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Pakistan Education: Problems And Solutions Of Pakistan Education

Education is considered as the cheapest defence of a nation. But the down trodden condition of education in Pakistan bears an ample testimony of the fact that it is unable to defend its own sector. Though 62 years have been passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an arrival of a saviour.The government of Pervaiz Musharraf invested heavily in education sector and that era saw a visible positive educational change in Pakistani society. Now a days, the economic situation in Pakistan is under stress and education is the worse effected sector in Pakistan. The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan says, The state of Pakistan shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period. In Human Development Report, Pakistan is placed at 136th position for having just 49.9% educated populace. The primary completion rate in Pakistan, given by Date Center of UNESCO, is 33.8% in females and 47.18% in males, which shows that people in the 6th largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education. Following are the problems of education in Pakistan. Firstly, the educational system of Pakistan is based on unequal lines. Medium of education is different in both, public and private sectors. This creates a sort of disparity among people, dividing them into two segments. One division is on the basis of English medium language while the other is Urdu medium language. Secondly, regional disparity is also a major cause. The schools in Balochistan (The Largest Provice Of Pakistan By Area) are not that much groomed as that of Punjab (The Largest Provice Of Pakistan By Population). In FATA, the literacy rate is deplorable constituting 29.5% in males and 3% in females. Thirdly, the ratio of gender discrimination is a cause which is projecting the primary school ratio of boys & girls which is 10:4 respectively. For the last few years there has been an increase in the growth of private schools.

That not only harms the quality of education but create a gap among haves and have nots. Fourthly, the lack of technical education is a biggest flaw in the educational policy that has never been focused before. Therefore, less technical people means less progress. This flaw is tried to be covered by the government of President Pervaiz Musharraf. Specially, Pervaiz Elahi worked very hard to improve the education standard in Punjab. Fifthly, the allocation of funds for education are very low. It is only 1.5 to 2.0 percent of the total GDP. It should be around 7% of the total GDP. During his reign, a record 3 to 4 percent of the budget was earmarked. Later on in the PPP government the budget was reduced drastically in this sector. We should follow the example of Malaysian government which earmarks about 35 percent of its GDP to education sector. Sixthly, the teachers in government schools are not well trained. People who donot get job in any other sector, they try their luck in educational system. They are not professionally trained teachers so they are unable to train a nation. However, professionally more trained people can educate the people to build a good nation. Finally, Poverty is also another factor that restrict the parents to send their children to public or private schools. So, they prefer to send their children to madressahs where education is totally free. The worst effected are girl children because parents stop them from going to school and hand over trivial jobs to earn few bucks at home. Recently, minister of education announced a new Education policy for that next 10 years. The interesting thing is that the previous educational policy from 1998 to 2010 is still not expired. Although it is projected to give new plans and to make more promises with the nation. It is said in this policy that all the public schools will be raised upto the level of private schools. No plan of action have been discussed, yet a notice is issued to private schools to induct government course in 5th and 8th class and these

classes will bound to take board exams. This disturbed the students of private sector also. Solutions for Educational System: Estimating the value of education, the Government should take solid steps on this issue. Implementation instead of projecting policies, should be focused on. Allocation of funds should be made easy from provinces to districts and then to educational institutes. Workshops must be arranged for teachers. Foreign states are using LSS system. This should be inducted in Pakistani schools to improve the hidden

qualities of children. Technical education must be given to all the classes. The education board of Punjab have projected a plan to give tech- education to the children of industrial workers. Promotion of the primary education is the need of time. Teachers, professors and educationists should be consulted while devising any plan, syllabus or policy. The state seems to give up her responsibility and totally relying on private sector. The need of time is to bring education in its original form to masses. Burdening a students with so much books will not work as he will not understand what the world is going to do next moment. Education is the only cure of the destability in the state and can bring revolution through evolution, by eradicating the social evils. This is how to remove illiteracy in Pakistan.


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First Governor General of Pakistan

First Governor General of Pakistan was Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who was the father of the nation of Pakistan. He took the office on August 15, 1947 and remained in the office till September 11, 1948. After him Khawaja Nazimuddin took the office but remained in the office for a short period of time. There were four governor generals of Pakistan and the last governor general of Pakistan was Major General Sikandar Mirza. The oath of governor general was replaced with President Of Pakistan in 1956 according to the first constitution which was promulgated in 1956. Achievements of Quaid-e-Azam As Governor General Liaquat Ali Khan was given the portfolio of the first Prime Minister of Pakistan when Quaid -e- Azam became the Governor General. The member of the Cabinet were selected and their portfolios were allocated by Quaid e Azam on the basis of merit. The Cabinet was broadly representative of the Provinces and also of refugees and minorities. Administrative Reforms The administrative reforms brought out by the leader of this nascent state proved beneficial for the future of the country. Following are the steps which he undertook for the administrative betterment of the country as he was of the firm view that Pakistan can thrive if the civil and military bureaucracy help and guide the people to success. Quaid e Azam retained with himself the control of British Baluchistan through an agent. Karachi was separated from Sindh on his direction and he exercised the executive authority of Karachi through an administrator. He declared Karachi as the capital of Pakistan and the Central Secretariat was established there. He also reorganized the civil service and created the post of Secretary General to work as liaison between the Governor

General and other secretaries. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali was appointed as Secretary General. Quaid e Azam established the police system for maintaining law and order through out the country. The police had devoted itself for the security and protection of common citizen of Pakistan. He ordered for the establishment of Federal Court to deal with the important matters. Later on the Federal Court was converted into Supreme Court of Pakistan. Pakistan was an infant state and it had no constitution to run the affair of state. So Quaid e Azam adopted the Indian Independence Act 1947 and modified it according to State requirement.

