T h e a c c u r a c y of the Doppler method on land has been reported to be * l O t o * 3 0 meters, depending on many factors including the type of m e a s u r e m e n t s m a d e , t h e n u m b e r of fixed stations employed, and the number of satellite pa)sses used in the

51

. .

- .. ... .

"

. . .

a n a l y s i s of d a t a . T h e m o s t s e r i o u s a c c u r a c y l i m i t a t i o n s of the Doppler method result f r o m e r r o r s i n t h e e x t r a p o l a t e d o r b i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d f r o m u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e par a m e t e r s of t h e E a r t h . Although the primary use of the Doppler method on land is for determining the coefficients of the gravity potential of t h e e a r t h , its u s e a t s e a h a s b e e n p r i m a r i l y f o r positioning. At sea, the most serious error is due to uncertainty In the velocity of the s h i p . ( 9 2 ) T h i s l a t t e r e r r o r i s d o m i n a t i n g a n d it i s of t h e o r d e r of about 400 t o 1 , 0 0 0 meters-per-knot velocity.(52* 76) At b e s t , 1 / 4 - k n o t e r r o r i n t h e v e l o c i t v of the 100 m e t e r s c o m p o n e n t e r r o r ship, which is not easy to achieve, would result in about i n position. Therefore, including the other error components, the application of Doppler for positioning of ships will be limited to about *lo0 to *150 m e t e r s i n g e o c e n tric coordinates. The error, although it a p p e a r s l a r g e , i s s t i l l l e s s t h a n t h a t of any o t h e r a v a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s - p a r t i c u l a r l y at g r e a t d i s t a n c e s f r o m s h o r e .
747

In order for satellite Doppler to satisfy the more stringent accuracy requirements ( * l o t o *50 m e t e r s ) of marine geodesy, the velocity of the ship must be determined accurately. Fortunately, it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m of ship velocity can be eliminated o r g r e a t l y m i n i m i z e d i f the Doppler system i s used in conjunction with bottom-mounted underwater acoustic transponders, the main elements of t h e m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l points. Preliminary investigations indicate that for the establishment of these points not only i s t h e p r o b l e m of s h i p v e l o c i t y m i n i m i z e d , b u t a l s o s e v e r a l p a s s e s of the satellites can be measured while positioning the ship relative to the underwater transponders. This could be approached in either of two ways:
( 1 ) The ship could be positioned relative to the ocean-bottom transponders with respect to time. This would yield the velocity of the ship to a high degree of a c c u r a c y . T h e s e d a t a c o u l d t h e n b e combined with data from the Doppler obtained from many satell i t e p a s s e s u s i n g a s first a p p r o x i m a t i o n t h e p r e d i c t e d s a t e l l i t e orbital elements as transmitted by the satellite. These data could be analyzed in the laboratory with corrections being made t o t h e o r b i t a l p a r a m e t e r s , a n d t h e f i n a l c o o r d i n a t e s of the control point could be determined with an accuracy approaching that achieved on land.

(2)

The position of the ship could be determined with respect to the t r a n s p o n d e r s d u r i n g t h e t i m e of the satellite pass. Data could be collected from many such passes over the area and an average o r m e a n p o s i t i o n of the ship could be determined. The statistical a v e r a g e of m a n y m e a s u r e m e n t s s h o u l d y i e l d a r e a s o n a b l e a c c u r a c y for the position of the control point.

The nature of t h e s e t w o m e t h o d s l e a d s t o t w o g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s :

( 2 ) It may be feasible to perform measurements using both methods and thus provide a m e a n s of c o m p a r i s o n .

Other alternatives foI minimizing the error in the velocity of the ship, although not as effective as t h a t d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a r e b a s e d o n t h e u s e of o t h e r e x t e r n a l m e a n s . For example, the use of i n e r t i a l n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m s , e l e c t r o n i c p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s whenever available, and VLF or o t h e r s y s t e m s c o u l d r e d u c e t h e s h i p - v e l o c i t y e r r o r . P r e s e n t s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m s p r o v i d e p o s i t i o n f i x e s at s e a a t f i x e d i n t e r v a l s of t i m e . T h i s d o e s n o t s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of mo.ct surveying vehicles for continuous positioning information. The'usc of o t h e r s y s t e m s s u c h a s t h o s e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e is 'therefore required, not only for ship velocity deterlnination but also for positioning between t h e i n t e r v a l s of the satellite fixes. On the other hand, a satellite Doppler could provide continuous position information i f m o r e s a t e l l i t e s w e r e p l a c e d i n o r b i t . A s y s t e m of 2 4 satellites would be required. Several organizations favor the implementation of s u c h a s y s t e m b e c a u s e of t h e i r d e s i r e t o h a v e o n e u n i v e r s a l s y s t e m .

SECOR METHOD

The SECOR method is a s p a c e t r i l a t e r a t i o n s y s t e m . T h e SECOR s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m employs electronic distance-measuring equipment whereby slant ranges between satellite and ground stations are determined simultaneously from the phase comparison of a transmitted and returned signal. (See Appendix B for detailed description. ) Synchronization, which is essential for precision measurements, is established through a master ground station. SECOR i s not a s s e n s i t i v e t o f r e q u e n c y s t a b i l i t y . a s i s Loppler, but it does depend o n a n a c c u r a t e v a l u e of the propagation of l i g h t i n a v a c u u m . T h e a c c u r a c y of the SECOR of figure method also depends, in large measure, on the configuration and the strength of t h e a s s o c i a t e d n e t w o r k . F o r b e s t a c c u r a c y , o n e of the t!lree minimum positions of the satellite must be on a different orbit than the other two in order to avoid collinear centers. Accuracy figures on SECOR are scarce.(3) Probable errors based on internal c o n s i s t e n c y of m e a s u r e m e n t s o n l a n d h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d t o b e l e s s t h a n 4 m e t e r s i n d e t e r m i n a t i o n of latitude, longitude, and height.(81) The main sources of e r r o r s a r e d u e to calibration of ground stations and the satellite transponder and to tropospheric and ionospheric refraction. Unlike the Doppler method, the SECOR method has not been used for positioning at s e a . S e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e u s e of SECOR for determining the position of ships at s e a h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d . ( 8 3 , 8 5 ) These approaches employ adaptations of the basic SECOR technique. Two approaches, CODA (Consolidated Data) and ODVAR ( O r b i t D e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d V e h i c l e A t t i t u d e R e f e r e n c e ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d . (83) An advantage of C O D A / S E C O R o v e r t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m i s the fact that the coordinates of t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n r e a l - t i m e t r a c k i n g at t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n . T h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n h a s t h e only transmitter: the other ground stations serve essentially as t r a n s p o n d e r s . A s i g n a l o r i g i n a t e d a t a master station, A, i s r e c e i v e d a n d t r a n s p o n d e d at a satellite. The transponded signal is received and transponded again at one of two slave stations, B, a n d t h i s r e p l y i s r e c e i v e d a n d t r a n s p o n d e d a t h i r d t i m e a t t h e s a t e l l i t e . T h e resulting signal is received back at station A, and a p h a s e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e t r a n s m i t t e d a n d r e c e i v e d s i g n a l s at station A yields a m e a s u r e of t h e r a n g e ( R a t R b ) . L i k e w i s e t h e r a n g e ( R a t Rc) for a third station, C, c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y s e q u e n t i a l l y r e c e i v i n g a n d transponding the signal at station C. T h e satellite's r e s p o n s e t o s t a t i o n A ' s t r a n s m i t t e d

53

signal i s used at s t a t i o n A to obtain a m e a s u r e of Ra. The data station A yielding the ranges Rb and Rc and hence the coordinates "trispheration".

are l'consolidatedll at
of the satellite by

A fourth unknown station ( a ship) could be included in the network. Three positions of t h e s a t e l l i t e f o r t h e same o r b i t a l p a s s c o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d by t r i s p h e r a t i o n f r o m t h e also by known stations and these in turn would determine the c o o r d i n a t e s of the ship trispheration. During the time between the determination of the satellite positions, the ship would be moving and hence errors would be introduced in the measurements. itAnother source of e r r o r , of course, would be that due to the CODA/SECOR system self in positioning the satellite, Also, this type of solution does not lend itself t o t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e g e o m e t r i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n c e a l l t h r e e p o s i t i o n s of t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e f o r of c e n t e r s . the same pass, resulting in collinearity

An a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h w o u l d b e t o u s e o n l y t w o p o s i t i o n s of the satellite and an e s t i m a t e of t h e g e o c e n t r i c r a d i u s of t h e s h i p t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s h i p p o s i t i o n . T h e v e l o c i t y of the ship would still have to be known, and an additional error would be introduced due to the assumed geocentric radius. The geometry would be somewhat better than that of the previous solution, however. The SECOR/ODVAR approach requires that only one position of the satellite be known and, hence, the velocity of t h e s h i p is not required. In order to obtain the geoit i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n t h e g e o c e n t r i c c o o r d i c e n t r i c c o o r d i n a t e s of the ship, however, nates of t h e s a t e l l i t e a n d t h e t h r e e a n g l e s w h i c h d e f i n e t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of the satellite with respect to the geocentric reference frame. The former can be obtained by the CODA/ SECOR approach or other means and the latter by ODVAR/SECOR which requires phasec o m p a r i s o n a n g l e m e a s u r e m e n t s at t h r e e a n t e n n a s l o c a t e d o n a s e t of orthogonal axes on the satellite. Accordint to Reid, however, high accuracy is not possible with SECOR/ be d i s c u s s e d a n y f u r t h e r . ODVAR. (83) T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s y s t e m w i l l n o t

K. Rinner outlines an approach to the application of the SECOR satellite ranging both for geodetic control and for positioning. He describes system to marine geodesy two possibilities for determining the coordinates of the marine geodetic control point: ( 1 ) u s i n g o n e u n d e r w a t e r a c o u s t i c m a r k e r a s t h e master station and ( 2 ) using the ship as a m a s t e r s t a t i o n . (B5) I n ( 1 ) h e r e d u c e s t h e S E C O R r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m t h r e e s e p a r a t e s u r f a c e p o s i t i o n s of the ship to one of t h e a c o u s t i c m a r k e r s . At t h e s a m e time, e a c h s u r f a c e p o s i t i o n of the ship i s b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d b y a c o u s t i c r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s relative to several underwater markers. In ( 2 ) the ship i s positioned relative to underwater markers by acoustic means while simultaneous SECOR ranging measurements are all observations made to the satellite and three known ground stations. In either case, of the control points with SECOR trilateration could be reduced and their coordinates d e t e r m i n e d by adjustment.

Rinner further presents an argument for using SECOR in positioning in a manner similar to the use of Doppler; i. e . , t h e p a r a m e t e r s of t h e s a t e l l i t e o r b i t w o u l d b e d e t e r mined by satellite tracking from known stations and stored in the satellite. Positioning of a ship would consist of o b s e r v i n g a t l e a s t t w o r a n g e s t o t h e s a t e l l i t e . I d e a l l y , t h e s a t e l l i t e w o u l d t r a n s m i t its own position when interrogated. The satellite position, the two ranges, and an estimated geocentric radius of the ship would be used in calculating ship position. Rinner argues that the advantage of a SECOR system would be the strong geometry of t h e r a n g e n e t w o r k s as c o m p a r e d w i t h r e s u l t s b a s e d o n r a n g e d i f f e r e n c e as i n a Doppler

54

s y s t e m . H e states that, "Even i f t h e a c c u r a c y of r a n g e d i f f e r e n c e m e a s u r e m e n t s is nt i m e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a c c u r a c y of r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s will have only the same a c c u r a c y as soon as the range is n-times the length of the difference. In addition, the geometry associated with difference measurements is typically weaker than for ranging systems. Therefore, ranging systems should provide b e t t e r r e s u l t s w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h s y s t e m s u s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s of ranges". ( 8 5 ) S i n c e t h e h i g h e s t . p r e c i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of marine geodetic cont r o l at s e a , t h e u s e of s e v e r a l i n d e p e n d e n t o r s e m i i n d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r i n g m e t h o d s i s desired in geodesy. Therefore, SECOR could have a potential for use in the establishment of marine geodetic control points. As was pointed out in the discussion of the Doppler method, the approach for determining ship velocity and eliminating or minim i z i n g its e r r o r c o u l d m a k e t h i s m e t h o d e v e n m o r e u s e f u l .

its p r a c t i c a l T h e p r e s e n t c o s t a n d s i z e of a SECOR s e t u p , h o w e v e r , r e s t r i c t s of t h e p r e c e d i n g a p p r o a c h e s h a v e application by average users. Furthermore, none b e e n a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t e d a n d t e s t e d w h e r e a s t h e D o p p l e r m e t h o d is fully operational and its a c c u r a c y h a s b e e n t e s t e d . T h e a c c u r a c y of SECOR on land i s s t i l l a debatable topic. I t w o u l d t h e r e f o r e s e e m l o g i c a l at t h i s p o i n t t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e D o p p l e r n a v i g a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m t o m a r i n e g e o d e s y - leaving the SECOR a government system for future possible consideration. Its probable use would be by agency with ocean-mapping responsibility and capability.
The SECOR setup already exists on land and is being operated by the Army Map Service on a worldwide basis. The GEOS s a t e l l i t e a l s o c o n t a i n s a SECOR transponder. T h e r e f o r e , a n e x p e r i m e n t at s e a c o u l d b e m a d e a t a minimum additional cost to existing operations. Using at least three positions of the satellite in two orbits, or simultaneously from one orbit, the coordinates of the ship (positioned relative to the marine control point) could be determined. The process would be repeated for other control points until a s m a l l n e t w o r k w a s established. The final coordinates of the control points would be determined after the adjustment. It must be mentioned finally that discussions with persons involved with observations and reductions of S E C O R m e a s u r e m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y p r e f e r t h e u s e of Doppler, already operational at sea.

RADAR METHOD

. T h e r a d a r s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e t h o s e of frequencies in the C-band (FPS/ 16 o r F P Q / 6 ) a n d S - b a n d r a d a r s ( U n i f i e d S Band Radar-USB) which are available on board the Apollo ships. Each of the Apollo ships w i l l c a r r y a C - b a n d r a d a r a n d USB r a d a r w h i c h c o u l d b e u s e d as a back-up to their SINS/Star Tracker positioning systems. In addition, the GEOS-I1 s a t e l l i t e c a r r i e s a C-band transponder which would work well w i t h t h e F P S / 16 o r F P Q I 6 r a d a r s . A t p r e s e n t t h e F P S / 16 is u s e d s t r i c t l y f o r s a t e l l i t e t r a c k i n g a n d n o t f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of ship position. It gets the information "where to look" as t h e s a t e l l i t e c o m e s o v e r t h e h o r i z o n t h r o u g h a complex interconnection with
SINS.
Ship positioning can be accomplished, however, with C-ba,nd r a d a r b y d i r e c t r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t f r o m t h e s h i p a n d k n o w n g r o u n d s t a t i o n s t o t h e a c c u r a t e l y t r a c k e d GEOS

55

satellite C-band transponder similar to that in SECOR. With the availability of t h e s e r a d a r s y s t e m s o n board five of t h e m o s t s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r a c k i n g s h i p s , t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n f o r m a r i n e g e o d e s y c o u l d b e of m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . A n a l y s i s of such a C-band radar indic a t e s t h a t p o s i t i o n a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s of the Apollo ships (*300 m e t e r s p r o b a b l e e r r o r i n a suitable coordinate system(23)) would be met 9 9 . 9 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e T h e t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the C-band and USB r a d a r s a r e g i v e n i n as follows(1*61): Appendix B . T h e r a n g i n g e r r o r s of t h e s e r a d a r s a r e r e p o r t e d t o b e E r r Rr pFd o mr R aa n a d a o ge A N / F P S -16 AN/FPQ-6 USB

*9 m e t e r s *3 m e t e r s
*l meter

The errors in radar measurements are normally much higher when all data obtainable from radar are analyzed, For example, random azimuth and elevation angle e r r o r s f o r t h e s a m e r a d a r s m e n t i o n e d a r e of t h e o r d e r of 0 . 2 m i l l i r a d i a n o r a b o u t 2 2 0 m e t e r s a t t h e s a t e l l i t e a l t i t u d e of 600 nmi. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e u s e of r a d a r i n t h e r a n g i n g m o d e i s of i n t e r e s t t o m a r i n e g e o d e t i c a p p l i c a t i o n s . S h i p p o s i t i o n c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o C a l i b r i a f r o m t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h r e e o r f o u r r a n g e s f r o m t h e g r o u n d t o t h e s a t e l l i t e . ( 2 4 ) The three-range solution would require preknowledge of the approximate coordinates of the ship. The four-range solution which could involve three ranges plus the earth radius is more accurate and would not r e q u i r e a p p , r o x i m a t e coordinates of t h e ? h i p . A s i n t h e S E C O R , t h r e e s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n s o b t a i n e d f r o m t w o limit t h e different satellite orbits would be required. This requirement would therefore On the other hand, for establishu s e of r a d a r i n p o s i t i o n i n g w h i l e t h e s h i p i s i n m o t i o n . m e n t of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l , t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t w o u l d n o t b e a limiting factor. Analysis of e r r o r c o m p o n e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) i n d i c a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e u s e of USB would be superior even to use of t h e C - b a n d r a d a r s y s t e m . H o w e v e r , t h e u t i l i z a tion of USB i n t h e r a n g i n g m o d e w o u l d a l s o r e q u i r e a s a t e l l i t e w i t h a n S - b a n d t r a n s p o n d e r USB p r o v i d e s m o r e a c c u r a t e r a n g e which i s not a v a i l a b l e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n b y v i r t u e of its instrumentation. If it is desired to take advantage of this R F s e c t i o n of one USB. T h a t i s , it i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n it would be possible to modify the should or may be fitted with a C-band transmitter and receiver. Although opinions were expressed that a single shipborne FPS/16 tracking a geodetic satellite could not duplicate the accuracy of ship position determination achieved by the Doppler method, nevertheless, the potential of C - b a n d r a d a r f o r r a n g i n g m e a s u r e ments must be considered, particularly for establishment of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l points in the manners discussed above.

OPTICAL METHOD

Optical satellite methods involve the location of t h e c a m e r a s t a t i o n s by photographing the satellite against a star background and reducing the photographic plates to as d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m of obtain the direction vector to the satellite the stars. The optical method can use either one of two types of s a t e l l i t e s , p a s s i v e w i t h sufficient brightness or active (flashing light) to make observations. The GEOS satellite

56

i s equipped with a flashing light-optical beacon system. The satellite i s photographed from several observation points on land against the background of the stars. The optical methods are satellite triangulation methods, affected also by the geometry and strength of figure but independent of the effect of the gravity field of t h e e a r t h . D e t a i l s c o n c e r n ing the various methods, the cameras used, and their accuracy and other characteristics, plus available satellites and existing programs, are discussed in Appendix B.

The optical satellite methods have received the widest applications in gcometric land geodesy perhaps because of t h e f a m i l i a r i t y of the techniques involved and the simplicity of observations. Also, they give the highest accuracy achievable. Limited experiments have been performed on ships and the results obtained show p r o m i s e f o r geodetic application of optical methods to the establishment of m a r i n e c o n t r o l p o i n t s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k of H. J u r y a t t h e Air F o r c e E a s t e r n Test Range with Photogrammetric Ocear, Survey Equipment (POSE) - the details of which may be found in several reports. (47-50) The POSE system consists of a gyrostabilized stellar-oriented camera with associated timing equipment mounted aboarda ship. The ship station w a s used as an unknown station, but its relative position to either underwater acoustic bea~ons(~9) or land-based theodolites and cinetheodolitie~(~~) was known. Using simultaneous observations of a satellite from the shipboard and several land-based camera stations, the geographic position of the ship was determined by triangulation. T o use a c a m e r a a t s e a , t h e e f f e c t s o f s h i p m o t i o n m u s t be o v e r c o m e . T h e mathematics involved is e s s e n t a i l l y a n e x t e n s i o n of the land-based camera situation accounting for the relation of t h e c a m e r a t o a stable platform mounted on the ship with the equations describing the displacement of the photographic image due to: ( 1 ) S h i pt r a n s l a t i o n ( 2 ) P l a t f o r mr a n d o m ,s t e a d y ,a n de n f o r c e dd r i f t ( 3 ) E a r t hr o t a t i o n ( 4 ) Apparent stellar and satellite motion. One of t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s i s the overlapping of a s t e l l a r ( o r s a t e l l i t e ) t r a i l upon itself. This occurs when there is p o o r p l a t f o r m s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d no enforced drift. Use of a t h r e e - a x i s s t a b i l i z e d p l a t f o r m t h a t c a n b e s e p a r a t e l y t o r q u e d i n r o l l , p i t c h , o r a z i m u t h t o e n f o r c e d r i f t s u c h t h a t t h e o p t i c a l a x i s of the camera can sweep through a given angle per unit of t i m e s e e m s t o r e d u c e t h i s p r o b l e m . T h e s t e l l a r a n d s a t e l l i t e at a u n i f o r m r a t e r e s u l t i n g i n a slightly energy sweep across the photographic plate sinusoidal star t r a c e a n d l i n e a r t a r g e t t r a c e . P o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c i e s a s h i g h a s 30 t o 60 feet r e l a t i v e t o t h e l a n d - b a s e d c a m e r a s t a t i o n s on the North American Datum have been claimed with the use of a c a m e r a m o u n t e d on a stabilized platform. (47) F u r t h e r more, these results were obtained under controlled test conditions where the desired g e o m e t r y a n d t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of the ship were known by other means and hence may have influenced the analysis. Discussions with persons involved with the optical. methods of s a t e l l i t e o b s e r v a t i o n o n l a n d o n l y ( a n d w i t h no e x p e r i e n c e a t s e a ) d i s c l o s e d two m a i n objections: (1) Instability is a problem. Even on land the stability desired.
( 2 ) Operational feasibility i s questionable.

it i s very difficult to achieve

57

Others with some sea experience, and hence a familiarity with the problems a c a m e r a s y s t e m c o u l d b e o p e r a t e d f r o m a stabilized involved, seemed to feel that platform on a ship. They feel that as long a s t h e star a n d s a t e l l i t e t r a c e s c a n b e p r e vented from overlapping, this method has definite potential and should not be overlooked. T h e u s e of optical methods for positioning at s e a a p p e a r s i m p r a c t i c a l w h e n o n e considers the complications involved due to waiting for favorable weather conditions and obtaining simultaneous observations with suitable geometry. Also, it would be impossible to satisfactorily reduce the photographic plates and compute the position within any reasonable time span.
is an The use of optical methods for establishing geodetic control, however, 30 to 60-foot entirely different matter. This has definite potential whether or not r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y i s now obtainable. The drawbacks mentioned earlier would not be critical factors since the ship could stay o n position obtaining other needed measurements until favorable observing conditions occurred several times. All data could be at archived and analyzed later in the laboratory. Since the ship would not stay exactly one point for all observations, it would be v e r y h e l p f u l t o h a v e s o m e a c c u r a t e r e c o r d of its movement. This could be obtained i f the ship were continuously positioned relative to ocean-bottom transponders.

In geodetic work, it i s d e s i r a b l e t o u s e s e v e r a l s y s t e m s i n d e p e n d e n t of e a c h o t h e r f o r a n a l y s i s of new s y s t e m s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e o p t i c a l m e t h o d m a y d e m a n d S o m e f u r t h e r consideration for marine geodesy.

LASER METHOD

The GEOS satellite is e q u i p p e d a l s o w i t h q u a r t z p r i s m s so that an incident laser beam from ground equipment is reflected back to its source. Using this method, an interrogating ground station can determine the distance to the satellite by measuring it c o m e s the time t a k e n f o r t h e b e a m ' s r o u n d t r i p . A l s o t h e d i r e c t i o n a n g l e f r o m w h i c h can be determined. The use of t h i s m e t h o d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of m a r i n e c o n t r o l w o u l d r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c a m e r a s a n d a stabilized platform, as with the photographic method. T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s m e t h o d b e c a u s e of t h e n a r r o w n e s s of the laser beam. T h e m a i n p r o b l e m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e u s e of a laser f o r m a r i n e g e o d e s y w o u l d b e the stabilization of a p l a t f o r m t o s u c h a d e g r e e as t o b e w i t h i n p e r m i s s i b l e t o l e r a n c e s for aiming the beam. I n a v i s u a l t r a c k i n g s i t u a t i o n , a laser beamwidth of 1 m i l l i r a d i a n ( o r 3 m i n u t e s of a r c ) is usually transmitted. (16,46,68) This beam spreads 1 part in 1,000; therefore, the beam width i s 1 k i l o m e t e r f o r a distance of 1 m e g a m e t e r . T h i s i s 1, 0 0 0 t i m e s t h e of t h e b e a m m u s t d i a m e t e r of the GEOS satellite. To illuminate the satellite, the center be pointed to within one-half the beamwidth or 1. 5 minutes of a r c ; i. e . , t h e s a t e l l i t e position must be known to about 1. 5 minutes of a r c . O n c e t h e s a t e l l i t e i s s e e n , it can be t r a c k e d v i s u a l l y t o w i t h i n 1 o r 2 minutes of a r c . It s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o estimate that the platform would have to be stabilized to within a fraction of a minute of time t h i s is d o n e t h e s y s t e m a r c . Of course, the beamwidth could be widened, but each is degraded somewhat. It then becomes a m a t t e r of d e t e r m i n i n g j u s t how much degradation i s acceptable(57).

A n o t h e r f a c t o r t o b e c o n s i d e r e d is t h e o b s e r v e r ' s p o s i t i o n s i n c e t h i s m u s t b e k n o w n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e satellite's position. If visual tracking were used, this would not appear to present too great an obstacle. If " p r e s e t " t r a c k i n g w e r e t o b e u s e d , h o w e v e r , t h e o b s e r v e r ' s c o o r d i n a t e s w o u l d h a v e t o b e k n o w n w i t h i n a few h u n d r e d m e t e r s . Also, t h e beamwidth could be widened slightly to compensate for any large uncertainty in the o b s e r v e r ' s p o s i t i o n s i n c e a laser b e a m of 1 m r a d . b e a m w i d t h w i l l i l l u m i n a t e a n area of only 100 m e t e r s d i a m e t e r u p o n its return(57). The development of the laser for geodetic applications on land is just beginning. Consequently, no attention has been given to its a p p l i c a t i o n t o m a r i n e g e o d e s y . T h e r e f o r e , at t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e laser s y s t e m a p p e a r s t o h a v e s o m e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of geodetic control at s e a , p r o v i d e d t h a t a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s of the coo r d i n a t e s of the control points a r e d e t e r m i n e d by o t h e r m e a n s . For positioning ships at s e a i n a n a v i g a t i o n s e n s e , t h e l a s e r m e t h o d w i l l a p p a r e n t l y have limited applications as i n t h e c a s e w i t h o p t i c a l m e t h o d s .

OPPORTUNITIES PRESENTED B Y GEOS-I1

On land the capability of satellite geodetic techniques has been demonstrated. For example, a s y s t e m of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t e s of s e l e c t e d p o i n t s a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d is being established with the geometric solution of satellite triangulation. Such solution i s executed independent of the effect of the gravity normal and without any assumption as to the Earth's density structure. Several other solutions involving both the geometric and dynamic satellite methods a r e b e i n g a n a l y z e d t o a r r i v e a t a unified world geodetic d a t u m . ( 7 1 ) O n c e s u c h a s y s t e m i s e s t a b l i s h e d , it w i l l p r o v i d e a n a b s o l u t e r e f e r e n c e f r a m e of stations around the globe to which can be tied both the predominantly geometric a l l y o r i e n t e d m a p p i n g p r o g r a m s a n d t h e e v a l u a t i o n of s a t e l l i t e o r b i t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g gravitationalandrelatedgeophysicalparameters(88, l). M a r i n e g e o d e s y i s now being presented with similar opportunities brought about by satellite capabilities in conjunction with other technology. Satellite and other prerequisite technologies give every reason to believe that geodetic control points can be established at s e a . F o r p o s i t i o n i n g , s a t e l l i t e s h a v e s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s o v e r o t h e r p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o p e r a t i n g at long ranges. In conjunction with the potential of other positioning systems, the potential for satellites use in marine geodesy and precise positioning i s almost without limit. Satellites should make possible a r e l a t i v e o r a n a b s o l u t e g e o c e n t r i c - c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m b a s e d on a n a c c u r a t e b o t t o m - c o n t r o l system. This system can be used then with other available surface-based systems to provide geocentric positions of s u r f a c e s h i p s . Satellites offer a single reference datum for worldwide ocean activities. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m a r i n e c o n t r o l p o i n t s c o u l d b e m a d e p r o g r e s s i v e l y o r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n d i f f e r e n t areas of t h e w o r l d o c e a n s u s i n g t h e s a m e t e c h n i q u e , w i t h e a c h c o n t r o l p o i n t referenced to the same coordinate system. In time, this would improve capabilities for on t h e b a s i s of ocean mapping and surveying and for other operations being conducted criteria a m e n a b l e t o r e a l i s t i c a c c u r a c y e v a l u a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . M e a n i n g f u l c o m of s a t e l l i t e s f o r c o n t r o l is p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n s e t s of data would be possible. The benefit obvious. Charts and maps being prepared today could be made compatible with those that

59

will be prepared i n the future. This would eliminate the traditional p r o b l e m of conversion of m a p s a n d d a t a f r o m o n e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m

but a l w a y s c u r r e n t to another.

Satellites could provide world-ocean coverage both for positioning and for establishing marine geodetic control. Depending on the altitude of the satellite, position of thousands of m i l e s a r e determinations and distance measurements on the order at sea within a world geopossible. The potential for establishing super-control points detic net exists using satellites, for example: at deep-ocean ship-tracking sites in space programs. Satellites provide the best achievable accuracy at long ranges anywhere in the oceans, Satellite systems at present, and in the foreseeable future, are the onlyavaila b l e m e a n s of approaching the positioning accuracy needed. M a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l p o i n t s e s t a b l i s h e d by s a t e l l i t e s a n d c o n f i g u r e d a s a geodetic range at sea could go far toward elimination of the confusion and uncertainties in a c c u r a c y claims and statements by providing a r e l i a b l e m e a s u r i n g s t a n d a r d at s e a .

