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# Understanding Power

Factor

Presented by
Scott Peele PE
Understanding Power Factor

z Definitions
 kVA, kVAR, kW, Apparent Power vs. True Power
z Calculations Measurements
z Power Factor Correction
 Capacitors
z System Impacts
 I2 R losses, Chapter 9 NEC
 Equipment sizing
z Power Factor Charges
 Harmonic resonance
 Volt rise
z Power Factor vs Load Factor
What is Power Factor

## Power Factor is the cosine of the

phase angle between current and
voltage.

## Power Factor is the ratio of true

power to apparent power.
Understanding Alternating Current
AC

200

150
120 Volts RMS
Voltage Level

100
Magnitude

169 volts
50

-50

One Cycle
-100
.01666 seconds
-150

-200
60 Hertz/second
0

Duration
Time
Phase Angle

200

150
120 Volts RMS
Voltage Level

100
Magnitude

o
90 o
50 180
0

-50

One Cycle
-100

-150 o
360
-200 o
0
270
Duration
Degrees

z Resistive
z Inductive
z Capacitive
z Or any combination
 Resistive Inductive
 Inductive Capacitive
 Resistive Capacitive
 Resistive Inductive Capacitive

## z Resistive – Incandescent Lamp

Resistance heat
z Inductive – Motors – Contactor Coils –
Relays (coils)
z Capacitive – Capacitors – Start Capacitors
– Run Capacitors – Power Factor
Correction Capacitors
In Phase

200

150

Cu
100
Magnitude

rre
50
Level

nt
0 vol
-50
tag

-100
e

-150

-200
0

Duration
Time
Lagging

200

150

Cu
100
Magnitude

rre
Level

50

nt
0
Volt

-50
age

-100

-150

-200
0

Duration
Time

200

150

Vol
100
Magnitude

tag
Level

50

e
0
Cur

-50
rent

-100

-150

-200
0

Duration
Time
What is Power

## z Power is measured in Watts.

z Volts X Amps X Power Factor = Watts
z Watts only equals Volts X Amps when the
Power Factor is 1 or unity.
z Most of the time the Power Factor is less
than 1.
z Power = Watts : True Power
z Volts X Amps = VA : Apparent Power
Understanding Right Triangles

A= Side Opposite
s e
te nu
p o
H y
C=

## B= Side Adjacent Right Angle 900

Power Triangle

True power
Power Factor =
Apparent power

Cos

A= Side Opposite
e
Hypotenuse tenus
ypo
H
C=
θ
θ
Power Factor = Cos B= Side Adjacent
True power
Power Factor =
Apparent power

Power
e r

Side Opposite
eo w
tus
P
n
o
a rte

A= Reactive
pyp
AH
C=

B= Side
Power Right Angle 900
Understanding Power Triangle

## VAR, kVAR Reactance

e r ,
o w V A
P k

A= Reactive Power
n t s ),
e p
par A m
Ap –
= ol ts
C
(V
VA
θ

B= True Power
Watts, KW, Power
Graphical representation of resistance,
reactance, and impedance

Inductive
Motors

Reactance
e
anc

Inductive
pe d
Im
Z X

θ R
Resistance
Graphical representation of resistance,
reactance, and impedance

Resistance
θ
R

Reactance
Capacitive
Z X
Imp
eda
nce
Capacitors
o r kVA
V A
P ower
r ent
Imaginary

Inductive a
App kVAR
Motors
Reactance
Imaginary
θ Real - WATTS – kW (KWH over Time)

## Cosine of θ True Power

POWER FACTOR

Capacitive
Capacitors
10 HP 460 Volt 4 Pole Motor
Transformer
Conductor

## Power Amps Amps

Load Factor VA Amps Watts VAR Reactive Resistive
125% 0.82 13203 16.6 10883 7476 9.4 13.7
115% 0.81 12240 15.4 9972 7099 8.9 12.5
100% 0.79 10830 13.6 8592 6593 8.3 10.8
75% 0.73 8771 11.1 6397 6002 7.5 8.0
50% 0.61 7105 8.9 4323 5639 7.1 5.4
25% 0.40 5886 7.4 2331 5405 6.8 2.9
min load 0.17 5399 6.8 911 5322 6.7 1.1

