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Acetophenone Uses Acetophenone is used in perfumery as a fragrance ingredient in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes; as a flavoring agent

in foods, nonalcoholic beverages, and tobacco; as a specialty solvent for plastics and resins; as a catalyst for the polymerization of olefins; and in organic syntheses as a photosensitizer. Health Hazard Information Acute Effects:

Acute exposure of humans to acetophenone vapor may produce skin irritation and transient corneal injury. One study noted a decrease in light sensitivity in exposed humans. (2,3) Acute oral exposure has been observed to cause hypnotic or sedative effects, hematological effects, and a weakened pulse in humans. (1,3) Congestion of the lungs, kidneys, and liver were reported in rats acutely exposed to high levels of acetophenone via inhalation. (3) Tests involving acute exposure of rats, mice, and rabbits have demonstrated acetophenone to have moderate acute toxicity from oral or dermal exposure. (4)

Chronic Effects (Noncancer): No information is available on the chronic effects of acetophenone in humans. Degeneration of olfactory bulb cells was reported in rats chronically exposed via inhalation. In another study, chronic inhalation exposure of rats produced hematological effects and, at high doses, congestion of cardiac vessels and pronounced dystrophy of the liver. (2,3) In two studies, no effects were observed in rats chronically exposed to acetophenone in their diet. (2,3,5) EPA has not established a Reference Concentration (RfC) for acetophenone. (5) The Reference Dose (RfD) for acetophenone is 0.1 milligram per kilogram body weight per day (mg/kg/d) based on general toxicity in rats. The RfD is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily oral exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. It is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RfD, the potential

Alcohol In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which

the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms. An important class of alcohols are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. Of those, ethanol (C2H5OH) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the

word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol). The suffix -ol appears in theIUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars

(examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix.Alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons.Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) can be oxidized either to aldehydes (R-CHO) (eg acetaldehyde as described below) or to carboxylic acids (R-CO2H), while the oxidation of secondary alcohols (R1R2CH-OH) normally terminates at the ketone (R1R2C=O) stage. Tertiary alcohols (R1R2R3C-OH) are resistant to oxidation. Ethanol's toxicity is largely caused by its primary

1) The impurities present in a liquid pull its two fixed points away from each other i.e. the freezing point is lowered while the boiling point is raised. 2) The depression in freezing point and the elevation in boiling point increases with increase in the concentration of the solute or impurity i.e. these are the colligative properties that depends only on the no. of moles of the solute. They are independent of the nature of the solute.