60
I

APPENDIX A

COMMENTARIES -

ON POSITIONING AND MARINE GEODETICREQUIREMENTS

This Appendix contains extracts from 2 7 t r i p r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d by Battelle staff m e m b e r s who interviewed various individuals within a nurnber of i n d u s t r i a l , g o v e r n ment, and private research organizations interested in a s p e c t r u m of o c e a n a c t i v i t i e s involving positioning information requirements. At the beginning of e a c h e x t r a c t is a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t h e a d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i n t e r e s t s e x p r e s s e d by an individual or by a group of p e r s o n s q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e t r i p r e p o r t . The topics listed below formed the basis Type of a c t i v i t i e s o r o p e r a t i o n s in the oceans, Annual dollar volume of m a r i n e activities. M a r i n e a r e a of i n t e r e s t - s h e l f (U.S., f o r e i g n ) ,d e e pw a t e r( w h e r e ) , ,e t c . Positioning system(s) or methods used. Type of positioning information required: fixed, continuous, both, etc. Time-span required to perform operation(s ) . Positioning accuracy requirements present and future. Positioning accuracy achieved with current systems. Importance of positioning. C o s t s i n t e r m s of l o s s ( d o l l a r s , d e g r a d a tion of s u r v e y , e t c . ) if r e q u i r e d a c c u r a c y is not achieved. Desirabilitytoemploy a m o r ee f f e c t i v e or accurate system. Familiarity with marine geodetic control, its p u r p o s e a n d u s e . of discussion during the interviews, Desirability to have geodetic control in a r e a of o p e r a t i o n s and estimate of a c c u r a c y r e quired. Major technical and operational p r o b l e m s of positioning used, s y s t e m sa c c u r a c y ,r a n g el i m i tation,singularity of r e f e r e n c e ,r e f e r e n c es y s t e m , continuousfixes,geometry, a r e a ,e t c . Major problems in establishment of accuracy criteria and require ments. Flexibility to change if b e t t e r means are available to improve positioning capabilities. Role of s a t e l l i t e - p r e s e n t a n d future. Role of geodetic control in the future,

A-l

Interview 1

- GEOPHYSICS

International operations impose certain positioning requirements for geophysical U . S. c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f , e . g . , surveys which are different than those in the ( a ) L a c k of any geodetic control and transmitting stations areas is often the case. in foreign

( h ) Cost of operations increases due to installation of t r a n s m i t t e r s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of land control, and transportation of equipment and personnel for foreign land.

At present time concerned with foreign exploration at distances up to 200 m i l e s f r o m shore and shelves which may extend up to 400 m i l e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e a r e n o e f f e c t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s at that range. Company invests about $5-6 million/year for foreign geophysical operations. Company has used several navigation and surveying systems to position their surveys;ShoranRaydist-N,Decca, LORAN, Toran,andOmega(onoccasion).The geophysical surveys are made for them by c o n t r a c t o r s . Positioning information required must be continuous. Operations may last from 3 0 - d a y i n t e r v a l s to e i g h t m o n t h s . S o m e t i m e s o n l y a f e w d a y s . P e r f o r m o n the a v e r a g e of shot points of 25 to 30 m i l e s of s e i s m i c l i n e s p e r d a y . C o m m o n d e p t h p o i n t r e c o r d i n g p r e s e n t s p r o b l e m s e s p e c i a l l y if continuous positioning is not available, such as is the six d i f f e r e n t s e i s m i c s h o t s m a d e i n s u c c e s s i o n . case with satellite. Six traces from Therefore, any error in consecutive positioning will complicate matching the results from the traces which must all be reduced to one common point. P o s i t i o n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r y f r o m 200 to 400 feet, depending on the operations performed. For lease boundary identification this must even be much better, especially if the block leased just borders on a producing field adjacent to another company's lease (e. g., see map in Offshore, June 2 0 , 1967). A c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d is of t h e o r d e r of 400-1000 feet. This is what we like to think of knowing for sure. Omega, which has been used, we a r e getting but there is no way h a s p e r h a p s t h e least a c c u r a c y f i g u r e s ( a b o u t 1500 f e e t p e r h a p s ) . T h e m o s t s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w h i c h c a n b e c a u s e d by a l a r g e e r r o r i n p o s i t i o n i n g a well. The cost of d r i l l i n g s u c h a well is about would be that which affects drilling $2 million. Other problems would involve resurveying the area (cost - about $ 1 . 2 m i l l i o n ) . If it i s n o t t o o s e r i o u s a n d t h e e r r o r i s s y s t e m a t i c t h e n a l l t h a t would be n e c e s s a r y is to readjust the survey in the office which may cost up to $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . Also it is very important for us to reoccupy a station at a later time (perhaps five years later). Therefore the accuracy of t h e s y s t e m e m p l o y e d m u s t be such that we c a n r e c o v e r o u r o p e r a t i o n s s u c c e s s f u l l y . Company always searching for a b e t t e r a n d m o r e a c c u r a t e s y s t e m a t a reasonable is s e v e r a l t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n d o m e s t i c cost. Our cost at present in foreign operations ones.

A-2

Oil companies a r e flexible and are always looking for something more suitable for offshore positioning everywhere.

W e a r e a little familiar with geodetic control. We must see its practicality and is n o t a n o p e r a t i o n a l s y s t e m a t t h e demonstrated usefulness. Since geodetic control p r e s e n t t i m e , we can't suggest anything in regard to its accuracy or practicality. Most oil companies can tell the geophysical contractor the equipment and system that he must u s e t h r o u g h c o n t r a c t . If a u s e f u l s y s t e m is a v a i l a b l e t h e y c a n u s e i t a n d t h e y a r e t o u s e one system everywhere if possible.
The major problems and limitations of p r e s e n t s y s t e m s a r e : r a n g e , a c c u r a c y , l o s s of lane count and useable time per day because of environmental conditions. We have no p r o b l e m s w h e n u s i n g o n e s y s t e m . If s e v e r a l s y s t e m s a r e e m p l o y e d , t h e n comparison is all you can obtain.

If the satellite can be used continuously or perhaps with another system like Doppler sonar or inertial, and can give 400 feet, it will be desirable because of i t s u s e anywhere in the world (singularity of s y s t e m ) . I t is also believed that it c a n a l s o c o m F o r example, for one type of s y s t e m t h e pete in cost with present foreign operations. c o s t of t h r e e t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n s is about $30, 000 p e r m o n t h u s i n g a n e i g h t - m a n c r e w , one supervisor, and one draftsman. Cost of mobilization to foreign land is about $15, 000 to $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 . Cost of establishment of land control, if n o t a v a i l a b l e , w i l l c e r tainly increase this. In addition we a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s a r e c o o p e r a t i v e with us and permit land installations. Also new transmitters must be used at ,other a r e a s . If s a t e l l i t e s c a n b e m a r r i e d w i t h a n o t h e r s y s t e m f o r c o n t i n u o u s p o s i t i o n i n g , t h i s will definitely change the whole picture. The same can be said with geodetic control, particularly for defining block boundaries and obtaining an operational system.

Interview 2 - GEOPHYSICS

Company is involved in the exploration and exploitation of o i l r e s o u r c e s a l l o v e r the world. Positioning information required for geophysical surveys and location of drilling wells. Marine area of the Company's operation is anywhere in the continental is o n t h e o r d e r shelves worldwide. The Company's expenditure for marine operations of $ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n p e r y e a r w h i c h e x c l u d e s $20 to 30 million the cost of a p l a t f o r m when in production.

P o s i t i o n i n gs y s t e m su s e da r e : LORAN, Raydist,Decca,orequivalent,etc. If a new .system is better than existing ones and available at a reasonable cost we w i l l u s e it immediately. Our Company is quite flexible to changing to a n e w s y s t e m i f i t is better. However, in some foreign areas we cannot be flexible because of monopoly. a very important tool for survey all over the world. Eventually, the satellite will be We a r e looking into it now. F o r e x p l o r a t i o n p u r p o s e s we need continuous positioning information. As long as a positioning system can allow us to go back to a previous location this should be satisf a c t o r y . In lease boundary location we a r e a l l o w e d t o d r i l l 300 feet away from the next

A-3

lease. Seismic operations a r e conducted all y e a r l o n g . T h e s e o p e r a t i o n s a r e p l o t t e d and then two to three months later they are followed to check them. Instantaneous positions are needed everywhere. The positioning accuracy requirement can be stated as that needed to allow the c r e w to go b a c k a t a l a t e r d a t e to the s a m e p o s i t i o n . T h e f i n a l w e l l l o c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , m u s t be 300 feet away from the next lease (what the government allows for drainage). In t h e N o r t h S e a o n e c o m p a n y h a s a l r e a d y d r i l l e d i n s o m e o n e e l s e ' s l e a s e . F o r t u n a t e l y or unfortunately it was a dry hole. This will happen again. Positioning accuracy is a l s o i m p o r t a n t f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of common depth point of s e i s m i c s h o t s . A l s o i n gravity measurements. T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d w i t h p r e s e n t s y s t e m s is quite variable depending on the location and the conditions. The variations range from poor to sometimes good. Nothing i s c o n s t a n t , h o w e v e r . T h e r e i s no doubt in "my mind" that positioning accuracy is p r i m a r y - fundamental. It i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e t h e c o s t d u e t o p,oor positioning information. Normally, we h a v e t o r e i n t e r p r e t t h e d a t a a n d go back and check some stations to know the c r o s s 10 p e r c e n t of the original operation. If i n g s . If we find it, this can cost about five to we can't find it, we m u s t s h o o t a g a i n . In any case, they are time consuming and troublesome. Geodetic control on the ocean floor will be needed especially when we p r o g r e s s out to s e a , T h e f a r t h e r we go out t o s e a t h e m o r e i t w i l l be needed. A spacing of 10 t o 2 0 m i l e s m a y be r e q u i r e d f o r c e r t a i n a r e a s . G e o d e t i c c o n t r o l , I think, will be very important for mapping as it is on land. The major technical and operational problems are: ( a ) F i r s t of all, the difference between theory and operations. The a c c u r a c y t h a t m a t t e r s i s t h a t w h a t is achieved in operations and not what is stated in papers. ("We c a r e l e s s a b o u t s t a t e d a c c u r a c i e s " . ) ( b ) T i m e of d a y o r n i g h t t h a t a f f e c t c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s ( c ) P e r s o n n e l - m o s t of a v a i l a b l e s y s t e m s a r e n o t a u t o m a t i c . m u s t h a v e s e v e r a l p e r s o n n e l t i e d up to the operations. You

(d) Surface-based electronic systems when used in foreign land are not a s c o n v e n i e n t a n d c e r t a i n l y a r e m o r e e x p e n s i v e b e c a u s e of t r a n s f e r r i n g of equipment and personnel. We really don't know where we a r e a t s e a , t h e r e f o r e , how can you e s t a b l i s h a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a ? If you have a b a s e l i n e e s t a b l i s h e d , a t l e a s t we c a n c o m p a r e t h e m e a surements to it.

A-4

Interview 3

- GEOPHYSICS

Company engaged geophysical operations concerned primarily with seismic, magnetic, and gravimetric surveys for oil exploration. Areas of o p e r a t i o n a r e p r i m a r i l y the continental shelves of the world. We would like to have positioning capabilities up to 400 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e e v e r y w h e r e .T h ep o s i t i o n i n gs y s t e m su s e da r e :L o r a c ,S h o r a n ,R a y d i s t ,D e c c a , LORAN, Omega, etc. We can now s u r v e y on a 24-hour basis around the clock with latest energy s o u r c e s . We require fixed and continuous positions: (a) geodetic static and (b) dynamic. 100 feet to 1, 000 feet. Positioning accuracy requirements are: the positioning accuracy achieved. It depends on area which many times 400 m i l e s . Need ac:curate and continuous system up to

It i s h a r d t o s a y is not good.

C o s t s of p o o r p o s i t i o n i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e g r a d a t i o n of survey and repeatedly checking of s u r v e y s . If a n e w s y s t e m would have accuracy and range available, we could employ the new system. It is desirable to resurvey an area or go back for detail. So if g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l i s a v a i l a b l e , i t c a n be used. Accurate geodetic control is needed for accurate surveying and mapping on land as well as in the ocean. We have to operate withwhat we have got. We wouldlikeone s y s t e m if available. However, a combination of s y s t e m s w i l l h a v e t o be the solution. All systems available have some kind of l i m i t a t i o n s . W e a r e f l e x i b l e i f not prohibitively expensive. We need a s t a n d a r d f o r e v a l u a t i o n of w o r k a t s e a .
if enough fixes and/or continuous information are The satellite may be good obtained. A combination of s y s t e m s is the answer. .Perhaps satellits plus acoustic Doppler o r s a t e l l i t e p l u s i n e r t i a l m a y b e t h e o n l y w a y t o m e e t o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e Omega system combined with others would appear to be of m u c h l e s s e r a c c u r a c y . If improved through monitors, it may be possible. Most important is velocity of ship. It should be known to 116 of a knot for both gravity and positioning information. Available systems may be satisfactory up to 150 to 2 0 0 m i l e s , but they have their limitations.

Interview 4

GEOPHYSICS

Involved in exploration and exploitation investment in the ocean not known.

of o i l a n d m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . A n n u a l

A r e a of o p e r a t i o n p r i m a r i l y t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f of the U . S. a n d o t h e r a r e a s w h e r e o i l i s e x p e c t e d to befound. Progressing toward the slope in the near future. we c a n e x p l o i t o i l f r o m t h e d e e p w a t e r s a n d s t i l l c o m p e t e w i t h o i l o b t a i n e d f r o m l a n d o r s h a l e o i l , i t is possible then for the oil companies to go into the deep water.

If

Has u s e d m a n y p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s . M o s t l y t h r o u g h c o n t r a c t f o r g e o p h y s i c a l surveys where contractor usually provided the positioning systems. The types of p o s i tioning information required are both fixed and continuous. Positioning is r e q u i r e d t o

A-5

locate platforms and drill for oil. Continuous positioning information is r e q u i r e d particularly for geophysical surveys. Perform geophysical surveys around the clock Would like to have as accurate positioning information as possible, but operate with whatever can get. The positioning accuracy achieved with current systems varies with the system, its location, the type of o p e r a t i o n , a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s . In m a n y c a s e s , the information obtained has not been satisfactory as to accuracy and coverage. Positioning system employed is of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e t o a l l g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s . Without positioning information, the o i l c o m p a n i e s a r e n o t a b l e t o p e r f o r m u s e f u l surveys. The accuracy is of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n f o r e i g n o p e r a t i o n s b e c a u s e of costs. The cost of o p e r a t i o n i n f o r e i g n a r e a s m u l t i p l i e s by a f a c t o r of two o r t h r e e o v e r U . S. This is due to transportation of o p e r a t o r s a n d e q u i p m e n t t o t h e a r e a s that in the of interest which often require the establishment of actual geodetic control on foreign land if not available. In a d d i t i o n , r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t r a n s m i t t e r l o c a t i o n s c r e a t e u n f a v o r able geometry which degrades the accuracy. It i s d e s i r a b l e t o h a v e a s y s t e m m o s t useful everywhere in the world and, if possible, not depending on s h o r e i n s t a l l a t i o n s . If t h i s s y s t e m i s not prohibitively expensive, the oil companies are easily adaptable and very much interested in buying it i f i t h a s t h e a c c u r a c y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y .

its purpose and use. Believe that control Familiar with marine geodetic control, points would be of i m p o r t a n c e d e f i n i t e l y i n t h e a r e a of d e e p w a t e r s , if an operational s y s t e m of control points can be developed economically and established quickly in the s u r v e y a r e a w i t h a m e a n s of positioning between control points. The speed of i n s t a l l a tion and operation is important because geophysical surveys are expensive and are conducted on a 24-hour basis. For future positioning and mapping will undoubtedly be required especially in the deep water. It is not known a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s u c h a s y s t e m in actual operations.
The major technical and operational problems facing the oil industry are those associated with the expansion of drilling into deep water. The limitation of existing positioning systems due to loss of lane count, sky waves effect at night, and distance covered from shore are among the problems requiring immediate attention. A few majors can afford to do more research into these areas and come up with more effective systems. Most of the other operating companies will have to depend on the geophysical contractor. If satellites proved to be reliable and effective for continuous positioning even in combination with another system, it is felt that most of the companies will request the contractor to adapt such a system. Accuracy evaluation of e x i s t i n g s y s t e m s h a s not b e e n t h e e a s i e s t t h i n g i n t h e world. Such evaluation is possible only through the comparison of one against the other which is n o t e f f e c t i v e . O t h e r m e a n s a r e t o c h e c k t h e p o s i t i o n s a g a i n s t s e i s m i c or buoys. The oil companies, in g e n e r a l , a r e q u i t e f l e x i b l e a n d t h e y would obtain any system if i t i s a c c u r a t e a n d r e l i a b l e a n d n o t t o o c o s t l y . B e l i e v e s a t e l l i t e s w i l l b e e m p l o y e d more in the future for positioning and other operations. Several companies are looking into satellites and other combinations that would be most effective for oil explorations.

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Interview 5

- GEOPHYSICS

Activities involve marine surveys and research using the data collected, and of Operations includegravimetric,magnetic,topographic,coring,andhydrology.Area is p r i m a r i l y i n t h e d e e p w a t e r s . Main positioning w a s by c e l e s t i a l m e t h o d s ; now a r e using gatellites. The type of p o s i t i o n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d is that for determining the E - W velocity of the ship go back to the same spot, Satellites and ship (for Eotvos correction) and to be able to gyro compass (good to 1 / 4 ) are satisfactory. The positioning accuracy requirement i s o n t h e o r d e r of o n e m i l e ; c o v e r a g e is m o r e i m p o r t a n t . T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y achieved using satellites i s o n t h e o r d e r of .2 n m ; u s i n g c e l e s t i a l f i x e s i s of t h e o r d e r of two to five miles. Accurage positioning systems are nice to have but they are not absolutely necessary. T h e a c c u r a c y of g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s w a s i m p r o v e d t o p r e s e n t 1 mgal using s a t e l l i t e s f r o m f i v e to 10 m g a l s w i t h c e l e s t i a l f i x e s . C a n d e f i n i t e l y g e t t w o t o t h r e e m g a l s now and this i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . H a v e h e a r d d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l b u t d o n o t b e l i e v e i t is needed for his operations. Sometimes need accurate geodetic control especially i f drop If could use nearby geodetic control it would bottom seismometers on the ocean floor. be nice. Not familiar with mapping methods and cant comment on geodetic control for mapping.

Interview 6

GEOPHYSICS

Company involved in oil exploration and production. Area of operations includes the continental shelf of the U . S . and of the world. N o leases are being given beyond the p r e s e n t t i m e . H o w e v e r g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s h a v e b e e n the shelf in Louisiana at carried out throughout the whole Gulf a r e a . T h i s would include, of c o u r s e , t h e s h e l f , $ 1 m i l l i o n p e r d a y is being spent in the slope, and the deep water. Believe that about the Gulf of Mexico alone by the oil industry and its supporting companies, such as drilling, positioning, surveying, etc. For fixing of r i g s a n d p l a t f o r m s , v i s u a l a n d m i c r o w a v e s y s t e m s a r e u s u a l l y u s e d to obtain a g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n o t h e r p l a t f o r m o r t o a land site. Most companies usually depend when possible on visual methods for final layout of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s b e c a u s e i t seems that is the only way to be sure of putting it in the right place.

The types of positioning information required are continuous for exploration of o p e r a t i o n s purposes, fixcd for geological and platform locations. The time span dependent in many cases upon the weather. For rig or platform installation this is usually a 2 4 - h o u r - p e r - d a y j o b w h i c h a l s o d e p e n d s on the distance from shore. Often, buoys a r e i n s t a l l e d d u r i n g t h e d a y t o e s t a b l i s h s o m e k i n d of p o s i t i o n i n g r e f e r e n c e f o r continuing the operation at night. For geophysical surveys require continuous observations and if possible on a 2 4 - h o u r b a s i s f o r s e v e r a l d a y s u n t i l t h e j o b i s d o n e . S y s t e m s used to date are susceptible to skywave effects thus reducing the efficiency and a c c u 50 to r a c y . If s a t e l l i t e s c a n b e u s e d , t h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e a v o i d e d a n d c a n o p e r a t e o v e r 100 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e w i t h n o s u c h p r o b l e m s a t a l l . The positioning accuracy requirements are or should be as good a s we call get them. For practical purposes may be satisfied with 200 f e e t if we can be s u r e of i t . We a r e n o r m a l l y p l e a s e d t o o b t a i n 2 0 0 feet; this has been accomplished with some s y s t e m s in c e r t a i n a r e a s a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . I n t h e p a s t , e r r o r s of t h e o r d e r of thous a n d s of f e e t w e r e q u i t e c o m m o n u s i n g t h e s e s y s t e m s . H a v e i m p r o v e d t h e a c c u r a c y and the use of t h e s e s y s t e m s by t a k i n g m a n y o t h e r p r e c a u t i o n a r y s t e p s , s u c h a s p r o viding check points and ties and relying somewhat on our geophysical surveys to disc o v e r s o m e of t h e e r r o r s . The positioning system used is without a doubt of great importance. Without the positioning information have nothing. More than five years ago several oil companies made many mistakes in buying "wrong blocks'' due to errors of about 0 . 5 m i l e i n p o s i tioning of s u r v e y s . T h e s e e r r o r s c a u s e d a l s o c o m p a n i e s t o d r i l l o u t s i d e t h e d e s i r e d a r e a o r in the wrong lease. Some of t h e s e p r o b l e m s c a n b e a v o i d e d by going into extensive field programs both in education and training and obtaining better equipment. In Louisiana, for example, geodetic control is available through existing platforms for rr-ost of the area to 600-foot depth. Beyond the 600-foot depth will, n o doubt, require help from other positioning systems, such as "satellites". Another approach would be t o e s t a b l i s h e l e c t r o n i c s y s t e m s on b a s e s t a t i o n s ( e x i s t i n g p l a t f o r m s ) t o e x t e n d t h e r a n g e of t h e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s t o c o v e r t h e s l o p e a n d e v e n t h e d e e p e r w a t e r . The company is always interested in better systems and at the present is interested in satellite for positioning. Realize that the satellites may not give pinpoint a c c u r a c y a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e but a r e c e r t a i n t h a t i t i s t h e t o o l of the future. Obviously, m a y h a v e s e v e r a l p r o b I e m s d u e to i n a c c u r a c y of t h e s a t e l l i t e s , both operational and i n h e r e n t t o t h e s y s t e m , b u t c a n be satisfied with * 3 0 0 f e e t i f we know this is what we a r e 300 f e e t f r o m t h e getting, Eventually, would like to get positioning accuracy better than s a t e l l i t e . Would like to have eventually an accuracy of * 5 0 feet with reliability of being able to go back to the same location. F a m i l i a r w i t h m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l f r o m t h e u s e of horizontal control on land in planning his operations and in Gulf p l a t f o r m t i e s . D e s i r e to have control points in the a r e a of o p e r a t i o n . T h e e x a m p l e of tying the platforms for extension of c o n t r o l c l o s e r t o a r e a s of o p e r a t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of control points and their use. Marine control points will become necessary especially in a r e a s w h e r e Xve have "big jumps" that cannot be r e l a t e d t o a platform or when operating in deep water. However, a n o p e r a t i o n a l s y s t e m m u s t be devel-oped to demonstrate their capability. Control points placed in the deep water, particularly in a r e a s w h e r e no other control is within site of l a n d o r r e a c h of m i c r o w a v e e l e c t r o n i c p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s w i l l d e f i n i t e l y h a v e a m a j o r role in controlling surveys and improving the accuracy of positioning operations.

A-8

With r e g a r d t o a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a , b e l i e v e t h e i n d u s t r y c a n b e p o s i t i v e of positions only when h a v e e i t h e r v i s u a l o r m i c r o w a v e e q u i p m e n t a n d a t s h o r t d i s t a n c e s f r o m known structures and then can get within a few feet of the d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n . In addition, can employ two boats iull time with positioning equipment on board and make continuous checks on t h e s e s y s t e m s by v i s u a l m e a n s i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l e r r o r s . G e o l o g i s t s n o r mally provide the surveyor with acceptable tolerances for location of drilling sites o r p l a t f o r m s .T h es u r v e y o rm u s t ,h o w e v e r ,w o r kt ok e e pw i t h i nt h e s et o l e r a n c e s . In off the shelf of Louisiana exploration we a r e l u c k y by having these platforms where we c a n make the siting on them. Company is quite flexible in adopting any new system that meets the requirements. A l s o w e l c o m e a l l s u g g e s t i o n s a n d ideas leading to improvement of capability and reliability of e x i s t i n g s y s t e m s . Looks with favor on the role of satellites in the future of all p u r p o s e s , e . g . , p o s i t i o n i n g t o o l s positioning. Hope that satellites will be used for f o r p i p e l i n e s a n d for geophysical surveys, fixing structures, and bathymetry. Willing to state any type of r e q u i r e m e n t s n e e d e d t o j u s t i f y t h e l a u n c h i n g of any additional new satellites that will give either better positioning accuracy or additional coverage.

Interview 7

GEOPHYSICS

Colnpany involved in exploration and production o f oil a n d m i n e r a l s No estimates available for company expenditures in offshore operaticns. A r e a of operations includes U . S. continental shelf and slope. T h e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s u s e d a r e t h o s e of a n e l e c t r o n i c t y p e . O t h e r t y p e s of positioning involve visual sighting especially for precise location of s t r u c t u r e s . T h e type of positioning info.rmation required is both fixed and continuous. Fixed positions a r e needed for structures and barge installation, and continuous positioning information is required for exploration and pipelines. The time span of operations is continuous sometimes five to six days, sometimes much longer depending on the purpose and location of the operation.

on the type of o p e r a t i o n s Positioning accuracy requirements also differ depending - 10 to 20 f e e t a r e r e q u i r e d . F o r p e r f o r m e d .F o rd r i l l i n g ,s t r u c t u r e s ,a n db a r g e s of s u r v e y . F o r example, detailed exploration purposes generally depends on the type surveys require higher accuracies which are "as good as possible". System accuracy W e l l s m u s t be located exactly i s of importance, especially in production operations. a t the desired site within the lease boundaries. We m u s t a l s o be a b l e t o c o r r e l a t e t w o or t h r e e s i t e s , w h i c h b e c o m e s c r i t i c a l i n a r e a s s u r v e y e d e a r l i e r w i t h l a r g e e r r o r s .

P o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c i e s of *5 feet have been achieved in tying the platforms and is accomplished only by visual observations using theodolites locating drill sites. This 80 and microwave equipment. Such accuracies have also baen accomplished at about miles from the coast. This was done easily because of the availability of p l a t f o r m s which can be observed visually. Visibility of up to 30 m i l e s h a s b e e n p o s s i b l e i n s o m e areas.Theaccuracyachievedinexplorationsvarieswiththescale.Checkingthe measurements against buoys, 50-foot accuracy can be obtained within 3 0 miles. At 7 0 - m i l e d i s t a n c e s , a c c u r a c y of t h e o r d e r of 300 to 400 f e e t h a s b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d in seismic line shooting (50-mile-long seismic lines).

A-9

T h e c o s t of o p e r a t i o n s : r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a r g e e r r o r s , s a y 1 , 0 0 0 f e e t o r m o r e , c o u l d lead to drilling in the wrong block and might amount to $2 million or more, depending on the location and equipment. The cost of drilling is of t h e o r d e r of $500, 000. In some cases the company is reimbursed for some of t h e c o s t s of drilling in the wrong i f i t r e s u l t e d i n a producing well. It is v e r y l e a s e by the rightful company, especially difficult sometimes to estimate the cost due to errors in positioning. In s o m e c a s e s e r r o r s i n these surveys resulted in the company buying the wrong block. Compan; is getting as much information as needed for production purposes at the present time. However, for exploration we don't really know. How much the positioning information a more reliable system is desired. is really worth is difficult to estimate. Definitely U . S . a r e a s we a r e a l r e a d y We a r e a b o u t t o g o beyond 6OO-foot depths. In some stretching the limit of equipment. F a m i l i a r with m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l . S a t i s f i e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e w i t h t h e availability of s u r f a c e c o n t r o l f o r s u r v e y s , but s t a t e d t h a t i f company is to go into deep water (which is expected in the future provided that oil production is feasible from these depths) control points must be moved out there or placed on the ocean floor. The role of geodetic control in future positioning and mapping operations believed to be that of calibratingthesatellitereceiversandothersystems.However, intheLouisianaoffof the availability of platforms and other visual shore exploration, not needed because m e a n s of providing the check and calibration of t h e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s u s e d . Several problems common to most oil companies, Bad weather cuts down on the visibility and limits their positioning capabilities to electronic means. Electronic positioning cannot be relied on alone for drill and derricks locations. These locations must be known accurately and cannot be s t o p p e d o r p o s t p o n e d b e c a u s e of w e a t h e r , u n l e s s i t i s a hurricane. Often the company does not know when these operations are to be started, T h e c o s t of t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s i s a b o u t $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 p e r d a y a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y m u s t b e c o n tinuous. Although electronic positioning systems have advantages against the weather, they are not as reliable. Most of t h e m a l s o s u f f e r f r o m s k y w a v e e f f e c t w h i c h c a u s e s e r r o r s a n d s o m e t i m e s l o s s of signals and lane counts. The location of the platform is m o s t c r i t i c a l . O n c e a platform is located, it can of the b e u s e d t h e n a s a fixed control point on the surface. Company contracts most t o buy s e v geophysical work. Very difficult and quite expensive for the oil companies e r a l t y p e s of e q u i p m e n t o r s e v e r a l r e c e i v e r s f o r o n e s y s t e m t o o p e r a t e o n l y o c c a s i o n o w n and operate the best available positioning ally when needed. Prefer that contractors s y s t e m s on a l e a s e b a s i s . A s t o a c c u r a c y c o m p a r i s o n o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a , t h i s h a s n o t been a p r o b l e m f o r v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n o r i n a r e a s c l o s e t o s h o r e o r f i x e d i n s t a l l a t i o n s . It i s ; h o w e v e r , a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m f o r g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s a t a r e a s w h e r e n o visual meansareavailable.Inthesecases,onlycomparisonsorchecksbycrossings,or from seismic, geomag, and gravity records can be made. Since these are not accurate methods, we m u s t c o n t i n u o u s l y k e e p a d j u s t i n g a n d c o r r e c t i n g t h e s u r v e y s . Company quite flexible and would desire a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m , if available, a t a reasonable cost: that would meet the requirements. As to the satellite role in the future positioning and oceanographic operations in offshore exploration, it will be the tool of the f u t u r e .

