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IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

A Systematic Method for Generating Multiple-Input DC/DC Converters


Yan Li* **, Student Member, IEEE, Dongsheng Yang* and Xinbo Ruan*, Senior Member, IEEE
* Aero-Power Sci-tech Center, College of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics Nanjing, 210016, Jiangsu Province, China, Tel. +86-25-84892053, Fax. +86-25-84892053 ** College of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University Qinhuangdao, 066004, Hebei Province, China, Tel. +86-335-8057041 E-mail: liyan_qhd@yahoo.com.cn synthesizing multiple-input DC-DC converters is to insert AbstractA multiple-input converter (MIC) is devoted to combining on-board energy sources in the electric vehicles the proposed pulse source cells into the basic PWM (EVs) and hybrid-electronic vehicles (HEVs). By analyzing converter. the structure of the single-input converters, the basic cells The purpose of this paper is to propose a new including the pulsating source cells (PSCs), the buffer cells combination and cascade principle for generating MICs (BCs) and the output filter are proposed for deriving including the ones without BCs and with BCs. According various MIC topologies. MIC can be categorized into two to the principle, the exiting MIC topologies and the lists, MIC without BCs and MIC with BCs. According to the numerous new topologies can be systematically generated presented combination and cascade rules, two families of for various practical requirements. MICs without BCs and with BCs can be systematically In this paper, the basic cells of MICs will be proposed generated. in section II, in which the isolated pulsating source cells (PSCs) and buffer cells (BCs) will be first presented. The KeywordsMultiple-input; DC-DC converter; rules for synthesizing MICs will be addressed in section III. According to the presented rules, the synthesis of the I. INTRODUCTION MICs without BCs and with BCs will be introduced in The electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid-electronic section IV. For simplification and convenience, the typical vehicles (HEVs) are intensively studied today. Customer circuit configurations of double-input converters will be who demands for greater acceleration, performance in taken as the examples. It is necessary to simplify the pure EVs and mandated requirements to further reduce isolated MICs owing to their complicated circuit emissions in HEVs increases the appeal for combined configurations. Section V will show the simplification energy storage unit. The storage unit is composed of procedure and rules of these MICs. Finally, conclusions batteries and super capacitors which guarantee the load will be given in section VI. leveling, assuring braking energy recovery and good performances in the transient operations [1], [2]. So a II. BASIC CELLS OF MICS multiple-input converter (MIC) devoted to combining onA typical MIC contains more than one input sources board energy sources is needed. and a single load, and the input power of each input MIC is capable of accommodating various energy source should be controlled and can be transferred to the sources to a common load. Multiple DC sources can be load directly or indirectly. Therefore, each MIC, including connected in series or in parallel to form an input voltage non-isolated and isolated ones, consists of two or three source for the DC/DC converter to obtain the desired kinds of basic cells: more than one pulsating source cells voltage or current for the load. For series connection, each (PSCs) to provide controllable power, one or more buffer DC voltage source needs a controllable switch to provide cells (BCs) to storage/transfer energy and one output filter a by-pass short circuit for the input current of the other to draw a constant dc voltage from PSC or BC. Similar to DC voltage source to deliver electric energy continuously, the single-input converter, each input source of MICs can such as double-input Buck converter [3], double-input transfer energy through two or three cells, and the general Buck & Buck-Boost converter [4], etc. For parallel structure of single-input converter is shown in Fig.1 (a) connection, because of the difference among multiple DC and (b), respectively. Three portions are introduced voltage amplitudes, each DC voltage source has a respectively as follows: controlled switch to be series with it to ensure that only A. Configurations of PSC one of the multiple voltage sources can be connected to the input terminal of DC/DC converter at a time, such as the double-input time sharing Buck converter [5]-[7]. The operational principle and the power management of these topologies are introduced in these papers [3-7]. But they did not discuss how to generate these topologies. A (a) (b) systematic approach to synthesizing some non-isolated Fig. 1 General topological structure of single-input converter (a) without MICs is introduced in [3], and the concept of the pulsating BCs (b) with BCs voltage source cells (PVSCs) and the pulsating current source cells (PCSCs) are first proposed. The approach to

