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Informatization Policy

E-Government of Korea
- Achievements & Tasks Song Hee joon
(Ewha Womans University)

The e-Government of Korea is cited as a major success case in numerous international economic indexes, and has served as one of the most successful Best Practice models in the global community. Korea IT development status, which lay somewhere between 1/5~1/8 the level of such s advanced nations as the USA and the UK in 1987, has achieved accelerated growth to such an extent that, since 2007, Korea has been recognized as the world leading IT nation. Such an achievement over the past s twenty or so years is believed to be the result of appropriate interactions involving the environment, the implementation of various government policies (political leadership as well as establishing visions, strategies, and project priorities), transformations (implementing organizations, financial and technical resources), and the reflection of feedback and learning experiences. The e-Government of Korea, which evolved in three stages, was successfully achieved through the consistent leadership of successive presidents. In addition, the necessary visions and objectives, established with consideration of efficiency and effectiveness, were appropriately applied and progressed in sync with the development of back-office, front-office, and e-Government infrastructure in the ever-changing environment of supply and demand throughout the IT development process. The expansion of mass public services and transparency in the administrative process as well as the election of the democratic government also contributed to the advancement of Korea e-Government. Such rapid progress was achieved through the s formation of the appropriate implementation organizations, flexible distribution of financial resources of the Informatization Promotion Fund, and the provision of a technical support network by the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) and the National Information Society Agency (NIA). Irrespective of these notable achievements, the e-Government of Korea is now confronted with new challenges that require consideration of changes in demand, an architectural model for the integration of multi-departmental governmental organizations, policies aimed at inter-agency process innovation and the fostering of the IT industry, the restructuring of implementation organizations, and the distribution of financial resources. Abstract
Keywords : Success (impact) factors, National Basic Information System Project, High-Speed Broadband Network Project, Framework Act on Informatization Promotion, Informatization Promotion Fund (Information & Communication Promotion Fund)

This is an excellent paper selected among those published in Informatization Policy. Informatization Policy provides the English version of this paper in order to promote The achievements and current status of koreainformatization policies. s

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. Introduction
e-Government1) refers to the government s efforts to transform both internal and external governmental relationships through the use of information technology such as the Internet (OECD, 2004: 23, UNDESA, 2003: 1-2). The successful progress of Korea e-government s since 1980 is not attributable to a drastic, shortterm measure taken at a certain point in time but to the accumulated results of long-term, progressive evolution. In other words, the success of today e-government can be s interpreted as a process of dynamic growth achieved through countless trials and errors over a lengthy period of time. If this is true, then identifying which approaches the Korean government has taken and why and how it took them to achieve such success could be of inestimable value. Despite the diversity of research (Song Hee-joon, 2002; O Gang-tak, 2003; O Gwang-seok, 2005; Yun Sango, 2002; Jeong Hong-sik, 2007; Hwang Jongseong, 2003; Ministry of Information and Communication [MIC], 2003; National Information Society Agency [NIA], 2005) conducted on the developmental stages of informationization and the mature level of Korea e-government, detailed descriptions of s the effects of such achievements remain insufficient. This study seeks to explain the core success

factors or the impact factors of the success of Korea informatization and e-government s achieved in two decades since the project was first launched from the cause and effect perspective. The e-government achievements s and the success factors will be explained in accordance with the horizontal factor flow (environment, input, transformation, output, and feedback) as presented in the general system theory. However, the study has its limitation of approaching the evolution process of the egovernment from historical description method. In other words, no scientific analysis methods such as in depth analysis on specific cases or statistical analysis on evidential data were employed to conduct cause and effects comparison among the success factors. The study categorizes the development stages of Korea e-government and analyzes the s factors that were applied for establishing visions and project objectives per each stage, priorities, leadership, implementation system, financial and technical resource distribution, feedback, and learning processes. Such analytical study is hoped to contribute towards understanding the cause and effect relationship of the success factors of Korea e-government from historical s point of view.

. Achievements and Impact Factors of


1) In this study, the national IT development and e-government shall be mix-used with equal concept. In general, the e-government is the term describing the Internet based civil service system or when civil and government interaction commences but since e-government service or administrative handling is not possible without internally networked database or without IT infrastructure, it is difficult to differentiate the concept with the IT development.