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Interview 8

--GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYING

Use available positioning systems to execute surveying operations. Believe that present positioning systems are adequate for most part. Does not think that there are a n y m a j o r p r o b l e m s b u t c o m p a n y is b u y i n g s a t e l l i t e r e c e i v e r s p r i m a r i l y f o r l a n e identifications of electronic positioning systems, For lane identification the satellite will be used to check the count at perhaps two-hour intervals, thus increasing the reliability of t h e s y s t e m s . S a t e l l i t e w i l l n o t c o m e t o i t s own until a long time in the f u t u r e , p e r h a p s 10 y e a r s h e n c e . A satellite s y s t e m c o u p l e d w i t h a n i n e r t i a l s y s t e m will be an ideal positioning system provided that the "bugs" are eliminated from the inertial systems. The use of i n e r t i a l s y s t e m s w i l l b e l i m i t e d i n a c c u r a c y d u e t o t h e If t h e i n e r t i a l s y s t e m is to be used to determine the effect of gravity anomaly on them. of s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n s , t h i s velocity of the ship which is needed to improve the accuracy again will still have inherent errors due to the gravity anomaly effects. Have not used satellites yet but existing electronic systems employed are very convenient.

Interview 9

GEOLOGY

M a i n i n t e r e s t is marine geology with related interests including buoy surveys, coresamples,dredgesamples,seamountsurveys,anddeepseadrilling.Perform operations all year round. Decca and Hi-Fix and LORAN-A have been used in c l o s e - t o - s h o r e a r e a s b u t beyond these areas only radar and mostly celestial navigations are used. Believed that in one area of o p e r a t i o n s a n a c c u r a c y of about 100 m e t e r s h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d b a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m m a n u f a c t u r e r of equipment. There is no way to know for sure though. The positioning information required varies with the work that is being performed. With sea mount surveys both continuous and fixed interval are required. For target area location, need "as good as you can get it". At present and beyond radar range, plant buoys, although do not know where the buoys are. Estimated that 200 to 400 foot a c c u r a c y of control would be required, especially for deep sea drilling where sites have been determined hopefully by s a t e l l i t e s . T,he p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m e m p l o y e d i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r h i s p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n , F i f t y p e r c e n t of the time it is difficult to make surveys compatible with other surveys. If not able to get At p,resent, can determine bottom depth with few feet accuracies. close enough to this accuracy in positioning the determination of the geological informado not have tion is degraded considerably. Generally speaking, people in oceanography a good grasp of the importance of p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y i n t h e i r w o r k . I n o r d e r t o m a k e as good a s t h e l a n d s u r v e y s useful marine geological surveys, the accuracy must be which, in turn, require highly accurate positioning. A c c u r a c y of s h o r t r a n g e s y s t e m u s e d is s a t i s f a c t o r y b u t i s l i m i t e d in a r e a s of o p e r a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , if a new s y s t e m exists which can give as good data on worldwide b a s i s , w e can be satisfied. If we c a n o b t a i n a c c u r a c y b y t h e s a t e l l i t e s of *300 feet,

which is not unusual a s I h e a r , we will definitely increase the value and importance of the work we a r e p e r f o r m i n g by 300 to 400 p e r c e n t . If s u c h a c c u r a c y is achieved, the information will always be useful. It c a n a l s o be stated simply that on land we r e q u i r e high degrees of a c c u r a c y to p e r f o r m m o s t of o u r o p e r a t i o n s , a n d I d o n ' t s e e why we should have any lesser requirements for the same type of work in the oceans. OceanGgraphers will eventually come to realize that their work will be of t h e s a m e i m p o r t a n c e as ours (meaning geology), and accurate positioning is a m u s t . I n a n y c a s e , i n m a r i n e geology it is of m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . "We a r e v e r y m u c h i n t e r e s t e d a n d f l e x i b l e to use a see a b e t t e r s y s t e m if a v a i l a b l e " . F a m i l i a r o n l y w i t h l a n d g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l , b u t c a n c o r r e l a t i o n with marine geodetic control and its importance. It is desirable to have geodetic control in the area of i n t e r e s t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r d r i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s . M a r i n e geodetic control will no doubt play as important a role in the future for mapping and other oceanographic operations as land mapping, Have had limited association with the positioning systems available. However, c a n s t a t e t h a t m o s t of t h e s e s y s t e m s a r e l i m i t e d i n r a n g e a n d u s e a b l e a r e a b e c a u s e of low accuracy. Celestial positioning, although worldwide, is limited by weather conditio.nsand a c c u r a c y . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s m o s t a p p e a l i n g t o h a v e a unique system which can be used everywhere. The work that was done in one location last year had only celestial f i x e s . When b a d w e a t h e r o c c u r r e d i t w a s r e a l l y " r i d i c u l o u s " t o know where you w e r e . Have not been involved in the accuracy evaluations and.organization has no one working on this important problem; but people talk a lot about the subject. Looking ahead, a c h e c k i n t e r m s of fixed points for physical and chemical oceanography will be i m p o r t a n t . If accurate work is performed now it will always be useful in future detailed work. Furthermore, a knowledge of t h e s y s t e m s ' a b i l i t y a n d c a p a b i l i t y would a l s o be of i m p o r t a n c e .

Interview 10 - GEOLOGY

U . S . continental shelf. Annual volume of Involved in varying degrees with all activilies related to the shelf work amounts to about $2 million per year. Believe posit i o n i n g a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d b e a s g o o d a s t h a t of land, but not sure when this will be needed. In general, depending on situation, think recovery of position should be within 100to 2 0 0 feet. Satellites are believed to be m o s t a c c u r a t e but a l s o e x p e n s i v e . Topographic mapping, particularly micro-topography requires definite precision in navigation. The use of buoys a s b o t t o m m a r k e r s t o s u p p o r t e x i s t i n g n a v i g a t i o n s y s t e m s w i l l be r e q u i r e d . If geodetic control is available and if s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m s a r e to be used with such systems, will definitely be interested in using such technology. Satellite positioning will be of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e e s p e c i a l l y if the given positioning information is to be related to geographic latitude and longitude.

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Interview 11
"

OCEANOGRAPHY

Invol\~ed Lvith sound transmission (shallow and deep water), reverberation, scattering.environmentalmeasurements,gravity,magnetic, and m a n y o t h e r e x p e r i ments.Accuratepositioningismostimportantforexecutingtheiroperations.Never in a position where we can't have better ship positioning. Have requirements for positioning the ship relative t o a n e a r t h c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m a n d a l s o r e l a t i v e t o b o t t o m of V L F , Omega,deadreckoningandsateltheoceans.Have usec! LORAN-A&C,Decca: V L F but it was affected severely by diurnal lites. Have had rcasonable success with effect which could introduce few miles errors. Satellite is most impressive and gives be a v e r y good thing. The b e s t r e s u l t s . A combination of satellite and Omega may highest accuracy requirement is A 5 0 feet (CEP) in locating bottom installation relative to a k n o w n point on land or in the vicinity of o p e r a t i o n . Usually, if can locate a g e n e r a l a r e a w i t h i n o n e - h a l f m i l e , c a n g e t t o s p e c i f i c points of i n t e r e s t a f t e r s o m e s e a r c h . Have had some success with SLS (side-looking s o n a r ) ; i t s r e s o l u t i o n i s f a i r ; no verification of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n y e t . of m e a s u r e m e n t s . Only have Lack a m e a n s of evaluating properly the accuracy been able to repeat some of t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d c o m p a r e t h e r e s u l t s . A lot of o p e r a tions in the p a s t h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d w i t h l a r g e a r e a s a n d g e n e r a l s u r v e y s w h e r e a c c u s o far have not been very r a c y w a s not c r i t i c a l . E x p e r i m e n t s on sound transmission eifective because of t o o m a n y v a r i a b l e s . A controlled sound experiment in fixing one or more distances between marine geodetic points could yield an improvement of what i s known today. In oceanography the z component of c o o r d i n a t e s i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t a s f a r a s a c c u r a c y c o n c e r n s i n c o m p a r i s o n to horizontal x and y components. If we know the z c o m p o n e n t a c c u r a t e l y in g e o p o t e n t i a l t e r m s , we c a n m e a s u r e t i d e s a n y w h e r e . If we know isobaric surfaces and gravity potential and relate it to a p h y s i c a l s u r f a c e , we can advance oceanography and geodesy. Three accuracy requirements most critical for ocean measurements: ( a ) A c c u r a c y of *1 m e t e r f o r e u s t a t i c c h a n g e s of s e a l e v e l o r l a n d l e v e l .

( b ) A c c u r a c y of *10 c m f o r o c e a n s u r f a c e i n c l u d i n g t i d e s , t s u n a m i , barometric loading, tilt in sea surface, etc. ( c ) A c c u r a c y of*1 surfaces. cm for dynamic oceanography to determine level

Interview 12

OCEANOGRAPHY AND GEOPHYSICS

Involved in the studies of underwater sound propagation path, ocean floor, subbottom, water mass movement and geophysics. Annual budget for marine work s o m e t h i n g o v e r $5 m i l l i o n .

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. ...-_....". .."".."

Use Autotape for short-range positioning (20 miles); Raydist, Decca, and Shoran formediumrange;and LORAN-C, Omega, and the Transit for long range. Also, use relative positioning system.

Positioning information required is usually limited to what is available. Have a "good appetite" for any good positioning systems to give both fixed intervals and continuous information. Most of operations require to be out at sea on the a v e r a g e of about one month at a t i m e . The position accuracy requirements vary according to the type of operation per* l m standard deviation relative to a land mass about formed. For example, require 10 m i l e s f r o m s h o r e a n d down to depths of 6 , 0 0 0 f e e t of w a t e r . A r e i n t e r e s t e d i n of position changes. knowing the velocity of the ship to * O . 1 knot by the time derivative of the ship be known to RMS In m a n y i n s t a n c e s , r e q u i r e t h a t t h e g e o g r a p h i c c o o r d i n a t e s of 50 t o 1 0 0 f e e t . S o m e of t h e s e a c c u r a c i e s h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d a t t h e s h o r t r a n g e s involved and in the relative mode. If the geographic coordinates can be determined at long r a n g e s from shore "it will be nice". The positioning sy-stem used and its accuracy are of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e . If a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n n o t he a c h i e v e d o p e r a t i o n s i n s o m e c a s e s would have to be discontinued. If o p e r a t i o n s a r e s t o p p e d , c a n n o t e s t i m a t e t h i s i n d o l l a r s . In s e a r c h f o r the bomb, for example, the existence of the bottom trail left by the bomb in the search for it was a lucky thing. Would like to have a positioning system that can give absolute positioning (in the same land geodetic reference system), but if not available must rely on r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s a s e x i s t t o d a y . Familiar with marine geodetic control and its use similar to land control and believe that it is needed. If g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a of operations can use many systems available and particularly acoustic system to achieve high precision in local operations. Marine geodetic control should be of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e f o r o b t a i n ing fixed station coordinates over a long period of t i m e . One of the major problems is due to the stability of an acoustic path and more work is needed in this area. Accurate information on the velocity and thermal struct u r e s of w a t e r i s n e e d e d . Since there is no s t a n d a r d to e s t a b l i s h a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a of m e a s u r e m e n t s i t is quite expensive and don't know how to measure it. The satellite will have a g r e a t r o l e in future positioning; however, it has limitations at the present time in that must use dead reckoning computers to interpolate between fixes. But the satellite can be used on a worldwide basis which is very important.

Interview 13 - OCEANOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

M o s t i m p o r t a n t a r e a s of a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e q u i r e p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a r e towed unmanned vehicle, side-looking sonar (SLS),acoustic propagation, and ocean of sight). By SLS c a n p e n e t r a t e 20 feet into bottom studies (taking samples beyond line

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the bottom. Studies involve dropping a transponder in a given area, use overlapping scan to identify the transponder and obtain bottom data, then fly the fish (towed SLS) and drop another transponder, and so on. The transponders' positions must be determ i n e d r e l a t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r a n d s u r f a c e p o s i t i o n s m u s t a l s o b e o b t a i n e d t o relate the a later transponders' locations so that they may be able to return to the same place at t i m e . SLS can identify a t r a n s p o n d e r i f i t s s u r f a c e p o s i t i o n is determined to *lo00 i f the transponder position is given in geographic coordinates yards relative, But ( f r o m a c h a r t ) t h e n * l o 0 y a r d s is needed. Underwater acoustic propagation studies also require positioning information to If t h e p o i n t s t r a n s determine accurately the dispersion effect, arrival point and time. mitting and receiving pulses are known then sound propagations and variations can be determined more accurately. The use of satellite for positioning along with inertial systems and marine bench m a r k s ( c o n t r o l p o i n t s ) w i l l b e t h e f u t u r e t r e n d of m o s t a c c u r a t e m a r i n e o p e r a t i o n s . f l u x and total heat flow, This combination should allow detail measurements, heat t h e r m a l s t r u c t u r e , a i r - s e a e n e r g y e x c h a n g e a n d m a n y o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s of i n c r e a s e d value. "To know where you a r e d e p e n d s o n w h a t you do". Ideally, it is b e s t t o r e c o r d all information on tape with good time base and coordinates (latitude and longitude) s o that you c a n r e f e r cranked into them including ship heading, speed, and acceleration is a m o n g t h e m a j o r r e q u i r e m e n t s to and analyze them later. Therefore, positioning for effective sea exploration and exploitation.

Interview 14

OCEANOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

Organization involved in physical oceanography, marine geology, and meteorology. Annual dollar volume of work is about $1. 8 million, not including ship operations. A r e a of operations includes continental shelf and open ocean. The positioning systems employed are almost everything available, including satellites. The type of positioning information required varies with the type of o p e r a is needed which is tions. For example, for scientific requirements maximum control why the Doppler satellite is needed. Of c o u r s e , t h e s e c r e t of the positioning system is to enable the ship to get back and reoccupy the same place. Some operations do not require high accuracy. The positioning accuracy requirements are also different. When working in one s q u a r e mile a r e a c a n n o t t o l e r a t e a s l a r g e e r r o r s as can in general mapping on 10-mile it v a r i e s spacing. It is not possible to give the positioning accuracy achieved because with the instrument, the model number, the operator, and also from one system to another. Accurate positioning systems can be important, e. g., for detailed surveys they want the best they can get, preferably 0 e r r o r if possible. T h e l o s s i n c o s t of operations in case of l a r g e e r r o r s i n p o s i t i o n i n g c a n o n l y b e $ 3 , 0 0 0 to $ 5 , 0 0 0 p e r d a y . T h i s h a p p e n s guessed. The rule of thumb method is about is i m p o r t a n t t o e m p l o y a m o r e quite often, and the surveys are sometimes useless. It effective and reliable positioning system, but again this depends on purpose. For example, in ten-mile spacing one mile m a y b e s a t i s f a c t o r y . B u t , i f the cost of the

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p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m is not prohibitive, a h i g h e r d e g r e e of accuracy would then be desired and they would be willing to use such a s y s t e m t o r a i s e s t a n d a r d s . Familiar to a certain degree with marine geodetic control points, but is not an expert but can appreciate, at least, their use for military purposes which in itself should be enough justification to do more work in this area and find better means for theirestablishment.Canforeseesomelegalproblemsbetweenstates,counties,and even international organizations for boundary determinations. The accuracy needed for this control can be stated in two categories: (a) need of a s t a n d a r d f o r e x p l o r a t i o n , a n d ( b ) n e e d of another standard for exploitation. It is advantageous to have geodetic control or any other form of c o n t r o l f o r p o s i tioning oceanographic operations; in general, oceanography will use marine geodetic control points but may not necessarily have the requirement for their establishment. The role of the geodetic control in future positioning and mapping operations is definitely of m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . G e o d e t i c c o n t r o l h a s a l w a y s b e e n t h e m o s t b a s i c e l e m e n t in economic developments. It has to be, or it will be disastrous to think of making all t y p e s m a p s a n d g e t t i n g a l l t y p e s of positioning information without relating them to e a c h o t h e r . I think you lie to yourself if you think otherwise. Geodetic control will be i m p o r t a n t f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the shape of t h e o c e a n s u r f a c e a n d o c e a n f l o o r . S c i e n tists are looking at each of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s s e p a r a t e l y . O t h e r s a r e l o o k i n g a t t h e relative position of the ocean floor with respect to the ocean surface and vice versa. do It is startling when you r e a l i z e t h a t 75 p e r c e n t of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s w a t e r , a n d not know much about it geodetically or accurately. Geodesists are the first to come up with four or five decimal places in measurements based on a f e w m e a s u r e m e n t s w h i c h can only indicate that geodesy is behind time in ocean investigations. The major technical and operational problems are of t h r e e t y p e s : ( a ) m a i n t e n a n c e , I am always dubious when a new man is operating a n i n s t r u m e n t , o r a n e w p e r s o n who does not care about a r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m . I t would be difficult to find one system which can be u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y a n y w h e r e a n d e v e r y w h e r e . F o r e x a m p l e , m a y n e e d o n e s y s t e m of a high degree of accuracy for the continental shelf areas, and another system such as the Transit which can operate satisfactorily everywhere.Thedisadvantages of u s i n g m a n y s y s t e m s , of c o u r s e , a r e c o m p l e x i t y o f operations,maintenance,etc. On the other hand, satellites can be used everywhere and it is one system; however, for charting a bay, for example, satellite cannot be is obvious that the higher degree of accuracy required can only be used. The reason obtained by surface systems.

(t)reliability, and (c) complexity.

A standard range is definitely needed for geodetic and oceanographic work, This r a n g e m a y n o t s o l v e a l l t h e p r o b l e m s b u t c e r t a i n l y w i l l g o a long way in solving o r eliminating many of t h e m . M o s t of all, however, we need some type of authority who can make decisions and also can enforce them. Flexible to adopting a new s y s t e m f o r operations if i t is reliable and accurate. May not buy s u c h a s y s t e m but c a n r e c o m mend it; it is always a function of m o n e y . T h e s a t e l l i t e h a s a l r e a d y d e m o n s t r a t e d i t s capability in the ocean buoy systems, in communication to the satellite, interrogation of t h e s a t e l l i t e , a n d in relaying the data back to earth. There is n o e n d t o m o r e e f f e c tive use of t h e s a t e l l i t e s b e c a u s e e v e r y t h i n g h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l t o d a t e .

A-16

Int . - . -e..r v i e w"

" "

"

OCEANOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, _-__


~

GEOPHYSICS

Organization conducts oceanographic, geological, and geophysical researchin the oceans. Interested and operate in all oceans but principally in three or four areas. The positioning systems used include Decca, LORAN-A, LORAN-C, Hi-Fix, and celestial navigation. Have requirements for fixed and continuous positioning informaa r e about three to four tion. Operate year round, day and night. The average cruises weeks, with longer cruises on occasions. T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t v a r i e s w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e t y p e of research problem conducted. While a 1 / 2 to 1 m i l e e r r o r in positions was acceptable 150 feet, especially when in the past, it is now necessary to recover positions within important features are discovered on the ocean floor. The 150-foot accuracy is needed to g e t t h e d e t a i l s a n d p e r f o r m s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s e a r c h . R e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d g e n e r a l s u r veys can tolerate larger errors. But the problem still remains to be a b l e t o r e t u r n t o 150 feet of t h e s a m e p l a c e a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t i e s e i s m i c l i n e s . Don't know accuracy achieved because no e f f o r t s w e r e m a d e t o e v a l u a t e t h e s y s t e m a c c u r a c i e s . On one occasion, 100 feet was achieved with one system based on past experience using another system for which *50-foot accuracy was claimed. P o s i t i o n i n g d a t a a r e of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o o c e a n o g r a p h i c s u r v e y s ; in f a c t , a s important as the data collected. Couldn't assess costs due to bad positioning but estim a t e t h a t l o s s e s c o u l d a m o u n t t o $ 3 , 000 to $ 5 , 000 p e r d a y if the ship is unable to operate. Interested in more effective systems for positioning. Best systems limited in small areas. Outside these areas other methods available are not satisfactory. to u s e

The major technical operational problems as can be seen by t h e u s e r a r e due to limitation of s o m e of the existing equipment in r a n g e , a c c u r a c y , r e l i a b i l i t y , a n d e n v i ronment. The accuracy that has been achieved by one s y s t e m i n c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n i s definitely desirable. Future positioning requirements will demand still higher accuracies. C a n ' t a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n o n a c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a f r o m e x p e r i e n c e b e c a u s e we have not had this problem before. During work for the oil industry, the companies used to test their equipment with respect to buoys and is a need for a s t a n d a r d r a n g e t o ran seismic lines to closest check points. There c a l i b r a t e e q u i p m e n t . P r e f e r a b l y a need exists for having check points with known e x a c t locations in the area of operations. Such calibration points could serve to test equipment. The only available means at the present time to check these operations are visual sightings on lighthouses and other known features which are limited only to coastal areas. At sea, we have no way to c a l i b r a t e o r t e s t o u r e q u i p m e n t . Have flexibility to use a n e w s y s t e m w h i c h c a n g i v e b e t t e r a c c u r a c y a n d r e l i a bility. Although the cost will be a major item to be considered, must not forget that the cost of use of t h e p r e s e n t e q u i p m e n t is expensive.

A-17

Believes that satellites will solve problems in regards to all types of oceanographic surveys and will give accurate information that cannot be obtained at the present by o t h e r s y s t e m s . In the long run, satellites are believed to be more economical because no shore networks are needed. Familiar with marine geodetic control, its purpose and use, and interested in h a v i n g g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l i n t h e a r e a of h i s o p e r a t i o n t o r e f e r e n c e a c c u r a t e l y h i s o c e a n o graphic operations. Regarding marine geodetic control points, their most important u s e in the future will be f o r c a l i b r a t i o n of s y s t e m s a n d e q u i p m e n t . T h e s e p o i n t s c a n provide exact references tied to a c o m m o n s y s t e m . When technology reaches the point that mining operations are economical in the oceans, geodetic points will be of g r e a t e s t importance.

Interview 16

OCEANOGRAPHY,MAPPING,CHARTING

Having difficulties with regard to the determination of a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Apparently, what is r e q u i r e d i n t e r m s of a c c u r a c i e s is stated differently even by memb e r s of the same organization. The lack of common standards and education in the s u b j e c t i s p r o b a b l y t h e m a i n s o u r c e of confusion. U s e a l l t y p e s of p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e . O b j e c t i v e s r e q u i r e c o n tinuous position information at all times while at sea. The positioning accuracy requirements will depend on the purpose and type of o p e r a t i o n p e r f o r m e d . It can safely be s t a t e d t h a t a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a s h i g h a s c a n be obtained approaching that of l a n d g e o d e t i c a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Bathymetry, gravity, and bottom mapping have probably the highest accuracy requirements as far as surveying is concerned. Gravimetric meas,urements, in particular, are conducted as part of the geophysical and oceanographic surveys. Although g r a v i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s r e q u i r e a high degree of accuracy in positioning, this accuracy is unfortunately not really realized yet. Oceanographic surveys for collecting data on t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e w a t e r a n d i t s o r g a n i s m s m a y n o t r e q u i r e b e t t e r t h a n o n e - m i l e accuracy.However,thesesurveysaresometimesconcernedwithmicrostructure oceanography. If so, then "micro accuracy" in positioning should be required, otherwise it does not make any difference what you collect and where you collect it. T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d v a r i e s a n d d e p e n d s o n t h e t y p e of operation and on the one making the survey. Often enough the a c c u r a c y s t a t e d is misleading, exaggerated, or without any basis. In r e g a r d t o p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s u s e d , t h e y a r e v e r y of s a t e l l i t e s , s h i p important but can't estimate their value in dollars. Regards the use velocity can be determined from acoustic control which should improve the satellite r e s u l t s . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y to determine the velocity of the ship is perhaps through the u s e of t h e O m e g a s y s t e m . O m e g a a p p e a r s t o b e v e r y s t a b l e f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e . Therefore, through differential positioning at 15-minute periods, the ship velocity might be determined with sufficient accuracy thus eliminating the use of a c o u s t i c t r a n s p o n d e r s especially where they are not required. Familiar with marine geodetic control. Believe that marine geodetic control will be needed in many operations:

A-18

(a) Control of s u r v e y ( m i n i m u m s p a c i n g r e q u i r e d )
( b )D e e ps u b m e r s i b l e (c) Transcontinental cable laying, particularly in an area where cables m u s t go over a r i d g e o r a rise o r m e a n d e r i n t o p o g r a p h y , w h e r e tension over a r i s e c o u l d s n a p c a b l e . In s u c h areas, the control is e s s e n t i a l . Of c o u r s e , i f we are to depend on satellites in the future for communication rather than transcontinental cables, then this need is omitted. (d) Precise search and recovery (e) Detailed surveying and mapping. The role of s a t e l l i t e s i n m a r i n e g e o d e s y p r o b a b l y w i l l b e m o s t e s s e n t i a l i n c o n d u c t i n g accurate surveys, especially when used with bottom acoustic transponders for control.

Interview 17

MAPPING AND CHARTING

Company operations include hydrographic surveys and special site selection to construct charts for navigation aid. Area of marine operation is worldwide. Almost all available positioning systems have been used. The positioning information required is continuous for all hydrographic and geophysical surveys. The operations at sea are conducted continuously or about nine to is * 5 0 12 m o n t h s p e r y e a r . T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e s e s u r v e y s feet. Need 2 0 repeatability.Theminimumacceptableaccuracyis*lo00feet. The best accuracy achieved with one system has about 500-foot repeatability from one year to another. This is assuming that the bathymetry i s c o r r e c t w h i c h i t is c o m pared with. However, changes in geometry and lack of p r o m i n e n t b o t t o m features i n the surveyed area and other reasons degrade the accuracy considerably. The positioni n g s y s t e m u s e d a n d its a c c u r a c y a r e of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o o u r o p e r a t i o n s .

If r e q u i r e d a c c u r a c y c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d , it m e a n s w e m u s t m o v e t o a n o t h e r a r e a . $5,000 This may cost about one week of ship time o r m o r e . T h e s e s h i p s c o s t a b o u t per day to operate. Certainly would like to have the best systems available. Most of we a r e l i m i t e d now and in the t h e p r o b l e m s are in regions far f r o m l a n d . I t a p p e a r s future.
Familiar with marine geodetic control in concept. Believes that cannot go wrong
if c o n t r o l p o i n t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a n d t h e n u s e t h e m . T h i s s h o u l d b e m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n

bottom features and echo sounders. Need something like geodetic control in the area of operations. Need geodetic control for maps i f know how to establish it at a r e a s o n able time a n d c o s t .

A-19

Some standards must be established. The order of a c c u r a c i e s m u s t b e d e t e r mined and evaluated for surveys. What does it mean and what does it take to get it. The datum must b e the same in n e a r s h o r e a n d a l s o far o u t t o s e a . If everyone uses the same standards then all maps can be usable. In most cases the latitude and longitude of a navigation aid is given on a c h a r t , h o w e v e r , t h e r e is no information indicating the datum on which that chart was based on. This datum problem affects also the type of e l e c t r o n i c s u r v e y i n g s y s t e m you a r e u s i n g e s p e c i a l l y w h e n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c h a r t r e l a t e d t o i t . If datum is known, then you discover that it is i n e r r o r of say one mile, then you can shift everything on t h e c h a r t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , Can change if the cost of a b e t t e r s y s t e m is r e a s o n a b l e . T h e s a t e l l i t e a p p e a r s t o g i v e b e s t a c c u r a c y now out in the oceans. However, we need continuous position inf o r m a t i o n at l e a s t e v e r y t h r e e m i n u t e s . P e r h a p s s a t e l l i t e c a n b e c o m b i n e d w i t h i n e r t i a l systems.