C 978-1-4244-1849-7/08/$25.002008 IEEE

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

Different from a constant source, a pulsating source can output the pulsating voltage or current. As a result, the pulsating source can generate a high-frequency pulsating power to the next cell. For generating simple and practical MICs, the pulsating source only contains a voltage or current source and an active switch network. A current source can be yielded by a voltage source along with a large series-connected inductor. Moreover, a transformer should be integrated if isolation is needed. A pulsating voltage source along with parallelconnected freewheeling diodes is defined as a PVSC. Thus, the feasible circuit configurations of the PVSC can be drawn in Fig. 2(a)-(e), and are named as Buck, Forward, Push-Pull, Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge PVSC respectively. Note that the diodes of isolated PVSCs serve as rectifying and freewheeling. Based on the duality principle, a pulsating voltage source along with series-connected blocking diodes is defined as a PCSC. Thus, the feasible circuit
Vin

configurations of the PCSC can also be drawn in Fig. 3(a)-(e), and are named as Boost, Forward, Push-Pull, Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge PCSC respectively. Similarly, the diodes of isolated PVSCs serve as rectifying and blocking. It should be noted that the circuit configuration of the Forward PCSC and the control strategy are overtly complicated due to magnetic recovery problem, which limits its application. B. Configurations of BC From the viewpoint of power flow, PSC will generate the pulsating power, while BC will absorb this pulsating power from the PSC and transferring it to the output filter at different moments without generating and consuming any power. Hence, A BC consists of one or more buffers for intermediate energy storage/transfer and a passive switch network for transferring the pulsating power. The voltage buffer and the current buffer can be implemented by using capacitor and inductor, respectively. Note that the function of the diode in the passive switch network is similar to that of the diode in the non-isolated PSCs. The BC, containing one buffer only, can be defined as one-stage BC, shown in Fig. 4(a)-(d), which are named as voltage buffer cell (VBC), current buffer cell (CBC), isolated voltage buffer cell (IVBC), and isolated current buffer cell (ICBC). There among, IVBC and ICBC are generated by replacing the voltage and current buffer in VBC and CBC with the isolated voltage and the isolated current buffer. The BC which contains two buffers can be

W3
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D1 D2

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(e) Fig. 2 Circuit configurations of (a) Buck PVSC (b) Forward PVSC (c) Pull-push PVSC (d) Half-bridge PVSC (e) Full-bridge PVSC (c) (d)

Fig.4 Circuit configuration of (a) VBC (b) CBC (c) IVBC (d) ICBC

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(b) (a) (b)

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(d) (c)
+ vb * W1

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+ Cb W2 * Db +

(e) Fig. 3 Circuit configuration of (a) Buck PCSC (b) Forward PCSC (c) Pull-push PCSC (d) Half-bridge PCSC (e) Full-bridge PCSC

(e)

(f)

Fig.5 Circuit configuration of (a) VCBC (b) CVBC (c) IVCBC1 (d) ICVBC1 (e) IVCBC2 (f) ICVBC2

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

(a)

(b)

Fig.6 Circuit configuration of (a) voltage output filter (b) current output filter

defined as two-stage BC, and the circuit configurations of the non-isolated ones can be drawn in Fig. 5(a) and (b), which are named as voltage-current buffer cell (VCBC) and current-voltage buffer cell (CVBC). The isolated twostage BC can be generated by inserting a transformer into the voltage buffer or the current buffer, and the corresponding circuit configurations can be shown in Fig.5 (c)-(f), and IVCBC2 and ICVBC2 are selected to generate the MICs since the circuit configurations of IVCBC1 and ICVBC1 are very complicated. Note that the VCBC and IVCBC can output the pulsating current and the CVBC and ICVBC can output the pulsating voltage. According to the paper [8], it has been proved that a BC can not contain more than two buffers, and two same buffers can not be lumped together as well. C. Configuration of output filters Output filter can be categorized into two lists, voltage type and current type. The voltage output filter is composed of a capacitor while the current output filter is composed of both the inductor and capacitor. The circuit configurations are shown in the Fig. 7. III. RULES TO SYNTHESIZING MICS Topologically, the following constrains should be obeyed when two or more sources are lumped together [8]. Constraint 1: Two or more constant voltage sources cannot be connected in parallel if their voltage magnitudes are different. Constraint 2: Two or more constant current sources cannot be connected in series if their current magnitudes are different.