E-Government of Korea

1. Output and Achievements of e-Government

Korea e-government achievements can be s s diagnosed by conducting international comparison with competing nations. When viewing the international level of IT development measured in accordance with the IT index that includes the data on IT facilities, IT usage, and IT investment to compare the level of IT development among nations during the 80s, Korea (58) prior to the launch of the National Basic Information System Project in 1986, was approximately between 1/4 and 1/8 of USA, Japan, Germany, England, and France (National Information Society Agency, 1994: 583). The average annual growth rate of the IT development between 1986~1992 for Korea was at 14%, which was similar to those of advanced nations, which was 11~16%. As shown above, Korea informatization level at the starting stage s was significantly lower than those of advanced nations and the growth rate, too, was only at

moderate level. As of 2007, Korea informatization or the s nation e-government level has surpassed the s advanced nations and has reached the world s highest level. The number of high speed broadband subscribers was at the highest in the world for 4 years running (OECD, 2005), and even the ITU Digital Opportunity Index (DOI), which includes the areas of nationwide infrastructure, cost of telecommunication compared to consumption, and high speed internet ratio was rated number 1 in the world for 3 consecutive years. Even in the Readiness Index of the United States and the National IT Development Index of the National Information Society Agency, 2) Korea is at the forefront (National Information Society Agency, 2007a). In addition, the e-Procurement (G3PS) and other projects pursued in Korea were also recognized as some of the outstanding models by the world IT community. Such global recognition s may not be the determining factors of Korea s
(Unit: %)

<Chart 1> National IT Development Index in the late 80s

Country Korea USA Japan Germany England France 1986 58 442 266 247 284 286 1987 60 480 327 281 322 319 1988 69 506 383 297 348 338 1989 89 604 395 335 391 368 1990 100 661 469 423 478 437 1991 109 733 558 480 522 468 1992 123 856 657 585 624 542

Growth Rate 14 12 16 16 14 11

* The numbers are relative comparison with KoreaIT development in 1990 set to 100. s * Source: National Information Society Agency (1994:583), White Paper - National IT Development.

2) The NIA selects world 50 major countries with consideration to various factors including the region and the national competitiveness from s the statistics recorded in the ITUnational information index database, and publishes the raw statistical data for self analysis. s

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<Chart 2> Recent IT Indexes

Korea Rank(# of Countries) s Index DOI ISI IT Competitiveness e-Gov. Readiness Index NatCompetitiveness (Tech Infra) l NatCompetitiveness (IT Index) l NatIT Dev. Index l
* Source: Annual report published by each institute

Institute 2003 ITU IDC/WT EIU UN IMD WEF NIA 12(53) 13(191) 27(59) 11(102) 12(50) 8(53) 5(191) 8(60) 18(104) 7(50) 2004 2005 1(40) 10(53) 5(191) 2(60) 11(117) 3(50) 2006 1(180) 6(61) 14(125) 3(50) 2007 1(181) 3(64) 6(55) 3(50)

e-government outcomes but it can be utilized as an important assessment basis.

organization(s), all in accordance with the characteristics of the policy issues and subordinate systems of the policy agendas (Cobb, Ross and Ross, 1976: 132; Cobb and Elders, 1983: 151-159). However, it is difficult to identify an appropriate model that can explain the agenda formation and implementation to e-government, which actively evolves through mutual interaction among the IT factors and the social factors. The reason is that the success determining factors become more complex in both structure and appearance as the e-government evolves. In general, the political background, economic and technical environment, political leadership, visions and policy objectives (i.e. integration of IT development and administrative innovation), strategic priority, implementing body and the target of implementation, consumer (approachability, governance participation, and privacy protection), resource distribution (i.e. budget, project management, etc.), communal infrastructure and cooperation (cooperation

2. Success Factors of e-Government

The funnel theory (Hofferbert, 1974) among various policy agenda models of a government is characterized by very wide entry of historically designated conditions to narrowing channels of social economic structure, mass governing shape, government policy, and elite behaviorism and therefore, concrete and direct influences such as the government policies and the habits of the officials are emphasized to be highly important. The agenda control theory presents any or all of the mobilization model, which mobilizes resources for aggressive administering of policies by the governing body; the inside access model, which is the policy lead by certain influential organization(s) that has the access to the governing body; and the outside initiative model, which is the expansion of demand initiative by civic groups or none governing