Interview 18

- RESOURCES

Interest includes those pertaining to commercial and sports fishing, discovery and development of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s b e n e a t h t h e s e a , w a t e r p o l l u t i o n a n d h y d r o l o g y . P o s i t i o n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d v a r i e s . If a f i s h f i n d i n g s a t e l l i t e is to be used, a quick means of reporting the position of schools of f i s h is r e q u i r e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s o they can converge on the area. The must also be relayed rapidly to fishing boats accnracy requirements are about 1 m i l e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , f o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and exploitation, a higher accuracy in positioning is required. This accuracy must be It should be as good good enough to allow returning and reoccupying the same position. a s we can get it. It is e s s e n t i a l t o h a v e a n a c c u r a t e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m t o e x p l o i t m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s e v e n if it doubles the cost. For mining operations fixed locations are probably all that is necessary. For submersible vehicles, positioning information m u s t be a c c u r a t e i n 3 - d i m e n s i o n a l c a s e s . F o r p o l l u t i o n p r o b l e m s a n d t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y f o r d u m p i n g m a t e r i a l s , a n d s o on, it is necessary to know position within plus or minus half a m i l e a n d b e a b l e t o m a p c u r r e n t s . P o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e d c a n t h u s r a n g e is not f r o m f e w f e e t to one m i l e . T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y c u r r e n t l y b e i n g a c h i e v e d known. Familiar with the geodetic control only as it i s o n l a n d . A s to marine control, it m a y be needed for photography and to obtain position information of f i r s t o r d e r a c c u how they r a c y . Do not know the accuracy requirements for the various operations and would be affected by the control. Expect that several problems would be a s s o c i a t e d with Iocating a v e h i c l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s c o v e r i e s o n t h e o c e a n b o t t o m , e t c . It is necessary that some type of control be established to stake out claims and also be enforced on a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a s i s . T h e m o r e p r e c i o u s a n d v a l u a b l e t h e c l a i m s , the more accurately the stakes should be located. It is like a c i t y p r o p e r t y . If i t is in a downtown a r e a e v e r y i n c h c o u n t s , a n d t h u s a h i g h l y a c c u r a t e s u r v e y i s required. T h e i r u s e i n the future will be certainly of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e ,

A-20

Interview 19

MAPPING AND RESOURCES

Fifteen to twenty percent of existing ocean maps of the 1: 1, 000, 000 s c a l e m a y b e these maps are). Other maps are either insufficient u s a b l e ( i t is not known how "good" or non-existent. Even coastal line maps suffer similar prob1em.s as to their quality and accuracy. This problem was dealt with last year during an international conference, and a r e s o l u t i o n w a s p a s s e d to study the problem. Since maps cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r n i g h t , p l a n s f o r a c t u a l s y s t e m a t i c m a p p i n g of t h e o c e a n f l o o r s s h o u l d s t a r t as soon is of m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . Of c o u r s e , i t d e p e n d s a l s o o n asitispracticable.Accuracy is of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e . T h e the scale of m a p s m a d e . P o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s ' a c c u r a c y best systems available should be employed. Accurate geodetic control at sea similar to that on land also must be provided for these maps. Marine geodetic control will s o o n b e c o m e a s i m p o r t a n t a s l a n d c o n t r o l f o r m a p ping and economic development. People and organizations must be educated first in geodetic work s o they can recognize the problems involved. For example, at present t h e r e i s no dispute about the need for control on land, why should it be d i f f e r e n t a t s e a ? C o n t r o l a t s e a i n a n a r e a of operation is definitely desired. F o r e s e e p r o b l e m s of physically identifying boundaries in the ocean both as international boundaries and as lease granting concessions for exploration and exploitation of o c e a n r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e i s n o m e a n s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e w h e r e b y you can definitely know the accur a c y of p o s i t i o n s a t s e a . A c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s h o u l d v a r y w i t h s c a l e of m a p s - f o r 1: 1,000,000 s c a l e 0 . 2 mm on the final chart, 0 . 1 mm = 100 m e t e r s . F o r a c t u a l o b s e r vations the figure should be about half as much or 50 me.ters. However, 50 m e t e r s i s m o r e t h a n we c a n d r e a m f o r a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . I n t h e a r e a s of importance 10-25 m e t e r s m a y berequired. Of c o u r s e , you a r e then reaching the engineering scale. At that stage local or relative accuracy is needed. Accuracy for operational purposes is a l s o r e q u i r e d e s p e c i a l l y when moving f r o m one control to another. Quite flexible to use better means of positioning i f n e c e s s a r y , i f m i s s i o n r e of o n e p e r s o n o r c o u n t r y . q u i r e s , e s p e c i a l l y if you have to protect economic rights I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t c a n a l s o c a u s e q u i t e a bit of discomfort which no one country can afford. Satellites have proven themselves for land geodetic use. They should definitely be explored and utilized in the establishment of o c e a n m a p c o n t r o l a n d a l s o f o r positioning. The major problems are: ( a ) L a c k of information and knowledge property. of sea f l o o r , i t s s t r u c t u r e , a n d

(b) Need f i r s t g e n e r a l m a p as on land,

1: 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 s c a l e .

A-21

(c) Procedures for establishing these maps, positioning must be coupled with control. Otherwise we will have wild-cat operations with everyone going in his own direction. (d)Fastoceanmappingsystem.Echosoundersaretooslow. (e)Theoreticalworkmust be establishednow.Example,thebasic mathematics involved in the use of s a t e l l i t e s f o r r e s e c t i o n i n s p a c e for geodesy was developed much before the launching of s a t e l l i t e s .

(8) Means

of p r e d i c t i n g o c e a n r e s o u r c e s .

( h ) M e a n s of positioning accurately boundary lines between established fixed control.

Interview 20

FISH RESOURCES

I n t e r e s t e d i n m a r i n e b i o l o g y a n d t h e e f f e c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g a n d l o c a t i n g of schools of fish. Eighty percent of t h e t i m e s p e n t a t s e a is wasted in hunting for fish. Looking for b e t t e r m e a n s of identifying and of locating schools of f i s h on t h e h i g h s e a s . A r e a of interest includes all the oceans, and thus all sorts of navigation and positioning systems are used. F o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s p o s i t i o n f i x e s a r e r e q u i r e d s o m e t h i n g o n t h e o r d e r of e v e r y one to six hours. The position accuracy requirements are on the order of one-half mile. With submersibles there is a need for higher accuracy. It is nice toknowthe p o s i t i o n v e r y a c c u r a t e l y ; h o w e v e r , s u c h is not usually required. Interested in satellite positioning and believes the satellite will become an efficient tool to locate and to monitor the schools of f i s h i n t h e o c e a n s . No information on the c o s t of o p e r a t i o n i n t e r m s of d o l l a r l o s s e s d u e t o i n a c c u r a c i e s i n p o s i t i o n s . C a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a u s e r of m a r i n e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l i f s u c h w e r e a v a i l a b l e , but have no requirement of need for such control. If i t is there, would be very happy to use it. The major technical operational problems that the user can see have nothing to do with positioning. Lesser problems can see, are related to the precise position of the s u b m e r s i b l e v e h i c l e s when surveying on the bottom to locate fish, also improving the a c c u r a c y of p o s i t i o n i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r r e s e a r c h v e h i c l e s .

A-22

Interview 21

- EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

B e l i e v e t h a t s a t e l l i t e s will be the best tools ever used for oceanography. .It m a y take another five years, however, before the government agencies realize the full capability of s a t e l l i t e s , t h e i r a c c u r a c y , a n d s p e e d of c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e v a s t oceans. In regard to needs of o t h e r p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m s a n d t h e i r a c c u r a c i e s , we are expected to explore the oceans, the development of s a t e l l i t = s a n a i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e i r accuracy must be pursued continuously.

Interview 2 2

EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

Company involved in almost all types of ocean operations, both defense and commercial. Budget in ocean-related activities is of t h e o r d e r of $60 to 70 m i l l i o n p e r year. For commercial purposes, interested primarily in the continental shelf at the present time. For defense and R&D, interested and operating in the deep water. The positioning systems used are acoustic and electronic systems. The latter were not satisfactory for precise positions when calibrating an acoustic system. Req u i r e m e n t w a s p r e c i s i o n of *l foot. Surface positioning at five miles from shore did not give this accuracy due to multipath reflection effect. Accuracy in any case deteriorates as distance increases from shore. Surface positioning is i m p o r t a n t i n a n a c o u s t i c s y s t e m i f have to relate its position with respect to land or an earth coordinate system.

its p u r p o s e a n d u s e . S t a t e of t h e a r t i s Familiar with marine geodetic control, n o w s u c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l at sea starting out with continental shelf areas and progressing to other important areas in the deep ocean. Geodetic control will be required certainly for mapping and perhaps some other operations requiring high precision in location.
M a j o r t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s are associated with how well do we k n o w o u r s y s t e m s . I n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c c u r a c y of acoustic positioning methods with some known standards but unfortunately this has not been possible. The electronic systems used appeared to lack calibration standards themselves. This points out the need for a prec i s e g e o d e t i c s t a n d a r d f o r t e s t a n d c a l i b r a t i o n of available positioning systems in the environment for which they are designed to operate. As far as known, there is no good absolute basis for establishing accuracy is c o m p a r e o n e s y s t e m a g a i n s t a n o t h e r o r criteria. All that can be done at present d e t e r m i n e t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of m e a s u r e m e n t s . The satellites' role in future positioning may be satisfactory for fixed stations but it will be limited in accuracy for navigation because of the inaccuracy in knowing the velocity of the ship. Do not know of any good means to determine the velocity of the ship when moving.

A-23

Interview 2 3

- EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

Operations at sea relrrted to underwater sound operate everywhere in the oceans. The positioning systems used are those that are available at the present time plus acoustic navigation systems, Both continuous and fixed positioning information required. The time needed to perform operations varies from weeks to months. Need high accuracies of the o r d e r of k3O f e e t if p e r f o r m i n g s e a r c h a n d r e c o v e r y . With t h i s a c c u r a c y c a n be more effective in search and can eliminate going over the s a m e a r e a o r o v e r l a p p i n g f o r f e a r of m i s s i n g . At p r e s e n t m u s t o v e r l a p t r a c k s b e c a u s e of inaccurate surface navigation. The accuracy of the s y s t e m e m p l o y e d i s e s s e n t i a l a s in the c a s e of the bomb off Spain. Costs are not important in such cases where politics, international situations a r e a t s t a k e . If a n a c c u r a t e s y s t e m i s a v a i l a b l e we w i l l u s e i t with no limits. We c a n a d o p t e a s i l y i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y s y s t e m i s a v a i l a b l e . The accuracies achieved vary. However, these accuracies are not really known. How do you know that the given position information indicates exactly where it is supposed to be? Need some fixed references to calibrate with and to evaluate the systems. Familiar with geodetic control which would be d e s i r a b l e to have. If a g r i d s y s t e m is e s t a b l i s h e d i n a g i v e n a r e a w i t h good geodetic accuracy will certainly simplify acoustic navigation positioning operations. With such points available can then obtain * 3 0 feet desired accuracy, Were lucky in locating the bomb. Geodetic control for mapping is important. However, for positioning you need many points. The major problem is that there is no satisfactory system at the present time. A c o u s t i c s y s t e m s a r e now available with one transponder. Such a system, however, is relative and you can't get the geographic coordinates of the points. Don't think that inertial systems are the answer although not an expert on them. Perhaps a combination of s y s t e m s s u c h a s t h e s a t e l l i t e p l u s t h e a c o u s t i c n a v i g a t i o n w i l l be the best thing. Satellite is not continuous and the acoustic system can help in between perhaps. The i f can be on station for a long time. It could be g r e a t satellite may give good accuracy i f you get sufficient fixes.

Interview 24 - EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

Activities involve instrumentation for ship and/or vehicle control, navigation, surveillance. Positioning systems used are hyperbolic radio systems, inertial, and dead reckoning, and transponder net interrogation. Continuous positioning is required in all cases ( L O R A N , i n e r t i a l ) .A c c u r a c yr e q u i r e m e n t sd e p e n d ontheoperationperformed.The a g r e a t s u m of money and p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m u s e d m u s t be important since it costs effort.Havehad no d o l l a r l o s s e s f r o m b a d p o s i t i o n i n g . D i r e c t i o n a l p r o b l e m s a t s e a a r e of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e , j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t a s p o s i t i o n i n g - precise azimuth reference.

A-24

. .

.. .

"_

_. . -

..

.. . . .. . . . .

. . .

Not v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l e x c e p t i n n a m e , b u t f a m i l i a r w i t h b e n c h m a r k s , but could provide a r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s . Y e s , t h i s i s a n i m p o r t a n t thing to c o n s i d e r . We n e e d s o m e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m s . L i m i t e d a c c e s s toone is not sufficient.

Interview 2 5
" "

EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

Involved in developmental work leading .to equipment and methods for production. P a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m is the o r d e r of $ 1 / 2 m i l l i o n . I n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d e e p w a t e r e v e r y where. Use LORAN-C mostly; radar is used close to land but not all of the time. Require continuous positioning information when at sea which varies between two weeks to f o u r w e e k s p e r y e a r . Nice to know positions 50 to 100 feet but we c a n ' t g e t i t . T h e a c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d 1, 0 0 0 to 1, 500 feet. Important to i s t h a t of whatever LORAN-C can provide, perhaps have an accurate system because it could restrict operations. Usually we t r y t o r e l a t e to bottom topography as a check. If h a v e a c c u r a t e s y s t e m s d o n ' t n e e d t h i s a d d i t i o n a l work. C o s t s o f p o o r p o s i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e g r a d a t i o n of data. Must depend on o t h e r f o r m s of navigation. Local acoustic net may be required which may cost about $100,000 to a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d a c c u r a c y . C o s t n o t a factor for more effective system. P l a c e m a n y t r a n s p o n d e r s j u s t t o p i c k u p a s i t e now. Familiar with geodetic control, and local geodetic net within area is desirable. Need geodetic control s o that we can calibrate with it. of operations

is p o s s i b l e . O m e g a a n d s a t e l l i t e s n o t Have many problems. Must use whatever a singular reference system but need continuous accurate enough. Satellites good for information; maybe system can be used with other systems.

As t o a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i a a n d e v a l u a t i o n of positioning systems, can only compare w i t h s o m e t h i n g e l s e s o m e t i m e s , b u t who knows which is c o r r e c t .

Interview 2 6

EQUIPMENT A N D SYSTEMS

Involved in all types of navigation experiments and have used most of the available s y s t e m s ,i n c l u d i n gs u r f a c ee l e c t r o n i c s ,s a t e l l i t e ,i n e r t i a l ,s t a rt r a c k e r s ,a n da c o u s t i c systems. In the deep ocean, most of t h e s e s y s t e m s e x c e p t s a t e l l i t e n a v i g a t i o n a r e unsatisfactory. Have experimented with positioning the ship over three acoustic transponders and have never been able to achieve the accuracies (few feet) claimed by supposedly leading organizations no m a t t e r h o w m a n y c o r r e c t i o n s w e r e a p p l i e d .

A-25

Satellite Doppler navigation, although in the middle of the ocean is b e t t e r t h a n anything available at present for positioning, is s t i l l a f f e c t e d by e r r o r s i n s h i p v e l o c i t y . 0 . 1 knot. Accuracy requirements Would like to determine ship velocity to better than in positioning are of t h e o r d e r of *lo0 feet rms i n a n e a r t h c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m o r *25 f e e t a big role in r e l a t i v e . N o doubt that satellite navigation and marine geodesy will play advancing positioning capabilities. Major problems associated with present surface based positioning systems are due to nighttime activity (skywa've effects), geometry, range limitation, and lack of calibration points in the areas of o p e r a t i o n s . A m a r i n e geodetic range of the type mentioned in article by M o u r a d a n d F r a z i e r is needed.

Interview 2 7 - EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS

Involved with deep submersible vehicles and all types of navigation relative, abso$1, 500, 000 p e r y e a r , i n c l u d i n g lute, and close to shore. Marine activities total about of o p e r a t i o n s i s m o s t l y d e e p w a t e r f o r s u b m e r s i b l e s . close to shore work. The area The positioning systems used are the Transit satellite plus inertial systems. The type of p o s i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i s f i x e d p o s i t i o n s by t h e s a t e l l i t e s up to *300 f e e t and then interpolation between fixes to 30 o r 40 u n i t s . T h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e an operation is dependent on the type of operation. T h e p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t is also dependent on the type of operations; for example, exact locations are needed for geological and geophysical surveys. For oceanographic and meteorological data collections, lesser accuracy is required. In s o m e o p e r a t i o n s t h e p o s i t i o n i n g s y s t e m is essential, in others not so. T h e a c c u r a c i e s a c h i e v e d w i t h LORAN, r a d a r , a n d SINS a r e not s a t i s f a c t o r y . Radar may be okay for some operations. Accurate SINS i s expensive and needs to work with other systems for absolute positions. NAVOCEANO data collected are not good. They are built on different standards. To establish standards one must be able to get few f e e t a c c u r a c i e s f i r s t . Familiar with marine geodetic control and its purpose but does not need it for operations close to shore. In other areas of t h e o c e a n , i t m a y b e r e q u i r e d f o r c e r t a i n surveying and mapping, In the future you w i l l r e q u i r e g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l f o r a c c u r a t e mapping. The major problems are those of c o s t of s y s t e m s . T o g e t a d e q u a t e f i x e s f r o m s a t e l l i t e s e v e r y 10 m i n u t e s o r s o w i l l r e q u i r e m a n y s a t e l l i t e s a n d m a n y b l a c k boxes and these may not be satisfactory from the taxpayer's viewpoint. To be honest we c a n u s e i n e r t i a l s y s about it, if 100 f e e t c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m s a t e l l i t e s f i x e s , t h e n tems in between fixes (precise dead reckoning) to obtain satisfactory results when needed. You don't mind the cost if you can get what you want i f you need it.

A-26

APPENDIX B

DESCRIPTIONS

" "

O F SATELLITE METHODS

A review of t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o s a t e l l i t e , g e o d e t i c m e t h o d s r e vealed the lack of c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e c h n i c a l c o v e r a g e . D i s c u s s i o n s w e r e u s u a l l y found to be either too gcneral to provide useful information for the reader already somewhat familiar with the subject or too narrow and specific, concentrating on a special aspect it was of a method and/or methods and obscuring the overall picture. Therefore, nec.essary during the investigation to make an organized compilation of t h e m a t e r i a l s is p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n t h e hope t h a t o t h e r s found i n a m o r e u s e f u l f o r m . T h a t c o m p i l a t i o n with similar interests will find it helpful.

Five satellite methods are discussed: (1) Doppler ( 2 ) SECOR


( 3 ) Radar
(4) Optical

(5) Laser.

B-1

DOPPLER METHOD

One possible procedure for positioning and/or establishing geodetic control is based on t h e m e a s u r e m e n t of the Doppler shift of radio frequency'transmissions from a satellite. This Doppler shift is actually a change in the measured frequency of a c o n s t a n t s i g n a l a s t r a n s m i t t e d by the satellite and received by t h e o b s e r v e r . T h i s changr or shift results from the relative velocities of t h e o b s e r v e r a n d t h e s a t e l l i t e . It is i l l u s t r a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y by t h e D o p p l e r c u r v e i n F i g u r e B- 1. The point of inflection of t h i s c u r v e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t i m e of c l o s e s t a p p r o a c h , t c . T h e b a s i c p r o p e r t y of the Doppler curve is its s y m m e t r y r e l a t i v e t o t h e t i m e tc f o r u n i f o r m s a t e l l i t e . motion, As t h e s a t e l l i t e a p p r o a c h e s t h e o b s e r v e r , t h e r e c e i v e d f r e q u e n c y i s g r e a t e r than the transmitted frequency and the Doppler shift is positive; as the satellite recedes, the opposite is true and the Doppler shift is negative.

FIGURE B- 1.

DOPPLERSHIFTCURVE

Two types of s a t e l l i t e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g D o p p l e r d a t a - the GEOS-type satellites, including the French satellites Diademe I and 11, and the Navy Navigation of r e c e i v e r s Satellites (Transit) (see Table B-I). Associated with these are two types the Geoceiver which can receive signals from both types of satellites and the navigation receiver (AN/SRN-9) which can receive signals only from the Navy Navigation Satellite System. Since the GEOS-I1 has no memory to store updated orbital data, as in the Navy Navigation Satellite system, it d o e s n o t t r a n s m i t o r b i t a l d a t a t o t h e o b s e r v e r t o permit an accurate position fix. Consequently, it is u s e d i n t h i s m o d e p r i m a r i l y f o r establishment of geodetic control rather than for positioning" Thus the Doppler data o b t a i n e d f r o m m a n y p a s s e s of the GEOS s a t e l l i t e o v e r a c e r t a i n a r e a a r e l a t e r c o m bined at the computer center with accurate orbital data received from satellite tracking stations to obtain station coordinates.

'Other applications of the Doppler data, i.

e . , dynamic geodesy, are

not discussed here.