A. Combination Rules Based on the topologies constrains, three combination rules of multiple PSCs can be derived. Rule 1: Multiple PVSCs can be connected in series while multiple PCSCs can be connected in parallel, as shown in Fig. 7(a) and (b). Multiple input sources in these PSCs can work either simultaneously or individually. Rule 2: Unlike the constant sources, multiple PVSCs can be connected in parallel while multiple PCSCs can be connected in series, as shown in Fig. 7(c) and (d). Multiple sources can not deliver the energy to load simultaneously in one switching period due to two constraints mentioned above. But multiple input sources in these PSCs can deliver the energy to the load individually. Note that the switches in the non-isolated PVSC must be uni-directional conducted, and it can be realized as a series MOSFET and diode pair. The switch in non-isolated PCSC must be bidirectional conducted, i.e., normally a MOSFET. Rule 3: Multiple PVSCs and multiple PCSCs can be connected in paralle or series, as shown in Fig. 7(e) and (f). One of input sources can only deliver power to the load when the other input source delivers power to the load simultaneously. Therefore this combination rule of two different PSCs cannot be applied to generate MICs. Note that the multiple combined PVSCs can be equivalent to one PVSC because of the output pulsating voltage, as shown in Fig. 7 (a) and (c). Similarly, the multiple combined PCSCs can be equivalent to one PCSC because of the output pulsating current, as shown in Fig. 7 (b) and (d). B. Cascade Rules The cascade rules to connecting different cells together can be summarized as follows: Rule 1: A PVSC must be connected with a current buffer and a PCSC must be connected with a voltage buffer. With that, a PVSC can be cascaded with a CBC/CVBC/ICBC/ICVBC and a PCSC can be cascaded with a VBC/VCBC/IVBC/IVCBC, and the conceptual diagram is shown in Fig.8(a) and (b), respectively. It can be known that it can be equivallent as a PVSC or a PCSC when a PSC cascades with a BC because of the pulsating output voltage or current.
VBC /VCBC /IVBC /IVCBC

PCSC

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(b)

(c) (a) Fig.8 Conceptual diagram of CBC/CVBC/ICBC/ICVBC (b) VBC/VCBC/IVBC/IVCBC (b)

(a) PVSC cascaded with PCSC cascaded with

a a

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(f) (a) (b) Fig.9 Circuit configuration of (a) PVSC cascaded with a CBC (b) PCSC cascaded with a VBC

Fig.7 Combination configuration of (a) multiple PVSCs in series (b) multiple PCSCs in parallel (c) multiple PVSCs in parallel (d) multiple PCSCs in series (e) multiple PVSCs in parallel with multiple PCSCs (f) multiple PCSCs in series with multiple PVSCs

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

Note that the freewheeling diodes of the PVSC should be taken away when a PVSC is cascaded with a current buffer and the circuit configuration with the Buck PVSC and the CBC is given in Fig. 9(a), Otherwise, the current buffer would be shortened through the freewheeling diodes which leads to disability of transferring energy to the load. The blocking diodes of the PVSC should be taken away in the same manner, and the circuit configuration with the Boost PCSC and the VBC is given in Fig. 9 (b). As mentioned previously, the freewheeling diodes and the blocking diodes of the isolated PSCs also play the role of a rectifier, which are indispensable for a PSC. Hence, only the non-isolated PSCs can be used to cascade with a BC. Rule 2: A PVSC cannot be followed by a voltage output filter and a PCSC cannot be followed by a current output filter when a PSC cascades with a BC. A voltage buffer cannot be followed by a voltage output filter and a current buffer cannot be followed by a current output filter when a BC cascades with an output filter. Thus, the VCBC or IVCBC can be cascaded with the voltage output filter and the CVBC or ICVBC can be cascaded with the current output filter. IV. SYNTHESIS OF MICS WITHOUT BCS MIC can be categorized into two lists, MIC without BCs and MIC with BCs. The input sources in a MIC without BCs will transfer energy to the load only through the PSC and output filter. The synthesizing procedure of this kind of MICs is depicted as follows. For simplicity and convenience, the presented circuit configurations in this paper are limited to double-input converters. A. Synthesis of MICs without BCs The synthesizing procedure of the MICs without BCs can be summarized by the following steps: Step 1: Choose several PSCs and combine them according to the combination rules. Step 2: Cascade the combined PSCs with the appropriate output filter according to the cascade rules. The MICs without BCs are generated, and Fig.8 shows the block diagram. According to the combination rules, the circuit configurations of four type of MICs without BCs are shown in Fig.10. Here are three typical circuit configurations of each type of MICs. The circuit configurations of these MICs shown in Fig. 11(a) and (d) have been proposed in [3] and [1], respectively. It should be mentioned that the freewheeling diode in one non-isolated PVSC is redundant and removable when two PVSCs are connected in parallel, as shown in Fig.11 (g)-(i). Similarly, the blocking diode in one non-isolated PCSC can be removed in the same manner, as shown in Fig.11 (j)-(l). The MICs shown in Fig. 11(g) and (j) have been proposed in [6] and [9], respectively.