E-Government of Korea

among institutions, responsibility, inspection, and assessment), and level of IT are presented as the success factors for e-government (Dawes, 1996; Bannister, 2003; Song, 2002; OECD, 2001, 2002, 2004; US OMB, 2002). As for the obstacles or failure factors of egovernment, political, financial and technical environment and the project management risks are generally presented. Some problems being pointed out are legal and regulatory obstacles (individual private information, information s security, technology standards, etc), annual product budget system, information technology (Legacy System, infrastructure sharing, and adaptation to new technology), and information gap (OECD, 2004: 48-65), as well as trend of automation in work process, lack of federal

architecture, island of automation in standardization, lack of reliability on privacy protection and information security, more institutional process and system operation hour oriented rather than citizen demand and s output oriented rigid budget process, closed institutional culture, bureaucratic hindrances, and institutional individualism (US OMB, 2002: 5-12; US FCIOC, 2002: 55). In addition, the governance issues associated with obtaining consensus among various organizations, failure risk associated with pursuing whale sized projects rather than dolphin sized, risk of taking on new technology, lack of risk awareness, weakening leadership and responsibility, irrespective of changes in business environment, failing management of human and material

<Chart 3> Success Determining Factors of e-Government

System Factors Cat. Key Factors - Political & Social Factors - Economic & Industrial Factors - Technical Factors - PresidentDetermination & Leadership s - Vision & Strategy: Government Innovation and Fostering IT Industry - Project Priority: Back-Office, Front-Office, and Infrastructure - Implementation Organization: Cooperative system among the committee, managing governmental agency, and institutions - Technical Resource Distribution: Information Technology and Supporting Network - Financial Resource Distribution: Budget, Funds, etc. - International Level - Final Output - Feedback: Efforts to improve on already developed system - Learning: Reflect on future plans



Political Leadership Input Vision & Strategy, Project Priority


Implementation System & Resource Distribution


Output & Achievements


Feedback & Learning

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resources, and ignorance of end users were also noted as major failure factors of e-government (OECD, 2001). There also exists self assessment of the success factor of Korea e-government. Establishment of s effective implementation system, inducing private sector participation through government s s investment initiatives, establishment of competitive market environment for telecom service operators, creating demands through IT development, and cultural environments (MIC & NIA, 2003: 178-183) were identified as the success factors for the high speed broadband network project. As for the Phase 1 e-Government, president keen interest and support, committee s chairperson leadership and professionalism of s the committee members, cooperation by the congress and government invested research institutes, outstanding project management models, and sacrificial efforts by the participants are pointed out as the success factors (Special Committee on e-Government, 2003: 303-305). In summary, the success factors of egovernment are political, social, economical and industrial environment, political determination and leadership, vision and policy objective, project strategic priority, implementation s system, human and financial resource distribution, cooperation among institutions, common framework, feedback, and learning (Song, 2002; 2004). When organizing these factors from system perspective, the factors become environment, input (political determination and leadership, vision and policy objective, and

project priority), transformation (implementation system, distribution of human, financial, and technical resources, and cooperative structure among institutions), output (performance), and feedback (feedback and learning).

3. Development Phases of e-Government

Koreas e-government has undergone comparably notable development phases per administration, technological advancement level, and mid-long term planning. Characteristics comparison of such development phases is an important process in analyzing the changes of the e-government success factors. After the 1980s, the Korean government launched various projects, all with different time frames and strategies. These projects were National Basic Information System Project (1987~1996), High Speed Broadband Network Project (1995~2005), Framework Plan for IT Development (1996~current), and e-Government Project (2001~current). The e-government, which was first commenced as an effort to computerize the administrative process, has gone through significant enhancement process with the advancement of information technology, automation of work process, and linkage with process innovation, as well as change in political leadership, implementation organization, and legal basis. In 1983, the Chun Doo-hwan Administration (1981~1987) established the National Basic Information System Plan3) for building 5 major

3) The Economy Planning Board in charge of implementing the 5 Year Economy Development Plan recognized the necessity to develop and

E-Government of Korea

national basic information networks by mid 90s as a part of the preparation project for the egovernment to raise the KoreaIT infrastructure s to those of advanced nations level. The first stage of the e-government (1987~1995) was launched as the 1st (1987~1991) and the 2nd (1992~1996) National Basic Information System Project in pursuant to the Act on IT Network enacted in 1986. During the process, the IT Network Development Committee lead the automation of government administrative process by building nation core DB on information of s citizens, real estate, and automobile and by distributing PCs. The 2nd phase of the National
Year Administration Nationwi de IT Network High Speed Network