Quaid e Azam

Financial Achievements: He appointed Sir Archbald Rowlands as his financial adviser. The new coins and currency Notes were issued on January 3, 1948 which replaced the old coins. State Bank of Pakistan was established under the direction of Quaid e Azam. He himself inaugurated the Bank on July 1,1948. In inaugural address he emphasized on the need the Islamic economic system and said the adoption of western economic theory and practice would not help us in achieving our goal of creating happy and contented people. A board of directions was appointed taking representatives from public sector as well from private. In industrial field Quaid e Azam wanted to see Pakistan on the road of progress . He laid the foundation of Walika Mills on September 26,1947 in West Pakistan and an Oil Mills on February 2,1948 in East Pakistan. These steps helped the country the to achieve the financial progress and prosperity.

Educational Achievements: Quaid e Azam gave great importance to education. With the establishment of Pakistan, he set afoot a movement for spreading up of education and opening up more schools. Primary and secondary. But education in Pakistan was provincial subject and most of the administrative units were responsible bodies. Nevertheless, his influence was felt throughout the country and educational institutions came up rapidly for realizing his dream. Quaid e Azam had special regard for students. Quaid e Azam while addressing the All Pakistan Educational Conference in Karachi held on November 27, 1947, said The Muslims could not give proper attention to education due to foreign occupation on the sub-continent. Therefore, Muslims were backward in proper education . This is the time that the students should give proper attention in specializing in all fields of education. Defense Achievements: Dearest to Quaid e Azams heart werePakistans Defence Forces, as they played heroic part during the influx of refugees. Like other services the Defence Force also had no amenities as India refused to deliver Pakistans share of military stores. The Military personal toiled voluntarily in providing shelters, medicines and all other possible help to the refugees. He visited some units of Armed Forces. He said, while addressing the establishment ofH.M.P.SDilawar, The weak and defenseless in his imperfect world invite aggression form other. The best way in which we can being weak and therefore being attacked. The temptation can only be removed if we make ourselves so strong that nobody dare entertain aggressive designs against us. Quaid e Azam also emphasized on the need of modern equipment for the defense of the country . He said that the latest arms were necessary forPakistanto defend it form the aggression of foreign country. Thus, he emphasized on the provision of latest equipment for the army.


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NFC Award: National Finance Commission Award Of Pakistan

National Finance Commission: Article 160 of the constitution of Pakistan says that after every five years the president shall constitute a National Finance Commission. This National Finance Commission will review the formula for the distribution of funds, taxes and other monetary assets among the Center and the Provinces and among the four federating units of Pakistan namely, Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. Composition Of NFC Award: 1) Minister of Finance of the Federal Government. 2) Ministers of Finance of the Provincial Governments. 3) And such other persons as may be appointed by the President after consultation with the Governors of the Provinces. Functions of National Finance Commission: Following are the major functions of national finance commission i. The distribution of funds between the Federation and the Provinces of the net proceeds of the taxes. ii. The making of grants-in-aid by the Federal Government to the Provincial Governments. iii. The exercise by the Federal Government and the Provincial Governments of the borrowing powers conferred by the Constitution. iv. Any other matter relating to finance referred to the Commission by the President.

National Finance Commission Award: The decision of national finance commission is called national finance commission Award. 7th national finance commission Award was passed in 2010 Salient Features of 7th NFC Award 2010 Size of Divisible Pool: As a consequence size of Divisible Pool enhanced by Rs. 68 billion. Share of Provinces was approximately Rs.39 billion. Collection charges decreased from 5.2% to 1%. 2. Vertical Distribution -Provincial share increased from 48.75% to 56% in the first year. -The provincial share would increased to 57.5% after the first year. 3. Horizontal Distribution -Multiple criterion have been set for distribution of share among the Provinces. 1 Population 82% 2 Poverty 10.30% 3 Revenue 5.00% 4 IPD (Inverse Population Density) 2.70% 4. Province 1. Punjab 2. Sindh 3. Khayber 4. Balochistan Wise Weightages 51.74 % 24.55 % , 14.62 %

Pakhtonkhwa 9.09 %

5. GST on Services -Federal Government recognized that the Sales Tax on Services is a Provincial subject. NFC decided that it might be collected by Provinces if so desired -Provinces will gain Rs. 30 billion as a result of this decision. 6. Gas Development Surcharge -On account of GDS -Balochistan 28.7 percent, -KP 3.0 percent, -Punjab 7.8 percent -Sindh 60.4 percent. -As per former formula, the loss of royalty to Balochistan is about Rs 2

billion which will be compensated through generating additional revenue of Rs 1.8 billion under the revised formula. (10 %) 7. Relief Measures for KP and Balochistan -KP NFC recognized the role of NWFP as front line province against War on Terror -Federal Government to bear all expenditure -1% of net proceeds of Divisible Pool ear-marked for KP -Balochistan ,As the most under-developed province of Pakistan and having peculiar geographic and economic characteristics, Balochistan needed special attention of NFC. In the horizontal distribution, its provincial pool has been increased to 9.09% (approximately twice the 2009-10 Divisible Pool transfers). Moreover, Federal Government has promised to cover any short fall due to lower federal revenues.


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