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(k) (l) Fig. 11 Circuit configuration of typical MIC without BCs generated by (a) two Buck PVSCs in series (b) two Forward PVSCs in series (c) one Buck PVSC and one Half-Bridge PVSC in series (d) two Boost PCSCs in parallel (e) two Half-Bridge PVSCs in parallel (f) one Boost PCSC and one Half-bridge PCSC in parallel (g) two Buck PVSCs in parallel (h) two Forward PVSCs in parallel (i) two one Buck PVSC and one HalfBridge PVSC in parallel (j) two Boost PCSCs in series (k) twoPush-Pull PVSCs in series (l) one Boost PCSC and one Half-bridge PCSC in series

Fig. 10 Block Diagram of MIC without BCs

B. Synthesis of MICs with BCs The MICs without BCs are obtained directly from connecting the PSCs with the output filter. This section discusses the synthesizing procedure of the MICs with BCs, which is more complex than the ones without BCs.

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

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Fig. 12 Combination block diagram of (a) type I (b) type II (c) type III

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(b) (c) (d) Fig.16 Circuit configuration of the type II MICs generated by (a) two PVSC cascaded with a CBC in parallel (b) two PCSC cascaded with a VBC in series (c) two PVSC cascaded with a CBC in series (d) a PCSC cascaded with a VBC and a PCSC in parallel (d)

PCSC

VBC

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Fig.13 Conceptual diagram of the type I MICs generated by (a) a PCSC cascaded with a VBC and a PVSC in series (b) a PVSC cascaded with a CBC and a PCSC in parallel (c) a PCSC cascaded with a VBC and a PVSC in parallel (d) a PVSC cascaded with a CBC and a PCSC in series

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Fig.14 Circuit configuration of the type I MICs generated by (a) a Buck PCSC cascaded with a VBC and a Buck PVSC in series (b) a Buck PVSC cascaded with a CBC and a Boost PCSC in parallel (c) a Boost PCSC cascaded with a VBC and a Buck PVSC in parallel (d) a Buck PVSC cascaded with a CBC and a Boost PCSC in series
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There are three combination and cascade methods of the PSCs and the BCs, and the feasible block diagrams are shown in Fig.12 (a)-(c), which are named as type I, II and III. Hence, three types of the corresponding MICs are derived through connecting them to the appropriate output filter. The output voltage of these generated MIC topologies can be higher or lower than the input voltage. Notice that only partial input sources in type I MICs transfer power to the load though the BCs indirectly and each input source in type II and III MICs can transfer power though its own BC and sharing BC. Fig. 13 and Fig. 15 show the conceptual diagrams of the type I and II MICs with a CBC and a VBC. For simiplicity, the volatge and current output filter is equivallent to Vo and Io in the conceptual diagrams. Fig. 14 and Fig 16 show the circuit configurations with the Buck PVSC and the Boost PCSC. The MICs shown in Fig. 14 (a) and (b) and Fig. 16 (a) and (b) have bee proposed in [3]. The synthesis of the type III MICs with BCs is similar to that of the MICs without BCs. The synthesizing procedure can be summarized by the following steps: Step 1: Combine two PSCs according to combination rules. Step 2: Cascade the combined PSCs with a BC according to cascade rules and the new PSC is generated. Step 3: Cascade the new PSCs with the appropriate output filter according to cascade rules and the type III MICs with BCs can be generated. As described in section V part A, the freewheeling or blocking diodes must be removed when a PSC cascades with a BC. Thus the diodes of the two PSCs to synthesize type III MICs must be removed, but it results in that the input power of two input sources is out of control, so the combination rule 1 can not be used to generate the type III MICs. Fig 17(a) and (b) shows the feasible conceptual
PCSC

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(c) (d) Fig.15 Conceptual diagram of the type II MICs generated by (a) two PVSC cascaded with a CBC in parallel (b) two PCSC cascaded with a VBC in series (c) two PVSC cascaded with a CBC in series (d) a PCSC cascaded with a VBC and a PCSC in parallel

I2

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Fig.17 Conceptual diagrams of the type MIC generated by (a) two PVSCs in series and one CBC (b) two PCSCs in parallel and one VBC

IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008, Harbin, China

Q1 Vin1

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Q2 T3 T4 Lf D1 D2 Cf RLd Vo

Q2 D2 Vin2 D3 Lb Cf RLd Vo +
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Fig.18 Circuit configurations of the type MIC generated by (a) two Buck PVSCs in series cascaded with a CBC (b) two Boost PCSCs in parallel cascaded with a VBC