B-2

TABLE B- 1.
~

SATELLITES AVAILABLE FOR OBTAINING DOPPLER DATA


~~~

~ _

_ _ _
~

Diademe Navigation Navy Satellites


.
~

I GEOS- LI
.-

Diademe

.~

~~

. . ~

~~-~
~

F r e q u e n c r e s s m i t t5 0 , ti an 1m d ec Interval between timing signals,min. M e m o r y p me in te , equi eco v s r te e Y store, and transmit orbital data P o l a r Nnd e i n a te s n , I ec l g r e i o ar
~~ ~

162, 324, 400 2 1

92 399. 97, 149. 972

No

No

i
~-. . ~ ~~

* 80

40

"

" -

The Navy N a v i g a t i o n S y s t e m p r e s e n t l y i n c l u d e s t h i r t e e n f i x e d t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s located worldwide and used for geodetic Doppler applications. There are presently t h r e e o p e r a t i o n a l Navy Navigation Satellites. Since they transmit orbital data, they as f o r g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l . T h e s a t e l l i t e ' s o r b i t a l can be used for positioning as well parameters are originally determined from Doppler data obtained from four fixed satellite tracking stations and transmitted to the Central Computing Center, which updates the orbital parameters and extrapolates the satellite's trajectory for at least a day into the future. The new orbital parameters, along with a time correction from the U. S. N a v a l O b s e r v a t o r y , a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o o n e of two injection stations, which injects them into the satellite's memory. Shipboard navigation equipment receives and records the Doppler shift and the orbital information from which the latitude and longitude of t h e s h i p c a n be determined. (35) T h e u s e of the Doppler shift has many favorable aspects, Unlike optical techniques,thissystem is all-weather.Theequipment is c o m p a c t , t r a n s p o r t a b l e , a n d relatively easy to operate. Since no angular data are needed, special antenna arrays a r e not needed nor do the problems of antenna bore-sighting or s t a b i l i z a t i o n a r i s e . i s used for positioning, the navigator can employ Furthermore, when the system v a r i o u s d e g r e e s of sophistication in his instruments and computing equipment to obtain t h e d e g r e e of a c c u r a c y r e q u i r e d ( 3 6 ) . Like any method, the Doppler has its drawbacks. One m a i n p r o b l e m is positioni f 24 satellites ing between satellite passes. Continuous fixing would be possible s i t u a t e d i n o r b i t a l p l a n e s at 4 5 " a n g l e s t o e a c h o t h e r ( s i x s a t e l l i t e s i n e a c h of four such planes) were launched.

Mathematical ReDresentation of Doppler Shift

B-3

where

ft

f r e q u e n c y t r a n s m i t t e d by the satellite

f r = received frequency
v = velocity of s a t e l l i t e r e l a t i v e t o o b s e r v e r c = velocity of light p = slant range f r o m o b s e r v e r t o s a t e l l i t e

A = angle between velocity and range vectors


v. c o s A = radial velocity, taken positive away f r o m th e o b s e r v e r ( se e F i g u r e B - 2 ) .

Observer

A-55806

FIGURE B-2. DOPPLER PRINCIPLE T h e t e r m s ( v . c o s A / c ) f t a n d ( b / c ) f t a r e t w o d i f f e r e n t w a y s writing the Doppler of frequency. The frequency, f t , i n t h i s c a s e is c o n s i d e r e d to be propagated through a i s the vacuum Doppler. At the point of vacuum and the Doppler frequency referred to c l o s e s t or minimum approach, is zero and hence the Doppler frequency is zero, or in other words, the received and transmitted frequencies are equal. If the satellite orbit is approximated by a straight line over the short portion near closest approach, i~ (t) is given by:

Hence,

Equation ( 2 ) is typically in e r r o r by 15 p e r c e n t f o r a n a c t u a l s a t e l l i t e , w h i c h i s n o t a c c u r a t e e n o u g h t o u s e i n n a v i g a t i o n c o m p u t a t i o n ~ ( 7 ~ ) . In practice, the Doppler data is subjected to a l e a s t - s q u a r e s fit 'to obtain the latitude, longitude! and the difference between the frequency of t h e o b s e r v e r ' s l o c a l o s c i l l a t o r a n d t h a t of the satellite.

B-4

Ionospheric Refraction

T h e e f f e c t s of i o n o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d i f high accuracy i s d e s i r e d . In c o r r e c t i n g f o r i o n o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n , u s e i s m a d e of the fact that the Doppler effect is directly proportional to the frequency, whereas the refraction effect is inversely proportional to the frequency, to first o r d e r a c c u r a c y ( 8 ) . T h e D o p p l e r s h i f t i n t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e i o n o s p h e r e i s of t h e f 0 r m ( ~ 6 ) :

By simultaneously measuring the Doppler shift at t w o d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e f i r s t o r d e r r e f r a c t i o n t e r m is eliminated. The result is the vacuum Doppler s h i f t and only s e c o n d a n d t h i r d o r d e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s of refraction. The Navy Navigation Satellites transmit two frequencies of approximately 150 m c by the same highly stable oscillator and 400 m c . T h e s e t w o f r e q u e n c i e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d so that although one frequency nominally set at approximately 400 m c v a r i e s s l i g h t l y from satellite to satellite and drifts slowly within one satellite, the second frequency is a l w a y s a c c u r a t e l y k e p t at 3 1 8 of t h e h i g h e r . T h e GEOS-I1 s a t e l l i t e i s p r e s e n t l y t r a n s m i t t i n g t h r e e f r e q u e n c i e s w h i c h w i l l b e employed to further ionospheric refraction studies. The third frequency is used to eliminate third-order ionospheric contributions from the desired terms since these contributions are considerably larger in magnitude than second-order effects. The threefrequency solution for the vacuum Doppler shift should eliminate all significant ionospheric contributions. ( g 9 )

ODerational Procedures

Measurement of the Doppler Frequencv The acquisition of Doppler data involves either a m e a s u r e m e n t of the instantaneous+ D o p p l e r f r e q u e n c y o r a m e a s u r e m e n t of the integrated Doppler frequency. In either case, the measuring equipment receives two frequencies (three with GEOS s a t e l l i t e s ) along with their corresponding Doppler frequencies and ionospheric refraction effects. is t h e s a m e a s t h a t w h i c h After a s e r i e s of dividing and mixing operations, the result would be obtained i f a frequency, f , had been propagated through a vacuum producing f Thereceivedfrequencycouldthenactuallybereferredtoas thevacuumDoppler, D.' f t fD. This notation will be used throughout in order to simplify the explanations, with f referred to as the effective frequency. The output of t h e c o n v e r t e r i n t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s D o p p l e r m e a s u r e m e n t i s t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l A that it took to count Nc c y c l e s of the vacuum Doppler, where Nc i s s o m e i s then easily obtained by dividing chosen number. The average frequency measured Ncby A . T h i s a v e r a g e i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e t u n e :
" "

*Instantaneous means measuring the average frequency over an interval so short that the average value can be taken as the true value at the center of the time interval, with negligible error.

B-5

t =

to

t-A 2

t.- Nc-1 2

,
1 - Nc- 1 i s a 2

where to i s the time the count was initiated and the term

c o r r e c t i v e term. (76)

T h e i n t e g r a t e d D o p p l e r m e a s u r e m e n t , w h i c h is p e r f o r m e d by using the AN/SRN-9 equipment, i s s i m p l y a count of t h e n u m b e r o f c y c l e s , N,, of t h e m e a s u r e d f r e q u e n c y f o r a two-minute time interval. Since operational navigation satellites transmit accurate time markers every two minutes, these time markers are used to control the stop and Nc is printed out on a tape s t a r t of the Doppler counter automatically. The number along with the ephemeral data and Kepler parameters for the satellite(35). During one p a s s of the satellite, five to seven integral values a r e usually obtained. T h e a c t u a l f r e q u e n c y m e a s u r e d is not the vacuum Doppler frequency but r a t h e r this frequency plus some constant. This is due to the fact that there is a frequency offset between the frequency transmitted by t h e s a t e l l i t e a n d t h e s t a n d a r d f r e q u e n c y of the observers oscillator. The procedure involved in the AN/SRN-9 equipment will be f i s keptequal to 400 m c a s discussedtoexplainthis.Thestandardfrequency, l ? a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e a n d t h e s a t e l l i t e f r e q u e n c y i s kept lower by 80 p p m o r 32 kc. The measured frequency, fm, then becomes:
f,

= f

( f t fD) = (f

f)

fD

f m = 32 kc

fD 32 kc, it i s t r e a t e d a s an unknown param-

Since the frequency offset varies slightly from eter in the computations.

At t h e t i m e of c l o s e s t a p p r o a c h , t c , the Doppler frequency i s z e r o a n d t h e m e a sured frequency i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e a s t h e o f f s e t f r e q u e n c y ( 3 2 k c ) , D a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m a p a s s of a satellite would result in a Doppler shift curve as shown in F i g u r e B- 3.

400 mc
w
C

Standard frequency --- - ------__of

observer (fg)

p m

32 kc = fg-f

a l
LL

ft

B-6

Time
A-55810

FIGUREB-3.MEASUREMENTOFDOPPLERSHIFT

The volume of d a t a g a t h e r e d i n D o p p l e r i n t e g r a l m e a s u r e m e n t s i s m u c h s m a l l e r than that for instantaneous measurements, being contained in five to eight data points p e r p a s s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 200 t o 400 d a t a p o i n t s p e r p a s s f o r i n s t a n t a n e o u s D o p p l e r measurements. The three best data points can be u s e d f o r i m m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n i n g a n d t h e o t h e r s a r c h i v e d f o r a n a n a l y s i s of the data at the lab.

Determination of t h e O b s e r v e r ' s Latitude and Longitude In Equation ( 1 ) the vacuum Doppler frequency, range rate according to,
f

fD, was shown proportional to the

(t) =

"

f(t' f!l (t)

In o r d e r t o be m o r e p r e c i s e , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s i g n a l t o ' t r a v e l f r o m t h e s a t e l l i t e to the observer and the fact that the observer is also moving must be Considered. The m a t h e m a t i c a l n o t a t i o n u s e d h e r e t o d e s c r i b e t h i s s i t u a t i o n c l o s e l y f o l l o w s t h a t of Newton. (76) Let ti be the Universal time r(ti) its position at t h i s t i m e . L e t fi ( ~ ihis corresponding position. )

of the satellite at which a s i g n a l i s t r a n s m i t t e d a n d Ti b e t h e t i m e t h e s i g n a l a r r i v e s a t t h e o b s e r v e r a n d

The range p is a function of both times and is d e f i n e d a s :

a function of t i m e . At t i m e t i t h e s a t e l l i t e ' s F i g u r e B - 4 shows range considered as position is r ( t i ) . T h e s i g n a l t r a n s m i t t e d a t t i m e ti a r r i v e s a t t h e o b s e r v e r a t t i m e Ti when the observer's position is K(Ti). At t i m e ~ i t , e s a t e l l i t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s now ? ( T i ) h and Ti - t i = A t i where A t i i s t h e t i m e i t t o o k t h e s i g n a l t o t r a v e l t h e d i s t a n c e p t o t h e A t i = p(ti, Ti)/c. observer at a rate c. Therefore,

A-55818

FIGURE B-4.

RANGE AS FUNCTION OF TIMES

1111

III

11111.1111111

I 111 111 .

I I1111 1.1 1 1

1111 .111111.

Whether ti o r 7i i s the independent variable depends on the method of m e a s u r e b m e n t u s e d . , w i l l m e a n the rate of change of p with respect to the time adopted a s t h e independent variable. The (vacuum) Doppler frequency, fD, c a n t h e n b e w r i t t e n a s :

with the appropriate time inserted in the parentheses. A s was previously mentioned, the integral i s performed between the times when two successive timing signals emitted by the satellite are received by t h e o b s e r v e r . T h e t i m e s t h e s e s i g n a l s a r e e m i t t e d w i l l b e d e n o t e d a s ti a n d t i + 1, a n d t h e t i m e s of t h e i r a r r i v a l a t t h e o b s e r v e r w i l l b e d e n o t e d a s T i and r i + 1. The value of t h e i n t e g r a l will be Ni. The frequency integrated is the difference, fg-(ftfD), between the standard frequency, f g , and the received frequency f t fD. T h e i n t e g r a l m a y t h e n be w r i t t e n a s .(regarding T~ a s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g ) :

A s a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e , f i s h e l d c o n s t a n t a n d it w i l l b e t r e a t e d a s a constant in the g f g ( T i t l - T i ) . Now the frequency multiplied integration. The first integral then becomes by a n y t i m e i n t e r v a l e q u a l s t h e n u m b e r of c y c l e s r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h a t i n t e r v a l . T h e second interval above means physically the number of cycles received between the times when two timing signals are received. But this is t h e s a m e a s t h e n u m b e r of c y c l e s of the frequency, f, emitted by the satellite between the times of e m i s s i o n of t h e s es i g n a l s , ti and titi. Hence,

r i t . ( f t f ~ dT = )
7.

f dt = f (ti + 1

ti)

ti

where f is c o n s t a n t t o a h i g h a c c u r a c y . T h e r e f o r e :

N =f i

(Tit1

Ti)

f(ti+ 1

ti)

Using t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e t i m e s , t h i s b e c o m e s :

N i = (fg - f ) (ti 1
Which, in turn, becomes: Ni = ( f g - f ) AT where the interval

ti) t f g ( A t i + 1

- Ati)

+ f g/ C

ti -+ 1, 7i t 1) -

p(ti, ~ i ) ]

(tit 1

ti) = AT is two minutes.

E x p r e s s i n g t h e d i s t a n c . e s i n t e r m s of the positions of t h e o b s e r v e r a n d t h e s a t e l l i t e :

Ni = ( f g - f ) AT

+ fg/c

[ E (ti + 1) - K(Ti + 1)

I - I :(ti)

- F(Ti) ]

(13)

B-8

At,

A-55819

FIGURE B-5.

MEASUREMENT O F DOPPLERINTEGRAL

In Equation (13), the positions of the satellite :(ti) and :(ti+ 1) a r e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e o r b i t a l p a r a m e t e r s t r a n s m i t t e d by the satellite and hence are known. The only unknowns are the frequency offset, ( f g - f ) , and the positions of t h e o b s e r v e r ( ~ 1) and +i R (Ti). All the positions of t h e o b s e r v e r m u s t b e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s of two unknowns, namely the latitude and longitude of t h e o b s e r v e r at s o m e s p e c i f i c t i m e .

T ~ . Selecting The times at which the frequency was measured will be denoted by one of t h e s e t i m e s a s T o , the ground coordinates of some position of t h e o b s e r v e r R ( T o ) can be written a s a function of t h e o b s e r v e r ' s l a t i t u d e yo, longitude X, a n d t i m e , To. The other positions of t h e o b s e r v e r at t i m e s 'rp a r e t h e n e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s of the , unknowns Q o and X and the known T o :

If the observer's position were fixed, the only change in his earth-fixed coo r d i n a t e s would be that due to the rotation of t h e E a r t h . T h e s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d somewhat when the observer i s moving and knowledge of his motion between Doppler i n t e g r a l m e a s u r e m e n t s is r e q u i r e d . T h e o b s e r v e r ' s v e l o c i t y i s an input to the computat i o n of position. Any e r r o r i n t h e e s t i m a t e of his motion will lead to an error in his of t h e o b s e r v e r i s position determination. Assuming for the present that the velocity known, the solution is the same as before with allowance being made for this motion, i. e . , s o m e t i m e e p o c h T o i s s e l e c t e d a n d t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e o b s e r v e r a t t h i s t i m e , y o and X, a r e t h e u n k n o w n s . T h e c o o r d i n a t e s at a n y o t h e r t i m e a r e - v r i t t e n a s f u n c , tions of t h e s e u n k n o w n s . E a c h i n t e g r a l m e a s u r e m e n t ofNi r e s u l t s i n a n e q u a t i o n w i t h three unknowns, A f , '0 o, X, w h e r e A f = ( f g - f ) . If the values of t h r e e i n t e g r a l s , N1, , Nz, and N3, a r e u s e d i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n s , a unique solution results for A f , yo, and X. , To obtain an immediate position fix, three such integrals are usually chosen. For a m o r e a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of these unknowns, all the integral values obtained during a pass are used and a least-squares adjustment performed. Preliminary estimates of yo, X and ( f g - f ) o a r e f o r m e d f o r s o m e t i m e e p o c h , T o , lying within the time spanned , , by the values of T~ a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g t h e s a m e a s o n e ?f these values. The

e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s f o r yo a n d X, c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d by dead reckoning from a p r e v i o u s fix or from an independent navigation method. The positions, (R(q0, X,, T o ) ) T ~ )of t h e , o b s e r v e r at t i m e s T~ a r e e s t i m a t e d f o l l o w e d b y a n e s t i m a t i o n of the values of Ni. T h e s e t of p a r a m e t e r s w h i c h m a k e s t h e e s t i m a t e s b e s t fit t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s is then determined.

Accuracy

T h e s o u r c e s of e r r o r i n t h e D o p p l e r s y s t e m i n c l u d e t h o s e w h i c h a r e e f f e c t i v e r e g a r d l e s s of the location of t h e o b s e r v e r ( l a n d o r s e a ) a n d t h o s e p e c u l i a r t o s h i p b o a r d operations. Only the former will be discussed at present leaving the latter for a d i s c u s s i o n of the application of the Doppler system to marine geodesy. T h e a c c u r a c y of t h e D o p p l e r s y s t e m f o r p o s i t i o n i n g i s p r e s e n t l y *25 m e t e r s f o r a a s i n g l e p a s s of a s a t e l l i t e . T h e e r r o r s i n fixed station on land from data obtained from positions obtained from a s i n g l e p a s s of t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e d u e t o : (1) Measurement contribution a. Random: *5-10 meters b. Upper limit to bias (bias caused mainly by refraction):

*3 meters

( 2 ) Orbit contribution
(i. e . , i n c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n i n g of s a t e l l i t e ) : * 2 0 - 2 5 m e t e r s

(3)

C o o r d i n a t es y s t e mf o rt h ee a r t h :* l o - 1 5m e t e r s ( 7 7 ) .

As can be seen from the preceding, the largest error is that due to the determination of t h e s a t e l l i t e o r b i t a n d i t s p r e d i c t i o n f o r a day into the future. Satellite position errors result in an error in the observer's position in roughly a 1:l ratio. (75) The s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n e r r o r s a r e d u e m a i n l y t o a l a c k of knowledge of t h e e a r t h ' s g r a v i t y field. Through the continued efforts of s a t e l l i t e g e o d e s i s t s i n t h i s a r e a , h o w e v e r , o n e can expect a continual reduction in this error*, This factor, coupled with the recomputation of the data at a l a t e r d a t e a f t e r b e t t e r s a t e l l i t e o r b i t p a r a m e t e r s h a v e b e e n provided, will provide higher accuracy(35).
air d r a g . T h i s A s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e of e r r o r i n t h e s a t e l l i t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s d u e t o p r e s e n t s a somewhat different problem since air d r a g is unpredictable, being influenced by s o l a r a c t i v i t y . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h d o e s not p r o m i s e t o r e d u c e a i r d r a g e r r o r s . However', satellite position error resulting from the errors in the force of a i r d r a g m a y b e reduced by o b t a i n i n g r e t r a c k e d s a t e l l i t e o r b i t s , i. e . , by archiving the data for further reduction after considerable improvement in geodesy has been made(35).

T h e r a n d o m e r r o r s c a n be reduced by i n c r e a s i n g t h e n u m b e r of p a s s e s f o r w h i c h Doppler data is obtained. (This wouldbedone especially when establishing geodetic control. ) A c c u r a c y i s g a i n e d by adding more and more data only up to the point where unknown biases in the data produce errors comparable to the accuracy obtained by using redundant data. For this reason, many studies have been done regarding these biased errors, such as frequency drift and ionospheric and tropospheric refraction.
_ _ I _ _ "

*This error has already bccn reduced from *75 meters in 1964 to its present value(75).

B -10

A s w a s previously mentioned, a c o r r e c t i o n i s m a d e f o r t h e effects of ionospheric r e f r a c t i o n b y u s i n g t w o f r e q u e n c i e s a n d e l i m i n a t i n g t h e first o r d e r r e f r a c t i o n t e r m . The residual refraction errors are usually negligible, but they do vary widely with position and solar activity, being exceptionally large at low latitudes.
Tropospheric refraction contributes to the Doppler shift on each transmitted is almost independent.of frequency and thus frequency also. However, this refraction a is not affected by frequency mixing a s is t h e i o n o s p h e r i c e f f e c t . I n o r d e r t o m a k e c o r r e c t i o n , a model of t h e t r o p o s p h e r e is used along with meteorological observations at t h e t i m e of the satellite pass. This method h a s been successful except when a weather front is near the observer. The angle of elevation, X, of t h e s a t e l l i t e a l s o a f f e c t s t h e a c c u r a c y of a position fix. F o r low values of I, the satellite is not above the horizon long enough for the Doppler . frequency to depart significantly from a linear function of time. Consequently it is not possible to deduce the frequency offset accurately and the time of minimum approach. T h i s c a u s e s a n e r r o r in the along-track component of t h e o b s e r v e r ' s p o s i t i o n , When the satellite passes directly overhead, the errors in the cross-track component are large since the slant range changes very little for changes in cross-track position when near thcplane of the satellite. Also, i o n o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n e f f e c t s a r e g r e a t e s t f o r low elevation angles and affect positioning accuracy. In o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e s e e f f e c t s , o n l y p a s s e s f o r 1 5 " 5 X 1 7 5 " are used, although those near 15" are somewhat poorer. In order to improve on the coordinate system for the earth, the motion of the North Pole will be considered in the next analysis of data p e r f o r m e d at t h e A p p l i e d P h y s i c s L a b o r a t o r y of the Johns Hopkins University(77).

B-11

. ..

. ..

SECOR METHOD

The SECOR (SEquential Collation of R a n g e s ) s y s t e m , o p e r a t e d by the Army Map S e r v i c e i s a r a n g i n g s y s t e m o p e r a t i n g o n t h e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p e t h a t m o d u l a t i o n of a n electromagnetic wave through space will undergo a phase shift proportional to the distance traveled and proportional to the modulation frequency. A m e a s u r e m e n t of the difference of phase between the transmitted and received electromagnetic wave provides a means for determining distance. A C W (continuous wave) is t r a n s m i t t e d a t o n e l o c a t i o n a n d i s r e c e i v e d by a t r a n s p o n d e r . T h e t r a n s p o n d e r r e t r a n s m i t s t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l ( w i t h o u t at the original location where changing its phase), The retransmitted signal is received i t s p h a s e i s compared with that of the transmitted signal. This principle is i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e B-6 where the phase difference between the outgoing and incoming frequency with a wavelength of 512 m e t e r s i s 2 7 0 " . The total distance, 2D, is equal to the total e . , 2D = ( V t 3/4)(512 m ) where V is a n number of cycles times the wavelength; i. i n t e g r a l n u m b e r of cycles.

Ground Station

A-55813

Satel I ite

FIGURE B-6. SECORPHASEMEASUREMENT(28) The main advantage of the SECOR system, as i n all e l e c t r o n i c s y s t e m s , is t h e f a c t of data available, coupled by posithat it is a n a l l - w e a t h e r s y s t e m , T h e v a s t r e d u n d a n c y tion checks through multiple determinations of r a n g e , h a s b e e n S E C O R ' s m o s t p r o m i n e n t claim to achievable accuracy.

is the fact that SECOR r e q u i r e s a n a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e ; i. e . , On the liability side, there a transponder. (The only electronic technique which the satellite must be equipped with uses t h e s a t e l l i t e m e r e l y as a r e f l e c t o r of e n e r g y is r a d a r , b u t t h i s h a s h a d l i m i t e d u s e of o b s e r v a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t f o u r f o r g e o d e t i c p u r p o s e s . ) Also, the simultaneous method ground stations and a s a t e l l i t e m e e t c e r t a i n g e o m e t r i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g o o d r e s u l t s . The orbital mode is used most frequently although the geometry of the situation has slowed is due to the fact that the satellites now being used have down p r o g r e s s s o m e w h a t . T h i s a n e a r p o l a r o r b i t w h e r e a s t h e n e t w o r k is being extended in a west-east direction. Coni s slower. sequently, distant stations cannot observe the satellite and distance progress
SECOR allows for only the measuring of d i s t a n c e s a n d n e i t h e r a n g l e s n o r d i r e c t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e h a s b e e n m e n t i o n of c o m b i n i n g r a n g e a n d d i r e c t i o n m e a s u r e m e n t s . (Simultaneous SECOR a n d o p t i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e a t t e m p t e d w i t h t h e ANNA satellite, but failure of the SECOR equipment prevented measurements. )

B -12

SECOR i s not as sensitive to frequency stability as Doppler, but does depend much m o r e o n a n a c c u r a t e v a l u e of the propagation of light in a vacuum. "' If four known stations the w e r e u s e d i n s t e a d of t h r e e , t h i s s o u r c e of e r r o r would be eliminated(80). However, total number of ground stations i s r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e n u m b e r of channels provided; this is four in the Army Map Service SECOR system( 85).

M e a s u r e m e n t of Phase Difference

The basic equipment for the SECOR operation consists of a n a r t i f i c i a l e a r t h s a t e l l i t e bearing a t r a n s p o n d e r o r r a d i o r e l a y and a m i n i m u m of four ground stations. The SECOR transponder may be mounted in its o w n s e p a r a b l e s a t e l l i t e o r it m a y be installed as a n is composed of a r e c e i v e r , i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l a r g e r s a t e l l i t e . T h e S E C O R t r a n s p o n d e r transmitters, and power supply which converts the satellite battery voltage to the voltages required. The four ground stations are equipped with a r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r , r a d i o r e c e i v e r , p r e c i s e t i m e c l o c k , a n . a n t e n n a a r r a y w i t h s e r v o s f o r m a n u a l t r a c k i n g , a magnetic-tape data recorder, and radio equipment for voice communication within the system. Three a i r - t r a n s p o r t a b l e s h e l t e r s are used to house this equipment. ( 3 0 ) E a c h S E C O R g r o u n d s t a t i o n m e a s u r e s a n d r e c o r d s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p h a s e of the outgoing and incoming ranging signal. This phase difference is r e c o r d e d o n a . m a g n e t i c tape in binary digital form.

In the SECOR system, the transmitter frequency modulates a 420-megacycles-per) second continuous wave with four different measuring frequencies. (See Table B-2.

TABLE B-2.

SECOR RANGE MODULATION S I G N A L S ( ~ ~ )

rs

meters
~ ~ ~~~

Ranging Frequency Wavelength k cD e s i g n a t i o n ,


~~~~

(X),

Nonambiguous Range ( x / 2 1,

Sy s t e m Resolution,

F i n eV e r y Fine Coarse

533

585. 36. 596 2. 287

512 8,192 131, 0 7 2

2 56 4,096 65,536

0. 25

16 256 2,048

881,048; 76 0.286 Very Coarse Extended Range k20 , P 0 ks 5 s0s e c m 5 u0m, / 0 0 7 l1 e

km 83 41.

T h e current tendency in data reduction

is to disregard scaling error through the device of considering the value adopted veloclty of light as being perfect by definition(l8).

for the

B-13

A n u m b e r of different ranging signals are u s e d so that an unambiguous range can be obare u s e d to r e s o l v e tained; measurements at the successively lower ranging frequencies ambiguities in the measurements at the next higher frequency. Also, the extended range is m e a s u r e d by the time the signal'takes to t r a v e l t o t h e s a t e l l i t e a n d b a c k u s i n g a scale of 20 pulses per second. The topic of unresolved ambiguities will be mentioned later since this has led to an unexpected source of e r r o r . T h e t r a n s p o n d e r i n t h e s a t e l l i t e s t r i p s t h e m o d u l a t i n g f r e q u e n c i e s off t h e 4 2 0 - m e g a c y c l e c a r r i e r w a v e i t r e c e i v e s a n d returns them, without changing phase, on carriers of two different frequencies. All four of t h e m o d u l a t i n g f r e q u e n c i e s r e t u r n o n a 4 4 9 - m e g a c y c l e c a r r i e r a n d t h e v e r y - f i n e , o r highest frequency, modulation also rides on a 224, 5 - m e g a c y c l e c a r r i e r , T h e d i f f e r e n c e in the observed length from the very-fine riding the high-frequency carrier and the veryis used to determine the ionospheric portion of the fine riding the low-frequency carrier a t m o s p h e r i cr e f r a c t i o n ( 2 8 )( S e eF i g u r e B-7. )

Frequency

M\

-420 MC-449

Key

-224.5

transrni t M C l receive MCJ

A - 55004

FIGURE B-7.

SECORTRANSMIT-RECEIVEPATTERN(28)

Operational Procedures

Modes of ODeration simultaneous, orbital, and T h r e e m e t h o d s of observation are used with SECOR is t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e b u t is not always possible. line crossing. The simultaneous method The' line-crossing technique is t h e l e a s t a c c u r a t e a n d is not used for geodetic work. The o r b i t a l m o d e is used whenever the geography of the situation does not permit simultaneous observations.

of SECOR, three ground stations Simultaneous Mode, In the simultaneous operation a r e p l a c e d o n p o i n t s of a single geodetic network for which the latitudes and longitudes on the horizontal datum and the elevation on the vertical datum for that network are of t h e f o u r t h s t a t i o n a r e notknown. T h e p u r p o s e i s to known. The geodetic coordinates d e t e r m i n e t h e s e c o o r d i n a t e s a n d t h e n c o n s i d e r t h i s s t a t i o n a fixed station to be used in f u r t h e r work.

B -14

T h e t r a n s p o n d e r i n t h e s a t e l l i t e r e m a i n s i n a standby condition until activated by a s e l e c t c a l l s i g n a l g e n e r a t e d by a SECOR ground station. The station nearest the a p p r o a c h i n g s a t e l l i t e is d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n a n d t h e o t h e r t h r e e a r e r e f e r r e d to as slave stations one, two, and three. The master station interrogates the satellite first, The return signal is r e c e i v e d by all four ground stations and displayed on their oscilloscopes. Operators at the slave stations adjust their transmission times for their signals to arrive at the transponder in numerical sequence in order for the transponder a single station for 10 m i l l i s e c o n d s , r e s t 2 - 1 / 2 millito be relaying the signal fr.om seconds, and relay the signal from the next station for 10 m i l l i s e c o n d s . In a s e v e n m i n u t e p e r i o d of s i m u l t a n e o u s t r a c k i n g , e a c h g r o u n d s t a t i o n m e a s u r e s a n d r e c o r d s 8 , 4 0 0 r a n g e s , m a k i n g a total of 33,600 for all four stations. This time-sharing method p e r m i t s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of equipment and the use of a single transponder and a s i n g l e s e t of f r e q u e n c i e s i n s t e a d of f o u r of everything for an exactly simultaneous system(28, 2 9 ) . Precise time clocks at each ground station enable one to'collate the measurements and determine at any instant the range from each station to the satellite. The three ranges (R1, R2, R3) from the three known ground stations to the satellite at some time, ti, f o r m a tetrahedron, the basic figure in the process of solution. Computations are by f i r s t c o n v e r t i n g latip e r f o r m e d in a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l , C a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m tudes, longitudes, and elevations to X , Y , Z c o o r d i n a t e s . If the coordinates of the satell i t e a t t i m e t i a r e ( X s ( t l ) , ( Y s ( t l ) , Z s ( t l ) ) a n d t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of the three known stations a r e ( X i Y i Z i ) , w h e r e i = 1, 2 , 3 , then the Ranges R i a t t i m e t l m a y b e w r i t t e n as:
9 ,

T h e s e e q u a t i o n s a r e t h e e q u a t i o n s of t h r e e s p h e r e s of radii R1, R 2 , and R3, which i n t e r s e c t at the point ( X s ( t l ) , Y , ( t l ) , Z s ( t l ) ) . T h e s i m u l t a n e o u s s o l u t i o n of these three equations would yield the position of the satellite at time ti. (Actually, the three spheres i n t e r s e c t i n two points but one of these points would be a ridiculous solution since it would be below the surface of t h e e a r t h . ) The fourth range to an unknown station would be :

If two m o r e p o s i t i o n s of t h e s a t e l l i t e a t t i m e s t2 a n d t 3 a r e c o n s i d e r e d , e i g h t m o r e equations are determined:

and

B-15

These equations yield two more positions of the satellite. Two positions of the satellite may be determined on the same orbit but the third must be determined from anotherorbitavoidhavingnearlycollinearcenters.Eachnewpoint of t h e s a t e l l i t e position is a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h r e e s p h e r e s a n d t h e p r o c e s s i s t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d "trispheration".(SeeFigureB-8, a & b. )

FIGURE TRISPHERATION B-8.

T h i s p r o c e s s i s now r e v e r s e d to determine the position of the unknown station; i. e . , the satellite positions are regarded as t h e c e n t e r s of t h r e e s p h e r e s of r a d i i R 4 ( t l ) , R 4 ( t z ) , a n d R 4 ( t 3 ) a n d S t a t i o n 4 is at the point of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e s e t h r e e ) s p h e r e s .( S e eF i g u r eB - 9 .

A - Known station m - Unknown station

A 55807

FIGURE B-9. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS

B-16

All twelve range equations in the twelve unknowns may also be solved simultaneously with an electronic computer(Z8,29).
The preceding explanation presents the minimum requirements for obtaining the position of t h e f o u r t h g r o u n d s t a t i o n f r o m t h e known positions of the other three ground stations. In actual practice, the data collected from many sattellite passes are used in a least-squares solution to obtain the most probable values. Trial point-coordinates available for the unknown station are used as a first approximation. The satellite positions are held fixed and only the unknown station is allowed to adjust.

Orbital Mode. The orbital mode of o p e r a t i o n is used whenever existing geography In t h i s c a s e , t h e m e a s u r e d r a n g e s f r o m prohibits the use of the simultaneous method. the known positions of t h r e e g r o u n d s t a t i o n s a r e u s e d to determine the satellite positions for a s m a l l s e g m e n t of t h e a r c . E x t r a p o l a t i o n t h e n p r o v i d e s t h e p o s i t i o n s of the satellite at given times when passing the unknown point. These positions are used as the centers of the spheres with the corresponding ranges as radii to compute the position of the unof o p e r a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e B - 1 0 , w h e r e S i , i = 1, 2, known point. This mode 3 , a r e the positions of the satellite computed from observations at three known ground stations and Si a r e the extrapolated positions of the satellite used to determine the coo r d i n a t e s of the unknown station.

A-55812

FIGUREB-10.SECORORBITAL

MJ3THOD

T h e s i m u l t a n e o u s m o d e i s p r e f e r r e d s i n c e t h e s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n is of no consequence, serving merely as an auxiliary target. In the orbital mode, however, the e x t r a p o l a t e d p o s i t i o n of the satellite is a f u r t h e r s o u r c e of e r r o r . A l s o , a c c u r a t e i t was ranged timing is important in this situation for the satellite position at the time upon from the unknown point must be known. An advantage of this method is the fact t h a t e a r t h - c e n t e r e d c o o r d i n a t e s for the unknown station are obtained directly(22).

B-17

" "

- ..-.... .

Line-Crossing Mode. This mode is analagous to the aircraft line-crossillg mode employing the HIRAN and SHIRAN s u r v e y i n g s y s t e m s . T h e s a t e l l i t e r e p l a c e s t h e airc r a f t i n t h e o p e r a t i o n ; i. e . , t h e m i n i m u m r a n g e s u m f r o m two ground stations to the satellite is obtained. When a s a t e l l i t e p a s s is of nearly constant height above the spheris d i r e c t l y oid, the minimum range sum occurs very nearly at the instant the satellite over the base-line between the two g r o u n d s t a t i o n s ( i n p r a c t i c e , c o r r e c t i o n s m u s t b e m a d e f o r t h e e c c e n t r i c i t y of t h e o r b i t of t h e s a t e l l i t e ) , I the height of the satellite were f p r e c i s e l y k n o w n a t t h e i n s t a n t of l i n e c r o s s i n g , t h e m i n i m u m r a n g e s u m c o u l d b e c o n verted to the length of the spheroidal arc joining the stations. The need for precise heights is t h e m a j o r w e a k n e s s of the line crossing method; for with satellite geometry, errors in height propagate unfavorably into the reduced spheroidal arcs. Theoretically, s a t e l l i t e h e i g h t s c a n b e r e c o v e r e d by m e a n s of t h r e e s t a t i o n t r i l a t e r a t i o n . I n p r a c t i c e , e r r o r s i n l o c a t i o n s of w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d s t a t i o n s c o m b i n e w i t h s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s of tracking to render such heights of m a r g i n a l v a l u e f o r s o l i d g e o d e t i c r e s u l t s ( l 8 ) .

Geometrical Requirements There are several geometrical factors which m u s t be considered in trispheration; for, as in triangulation, the accuracy of the ground points depends upon the geometric s t r e n g t h of figure to a large degree. One of t h e s e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d , i. e . , the fact that at least nne of the three positions of t h e s a t e l l i t e m u s t b e o n a different orbit than the other two i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o l l i n e a r c e n t e r s . Also, t h e r e c i p r o c a l d i s t a n c e s of the three ground stations should be about one to two times the height of the satellite in o r d e r to avoid poor strengths of figure. Likewise, the new station being positioned should not be more distant from the fixed points than the mutual distances between the a "trispherical" survey fixed points themselves. The mutual distances between points in is thus governed by the height of the satellite(28, 81). T h e a n g l e s a t t h e s a t e l l i t e f o r m e d by the r a y s f r o m t h e g r o u n d s t a t i o n s t o t h e Lf t h e s e a n g l e s a r e s m a l l , t h e s u r f a c e s of t h e s p h e r e s satellite should not be small. approach concentricity resulting in the changes in the coordinates being large compared to changes in the radii. Likewise, angles at the unknown point between range lines to the satellite position must not be srnall(28). With three basic points, rays intersecting. at right angles provides optimum accuracy(85). Of c o u r s e , t h i s s i t u a t i o n is a l m o s t is f i x e d m o s t s t r o n g l y w h e n i t impossible to achieve in practice. The satellite point is o v e r t h e c e n t e r of t h e b a s e t r i a n g l e a n d a c c u r a c y falls off as i t m o v e s a w a y .

N. J. D. P r e s c o t t ( 8 1 ) h a s o u t l i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e selection of s t a t i o n s i n a f r a m e w o r k ( a p a r t f r o m t h o s e of l o g i s t i c s ) ;
( 1 ) Availablesatelliteheight ( 2 ) Good intersections from all ground stations

( 3 ) Extension of c o n t r o l each new station should be suitably a useful part in placed so that, when established, it plays fixing the next unknown point.

B-18

Reduction of Data The reduction of t h e d a t a r e s u l t i n g f r o m S E C O R o b s e r v a t i o n s s e e m s t o b e o n e o f t h e m a i n a r e a s of t h e p r o c e s s u n d e r g o i n g c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n a n d i m p r o v e m e n t . A report by D. C. Brown18 develops a n e w e r r o r m o d e l f o r G e o d e t i c S E C O R . " C o m p a r i s o n s (a) provide higher with the conventional reduction indicate that the new reduction should a far m o r e r e a l i s t i c e r r o r p r o p a g a t i o n ; a n d accuracies from less data; (b) produce ( c ) l e a d t o a more efficient field operation. Because it also automatically solves the p r o b l e m of unresolved, constant ranging ambiguities, the new reduction promises a m u c h s h o r t e r d a t a r e d u c t i o n cycle than the conventional methodtl(18), Initial data reduction procedures did not explicitly recognize the possibility of significant systematic error in SECOR ranges and thus the statistical treatment of o b s e r v a t i o n s w a s l i m i t e d to the consideration of o n l y r a n d o m e r r o r . T h e e r r o r m p d e l o u t l i n e d by Brown is entitled NEO-EMBET (N-Epoch OrbitalE r r o r M v d e l B e s t E s t i m a t e of T r a j e c t o r y ) . B r o w n ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t N E O EMBET m a y w e l l p r o m i s e a n o r d e r - o f - m a g n i t u d e i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r o r i g i n a l S E C O R a geometrical reduction in that it effectively reductions. NEO-EMBET differs from u t i l i z e s t r a c k i n g d a t a f r o m t h o s e p o r t i o n s of a p a s s t h a t a r e o b s e r v e d by only one, two all participating stations is, or three stations. Horizon-to-horizon tracking from therefore, best. All quads are adjusted simultaneously in the general NEO-EMBET reduction, and hence, fewer passes than in the independent adjustment of e a c h q u a d a r e n e e d e d to p r o d u c e a c c e p t a b l e r e s u l t s . T h e r e s u l t s of the initial tests of the SECOR system indicated that the simultaneous the data being mode of operation was a g r e a t d e a l m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n t h e o r b i t a l m o d e subject to a g e o m e t r i c a l r e d u c t i o n o n l y . T h e r e f o r e , Only data from good simultaneous observations with four stations was used in the reduction process, The problem has been under constant study, however, and orbital techniques enabling any good data in a p a s s tobe used were developed recently. These techniques are now being employed by the Army Map Service.