Basic Information System Project was pursued by individual ministries and offices through constructing interconnecting computer network environment. The 2nd stage of the e-government (1996~ 2000) is the e-government growth process through development projects in accordance with the IT Development Framework Plan established in pursuant to the IT Development Framework Act. Particularly, the period is categorized as internet s explosive growth period as the social networking that links the entire nation through mass distribution of internet service and mobile telecommunication service as a result of the high

83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Chun Doo-Hwan Noh Tae-Woo Kim Young-Sam Kim Dae-Jung Roh Moo-Hyun


Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

IT Develo IT pment Develop Policy ment Framewo rk Plan eGovernm ent e-Government Phase Category Preparation Phase 1st Stage Phase 1 Phase 2

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 1

Phase 2

2nd Stage Phase 1

3rd Stage Phase 2

* Source: PCGID (2005), MIC NIA (2005), Special Committee on e-Government (2003).

<Graph 1> Nationwide IT Development and e-Government Development Phase

advance science and technology and incorporated the informatization and computing industry development plan into the 5 Year Science and Technology Development Plan.

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speed broadband network project that was fully launched in 1995. The 3rd stage of the e-government (2001~2007) is the maturity stage. On February 2001, the Special Committee on e-Government under the leadership of the president was established and the importance and priority of the e-government project was elevated as presidential agenda and implemented throughout all the government ministries and institutes. During this period, the administration wide work process become computerized through IT infrastructure and core DB possessed by the government to improve the civil service level provided to the citizens and to maximize the internal administrative process. The development phases displayed in period are as shown in <Graph 1>.4)

2002: 130-131; OECD, 1995:28) by the advanced nations as a result of oil crisis became the turning point for the establishment of small and efficient government. As a result, the Stage 1 e-government project is comparably the starting point for formation of small and efficient administration in Korea. The Stage 1 emphasized the formation of small and efficient government as the transitional method from dictatorship to democracy. The Chun Doo-hwan Administration emphasized reduction management and strengthening market competitiveness. It benchmarked policy objectives of the advanced nations and pursued National Basic Information System Project focused on human resource reduction and improved productivity. During the same period, the TDX Digital Switch, TICOM, high speed semiconductors, CDMA, and other core information technologies were consecutively developed and the foundation for the growth of IT industry was established. In addition, universities facilities and support for R&D activities were expanded to foster professionals in IT field and launched computer distribution project for schools. The Stage 2 was the period of mass public distribution of Internet service through high speed broadband network project to expand national IT development efforts with strategy of building small and efficient government, globalization, free market and high speed

. Success Factor Analysis

1. Environment
The IT development project was formed and implemented in mutual interaction of needs and seeds in the political & social as well as economic & industrial technical environment. Since the 1980s, globalization, free market, and revolution in knowledge and information provided necessary factors to the government s response efforts. The efficiency oriented New Public Management (NPM) ideology and pursuit of value (Hood and Jackson, 1991: 33-4; Martin,

4) The National Information Society Agency (NIA) largely divides the KoreaIT development history into the Basic Infrastructure Development s Perior (1980-1986), Initial Informatization Period (1987-1994), Full Informatization Period (1995-2003), and Value Creation Period (2004current) (NIA, 2006:3).

E-Government of Korea

broadband network that surpasses those of other advanced nations. In 1993, USA Clinton s Administration built the National Information Infrastructure (NII) to forma government that works better and costs less NPR, 1994), and (US in response, Japan established New Social Capital Plan and European Union pursued the Trans-European Network (TEN). To proactively respond to the globalization, the Kim Young-sam Administration (1993~1997) actively participated in the Uruguay Round, WTO and OECD and presented a vision for formation of small but powerful government for construction of New Korea and New Economy. Together with political and democratization activities, civic movements became vitalized and medias promoted campaigns themedWe may be behind in industrialization but letlead in informatization s . In addition, universities and corporations implemented IT learning courses and competitions and other activities for nationwide expansion of informatization, such as distribution of personal computers in local communities, were implemented. In addition to the needs that arose as a result of the Asia financial crisis during the end of s 1997, the Stage 3 reflects the demands of the period, which was the vitalization of competitive market and advancement of democracy, both pursued by the Kim Dae-jung Administration (1998~2002). The administration was the first turnover in ruling political party in Korea. As the measures for the economic crisis, which is interpreted as a result of failure in manufacturing industry, the government resorted to venture