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diagrams of type III MICs according to the combination rule 2. Fig. 17 shows that the conceptual diagram of type III MICs with a CBC and a VBC. Fig. 18 shows that the circuit configurations with Buck PVSC and Boost PCSC. Certainly, other MICs with BCs can be generated by the other type of BCs. V. SIMPLIFICATION OF MICS Although functioning, the isolated MICs are overtly complicated. To make them practically more appealing, it would be necessary to reduce the converter into a simpler form. Taking a multiple-input voltage-fed Full-Bridge converter shown in Fig. 9(c) as the example, the detailed simplification rules can be summarized as follows: Rule 1: The rectifying diodes in two Full-Bridge PVSCs can be shared when all the switches have the same switching frequencies and the output voltage of each FullBridge PVSC can be added. The simplified circuit configuration is shown in Fig.19 (b). Rule 2: From the Fig. 19 (b), it can be seen that the secondary windings of two transformers are connected in series, the transformers in two PVSCs can be shared when two transformers have equal turn ratio, as shown in Fig. 19 (c). It is obvious that two input sources is non-isolated due to the application of sharing transformer, and the regulating range of two duty cycles increases due to the limit of turn ratio, which results in the increase of the inductor current ripple. Rule 3: For simplifying conveniently, the circuit can be redrawn in Fig. 19 (d). If the phase-shifted control strategy is employed, Q2 and Q7 are conductive simultaneously, while Q2 and Q5 are complementary conduction. Similarly, Q4 and Q5 are conductive simultaneously, while Q4 and Q7 are conductive complementarily. It can be concluded that Q2 and Q7 can be shared and Q4 and Q5 can be shared, as shown in Fig. 19 (e). It can be seen that the simplification brings the disadvantage that the voltage stress of the sharing switches increases obviously. With that, the simplified voltage-fed Full-Bridge MIC can be used in a large number of applications. The artifice used to simplify this MIC can also be applied to the other MICs. VI. CONCLUSIONS
[7] [8] [9]

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D2 Cf RLd Vo

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(e) Fig.19 Simplification of voltage-fed full-bridge MIC

combined PSCs and BCs with the appropriate output filter. In addition, it is necessary to simplify the isolated MICs according to the simplification rules due to the complicated circuit configuration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is financially supported by the program for new century excellent talents in university, China and the program for top talents in six fields, Jiangsu Province, China under Award 07-E-022. REFERENCE
[1] [2] L. Solero, A. Lidozzi, and J. A. Pomilio,Design of MultipleInput DC-DC Power Converter for Hybrid Vehicles.in Proc. IEEE APEC, vol. 2, 2004, pp.1145 -1151. M. Marchesoni and C. Vacca New DC-DC Converter for Energy Storage System Interfacing in Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electronic Vehicles, IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , vol. 22, pp 301 308, 2007. Y. C. Liu and Y. M. Chen, A Systematic approach to synthesizing multiple-input DC/DC converter, in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2007, pp. 2626-2632. Y. M. Chen., Y. C. Liu, and S. H. Lin, Double-input PWM DC/DC converter for high/low voltage sources, IEEE Trans. Ind Electron., vol. 53, no. 5, pp.1538-1544, Oct. 2006. B. G.. Dobbs and P. L. Chapman, A multiple-input DC-DC converter topology, IEEE Power Electron. Lett., vol.1, no.1, pp.69, Mar. 2003. N. D. Benavides and P. L. Chapman, Power budgeting of a multiple-input Buck-Boost converter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.20, no. 6, pp.1303-1309, Nov. 2005. N. D. Benavides, T. Esram, and P. L. Chapman, Ripple correlation control of a multiple-input dc-dc converter, in Proc. IEEE PESC., 2005, pp. 160-164. K. H. Liu and F. C. Lee, Topological constrains on basic PWM converters, in Proc. IEEE PESC., 1988, pp. 164-172. M. Marchesoni and C. Vacca, A new DC-DC converter structure for power flow management in fuel-cell electronic vehicles with energy storage systems, in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2004, pp. 683-689.

[3]

[4] [5]

[6]

In this paper, a systematic method for synthesizing MICs is proposed. The non-isolated and isolated pulsating source cells (PSCs) and buffer cells (BCs) are proposed as the building cells and used to generate MICs. According to the combination and cascade rules, the MICs without BCs and with BCs are generated by cascading the