Motor

10 HP Energy Flow
Transformer
Conductor

w er

A= Reactive Power
t Po
en 30

VAR = 6593
r
ppa 08
A 1
=
C= V A
θ
Power Factor = .79
B= True Power
Measured Amps = 13.6 Watts =8592
Reactive Amps = 8.3
Resistive Amps = 10.8
Motor

Transformer
Conductor
Measured Amps = 10.8

VAR = 1
VA =8595

Watts =8592
Measured Amps = 8.3

w er

A= Reactive Power
t Po
n

VAR = 6593
are 30
p 08
Ap = 1
C= V A
θ
Measured Amps = 13.6
B= True Power Motor
Watts =8592

10 HP Energy Savings
Transformer
Conductor

## Saving are calculated on I2 R losses.

Using a # 12 gauge wire from Table 9 in the NEC
the resistance is 2 ohms per 1000 feet. 200’ @
2 Ohms/1000’ is .5 ohms. Using this the total saving
will be approx. 11.8 watts. NOTE: This is only if the
I2 X R = Watts capacitor is at the motor.

2.8 2 X .5 = 3.92
3 X 3.92 = 11.76 Motor

10 HP Capacitor Sizing
Transformer
Conductor

Utility Meter
II22 R
R Savings
Losses

## Capacitor to large then var flow in both

directions and one may increase cost.

Motor

Power Factor Penalty
Based on one month operation at 8 hours a day

## Example of Power Factor Charge

PF Charge Factor
NC Charge \$0.40 kW Charge \$10.25

## Max Billing kW 8.592 kWh Charge \$0.03854

Power Factor 0.79
Calc kVA 10.8759 kW 8.6
Calc kVAR 6.6681 kWh 2064

## Less than .85 then a \$0.40 charge

For kVar – (kW X.62)
PF Charge \$0.54

## Total Charge \$168.23

10 Horse Power Motor

VA Watts VAR
VA Watts VAR
125%
14000
115%
12000
100%
10000
75%
8000
50%
25% Min
6000

4000

2000

0
0.82 0.81 0.79 0.73 0.61 0.40 0.17
Power Factor
10 HP Voltage Rise
Transformer
Conductor

## kVAR * Xsource /kVA/100 = Voltage Rise %

Note This does not include the wire inductance
that will cause some additional rise in voltage.

Motor

System VAR Requirements
Power (Met by Power Plant Generator)
Plant T/D
Generator Substatio
Transmission Circuit n
MVAR KVAR

MW KW

Distribution Circuit

Substation
Capacitor
Bank
L L L
Industrial Commercial Residential

System VAR Requirements
Power (Met by Power T/D Substation) T/D
Plant
Substatio
Generator Transmission Circuit n
KVAR
MW
KW

Distribution Circuit
Substation
Capacitor
Bank

L L L
Industrial Commercial Residential

System VAR Requirements
Power (Met by T/D Sub and Feeder Capacitors)
Plant T/D
Generator Substation
Transmission Circuit
KVAR
MW
KW

Distribution Circuit
Substation
Capacitor
Bank

Feeder
L Capacitor L L
Bank
Industrial Commercial Residential

Things We have Talked About And
z Phase Angle
z Power Factor
z I2R Loss
z Power Factor Penalty
z Voltage Rise
z Harmonic resonance
z Load Factor --- Power Factor
Harmonic Resonance
X Source
Equivalent Circuit

XT
3 PHASE AC X Source

INPUT
XT

XC

Harmonic
Source
Harmonic Filters
XF
L1
XC

L2

L3

L1 L2 L3

## z They have no relation

z Load Factor is kW at 100% operation

## Yielding so many kWh vs. Actual kWh

Example
Hours in a Month = 30 X 24 = 720 Hours
8 X 720 = 5760 kWh
Actual kWh by load is 3240
Understanding Power Factor

z Definitions
 kVA, kVAR, kW, Apparent Power vs. True Power
z Calculations Measurements
z Power Factor Correction
 Capacitors
z System Impacts
 I2 R losses, Chapter 9 NEC
 Equipment sizing
z Power Factor Charges