Accuracv

Published results for the SECOR system are now outdated and a lack of publication has prevented an up-to-date accuracy determination. Many of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e being updated through recently developed data reduction techniques. With these new techniques, fewer passes m a y be used to obtain very acceptable results. Approximately 1 0 p a s s e s are now u s e d i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t r e d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d of R e s e a r c h a n d A n a l y s i s instead of 20-25 p a s s e s as before. Erich Rutscheidt, Chief Division, Geodesy Section of t h e A r m y M a p S e r v i c e , w i l l p u b l i s h a n a r t i c l e i n t h e Canadian Surveyor by e a r l y fall 1968 stating the updated results of SECOR. the instruments The Army Map Service began the development of SECOR in 1961 being developed by the Cubic Corporation. The first SECOR satellite (EGRS-1) was launched in 1964 at which time an ETST (Engineering Test Service Test) was conducted U. S. T h e r e s u l t s of this t e s t w e r e f i r s t p r e s e n t e d i n involving five stations in the early 1965(28).

B-19
I

T h e f i x e d s t a t i o n s w e r e n e a r Las C r u c e s , New Mexico; Colorado Springs, Colorado, and Austin, Texas. The station treated as the unknown i n t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s ope r a t i o n of SECOR was near Stillwater, Oklahoma. The discrepancy between the SECOR result and that from the Coast and Geodetic Survey triangulation was 6 m e t e r s ( l 2 ) . The orbital mode was also tested at this time by using a fifth station at East Grand Forks, Minnesota. The discrepancy between triangulation and orbital trispheration at East Grand Forks was 55 meters(12). During the fall of 1964, the SECOR network was extended from Japan southe a s t w a r d t h r o u g h Iwo Jima, Guam, Midway, and Maui, being tied into the South Pacific Hiram network wherever possible. Table B-3 outlines the results of this work. TABLE B-3. RESULTS

OF THE SECOR OPERATION

I N PACLFIC

S t a r t i n g f r o m t h r e e known stations on Tokyo Datum (Bessel Spheroid), unknown stations on the following islands have been fixed.
~ ~~ ~~

Probable Error, in meters Height Longitude Latitude Minami Daito Shima Iwo Jima Guam Marcus *2.2 *l. 6 *2,1 *l. 6

*l. ' 0

*2, 8
*l. 5

*I, 3
*3,7

*2. 7
*O. 5
~ ~~~~

*2.2

T h e p r o b a b l e e r r o r h'as been obtained from the internal agreement- between the solutions81. T h e m a i n s o u r c e s of e r r o r a r e c a u s e d by calibration within the ground stations and the transponder, tropospheric refraction, and ionospheric refraction. satellite at a height of 500 nautical miles above the earth's surface, Prescott(81 a e s t i m a t e s t h e p r o b a b l e e r r o r of a s i n g l e r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t to be (for the various s o u r c e s ) a s follows*: Sources Elevation (slant range) 60" 90" 15" (1000 km) km) (2230 l m 2 m m 0.25 l m 0.25 m l m

satellite transponder l m Calibration Calibration station 2 m Tropospheric correction Dual frequency ionospheric correction night

*These estimates of probable error are very approximate since it has been very difflcutl SECOR range r n u w e m e n t s .

to check the precise accuracy of

B-20

Sources D u a l e q u e n ciy n o s p h e r ic o r r e c t i o n fr o c e l e c t r o n i cR a n d o m F r e q up rnhp a g ae r r o r s l egoct i n dy a tion Combined (day) error Combined (night) error

- day

Elevation (slant range) 90" 15" (1000 k m ) (2230 km) 1.5 m 6 m l m l m l m 2 m

60"

~~

3.0 m . 2.7 m

6.9 m 3.5 m

Zero Set Error The signal spends some time going through the circuits of the ground station and of the transponder. The distance it would travel in free space during this time must be subtracted from the observed range, This is c a l l e d t h e c a l i b r a t i o n c o r r e c t i o n . T h i s c o r r e c t i o n is m e a s u r e d i n t h e t r a n s p o n d e r b e f o r e l a u n c h i n g . I t is m e a s u r e d i n e a c h g r o u n d s t a t i o n b e f o r e a n d a f t e r e a c h s a t e l l i t e p a s s by ranging on a t r a n s p o n d e r a t a known distance from the ground station thus obtaining the difference between the meas u r e d a n d known d i s t a n c e s . Unavoidable e r r o r s i n t h e g r o u n d s t a t i o n c a l i b r a t i o n a n d t h e u n k n o w n d e l a y s i n t h e s a t e l l i t e t r a n s p o n d e r a r e k n o w n as the z e r o s e t e r r o r , When the s y s t e m is functioning properly so that phase ambiguities are successfully resolved, zero set error,is likely is a f a i r l y to be no m o r e t h a n a f e w m e t e r s . E x p e r i e n c e h a s s h o w n , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t common occurrence for ranging ambiguities to remain unresolved throughout a pass. In this case, the zero set coefficient also contains an integer multiple of 256 m e t e r s ( 1 8 ) . of 256 m e t e r s . T h e z e r o s e t c o r r e c t i o n is applied to remove ambiguities in these multiples

Refraction
A c o r r e c t i o n is c o m p u t e d f o r t r o p o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to a n e m p i r i c a l f o r m u l a b a s e d o n a tropospheric model. The troposphere does not change much and many studies have been made of i t s e f f e c t s o n l i g h t rays and radio waves; hence, the m o d e l is q u i t e a c c u r a t e .

The dual frequency method of c o r r e c t i n g f o r t h e i o n o s p h e r e is used unless the second frequency isn't received due to low frequency interference. In this case, an i o n o s p h e r i c m o d e l is used. Wheneve.r both frequencies are received, the ionospheric m o d e l c o r r e c t i o n is also computed and compared with the results. The model presently being used is comparing very well with the measured data. When usuable two frequency data are available on an operational pass, the model can be fitted to the two f r e q u e n c y d a t a by least squares and put to good use to e s t i m a t e t h e e r r o r i n t h e z e r o s e t of r a n g e differences(18). T h e i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e u p p e r a t m o s p h e r e d e p e n d s o n t h e a m o u n t of s o l a r radiation. This varies greatly with the times of day, seasons, latitudes, and sun spots. It is greatest at noon and least between midnight and dawn. Likewise, ionospheric r e f r a c t i o n e r r o r s a r e l e a s t b e t w e e n m i d n i g h t a n d d a w n a n d a t z e r o z e n i t h d i s t a n c e of carrier-wavepaths.(Forthisreason,nighttime SECOR o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y a p p r e c i a b l y e u p e r i o r to d a y t i m e o b s e r v a t i o n s . )

B-21

Doppler Effect

A c o r r e c t i o n is also made for the Doppler effect on the range determination, This effect is small and is c o r r e c t e d f o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y by a Doppler loop that is built into the ground station(29).
Many of the original problems and difficulties involved with SECOR have been e l i m i n a t e d o r at l e a s t r e d u c e d . C a l i b r a t i o n is now v e r y good (being *2 m e t e r s ) . R a n g e r e s i d u a l s a r e a l s o l o o k i n g g o o d (*2-4 m e t e r s ) a n d s y s t e m a t i c b i a s e r r o r s h a v e b e e n if h i g h e r s a t e l l i t e s a r e eliminated. The range accuracy will improve proportionally used. The cost of the SECOR equipment will continue to be reduced along with reduction in weight. The system weighing 33,000 pounds originally now weighs only 2, 500 pounds due to new equipment design. Hence, transportation costs will be greatly reduced although a SECOR s e t u p m a y still be too expensive for any one group to consider. The Army Map Service is presently extending the SECOR network with the intention of eventually completing its original plans of a worldwide network. Much of the SECOR w o r k h a s m i l i t a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d is t h e r e f o r e c l a s s i f i e d .

Conceptual Approaches

Unlike the Doppler method has not been used for positioning at s e a , but h a s b e e n restricted rather to land-based operation, Several approaches to the use of SECOR f o r determining the positioning of s h i p s a t s e a h a v e b e e n p r o p o ~ e d ( ~ 5 ) . T h e s e a p p r o a c h e s employ adaptations of the basic SECOR technique. Two approaches, CODA (COnsolidated DAta) and ODVAR ( O r b i t D e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d V e h i c l e A t t i t u d e R e f e r e n c e ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d . An advantage of CODA SECOR o v e r t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m is the fact that the c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n r e a l t i m e t r a c k i n g a t t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n . The master station would have the only transmitter, and the other ground stations serve e s s e n t i a l l y as t r a n s p o n d e r s . A s i g n a l o r i g i n a t e d at a m a s t e r s t a t i o n ( A ) i s r e c e i v e d a n d t r a n s p o n d e d a t a satellite. The transponded signal is r e c e i v e d a n d t r a m p o n d e d a g a i n a t o n e of two s l a v e stations (B) and this reply i s received and transponded a t h i r d t i m e a t t h e s a t e l l i t e . T h e r e s u l t i n g s i g n a l i s r e c e i v e d b a c k a t s t a t i o n A, and a p h a s e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e t r a n s m i t t e d and received signals at station A yields a m e a s u r e of the range (Ra t Rb). Likewise, the range (Ra t R ) f o r a t h i r d s t a t i o n ( C ) c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by sequentially receiving C C. T h e s a t e l l i t e ' s r e s p o n s e t o s t a t i o n A ' s t r a n s and transponding the signal at station m i t t e d s i g n a l is u s e d a t s t a t i o n A to obtain a m e a s u r e of Rae The data is "consolidated" a t s t a t i o n A yielding the ranges Rb and Rc and hence the coordinates of the satellite by I%rtspheration". R e i d ( 8 3 ) d e s c r i b e s two methods for applying the CODA SECOR technique (the threesatellite-position solution and the two-satellite-position solution) to the positioning of a ship.Bothmethodsinvolvefour"ground"stations the three known stations, A, B, and C, and the unknown station, the ship. The CODA SECOR technique would be used to d e t e r m i n e a l l f o u r r a n g e s f r o m t h e s e s t a t i o n s t o t h e s a t e l l i t e at various positions of the satellite. In the three-satellite-position method, three positions of the satellite would be determined, resulting in Figure B-11 which is s i m i l a r to F i g u r e B-4 except o n l y t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n t r a n s m i t s a signal and all t h r e e s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n s a r e f o r t h e s a m eo r b i t a lp a s s .T h en i n er a n g e s ,R a l ,R a 2 ,R a 3 ,R b l ,R b 2 ,R b 3 , Rcl' RcZ,Rcg,

B-22

Ship

A-55809

FIGURE B- 11. CODA SECOR THREE-SATELLITE-POSITION SOLUTION


S 2 , S3. Thesethreepositionsalongwiththe determine the satellite positions, SI, r a n g e sf r o mt h es h i p , R s , R, , Rs , d e t e r m i n e t h e s h i p p o s i t i o n by "trispheration". 1 2 3 buring the time between the determination of S1, S2, and Sj, the ship was moving and, hence, the velocity of the ship must be known to a v e r y h i g h d e g r e e of a c c u r a c y f o r g e o detic work. Present navigation methods do not yield this desired accuracy, The other m a i n s o u r c e of e r r o r , of course, would be that due to the CODA SECOR s y s t e m i t s e l f in positioning a satellite. This is not known at this time although Reid claims "high" be noted again that the three-satellite-position method a c c u r a c y is available. It might does not lend itself to the most desirable geometric configuration since all three positions a r e f o r t h e s a m e p a s s .

In the two-satellite-position method, an estimate of the geocentric radius of the ship is used as the third range in determining the ship position (see Figure B-12). Positions S1 and S2 of t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e d e t e r m i n e d as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . T h e v e l o c i t y of t h e s h i p s t i l l m u s t b e k n o w n , a n d a n a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r is introduced due to t h e a s s u m e d geocentric radius. The geometry i s somewhat better than that of the previous method, however.

FIGURE B-12. CODASECORTWO-SATELLITE-POSITIONSOLUTION

B-23
I

If one w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n f i r s t e s t a b l i s h i n g g e o d e t i c c o n t r o l a t s e a , t h e s i t u a t i o n would be slightly different. As with the' Doppler system, the problem of determining the ship velocity could be eliminated or at least reduced to the case of being negligible by employing ocean bottom transponders. One of the two ( o r b o t h ) m e t h o d s d e s c r i b e d i. e., continuously positioning the ship relaunder the Doppler system could be applied; tive to ocean bottom transponders and thus determining its velocity, or following the s a m e p r o c e d u r e a n d d e t e r m i n i n g i t s m e a n p o s i t i o n f o r t h e t i m e of observations.
R e i d d e s c r i b e s a system called SECOR/ODVAR which requires that only one position of the s a t e l l i t e be known and hence, the velocity of the ship is not required. (83) I n o r d e r to obtain the geocentric coordinates of t h e s h i p , h o w e v e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to obtain the geocentric coordinates of the satellite and the three angles which define the orientation of the satellite with respect to the geocentric reference frame. The former c a n be obtained by the CODA SECOR approach and the latter by C u b i c ' s ODVAR technique on a which requires phase comparison angle measurements at three antennas located s e t of orthogonal axes on the satellite. According to Reid, however, high accuracy is not possible with SECOR/ODVAR. Therefore, this system will not be d i s c u s s e d any further. The use of ocean bottom transponders to eliminate the velocity problem appears to be a m o s t p r o m i s i n g s o l u t i o n f o r g e o d e t i c w o r k ,

K. R i n n e r ( 8 5 ) a l s o o u t l i n e s a n a p p r o a c h t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of the Secor satellite r a n g i n g s y s t e m to m a r i n e g e o d e s y both for geodetic control and positioning. According to Rinner, "fixed points must be established on the bottom of the sea". The observation point on the surface could then be positioned by the ranges to the m a r k e r s . B e i n g t h a t r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e v e r y l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by movements of the observation point, t r i l a t e r a t i o n s (of e i t h e r s e a - s u r f a c e n e t w o r k s o r s p a t i a l n e t w o r k s ) a r e w e l l s u i t e d to determining fixed points in ocean areas. All observations in SECOR t r i l a t e r a t i o n c o u l d be reduced to one of t h e o c e a n b o t t o m m a r k e r s r e f e r r e d to a s the m a s t e r s t a t i o n a n d i t s coordinates determined by the adjustment. Rinner outlines two p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e f e r r i n g the SECOR r a n g e s f r o m t h e s u r f a c e p o i n t t o t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n o n t h e s e a b o t t o m . T h e f i r s t i n v o l v e s e s t a b l i s h i n g LNO additional eccentric stations on the surface whereas the second involves determining the distances between the sea bottom markers by u l t r a s o n i c line crossing and orienting the pyramid determined by t h e s e m a r k e r s a n d t h e s u r f a c e station.

R i n n e r f u r t h e r p r e s e n t s a n a r g u m e n t f o r u s i n g SECOR in navigation in a m a n n e r s i m i l a r to the Doppler navigation system; i. e . , the p a r a m e t e r s of the satellite orbit would be d e t e r m i n e d by s a t e l l i t e t r a c k i n g f r o m k n o w n s t a t i o n s a n d s t o r e d i n t h e s a t e l l i t e . Positioning of a ship would consist of o b s e r v i n g a t l e a s t two ranges to the satellite. Ideally, the satellite would transmit its own position when interrogated. The satellite of the ship would be used positions, the two r a n g e s , a n d a n e s t i m a t e d g e o c e n t r i c r a d i u s in calculating the ship position. Rinner argues that the advantage of .a SECOR system would be the strong geometry of t h e r a n g e n e t w o r k s a s c o m p a r e d to r e s u l t s b a s e d o n r a n g e d i f f e r e n c e a s i n a Doppler i f the accuracy of r a n g e d i f f e r e n c e m e a s u r e m e n t s i s n - t i m e s h i g h e r system. "Even than the corresponding accuracy of r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s t h e f i n a l r e s u l t s w i l l h a v e only the same accuracy as soon as the range is n - t i m e s the length of the difference. In addition, the geometry associated with difference measurements is typically weaker than for ranging systems. Therefore, ranging systems should provide better results when compared with systems using differences of ranges". (85)

B -24

The present cost and size of a SECOR set , h o w e v e r , r e s t r i c t s i t a p r a c t i c a l application. Furthermore, none of the preceding methods have been actually attempted and tested whereas the Doppler system is f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l a n d i t s a c c u r a c y t e s t e d . T h e a c c u r a c y of SECOR on land is s t i l l a d e b a t a b l e t o p i c . I t w o u l d t h e r e f o r e s e e m l o g i c a l at this point to experiment with the possible applications of the Doppler navigation satellite system to marine geodesy leaving the SECOR system for future possible consideration.

B-25

RADAR METHODS

I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the C band radar and the USB (Unified S B a n d S y s t e m ) w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s h i p p o s i tioning system which utilizes satellite position information. If e i t h e r t h e C b a n d r a d a r o r the USB i s used for ship positioning, a r a n g i n g t e c h n i q u e a s d e s c r i b e d b y C a l a b r i a ( 2 4 ) would probably be used for the determination of ship position.

Types of R a d a r s

T h e t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the components of the C b a n d r a d a r s A N / F P S - 1 6 a n d A N / F P Q - 6 a n d t h e USB r a d a r a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e B - 4 . T h e t r a c k i n g a n d a c c u r a c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e B-5.

C Band Radar
i s the E a c h of the Apollo ships w i l l c a r r y a C b a n d r a d a r ( 6 1 ) . T h i s r a d a r AN/FPS-16 monopulse tracking radar. It was designed specifically for missile t r a c k a s i n g l e p u l s e o r a coded pulse. The coded pulse ing. The AN/FPS-16 transmits either is used for beacon tracking and the single pulse i s u s e d f o r t r a c k i n g t h e r e f l e c t e d p u l s e f r o m a non-beacon equipped target.

In a p u l s e r a d a r s u c h a s t h i s , t h e r e t u r n e c h o s i g n a l i s g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d i n a range is displaced in time from the range gate. If due to motion of the target, the echo signal gate, an error signal is created in a servo loop which drives a range gate generator in a direction such that the error is returned to zero. Thus the echo signal i s continuously is g e n e r a l l y c a l i b r a t e d i n r a n g e o r gated by t h e r a n g e g a t e . T h e r a n g e g a t e s y s t e m time. The raw output data from the AN/FPS-16 is in polar(') coordinates (slant range azimuth angle - elevation angle). This is converted into digital form for data processo n the ing. The angular information is used for tracking (keep the tracking antenna t a r g e t ) but i s n o t u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e t a r g e t . ( T h i s i s t r u e f o r t h e USB and the AN/FPQ-6, also. ) The angular error is too l a r g e . I t g e n e r a l l y e x c e e d s therangeerror,particularlyatlongranges, by a l a r g e a m o u n t . F o r e x a m p l e , a t 100 m i l e s a n a n g u l a r e r r o r of 1 d e g r e e r e s u l t s in a n a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n e r r o r o f a p p r o x imately 30 m e t e r s .

NASA is considering using the FPS/ 16(24) in a ranging mode as a back-up to SINS (Ship Inertial Navigation System) which will provide ship position information for Apollo. An accurate method of recalibrating SINS periodically, independent of w e a t h e r conditions, is needed and the ship borne FPS/16 tracking the C-band transponder equipped GEOS-I1 m a y be considered for this task. The AN/FPQ-6 and the AN/TPQ- 18 a p p e a r t o b e a d v a n c e d v e r s i o n s of the AN/FPS-16. The An/TPQ-18 is a t r a n s p o r t a b l e v e r s i o n of t h e A N / F P Q - 6 . T h e p e r is f o r m a n c e of t h e A N / F P Q - 6 i s s o m e w h a t s u p e r i o r t o t h a t of the AN/FPS-16. This due in part to an improved range tracker, a larger antenna, and a better signal to

B -26

TABLE B-4.TECHNICALCHARACTERISTICS

OF RADAR COMPONENTS

NA Type

RECEIVER Radar Figure. System Type Tube 250 AN/FPS-16(') Magnetron Magnetron AN/FPQ-6(') Stable Crystal Oscillator (multiplied) 1-20 Klystron

TRANSMITTER Power Output, Reflector kw db Frequency

Noise width,

IlcamGain, db Polarization degrees

115450-5825 peak

5690+25 1000 peak


2500

Vertical 1.2 12 ft. parabolic 43.5 1143.5 parabolic ft, 12 5400-5900


4

1.2

Vertical

29 ft, Cassegranian

51

Vertical/Circular 0.4

USE

cw

2090-2120

1.7 Linear/Circular Cassegranian 0.85 ft, 44 30

(42 in. diameter acquisition antenna)

(32)

(10)

TABLE B-5. TRACKING AND ERRORCHARACTERISTICS O F RADARS


~~

Coverage Range Azimuth Elevation 1, 853 k m Continuous

Tracking ates andom rror, R R E 8 , 0 0 0 y d l sec 2,000 yd/ sec2 800 Inillsec 1.3 radians/sec2 450 millsec 1.3 radians/sec2 6-9 m 0 . 2 -r a d m 0.4

rms

10"

190"

0.2-0.4 mrad

AN/FPQ-6(l)

Range Azimuth Elevation Range Azimuth Elevation

59,304 km

*2.7 m

360
2"

182"

*O. 05 m r a d *O. 0 5 m r a d
*I m

USB

800,000 k m Continuous 2 above horizon

B-28

Unified S B a n d S v s t e m E a c h of the five Apollo ships will be instrumented with the USB. T h e USB will provide tracking, telemetry, command, and communications to the Apollo spacecraft. At l u n a r d i s t a n c e s t h e USB with 85-foot antennas will be used to provide all tracking and communication with the Apollo spacecraft. The USB with 30-foot antennas will f i l l gaps in coverage provided by the 85-foot antennas, and it will provide data during the e a r t h - o r b i t a l a n d p o s t - i n j e c t i o n p h a s e s of the mission. Only the 30-foot antennas will be used with the ship-borne USB. The USB s y s t e m u t i l i z e s a c o h e r e n t D o p p l e r a n d a p s e u d o - r a n d o m r a n g e s y s t e m ( 6 l ) . I n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m t h e r a n g e f u n c t i o n , a pseudo-random code is t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e s a t e l l i t e a n d s t o r e d i n t h e t r a c k i n g s y s t e m of the USB also. Maintaining coherency, the is pseudo-random code i s transponded by the satellite. When the transponder signal received by the USB a n a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d . T h i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e t e r m i n e s t h e r o u n d - t r i p t i m e of the signal between the USB and the satellite. Both the 85-foot antenna and the 30-foot antenna of the USB have a quadripodmounted acquisition antenna. The broad beamwidth (10 degrees for the one used in conjunction with the 30-foot antenna) of the acquisition antenna enables the USB t o e a s i l y this is accomplished the USB's 30-foot antenna begins the acquire the target. Once tracking operation.

C o m p a r i s o n of R a d a r s .~
~~ ~~

for

Target

Positioning

The basic method of t a r g e t p o s i t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n is the ranging technique as d e s c r i b e d i n R e f e r e n c e 2 4 . Since this technique is b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r a n g i n g e r r o r s of t h e v a r i o u s r a d a r s a r e c o m p a r e d i n T a b l e B - 6 . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e USB i s superior to the other systems.

TABLE B-6. COMPARISON


~~~ ~

O F RADAR RANGE ERRORda)

"

"

A N / Fe m - / F PlQ - 6((6 1 ) Syst PS I6USB 1) AN ( )


"

. "

E ra n g e R ror
.~

*9 m
-

*2.7 m

rtl m

(a) These values are probably

based on ideal conditions.

Accuracy

The only data from actual measurements were for the AN/FPS-16. The position of a GEOS s a t e l l i t e o v e r M i a m i f r o m t w o s e p a r a t e o r b i t s w a s d e t e r m i n e d w i t h r a n g e e r r o r of 700 meters, f o r t h e w o r s t c a s e . T h i s w a s a n o v e r a l l e r r o r i n c l u d i n g s h i p

B -29

movement, radar error, SINS e r r o r , e t c . T h e o v e r a l l s y s t e m e r r o r f o r t h e USB is expected to be A15 m e t e r s ( 6 1 ) . O v e r a l l e r r o r f o r t h e A N / F P Q - 6 w a s n o t a v a i l a b l e . However, on the basis of Table B-6 the accuracy of the AN/FPQ-6 should be better than that of the FPS- 16.

C band Range errors due to ionospheric propagation are somewhat greater at t h a n a t S band( 13). F o r e x a m p l e , a t C b a n d t h e e r r o r w o u l d b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 m e t e r f o r a s a t e l l i t e a t 150 m i l e s o n t h e h o r i z o n w h e r e a s a t S band it would be 1. 2 meters. Range errors due to ionospheric fluctuation would be of t h e s a m e o r d e r of S band would be less than the attenuation at magnitude. In heavy rain, attenuation at C band. In h e a v y r a i n ( 16 m m / h r ) t h e a t t e n u a t i o n at C band would be . 15 d b p e r mile and at S band it would be .03 db p e r m i l e .

The background noise w i l l i n c r e a s e a s f r e q u e n c y is i n c r e a s e d . If operation i s considered i n t i m e s of high solar activity, a lower frequency should be considered. For example, the background temperature from the atmosphere i s 100 Kelvin at S band and it is 110 K a t C band for a radar antenna pointed at the horizon. The C b a n d r a d a r s r e q u i r e a s e p a r a t e a c q u i s i t i o n r a d a r t o " p o i n t " t h e m a t t h e t a r g e t , w h e r e a s t h e USB h a s a n a c q u i s i t i o n a n t e n n a a n d c a n a c q u i r e a n d t r a c k t h e t a r g e t with no external aid. It can be seen, considering the available information, that the USB would be of this equipment requires a s a t e l s u p e r i o r t o t h e C band system. However, utilization lite with an S b a n d t r a n s p o n d e r . If such a satellite e x i s t s , it is not widely known. The USB p r o v i d e s m o r e a c c u r a t e r a n g e i n f o r m a t i o n b y v i r t u e of i t s i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . If it i s desired to take advantage of this instrumentation, it would be possible to modify the RF a C band transmitter and receiver. section of one USB. T h a t is, it could be fitted with

B -30

OPTICAL METHODS

The optical methods of satellite observation involve photographing the satellite a g a i n s t a stellar background and "reducing" the photographic plates to obtain the direction vector to the satellite. Most of t h e c a m e r a s p r e s e n t l y u s e d w e r e o r i g i n a l l y u s e d i n s a t e l l i t e g e o d e s y f o r " t r a c k i n g " s a t e l l i t e s ; i. e . , determining the satellite's position in s p a c e i n s o m e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m at a given time. During the past few years, special mechanical, electronic, and optical equipment has been installed in these camera systems to permit observations from two or more stations for three-dimensional geodetic triangulation which results in the determination of the station coordinates. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c m e t h o d of observation. First, the techniques are well understood, Second, the basic equipment is r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , available, and low in cost. Third, the data obtained by optical techniques have proven quite accurate. While the satellite designed specifically for optical observation contains a light source which can be activated electronically for photographic purposes (for exoi illua m p l e , GEOS-11), l a r g e s a t e l l i t e s , s u c h as Echo 11, with no independent s,ource mination, can be photographed at dusk or dawn when reflected sunlight illuminates the vehicle. When u s e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n c a m e r a s s t a t i o n e d a t s e l e c t e d p o i n t s - known and unknown - i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m e i t h e r o p e r a t i o n c a n b e u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g g e o d e t i c p o s i tions. In both instances, the position of t h e s a t e l l i t e is d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n s of t h e s t a r s a g a i n s t w h i c h it is photographed. There are several geometric satellite geodesy programs now underway(4). The first of t h e s e is t h e U. S. World Geometric Satellite Network. Its purpose is to provide a geometric "triangulation" covering most of the world, establishing a u n i q u e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m f o r t h e w h o l e e a r t h w i t h its g r a v i t y c e n t e r a s z e r o p o i n t , t h e Z - a x i s i d e n t i c a l with the rotation axis, and the x, y-plane perpendicular to it and coinciding with the equais n e c e s s a r y t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e s p a t i a l p o s i torial plane. This orthogonal x, y, z-system tions of the surface points within 1: l o 6 o r 1 : 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 . F o r t y - t w o s i t e s a r e p l a n n e d m o s t of which will be occupied by BC-4 cameras of 3 0 - c m o r 4 5 - c m f o c a l l e n g t h w i t h 10 0 - c m c a m e r a s p e r h a p s b e i n g u s e d i n o n e o r t w o p l a c e s . S o m e of t h e s i t e s w i l l a l s o b e occupied by Transit equipment or SECOR equipment. The extent or manner in which d a t a f r o m t h e s e o t h e r t y p e s of equipment will be used is not known(*).

T h e d a t a w i l l c o n s i s t of s a t e l l i t e d i r e c t i o n s m e a s u r e d i n t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s e q u a torialsystem.Conventionalgroundsurveyswillprovidethescalefordistances.Res u l t s of a p r e l i m i n a r y e r r o r a n a l y s i s s h o w t h a t at l e a s t f o u r b a s e l i n e s w i l l b e n e e d e d t o scale the net. Another global program is the National Geodetic Satellite Program (NGSP) directed by NASA. The objectives of t h i s p r o g r a m a r e t o (1) e s t a b l i s h a u n i f i e d E a r t h r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m a n d t o ( 2 ) d e t e r m i n e t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d of o u r p l a n e t . T h i s p r o g r a m is a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t b y s e v e r a l U. S . o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e s a t e l l i t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r is o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l B u r e a u geodetic purposes. Information from NGSP data for Satellite Geodesy. In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h o b j e c t i v e ( l ) , eighty-six geodetic control stations must be p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e d b y satellite methods. As of the end of 1967, forty-two stations had been occupied. Positions accurate to *60 feet have been published for twenty of t h e s e is t o l o c a t e a n y t w o c o n t r o l p o i n t s w i t h i n 3 5 feet of each stations. (The NGSP objective other uaing a s i n g l e set of E a r t h - c e n t e r e d c o o r d i n a t e s . ) ( 7 3 )

B-31

F o u r a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e s a n d o n e p a s s i v e s a t e l l i t e w e r e l a u n c h e d b y NASA between October, 1964, and January, 1968, as p a r t of NGSP. They were Explorers XXII and XXVII, GEOS-I,and GEOS-11, andPAGEOS-I.AnotherGEOSsatellite is p r e s e n t l y b e ing planned to insure a t i m e l y a c h i e v e m e n t of t h e g e o m e t r i c o b j e c t i v e . Data f r o m f o u r s y s t e m s a r e b e i n g u t i l i z e d , two optical (BC-4 and PC- 1000 c a m e r a ) a n d t w o e l e c t r o n i c (PECOR and Doppler) systems. T h e r e a r e a l s o a n u m b e r of p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of networks much smaller than those already mentioned. These include Reseau Geodesique Europe& ( R G E ) c o v e r i n g a l l of E u r o p e , t h e W e s t e r n - E u r o p e a n S u b - C o m m i s s i o n f o r A r t i f i c i a l Satellites, the French experiments connecting France and Algeria and Europe and the Azores, and a Japanese project using Tsubokawa camera-detectors (4).

Operational Procedures

Camera Characteristics There are many different cameras presently being used for satellite observations. Table B-7 o u t l i n e s o n l y t h e p r i n c i p a l c a m e r a s u s e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e s h u t t e r systems, timing synchronization, timing precision, epoch of observation, and positioning a c c u r a c y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e c a m e r a s y s t e m s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e B - 8 .

Methods of Camera ODeration There are various methods in which, theoretically, the camera at t h e o b s e r v i n g station may be used, with any one camera adapting to only one or perhaps all of t h e p o s s i b l e m o d e s of operation. The first m o d e of o p e r a t i o n is the fixed mode; i. e . , t h e c a m e r a r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y during the star-satellite exposure. As a result, the stars will produce trails on t h e photographic plate as t h e E a r t h r o t a t e s a n d a s h u t t e r s y s t e m m u s t b e p r o v i d e d t o i n t e r r u p t o r " c h o p 1 ' t h e s t e l l a r t r a i l s a t known e p o c h s t o p r o d u c e m e a s u r a b l e i m a g e s . If a n a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e is observed, the shutter may then be opened during the satellite flash period and the shutter activated again after the satellite passes in order to "chop" the s t e l l a r i m a g e s . If a p a s s i v e s a t e l l i t e is o b s e r v e d , t h e s a t e l l i t e i m a g e w i l l a l s o a p p e a r as a t r a i l on the plate, "chopped" at known time intervals as a r e t h e s t e l l a r trails. A s e c o n d m o d e of o p e r a t i o n is t o d r i v e a n e q u a t o r i a l l y m o u n t e d " c a m e r a a t a s i d e real. rate. Theoretically, the stars will appear as p o i n t i m a g e s a n d a n a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e will appear to move through the star field at a rate dependent on the satellite's velocity relative to the star background. A passive satellite moving through the stellar field must be "chopped" to produce point images at known e p o c h s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o t h i s m e t h o d . Any fluctuations in the drive system will produce undesirable image shifts. Also, the physical sizes of t h e s t a r i m a g e s w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d s i n c e t h e exposure time will extend bver the entire time the satellite is being photbgraphed. This makes accurate plate measurements difficult since the center of t h e e n l a r g e d s t a r image must be estimated.
"An equatorially mounted camera allows the camera to turn to the north and south about one axis and to the east and west about another. The axis for the cast-west motion of the camera i s parallel to the axis of the Earth's rotation. and the other axis, about which the relerope can rotate to north and south, is perpendicular to this axis.

B-32

TABLE 8-7. PRINCIPAL CAMERAS USED IN Focal Aperture. length. cm Camera Baker-Nunn 53.5 53.5
35 x 5

THEUNITEDSTATES

Field of(T)/ Tracking view, Noncracking (NT) Remarks Both (Tracks with adjustable located angularbevelocity 0 to tween 7000"/sec simultaneous great along permitbeencircle) installed to has any Agency SAO-12 Cameras Film used to record satcllite/stellar exposure worldwidespherical Film a surface support U. S. Air ForceTriaxial Mount 3 cameras Special mechanical and electronic equipment observations from two or more stations for geodetic triangulation SA0 presently using combination of laser ranging and Baker-Nunn data

K-50 (Modified)

100

25

SAO-3 camerasshutter Internal Both, but used majority of time in NT mode (presently being deployed to host Developed for country) three

Flat photographic

system plate temporary use in relocating Baker-Nunn cameras by simultaneous observations between the old and new sites

35 x 35 BC-4 (COSMO) 45
11.5

NT NT

25 x 35

ESSA camera replacing 30-cm 45-cm U. S. Air ForceNew 45 cm being lens optimized for geodetic plates reduced triangulation 9-7 by ACIC Magnitude ofobservable: star U. S. Army Glass plates used Consists essentially of a modified Wild BC-5 aerial camera mounted on the base of a Wild T4 Universal Theodolite ESSA uses only BC-4 for their work in worldwide satellite triangulation net

PC-1000 (ballistic camera)

100

21

10 x 10

NT

U. S. Air Force Photographic and Charting Service (APCS)plates reduced by ACIC

Glass plate used Rimary observing camera of APCS for tracking active or passive satellites and for stellar triangulation Recently equipped with chopping shutters so can observe both passive and active satellites Data will be used to accomplish control densification in such areas as Soutn America. improve accuracy of space tracking sitesand calibrate tracking radars(5)

TABLE B-7.
~~~~

(Continued)
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~

~ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~

~~

~~

Focal Aperture, length, Field cm 10.2 61 Camera


~.

of view,

Tracking (T)/ Agency


Rem arks

MOTS-24 MOTS-40

T 101.6 20.3

x 23 (Equatorially or x 14 11

NASA Only Polar Modes)

w101.6

5"

Glass plates used satellites geodeticfor active observed purposes 12 cameras located at Space Tracking and Data Acquisitioning (STADAN) sites where used for calibration of electronic Minitrack Interferometers 9 additional MOTS and PTH-1000 cameras were used in observing the GEOS-A satellite at selected locations in the Eastern U. S. MOTS data used in orbit determination No geodetic program for these instruments alone is known to have been set up Glass plates used New camera system-presently 3 such cameras(43) Only active satellites observed for geodetic purposes Used with MOTS cameras as explained above Converted from an aerial mapping and reconnaissance type of satellite tracking Camera system precision is 1".5(4) Used by AMS for calibration of Minitrack systems by photography of a flashing light carried in an airplane To be used for satellite geometrical geodesy

RH-100

20.3

10 x 10

NT

NASA

K-17

60

17

20 x 20

NT

U. S. Army
Map Service

TABLE 8-8

CHARACTERISTICS OF PRINCIPALCAMERASUSED and Active

IN THEUNITEDSTATES

precision Timing Camera Baker-Nunn system Clam shell capping shutter with exposure time settings from 0 . 2 to 3 . 2 seconds begins and terminates exposure. Barrel (timing) shutter rotates 2-1/2 times giving five breaks during a normal exposure at a highly precise angular velocity Chopping shutter

ter

Epoch of observation Passive

Pozitioiling AcctIrat.y

Portable clock and VLF Overall accuracy about 1 msec Estimated uncertainty of time given with each observation

Camera station time of instant maximum brilliance of flash Expressed in A . S. time

Station timing systrn~ consistins of ~naster cloclc (set with portable crystal clock and maintained by VLF transinissions) and a slave clock atcached to camera curacy Time of master station clock (U.T C.)corrected to A.S.

Estiinatc and pt~blisl~ed position of arc ill right ascrror is cension and Clcclii\3titu1.(43) Ahsolure t'oordinatcP o i IhlierNuni1 stations giwn ro acof +15 tn 20 ~netcrs.

K-50 modified
BC-4

Precision uncertain

Same as above since used with Baker-Nunn

Three internal rotating discs and exterior iris-type shutter used primarily to chop star trails before and after satellite pass

Portable clock and W W V and VLF Uncertainties in the scation timing relative to WWV estimated to be less than i150 microseconds for passive observations

ESSA-time satellite flash was triggered as published by APL UTC epoch of satellite flash converred to UT1 (referred to old conventional longitudf: of U. S.'Naval Obs . ) U. S. Air Force-time satellite flash was triggered in U.T . C. U.S.A. F. -time satellite flash was triggered in UTC

ESSA-Safion camera time reduced to UTC and converted to UT 1 Light time correction applied to antedate epoch of station observation to satellite

Triangulation adjustment for a net covcring Nortli Ainerica yieldcd typical incall crrnrs of +4 meters for y and A, 4 mcrers for elevations, and kO.7" for a singlc direction. The worldwide net is expected to yield better rcsults due to recent in~provements in equipment and reduction

PC-1000

"Between the lens" internal shutter recently equipped with capping shutter

Crystal station clock and a radio receiver used to determine the clock offset and rate from the time signal Time signals recorded on one channel of magnetic or paper tape and clock recorded on second channel

During plate exposure shutter action recorded on channel previously used for time signal record and thus epoch of shutter action correlated with clock signals(43)

Solurions for sratiorl positions based on SECOR, Doppler, and PC-1000 satellite observations each agreed with the results of gendiineter surveys to atout 3 meters(5)

TABLE 8-8. precision Timing and Active synchronization(a) Correlation of recorded signals yields the rate and offset of the station clock(43) shutter-timing acAccuracy with which time of shutter action related to radio time signals 0.75 seconds(43)

(Continued) Epoch of observation Positionill\: Passive

Shutter

Camera
PC-1000

system

Accuracy

(continued)

MOTS-24 Internal MOTS-40 since curacy immaterial

Satellite flash times published by APL(43).

For geodetic purposes only observe active satellitcs

cameras are sidereally driven and observe only qctive satellites(43). New shutter system being investigated(43).
PTH-100

Presently used mainly for satellite orbit dctermination along with other systcn~s. Extent to which they will be used for geometrical gcdilcsy not known.

Internal shutter

system

Accuracy with which time of shutter action related radio time signals z 25 ms(43)

Brush Timing Recorder records received WWV signals and shutter action. Instant shutter is fully open and begins to close recorded and compared to WWV signal

For geodetic purposes only observe active satellites

Extent to which will they bc used for geometrical gwdcsy


not known

(a) Commonly-held opinion that the most accurate time spchronization method is that of carrying stable clocks between aandards(l).

A t h i r d t h e o r e t i c a l m e t h o d of camera operation is t o d r i v e t h e c a m e r aat a p r e is not posd i c t e d s a t e l l i t e rate s o that the satellite w i l l a p p e a r as a point image. This cases t h e satellite r a t e is not known accusible in practice, however, since in most is a l s o i n a d e q u a t e f o r a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e s s i n c e t h e f l a s h e s w i l l a p p e a r lately. The method superimposed on one another. The only advantage is t h a t f a i n t s a t e l l i t e s m a y b e o b served for non- geodetic purposes.
T h e l a s t a l t e r n a t i v e is a combination of the orbital and stationary techniques. The c a m e r a f i r s t m a k e s a r e g u l a r e x p o s u r e w h i l e t r a c k i n g t h e sateflite. T h e c a m e r a is t h e n is subject to the inaccufixed and a s e c o n d s t a t i o n a r y e x p o s u r e is m a d e . T h i s m e t h o d it is useful in roughly identiracies mentioned in connection with the third method, bat fying a faint satellite in a c l u s t e r of s t a r s ( 4 3 ) .

Observational Methods for Positionine The data obtained from the photographic plates can be used to position the satellite, the observer, or both. Two main observational methods are employed for these ends simultaneous and orbital. These methods have been discussed relative to SECOR, but t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e r e c a p i t u l a t e d h e r e i n terms of optical methods. T h e u s u a l m e t h o d of determining a s t a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n i s b a s e d on simultaneous obs e r v a t i o n s of a n a r t i f i c i a l s a t e l l i t e b y t w o o r m o r e s t a t i o n s . T h e a p p r o a c h is p u r e l y geometric. The satellites are used simply as triangulation points to perform a threedimensional triangulation in which absolute directions have been observed. A m i n i m u m of two stations is r e q u i r e d t o f i x t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s a t e l l i t e i n s p a c e . If two stations a r e fixed with respect to a g e o d e t i c d a t u m , t h e t h i r d s t a t i o n c a n b e ' t r e a t e d a s a n unknown, and its c o o r d i n a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e known s i t e s . As new stations are derived by this process, the triangulation network can be extended laterally into a c o n t i n e n t a l s u r v e y ; i f t h e t a r g e t is sufficiently high, it o a n b r i d g e a c r o s s t h e o c e a n to connect with other major datums. ( 2 2 )

Simultaneous Observations. The fundamental geometry of t h e s a t e l l i t e t r i a n g u l a in Figure B-13. P1 and P 2 a r e t h e known s t a t i o n s a n d P 3 t h e tion method is illustrated of t h e n e t w i l l c o m e f r o m t h i s unknown. The vector P l P 2 is thus known and the scale vector. (The distance between one station and the satellite as obtained by direct range measurement could also be used to scale the net. ) All three stations simultaneously obs e r v e a satellite a t times t i and t 2 when the satellite is at S I and S2. (Two different P I S 1 and P2S1 deterorbits are preferred for better geometry). The observed vectors S I by spatial intersection. The observed vectors P1S2 and mine the satellite position P2S2 l i k e w i s e d e t e r m i n e t h e s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n S2. These vectors are determined from the photographic plate reduction process*. T h i s p r o c e s s u s e s t h e p o s i t i o n of r e f e r e n c e stars o b t a i n e d f r o m a s t a r c a t a l o g u e t o d e termine the apparent right ascension, declination, and direction cosines of the satellite. The satellite positions S1 and S2 a r e t h e n c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n s t o the s a t e l l i t e f r o m t h e 'unknown station to compute the position of the unknown station (by a s p a t i a l intersection).

this process is discussed Inter in greater detail.

B-37

S , ,S,

- Satellite positions

FIGURE B- 13.

SIMULTANEOUSOBSERVATIONMETHOD

The coordinates obtained in this way are not geocentric. They are dependent on the position and precision of the known stations from which they were computed and will be given in the coordinates of t h i s r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m . T h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s a m e limitations as the coordinates of p o i n t s i n a n y g e o d e t i c s y s t e m . I t s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d , however, that the determined station coordinates a r e independent of the position of t h e s a t e l l i t e s i n c e t h i s p o s i t i o n s e r v e s o n l y as a n i n t e r m e d i a r y t a r g e t . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e remembered that only directions and from them angles in the investigated geometric configuration in space can be evaluated from the optical method. The scale must come l2 from an entirely different method( ) .

Quasi-Simultaneous Observations. A method of quasi-simultaneous observations is u s e d by the SAO(94). With the Baker-Nunn camera net, simultaneity of observations within one or two milliseconds can be expected when the observers are well trained and is the W W V reception is favorable at each of the stations involved. Strict simultaneity n o t n e c e s s a r y , h o w e v e r , i f the observations a r e made in sequence and at equal intervals not exceeding a f r a c t i o n of a m i n u t e s i n c e it is possible to interpolate the apparent position of t h e s a t e l l i t e f r o m t h e s e r i e s of observations. In this "quasi-simultaneous" method, the divergence from simultaneity caused by imperfect synchronization is d e t e r m i n e d " p o s t mortem". F r o m t h c s e r i e s of o b s e r v a tions made at two stations, an interpolation can be performed to determine e.ither ( I ) the position at Station B t h a t w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t i m e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n w a s m a d e f r o m in b o t h s e t s of o b s e r v a t i o n s , p r e f e r Station A, o r ( 2 ) the position for any selected time a b l y t h e t i m e t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e m i d - p o i n t of the two times at the two stations. The second method has the advantage of r e d u c i n g t h e r a n d o m e r r o r s i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s s i n c e b o t h i n t e r p o l a t e d v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t a m e a n v a l u e f r o m a s e t of o b s e r v e d q u a n t i t i e s , p r o v i d e d t h e o r b i t is smooth. (941

B-38

Orbital Method. It is possible to obtain Earth-centered coordinates directly from optical satellite data with the orbital method of o b s e r v a t i o n . ( T h i s m e t h o d p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e p r e c i s e s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n of t h e s a t e l l i t e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m o r b i t a l d a t a . ) P h o t o g r a p h i c s a t e l l i t e ' o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e i n t r o d u c e d at every station over the whole globe, w i t h o u t t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of simultaneity with observations at o t h e r p l a c e s . T h e s a t e l l i t e should be photographed from more than one direction from the ground station to provide good geometric configuration. The directions PSI, PSz, e t c . , ( s e e F i g u r e B- 14) a r e derived from the plate reduction process and the positions of t h e s a t e l l i t e S I , S 2 , e t c . , a r e c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e o r . b i t a 1 d a t a . T h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s t a t i o n w i l l s i m p l y b e a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of PSI, PS2, etc. This position will be given in geocentric coordinates since the satellite positions are in these coordinates.

P - Observation station SlrS2,Ssr - Positions of etc.


satellite determined from orbital data

FIGURE B- 14. OPTICAL ORBITAL

METHOD

When the geodetic coordinates of s e v e r a l s t a t i o n s i n a netw,ork have been established, a network adjustment is p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t w o s e t s of X, Y, Z coordinates - t h o s e of t h e s u r v e y a n d t h e g e o c e n t r i c c o o r d i n a t e s i n w h i c h t h e s t a t i o n s h a v e b e e n d e t e r (AX, A Y , 4 Z ) f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a t i o n s ( 2 2 ) . m i n e d - to compute weighted mean shifts

is actually a variation of t h e o r b i t a l Short-Arc Method. The short-arc method is u s e d to connect geodetically unknown stations to systems that a r e s o far method. It a p a r t t h a t t h e s a t e l l i t e c a n n o t be o b s e r v e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f r o m all s t a t i o n s ( s e e F i g u r e B- 1 5 ) . T h e a c c u r a c y of the position of the unknown station depends on the accuracy of the six o r b i t a l p a r a m e t e r s u s e d t o p o s i t i o n t h e s a t e l l i t e . A t l e a s t t h r e e p o s i t i o n s of t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m s i m u l t a n e o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s at t h r e e known stations. These positions are a l s o c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e o r b i t a l e l e m e n t s f o r t h e t i m e of the obsets of c o o r d i n a t e s f o r t h e s a t e l l i t e y i e l d t h e servations. The difference between the s h i f t s , A X , A Y , and A Z , f r o m t h e d a t u m - c e n t e r e d e l l i p s o i d ( g e o d e t i c c o o r d i n a t e s ) t o an karth-centered ellipsoid (geocentric coordinates).

The satellite positions at the unknown station a r e c o m p u t e d a l s o f r o m t h e o r b i t a l elements. They a r e then "adjusted" by applying the coordinate shifts d e t e r m i n e d from the known stations. The station coordinates (geodetic) are computed from these adjusted satellite positions, the station being at the intersection of the satellite-to-station vectore. In p r a c t i c e m a n y s u c h v e c t o r s a r e d e t e r m i n e d , a n d a l e a s t - s q u a r e s s o l u t i o n is

performed(22).

B-39

A-55805

S,
FIGURE B-15.

S, ,etc

Known station Unknown station Satellite Positions

SHORT-ARCMETHOD

Plate Reduction Procedures The methods of o p t i c a l s a t e l l i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h e u t m o s t p r e c i s i o n f r o m t h e s c i e n c e s of a s t r o m e t r y , p h o t o g r a m m e t r y , a n d g e o d e s y . O n e of t h e m o s t i n t r i c a t e operations of the optical method is t h a t of photographic plate reduction whereby the reconstruction of configurations in the o b j e c t s p a c e b y m e a n s of i m a g e s p a c e d a t a is a c are complished. Various agencies use different plate reduction techniques although they b a s i c a l l y similar. Explanations of t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y a n d t h e T u r n e r o r s t a n d a r d c o ordinate method of plate reduction can be found in Mueller(72), Brown(l9), o r P o d o b e d ( 7 9 ) . H o t t e r ( 4 3 ) h a s p r o v i d e d a n e x c e l l e n t c o m p i l a t i o n of t h e p r e p r o c e s s i n g techniques of o p t i c a l s a t e l l i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . T h e r e a d e r is ref e r r e d t o t h e s e a u t h o r s f o r a d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t of plate reduction procedures. Only a summary will be provided here,

General Method. Basically, reference star i m a g e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a n d t h e c o r r e sponding catalogued star p o s i t i o n s a r e u p d a t e d t o t h e t i m e of observation. Approximate vaiues of t h e e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l c a m e r a o r i e n t a t i o n p a r a l n e t e r s a r e u s e d t o t r a n s form the right ascension-declination star c o o r d i n a t e s t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p o c e n t r i c azirhuth-altitude coordinates. These coordinates, along with the corrected measured plate coordinates of t h e s t a r s , a r e u s e d i n a l e a s t - s q u a r e s s o l u t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e camera orientation parameters. Once these are known, the topocentric azimuth-altitude coordinates of a n unknown image ( t h e s a t e l l i t e ) c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m its c o r r e c t e d plate coordinates. (These coordinates are later t r a n s f o r m e d t o r i g h t a s c e n s i o n declination coordinates. )

Turner or Standard Coordinate Method. This method is c u r r e n t l y u s e d b y t h e Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. For this method, the reference system is a topocentric right ascension-declination system. The plane tangent to the celestial
"

B -40

s p h e r e a t a,, 6, d e s c r i b e s t h e " s t a n d a r d c o o r d i n a t e " s y s t e m w i t h a x e s 5 and q. The axis r ) points toward the projection of the north celestial pole and the axis 5 is perpendicu l a r t o T ) and positive in the direction of i n c r e a s i n g r i g h t a ~ c e n s i o n ( ~72, 74). T h e s t a n 3, d a r d c o o r d i n a t e s of a n a r b i t r a r y s t e l l a r i m a g e p r o j e c t e d on the tangent plane are given by: cot 6 s i n (a- a )
0

= s i n 6, t coe 6, cot cos cos 6 o

(a- a ,
)
*

'

cot 6 s i n 6
0

cos (a- a

= s i n 6, t cot 6 cos 6, cos (a- a ) ,

8b) (1

The tangent plane coordinate system can be transformed to a camera plate coordin a t e s y s t e m ( p a r a l l e l t o it) by the following linear transformation equation:
"

= a l e t b l q t c1

where
"

x, y = the measured plate values


"

xp, yp = the coordinates of the principal point


= thelinearplateconstants

ai, bi,ci

The plate constants are determined from the reference stars. The origin (a,, 6,) of the reference plane is determined by one of s e v e r a l m e t h o d s . T h e g e o m e t r i c c e n of t h e r e f e r e n c e t e r of the plate defined by tlie fiducial marks, the geometrical center s t a r s , o r t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of a s t a r in t h e a r e a of t h e g e o m e t r i c a l c e n t e r m a y b e u s e d . T h e s t a n d a r d c o o r d i n a t e s of a r e f e r e n c e s t a r a r e c o m p u t e d f r o m E q u a t i o n s ( 1 8 a ) a n d (18b) using the values , and do. Next the known star images a and the unknown a unique solution of t h e s a t e l l i t e i m a g e s (xs, y s ) a r e m e a s u r e d . T h r e e s t a r s w i l l g i v e plate constants in equations (19a) and (l9b). More than the minimum number of s t a r s a r e u s e d in practice, however, and a least-squares solution is performed. Once the plate constants have been determined, the standard coordinates of the unknown satellite i m a g e s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d .
"

(xi, yi),

The direction to the unknown satellite image tions (18a and 18b),

(as,h S ) is then found from Equa-

(sin bo t
tan 6, =

T, ) cos
cos 6,

5 ) cos ((xs

(xo)

r)

s i n bo

(20b)

B-41

,,

..,.,

,... ..,,,

This method is a g r e a t d e a l l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n t h e g e n e r a l m e t h o dof solution, but it h a s its limitations as outlined by Hotter (43) due to the following factors: ( 1 ) The projection equation used to find the standard coordinates is an ap(uo,6 origin. ) , ' p r o x i m a t i o nv a l i do n l yf o rl i m i t e da r e aa r o u n dt h e

( 2 ) T h e e q u a t i o n s a r e b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e t a n g e n t p l a n e (4, q ) is parallel to the camera plate (x, y ) . H e n c e , o n l y n a r r o w f i e l d s of view should be used. (The field of view of t h e B a k e r - N u n n c a m e r a f o r which this method is used i.s 35" x 5 " )
" "

( 3 ) The measured coordinates x, distortions.

y are assumed to be unaffected by lens

is Output Data of Plate Reduction. The output data of t h e p l a t e r e d u c t i o n p r o c e s s the d i r p a y y s t a t e d in t e r m s of r i g h t - a s c e n s i o n a n d d e c l i n a t i o n , T h i s i s p r e f e r r e d s i n c e if t h e s a t e l l i t e ' s p o s i t i o n is given in azimuth-altitude, additional information would have to be provided before further investigation would be possible.
Also, the observed satellite position must be corrected for aberration (due to relative velocity between observer and satellite), parallactic refraction (due to fact that the satellite is a finite distance from the observer), shimmer, and; in the case of p a s s i v e satellites, the fact that the observed center does not correspond to the geometric center. The output data as given may or may not be corrected for these phenomena. Furtherm o r e , t h e r i g h t a s c e n s i o n - d e c l i n a t i o n of t h e s a t e l l i t e m a y b e r e f e r r e d t o d i f f e r e n t r e f e r ence systems with the epoch of o b s e r v a t i o n d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e ESSA gave the final coordinates of the GEOS-I satellite in the right ascension-declination syst e m r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e " a p p a r e n t t o p o c e n t r i c ' ' p o s i t i o n (i. e . , t h e o b s e r v e d p o s i t i o n c o r rected for astronomic refraction and diurnal aberration) at the epoch of observation. In order to obtain the true topocentric position, corrections would have to be made for diurnal aberration and parallactic refraction. (No c o r r e c t i o n is n e c e s s a r y f o r p a r a l l a c t i c a b e r r a t i o n s i n c e t h e e p o c h of observation was taken as t h e t i m e t h e f l a s h w a s t r i g g e r e d b y t h e s a t e l l i t e . ) The data ouput of t h e SAO, on the other hand, gave the satellite c o o r d i n a t e s i n t e r m s of the geocentric (i. e . , n o t c o r r e c t e d f o r d i u r n a l a b e r r a t i o n ) r i g h t a s c e n s i o n a n d d e c l i n a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o t h e e p o c h of observation and to the mean equator and equinox of 1950. 0. C o r r e c t i o n s f o r p a r a l l a c t i c r e f r a c t i o n a n d d i u r n a l a b e r r a t i o n were not made. The epoch of observation in the A. S. ( A t o m i c S t a n d a r d ) t i m e s y s t e m u s e d r e f e r s t o t h e t i m e of m a x i m u m l i g h t i n t e n s i t y r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e t i m e t h e f l a s h w a s t r i g g e r e d . (43)

Accuracy

Spatial triangulation of t h e t y p e d i s c u s s e d r e q u i r e s s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n of c a m e r a s t a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to s a t e l l i t e p a s s e s . S i n c e m a n y of t h e c a m e r a s t a t i o n s w e r e l o c a t e d f o r tracking satellites rather than for providing information on station locations, simultaneous observations from more than two stations is not always possible. This has been p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the Baker-Nunn camera system in which the long distances between t h e s t a t i o n s ( t h e s e r a n g e f r o m 2000 to 7000 k m ) a n d t h e s a t e l l i t e s m o r e o f t e n o b s e r v e d do not p e r m i t a complete three-dimensional triangulation scheme. Methods have been developed, however, for using the information obtained when only two s t a t i o n s a r e

B-42

involved in simultaneous observations to determine the direction in an absolute refere n c e s y s t e m of the line connecting the two stations(94). Work along this line was performed by Mancini and Gambino. (12) Observations of t h e a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e A n n a - 1 B w e r e c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e p r e c i s e PC-1000 c a m e r a f r o m s t a tions in the southern part of the United States. The resulting accuracy was rather high since no time error was involved. The station-to-station direction was concluded to involve a m e a n e r r o r of about f o . "7 and its horizontal component proved to be precise within *0,"5, t h i s b e i n g t i l e e r r o r of t h e a z i m u t h ( l 2 ) . Direction determination between stations was also. performed by Milbert (for the n e t of stations Bucharest, Nikolajeu, Poznan, and Riga) and by Arnold et al. (for the direction between Potsdam and Bucharest). The various experiments in direction-vector d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a good chance of r e a c h i n g t h e r e q u i r e d p r e c i s i o n of 1:106 in the neak future( 1 2 ) .
"

It is obvious that in the simultaneous method of o b s e r v a t i o n ( a s w e l l a s t h e o r b i t a l ) , timing is all important. An a c c u r a c y of one millisecond is required in observation of of a satellites for geodetic purposes. If it i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t a n g u l a r s p e e d s a t e l l i t e (of altitude 1, 000 km) when near the zenith of an observing station is approxiof 1. "5 in m a t e l y 1500" p e r s e c o n d , a n e r r o r of 1 m i l l i s e c o n d i n t i m i n g c a u s e s a n e r r o r the position of t h e s a t e l l i t e w h i c h c a u s e s a n e r r o r of 8 m e t e r s in the position of the station(64). If a n a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e i s o b s e r v e d , t h e t i m e s of t h e f l a s h e s f r o m t h e s a t e l l i t e a r e known. The satellite flash times for the GEOS-I w e r e m o n i t o r e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d by the A p p l i e d P h y s i c s L a b o r a t o r y of the Johns Hopkins University. The APL published bull e t i n s t o c o r r e c t t h e f l a s h time (governed by the satellite clock) to W W V (U. T. C. ). If a p a s s i v e s a t e l l i t e is o b s e r v e d , t i m i n g i s e x t r e m e l y c r i t i c a l . If t h e c a m e r a i s siderally driven and the satellite image is "chopped", the epochs of s a t e l l i t e o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l b e d e t e r m i n e d by the shutter action. If t h e c a m e r a is fixed, the epoch of s t a r a n d s a t e l l i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s (i. e. t h e t i m e t h e s a t e l l i t e i s e x p o s e d at t h e c a m e r a - s t a t i o n t i m e ) is determined by the shutter action. T h e s h u t t e r c h o p p i n g t h e s a t e l l i t e t r a i l m u s t b e of t h e h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d i n o r d e r t o yield a t i m e - r e c o r d i n g p r e c i s i o n of about f 1 msec without systematical influences and without camera vibrations caused by the shutter action. Rotating sector shutters or similar units have proven to be the most successful equipment for this, whereas louvre shutters seem to give rise to too intense vibrations(l2). T a b l e B - 7 outlines the timing precision and positioning accuracy obtainable the various camera systems. with

Thus far, a l l o p t i c a l s y s t e m s d i s c u s s e d h a v e i n v o l v e d u s e of l a n d - b a s e d c a m e r a s . o n ships, and the results obtained Limited experiments, however, have been performed ahow promise for geodetic application of optical methods to the establishment of m a r i n e control pointe. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t is t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k of J u r y at t h e A i r F o r c e

B-43

Eastern Test Range with Photogrammetric Ocean Survey Equipment (POSE), The t a i l s of t h i s w o r k m a y be found in several published reports(47-50).

de-

The POSE s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of a g y r o s t a b i l i z e d , s t e l l a r - o r i e n t e d c a m e r a w i t h a s s o ciated timing equipment mounted aboard a ship, The ship station was used as an unknown station, but its relative position to either underwater acoustic beacons(49) or land-based theodolites and cinetheodolites(50,47) was known, Using simultaneous obs e r v a t i o n s of a s a t e l l i t e f r o m t h e s h i p b o a r d c a m e r a a n d s e v e r a l l a n d - b a s e d c a m e r a stations, the geographic position of the ship was determined by triangulation. T h e m a t h e m a t i c s i n v o l v e d a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a n e x t e n s i o n of t h e l a n d - b a s e d c a m e r a situation, accounting for the relation of t h e c a m e r a t o a stable platform mounted on t h e ship. In t h e r e p o r t b y J u r y ( 4 8 ) , X , Y , Z r e p r e s e n t s a topocentric, azimuth-altitude coo r d i n a t e s y s t e m ctefined a t t h e m e a n w a t e r s u r f a c e w h e r e t h e Z - a x i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e Y, o b s e r v e r ' s z e n i t h , t h e Y a x i s t o his North, and the X-axis is perpendicular to the Z-plane (i. e., points East). The X, Y, Z coordinates of t h e s h i p a t t i m e t i a r e c o m p u t e d f r o m i t s U , V, W coordinates by a c o o r d i n a t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h e r e t h e U , V, W axes represent the inertial equatorial coordinate system. The U and W axes lie in the meridianal plane of t h e g y r o - c a m e r a Go a t t i m e to. (Go i s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e a x e s of t h e g y r o - s t a b i l i z e d p l a t f o r m . ) The coordinates of t h e g y r o - c a m e r a Gi a t t i m e ti a r e derived by performing a coordinate transformation accounting for the effects of s h i p A transformation is then made from topocentric coorditranslation and earth rotation. nates to stable platform coordinates accounting for ship roll, pitch, and azimuth rotations about the metacenter and resulting in new coordinates ofG. The transformation matrices are given by Jury(5o). The star direction cosines are derived relative. to the topocentric and stable platform coordinate system. The target (satellite, airborne strobe light, etc. ) position aland the camera position are likewise derived relative to the stable platform. This lows for the determination of the direction to the satellite from the photographic plate coordinates of t h e s a t e l l i t e . Since the actual experimental tests are explained viously cited, only a s u m m a r y w i l l b e p r o v i d e d h e r e . in detail in the references pre-

For the preliminary experiment, a Wild BC-4, 21-cm focal length, F 4. 2. c a m e r a was mounted on a platform permitting stabilization in roll and pitch. The gyrostabilized camera and five land-based stellar-oriented cameras observed an airborne s t r o b e l i g h t a g a i n s t a stellar background. Cinetheodolite observations were also made of a l i g h t s o u r c e on t h e m a s t of t h e s h i p t o l o c a t e t h e s h i p , a n d h e n c e t h e g y r o - c a m e r a , accurately. The position of t h e g y r o - c a m e r a , d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s w a y , s e r v e d a s t h e s t a n d a r d f o r c o m p a r i n g t h e r e s u l t s of the gyro-camera position computed from the airborne-strobe-light observations.
of t e s t s , a BC 6 0 0 - m m - f o c a l - l e n g t h , s t e l l a r - o r i e n t e d In the second series c a m e r a w a s m o u n t e d on a p l a t f o r m w i t h t h r e e - a x i s s t a b i l i z a t i o n . T h e p l a t f o r m c o u l d b e separately torqued in roll, pitch, or azimuth to enforce drift such that the optical axis of t h e c a m e r a c o u l d s w e e p t h r o u g h a given angle per unit of t i m e . T h i s c a u s e d t h e stellar energy to sweep across the photographic plate at a uniform rate and reduced the p r o b l e m of a s t e l l a r ( o r s a t e l l i t e ) t r a i l o v e r l a p p i n g i t s e l f .

Simultaneous observations of a s a t e l l i t e w e r e m a d e w i t h t h e s h i p b o a r d c a m e r a and several land-based cameras. The procedure is one of s a t e l l i t e t r i a n g u l a t i o n 8s

B-44

explained previously. In t h i s c a s e , h o w e v e r , t h e unknown station.was the camera aboard the ship. Throughout the tests,. the active satellite GEOS-1 and the passive satellites PAGEOS, Echo I and Echo I1 .were observed. As in the preliminary tests with the airc r a f t , t i m e v a r i a n t p o s i t i o n s of t h e s h i p w e r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d by land-based cinetheodolite and survey theodolite observations of a l i g h t s o u r c e on t h e m a s t of t h e s h i p l o c a t e d 4 to 5 nautical miles off shore from Cape Kennedy. (This techlllque is c l a i m e d t o p r o vide positioning accurately to better than 5 feet. ) T h e s e p o s i t i o n s s e r v e d a s a s t a n d a r d for the POSE-determined positions. T h e r e s u l t s of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t s s h o w e d t h e c o m b i n e d w e i g h t e d m e a n t o d i f f e r f r o m t h e t r u e p o s i t i o n b y 29 feet in latitude and 6 feet in- longitude (geodetic coordinates). to i n a c c u r a c y The differences in the latitude and longitude determinations were attributed in timing and to the satellite trajectories which were almost all in a north-south direction. Claims were made that ship positioning with respect to the fixed-camera datum could be achieved almost anywhere in the world to a geodetic accuracy of 30 t o 60 feet with the prototype POSE system. Also, ocean-bottom beacons at depths of s e v e r a l thousand feet could be positioned with POSE and an acoustic system to accuracies varyi n g f r o m 45 to 70 feet. (No use was actually made of an ocean-bottom acoustic beacon s y s t e m d u r i n g t h e s e t e s t s , so this is a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n b a s e d on known data. )

B-45

LASER METHOD
T h e l a s e r is unique in that it can be 1-tilized for sateliite observations as an optical and/or electromagnetic system. Hence, the laser is capable of yielding both t h e a n g u l a r a n d t h e r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y to determine the full vector of the spatial position of t h e s a t e l l i t e r e l a t i v e t o t h e t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n a feature which makes it m o s t a t t r a c t i v e f o r g e o d e t i c w o r k . I t s v e r s a t i l i t y is further evidenced by the fact t h a t t h e l a s e r c a n be applied to all three techniques of u t i l i z i n g e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s f o r m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e ; i. e . , m e a s u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t time of p u l s e s , m e a s u r i n g t h e p h a s e c o m p a r i s o n of a modulated wave, and observing interference fringes.

T h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c e n e r g y e m i t t e d by t h e l a s e r i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l b e c a u s e it is monochromatic, spatially coherent, and highly concentrated. Thus far it has been used i n s a t e l l i t e g e o d e s y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r a n g e s by m e a s u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t t i m e a n d f o r d e t e r mining satellite azimuth and elevation by photographing the laser-illuminated satellite against a stellar background. The advantages of t h e l a s e r f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s s e e m t o be many:(56) The satellites required are essentially passive once they have been $< equipped with retroreflectors. Unlike other optical methods, daylight tracking may prove possible when predicted angular positions for pointing the laser are deteTmined although the signal-noise ratio may be high.

The large pulse power permits range measurements'at much longer distances (megameters) than possible with UHF or micro-wave ranging systems. P u l s e s w h o s e l e n g t h s a r e o n l y t e n s of nanoseconds can be produced w h e n t h e l a s e r is operating in the Q-switched mode, thus eliminating the complication of t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e r e c e i v e r w h e n U H F o r m i c r o - w a v e r a n g i n g s y s t e m s are used. Ionospheric propagation effects present in UHF or microwave ranging are avoided with the ruby laser since it t r a n s m i t s i n t h e v i s i b l e w a v e is s i m p l e r s i n c e length region. Also, the tropospheric correction a t m o s p h e r i c w a t e r v a p o r d o e s not affect propagation. One disadvantage of t h e l a s e r when compared to radio ranging is the fact that the lases receivers are less sensitive. Also, since visual tracking of t h e s a t e l l i t e i s p r e s e n t l y u s e d , t h e l a s e r i s not a n a l l - w e a t h e r s y s t e m . Although it may be possible to obtain a s i g n a l r e t u r n f r o m a l a r g e r s a t e l l i t e s u c h not e q u i p p e d w i t h r e t r o r e f l e c t o r s a n d t h u s a c t i n g as a s p e c u l a r l y r e f l e c t a s E c h o I1 the retroreflector greatly simplifies the task. The first retroreflector ing sphere 1964. P h o t o e l e c t r i c r e t u r n s equipped satellite (Explorer-XXII) was launched in October, of NASA, Snyder e t a l . of GE, and w e r e r e p o r t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r dby Plotkin etal.

Bivas and Blamont of Service d' Ae'ronomie, Centre de la Recherche Scientifique. A l a s e r p h o t o g r a p h of a s a t e l l i t e w a s o b t a i n e d b y Iliff of the Air F o r c e C a m b r i d g e R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r i e s ( A F C R L ) i n J a n u a r y , 1965. The SA0 obtained both photographic and photoelectric data simultaneously in June, 1965.(56) Table B-9 outlines the major characteri s t i c s of t h o s e s a t e l l i t e s p r e s e n t l y e q u i p p e d w i t h r e t r o r e f l e c t o r s .

TABLE B-9. SATELLITES EQUIPPED WITH RETROREFLECTORS

Satellite
"

Apogee, km
~

Perigee,

km

. ..

Inclination, degrees a0 41 59
40 39

Period, min.

E x p l o r e r XXII E x p l o r e r XXVII

GEOS-I
112 GEOS -11 Diademe I Diademe I1 106

1075 1315 2270 1580 1340 1880

a9 5 108 945 1120 1095 565 59 0

105

120 104 110

T y p e s of L a s e r s

S e v e r a l t y p e s of l a s e r s a r e c o m m e r c i a l l y m a n u f a c t u r e d t o d a y gas, solid, and semi-conductor lasers being the most common. These are named according to the active medium which provides amplification of t h e w a v e . S o l i d - s t a t e l a s e r s , e s p e c i a l l y the ruby and neodymium-doped glass lasers, have shpwn the most promise for geodetic work. They generate great bursts of energy in s h o r t p u l s e s and although the gas laser to radian can has produced minimum beam.divergence, values the in o r d e r of be obtained from rubies through the use of a u x i l i a r y o p t i c s . (37) The ruby laser produces an intense monochromatic red light with a wavelength of to satellite tracking since photographic film and 6943 A. T h i s l i g h t i s e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d p h o t o e m i s s i v e d e v i c e s a r e m o r e s e n s i t i v e to it than to light in the infrared region. S e v e r a l a g e n c i e s h a v e u s e d t h i s l a s e r f o r s a t e l l i t e w o r k s i n c e the launching of E x p l o r e r XXII.When used for range measurements, the l a s e r i s " Q - s w i t c h e d " ; i. e . , one of the by a device (Q-switch) consisting of a rapidly fixed reflecting surfaces is replaced r e v o l v i n g m i r r o r t h a t r e s t r i c t s t h e l a s e r a c t i o n to the instant when the revolving mirror i s e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l to the opposite reflecting surface.

Components of L a s e r S y s t e m

A l a s e r r a n g i n g s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of a retroreflector-equi.pped s a t e l l i t e , a l a s e r t r a n s m i t t e r , a p r e c i s e t r a c k i n g p e d e s t a l f o r p o i n t i n g t h e laser t r a n s m i t t e r ; a r e c e i v e r of a n g u l a r m e a d e t e c t o r s y s t e m , a n d a ranging and data-control system. In the case s u r e m e n t s , a c a m e r a s y s t e m f o r p h o t o g r a p h i n g t h e i l l u m i n a t e d s a t e l l i t e is, of c o u r s e , necessary also.

A r e t r o r e f l e c t o r d i r e c t s t h e r e f l e c t e d l a s e r b e a m so that its power i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r detcction. For e x a m p l e , t h e b e a m r e t u r n f o r a Satellite such as E x p l o r e r XXII is

3.6 x lo7 times more powerful than that from a specularry reflecting sphere 1 square m e t e l i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . (56) T h e r e t u r n s f r o m a l l s a t e l l i t e s w i l l e x h i b i t v e l o c i t y a b e r a compensating ration, but retroreflectors, by design, spread the returning beam by amount(6o). The diverging cone of t h e r e f l e c t e d b e a m is d e t e r n i i n e d by the diffraction limit, orthogonality of t h e s u r f a c e s , s u r f a c e f l a t n e s s , o r a combination of t h e ~ e ( 9 ~ ) . T h e i n d i v i d u a l c u b e c o r n e r p r i s m s of t h e r e f l e c t o r are composed of r a d i a t i o n - r e s i s t a n t fused silica with silvered reflecting surfaces. The iaser transmitters used by the various organizations and agencies for satellite geodesy have all been ruby lasers. An a u x i l i a r y l e n s s y s t e m c a n b e u s e d t o r e d u c e the beam to the desired width. When visual tracking is used, a l a s e r b e a m w i d t h of 1-1.2 milliradians appears to satisfactorily allow for tracking errors( 16, 46, 58). At a distance of 1 m e g a m e t e r , t h e d i a m e t e r of t h i s b e a m w i l l be 1 kilometer(57). The e n e r g y of t h e p u l s e ( i n t h e Q - s w i t c h m o d e ) r a n g e s f r o m 0.5- 1.. 2 j o u l e s . W h e n p r e s e t tracking is used, the laser transmitter is used in the long normal pulse mode since maximum pulse intensity is desired. T h e l a s e r t r a n s m i t t e r itself is mounted on a device such as a naval gun mount or modified Nike-Ajax radar pedestal for tracking purposes. The possible two modes of t r a c k i n g a r e t h a t of v i s u a l t r a c k i n g w h e r e t h e o b s e r v e r a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l s t h e i n s t r u m e n t , or "preset" tracking where command inputs on a drive tape control the procedure. Preset tracking usually means that a wider beamwidth must be emitted in order to allow for uncertainties in the satellite position, and hence a weaker signal return can be expected. This method has an advantage, however, in that it c a n be used when weather conditions aren't favorable for visual tracking. The SAO, which i s presenrly operating two l a s e r stations designed for visual tracking and one for preset tricking, can vary the beamw i d t h f r o m 2 - 2 0 m i n u t e s of a r c t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r p o s i t i o n i n g e r r o r s i n t h e p r e s e t m o d e of operation( 57).

Operational Procedures

The GSFC digitally controls its t r a c k i n g p r o c e d u r e a c c o r d i n g t o b o t h p r e d i c t e d satellite orbit positions and visual corrections. The antenna position programmer comp a r e s t h e a c t u a l a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n of t h e t r a c k i n g p e d e s t a l t o t h e a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d inputs on the drive tape and generates appropriate servo-error signals to the drive pedestal to correct its position. Manual positioning is also po~sible(~6). The tracking a c c u r a c y of t h i s s y s t e m w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a c t u a l satellite position has been found to be i n t h e o r d e r of 0. 1 d e g r e e . T h i s w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y o v s e r v i n g t h e b i a d n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p t h e s a t e l l i t e v i s u a l l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e l a s e r t r a n s m i t t e r o p t i c a laxis. T h e r e c e i v e r c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y of a t e l e s c o p e a n d p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r , T y p i c a l of the photomultiplier t e l e s c o p e s i n u s e h a v e a p e r t u r e s of 16 and .20 inches. The output is used to terminate the range measurement, The receiver may be mounted with the l a s e r t r a n s m i t t e r a n d t r a c k i n g t e l e s c o p e o r it m a y b e l o c a t e d s e v e r a l t e n s of m e t e r s away to compensate for velocity .aberration. When the satellite reflector image is phutographed, Lhe photographic plate serves as a r e c e i v e r a l s o . T h e A F C R L u s e d t h e i r P C - 1 0 0 0 s t e l l a r c a m e r a w i t h a f o c a l l e n g t h of 1016 m , a n a p e r t u r e of 200 m, and a field of 10" x 10 to photograph Explorer m XXII when illuminated by the laser.
O

B-48

T h e r a n g i n g a n d d a t a - c o n t r o l s y s t e m s r e f e r t o all t h o s e p e r i p h e r a l d e v i c e s c o n trolling the operation of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r a n d r e c e i v e r , t h e t i m i n g of the signal, and the r e c o r d i n g of data.

M e a s u r e m e n t of T r a n s i t T i m e of Signal T h e s t a t i o n c l o c k i s u s e d t o c o n t r o l t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e l a s e r t r a n s m i t t e r a n d t o m e a s u r e t h e i n s t a n t a t w h i c h it is f i r e d . T h e r e is, of c o u r s e , a time delay between the "on-pulse",or firing signal and the actual 'firing time. Presently used station clocks is t i m e t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e l a s e r p u l s e t o w i t h i n 100 psec. Also, a 1-MHz signal s t a r t e d by t h e l a s e r e m i s s i o n a n d u s e d b y a n e l e c t r o n i c t i m e - i n t e r v a l c o u n t e r t o m e a A resolution s u r e t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n t i m e of t h e l a s e r p u l s e t o t h e s a t e l l i t e a n d b a c k . of +10 nanoseconds which correspond to *l. 5 m e t e r s is obtainable with this ' device( 16, 46, 60). T h e r a n g e is d e t e r m i n e d b y m u l t i p l y i n g o n e - h a l f t h e m e a s u r e d t i m e i n t e r v a l b y the velocity of light in a v a c u u m a n d m a k i n g s e v e r a l c o r r e c t i o n s . B e s i d e s t h e t i m e delay between the energizing of t h e l a s e r a n d t h e e m i s s i o n of r a d i a t i o n , t h e r e a r e time delays introduced in the system's amplifiers and transmission lines. Also, a correction should be m a d e f o r t h e e f f e c t s of a t m o s p h e r i c r e f r a c t i o n . W h e n t h e l a s e r transmitter and receiver are not collocated, a further correction is applied to account for this.

Range Equation The range equation used by S A 0 f o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s i s :

where
S R

= = AS = AR =

nT
T E

=
= =

ns

r e c e i v e ds i g n a li np h o t o n s range of thesatellite e f f e c t i v e a r e a of s a t e l l i t e ' s r e t r o r e f l e c t o r e f f e c t i v e a r e a of r e c e i v e r ' s l i g h t c o l l e c t o r solid angle of t r a n s m i t t e d b e a m solid angle of b e a m r e f l e c t e d f r o m s a t e l l i t e a t m o s p h e r i ce x t i n c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d e n e r g y of l a s e r .


to be up to 20 db below

Experimental test results have shown returned signal strengths the calculated value(59 ).

Angular Measurements The azimuth and elevation angles of the tracking pedestal can be recorded along with the time of l a s e r e m i s s i o n t o p r o v i d e s o m e i n d i c a t i o n of the direction to the satellite. For more precise values, however, experiments to photograph a satellite when illuminated by a l a s e r b e a m w e r e c o n d u c t e d . T h e l a s e r c a n be used to illuminate the

B-49

satellite when it is i n t h e E a r t h ' s s h a d o w a n d n o t v i s i b l e b y r e f l e c t e d s u n l i g h t . I n this case, m a x i m u m e n e r g y r a t h e r t h a n m i n i m u m p u l s e l e n g t h is d e s i r e d . S i n c e the satellite cannot be tracked visually, a b e a m w i d t h g r e a t e r t h a n 1 m i l l i r a d i a n is a l s o n e c e s s a r y AFCRL a s m e n t i o n e d earlier, u s e d to compensate for satellite positioning errors. The a P C - 1 0 0 0 c a m e r a t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e satellite r e f l e c t o r i m a g e . T h e laser w a s o p e r a t e d i n t h e n o r m a l l o n g p u l s e m o d e of 2 . 7 m s e c d u r a t i o n , a n d t h e b e a m w i d t h w a s r e d u c e d only to 15 a r c m i n u t e s . T h e camera s h u t t e r w a s o p e n e d j u s t b e f o r e t h e s h o t a n d r e mained open until after the laser w a s f i r e d . T w o p r e c a l i b r a t i o n s a n d t w o p o s t c a l i b r a tions were made for angular information. Although an actual position based on plate reduction was not attempted because of the lack of adequate star c a l i b r a t i o n s , t h i s p r e liminary work demonstrated the feasibility of the ~oncept(9~). The SA0 also conducted an experiment which did not yield any useful data on satellite location but also demons t r a t e d t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of photography with a laser(56).

Geodetic Positions T h e r e a r e two possible methods for utilizing laser data: a p u r e l y g e o m e t r i c method and a s e m i - d y n a m i c m e t h o d ( l 6 ) . I n t h e f o r m e r , i r a s e r i e s of r a n g e s a r e obtained for known satellite positions, a s p a t i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s u c h as t h a t p e r f o r m e d with SECOR measurements would yield the coordinates of a n unknown station. Another possibility i s t o c o m b i n e r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s w i t h a z i m u t h a n d e l e v a t i o n measurements obtained by simultaneously photographing the satellite. With this proc e d u r e , t h e s a t e l l i t e ' s p o s i t i o n o r t r l e o b s e r v e r ' s p o s i t i o n ( i f t h e s a t e l l i t e p o s i t i o n as p r e d i c t e d f r o m i t s o r b i t a l p a r a m e t e r s is u s e d ) c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d . Still another and more complicated possibility would be to make simultaneous observations (range and/or angular measurements) from three known and one unknown station to position the satellite and then the unknown station as i s done with SECOR o r with optical methods. A semi-dynamic method could be used when the means for a p u r e l y g e o m e t r i c method are not available or inadequate precision is estimated. In this case, the orbit p a r a m e t e r s i n t e r v e n e , at l e a s t as auxiliary unknowns, and a p r o g r a m of differential i s d i s c u s s e d at s o m e l e n g t h i n R e f e r e n c e 16. corrections used. This approach

Accuracv

T h e a c c u r a c y of the laser r a n g i n g s y s t e m d e p e n d s o n t h e a c c u r a c y of the timeinterval counter, the duration of t h e p u l s e , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e t i m e d e l a y s i n t h e s y s t e m ' s c o m p o n e n t s , t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e a t m o s p h e r i c c o r r e c t i o n , t h e u n c e r t a i n t y i n the epoch of o b s e r v a t i o n b a s e d on the worldwide synchronization of clocks, and the a c c u r a c y of the value for the velocity of light in a vacuum'. Commercially available t i m e - i n t e r v a l c o u n t e r s c u r r e n t l y h a v e a n a c c u r a c y of 1 n a n o s e c o n d ( 1 5 c e n t i m e t e r s ) . Pulse durations, however, for the presently used Q-switched ruby lasers are about 10 n a n o s e c o n d s ( o r 1. 5 m e t e r s ) . T h i s r a n g e e r r o r c a n b e m a d e l e s s t h a n 1 meter if t h e r e t u r n s i g n a l i s sufficiently strong to define the pulse!s le.ading e d g e o r if p u l s e s with durations of less than 10 nanoseconds can be generated.
"'

I n Reference 46 i t i s reported that pulses whose durations are considerably lessthan

1 nanosecond have been generated.

B-50

C a l i b r a t i o n o f t h e laser s y s t e m a g a i n s t a k n o w n t a r g e t f o r time delays has yielded a n a c c u r a c y of zz 1 m e t e r . W h e t h e r t h i s w i l l i m p r o v e w i t h a n i m p r o v e d s y s t e m i s difficult to predict. Atmospheric corrections based on temperature and pressure readings at t h e t i m e of t h e p a s s a n d f o r m u l a s f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l B u r e a u of Standards should be a c c u r a t e t o 0. 4 nanosecond (or 0. 06 m e t e r ) (58)
,

The worldwide sychronization of c l o c k s i s p r e s e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 p s e c . T h i s w o u l d h a v e t o b e i m p r o v e d t o w i t h i n 1 0 p s e c f o r d e c i m e t e r a c c u r a c y . The velocity of light, on the other hand, is known to only 1 p a r t i n lo6. T h e p r e c e d i n g g i v e s a n i n d i c a t i o n of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a c c u r a c y of a laser ranging system. It might be interesting to note some of t h e c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d o n e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k p e r f o r m e d s i n c e t h e l a u n c h i n g of E x p l o r e r XXII. The SA0 has reported partial results'' of'its initial experiment conducted from June, 1965, to July, 1967, at O r g a n P a s s , New Mexico. (The S A 0 collocated a laser ranging system with 'its Baker-Nunn camera s o t h a t r a n g e m e a s u r e m e n t s c o u l d b e p e r formed along with optical observations of the sunlit satellite. ) T h e m e a s u r e d r a n g e s were compared with those derived from field-reduced orbits; hence, the results will be more meaningful when precisely reduced orbits are obtained. Also, the collected data w e r e u s e d t o c o m p a r e t h e r e c o r d e d r e t u r n s i g n a l s t r e n g t h w i t h t h a t p r e d i c t e d by the a m a x i m u m d i s c r e p a n c y of approxirange equation. This latter procedure indicated m a t e l y 20 d e c i b e l s f o r a s a t e l l i t e r a n g e of 1 . 5 m e g a m e t e r s a n d e l e v a t i o n r a n g e of 6 0 " to 69" The deviations of t h e m e a s u r e d r a n g e s f r o m t h e f i e l d r e d u c e d o r b i t s v a r i e d b e t w e e n t h e e x t r e m e v a l u e s of - 2 0 0 t o t 6 2 0 m e t e r s . A l l of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e f o r GEOS-I, and Explorer XXVII. A c c o r d i n g t o R e f e r e n c e 59, t h e s e i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s s h o w o n l y t h a t t h e r e a r e no a p p a r e n t l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e l a s e r m e a s u r e ments and the Baker-Nunn measurements. The GSFC has collected laser ranging data for three U . S. a n d t w o F r e n c h s a t e l lites. E x p l o r e r XXVII data obtained by laser ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center and GEOS-I data obtained at Rosmon, North Carolina have been analyzed. Since a more of the a c c u r a t e r e f e r e n c e s stem w a s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p a r i s o n , a n i n t e r n a l a n a l y s i s d a t a w a s p e r f o r m e d ( 7 ) . The data, consisting of r a n g e - o n l y m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m a single observing station, w e r e reduced using a m i n i m u m - v a r i a n c e d i f f e r e n t i a l - c o r r e c t i o n program. Results indicated that the examined data exhibited no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t nonrandomness. The root mean square of t h e r a n g e r e s i d u a l s i n m o s t c a s e s w a s l e s s than two meters, and the residual histograms displayed a slight asymmetry toward the long-range side.

Navy TRANET Doppler data obtained on one of t h e G E O S - I p a s s e s w a s a l s o u t i l i z e d i n a Doppler-only solution and in a combined laser-Doppler solution. The average rms r a n g e v a l u e of 1. 6 meters did not change between the laser-only solution and the laserDoppler solution whereas the rms r a n g e - r a t e value c h a n g e d f r o m 0 . 0 3 m / s e c i n t h e No significant Doppler-only solution to 0. 04 m / s e c i n t h e l a s e r - D o p p l e r s o l u t i o n . s y s t e m a t i c t r e n d s a p p e a r e d i n t h e laser r e s u l t s w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d with the Dopplkr system(67).
.Results here refer only to those tests conducted from December, 1965. earlier wak is also available.
to February, 196d59). although a repod")

of,

B-51

.,

--. .

. .

. .. . . .

.. . .

A n i n t e r c o m p a r i s o n of Goddard Range and Range Rate (GRARR) and Goddard laser data obtained by side-by-side tracking of t h e t w o s y s t e m s at Rosman, North Carolina, between July, 1966, and November, 1966, w a s p e r f o r m e d t o a i d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e GRARR s y s t e m a n d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the laser as a c a l i b r a t i o n i n s t r u ment for electronic tracking systems. The results indicated that laser orbits could be used to detect systematic errors in both the range and range rate to about 2 m and 1 cm/ s e c r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s u m m a r y of t h e l a s e r d a t a s h o w e d a n a v e r a g e r a n g e rms of 1 . 8 meters(11). l n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s are p r e s e n t l y u n d e r w a y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a worldwide laser network. The S A 0 p r e s e n t l y h a s t h r e e l a s e r s y s t e m s i r d a l l e d at B a k e r - N u n n s i t e s i n this e a c h y e a r u n t i l all Baker-Nunn Arizona, Hawaii, and Greece. Plans are to add to laser tracking sites have a laser system. The French National Space Agency has two stations, - o n e n e a r M e r s e i l l e s a n d o n e i n S p a i n n e a r a Baker-Nunn site. Likewise, t h e G r e e k s h a v e i n s t a l l e d a l a s e r s y s t e m at a n S A 0 s t a t i o n n e a r A t h e n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e of 1968. Also, that the Australians will have a station in operation during the summer NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has joined in these efforts(7).

B-52

APPENDIX C

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