industry policy and exerted efforts to expand social application of information technology. After the economic crisis and about the period when restructuring of 4 major sectors were being completed, the administrative process innovation through e-government was selected as the government new reform strategy. In s other words, the government selected the strategy for establishing government innovating program that will reduce the nationwide hardship that accompanies manpower reduction, privatization, and other physical restructuring process while minimizing complaints from those who became the target of restructuring and to improve governmentproductivity and enhance s the service provided to citizens. (Special Committee on e-Government, 2003: 55). In addition, around 2000, world leading IT icons s including Alvin Toffler, Bill Gates, and Masayoshi Son, as well as international media have praised Korea as a nation that has succeeded in IT development and has no other nations to benchmark from and suggested Korea to identify and pursue its own unique development model. The 2002 World Cup, the Red Devil (the Korea National Football Team Supporters Club), the Anti-America Candle Light Vigil as a result of an accident by US Armored Personnel Carrier, which resulted in death of two junior high school students, and other civil activities have integrated with matured IT media including internet and mobile telephones. Such social movements combined with advanced technologies became the driving force behind

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<Chart 4> Environment Factors

Stage Political & Social Factors end of dictatorship government, the Olympic Games 88 Economical & Industrial Factors economic depression and demand for government efficiency, fostering of IT industry necessity of globalization and national competitiveness, Asian Financial Crisis restructuring of 4 major industries, fostering of IT venture industry Technological Factors

PC revolution, TDX, TICOM

democratization and exposing of government corruption turnover in ruling political party and participation, World Cup 02

high speed broadband network, distribution of internet service, CDMA Mobile Phones maturing of internet, advancement of SI industry

social changes and have even contributed to the election of Roh Moo-hyun Administration (2003~2007). As a result, for over past 20 years, Korea has created dynamic conditions for maturing egovernment through mutual interaction of enabling environment and necessity factors from the political & social, economical & industrial, and technological perspective.

even though the National Basic Information System Project, which was planned since 1983, did not begun until the last year of his presidency (1987), the President appointed the Chief of Staff as the Chairman of the Information Network Supervisory Commission and displayed strong determination for the implementation of the project. Between 1992~1994 when the government structure was in a transition period from totalitarian government to congressional government, the interest in IT development by President Kim Young-Sam has somewhat diminished but in with the launch of Information Superhighway Project in USA in 1993, the government solidified its will once more b y newly establishing the Ministry of Communication (MIC) and through High Speed Broadband Network Project. During 1998~2000, right after the Asian financial crisis, President Kim Dae-Jung interests were focused in s restructuring of 4 major sectors to recover from the economic crisis and therefore, the president s interest in e-government project has lowered but from 2001, the president will and interest s

2. Political Will and Leadership

In Korea political system, in which s presidential political power is so strong, the most important factor for the success in pursuing egovernment project was the interest and will of the president. When assessing from this perspective, the National Basic Information System as well as the e-Government Roadmap were pursued with powerful wills and determinations by all successive presidents. Their wills were mostly implemented by establishing Presidential Implementation Committee or through the Chief of Staff Office. In case of Chun Doo-Hwan Administration,

E-Government of Korea

solidified the e-Government Project as the strategic enabler with highest importance for government innovation. President Roh Moo-Hyun, who election can s largely be contributed to internet and cyber civic movements and supports, established eGovernment Roadmap Project immediately after his election and implemented government innovation as the administration core objective. s President Roh also established committees, subcommittees and special commission, and received periodic advice on e-government. In summary, the Chun Doo-Hwan

policy vision and goals, which will be interested in the following section, but also to be the active response measure in the future information society environment and the lead such environment. In other words, as the political leader, the president utilized the e-government as the presidential agenda that signified administration which is fully preparing for and leading the future information society.

3. Visions & Goals and Project Priority

1) Visions & Goals

Administration pursued the National Basic Information System Project through the Presidential Information System Committee, the Kim Young-Sam Administration implemented the High Speed Broadband Network Project through the IT Development Committee established under the Prime Minister Office, s and the e-Government Project pursued through the e-Government Committee under the Presidential Order of both Kim Dae-Jung and Roh Moo-Hyun all signifies that the fundamental infrastructure and e-government were pursued with the will and leadership among all successive presidents. From this perspective, the e-governmentdecisive success factor is assessed s to be the determination and leadership by the powerful presidents. Regardless of the government form, be it dictatorship or democratic, the reason for high interest and implementation leadership shown by the successive presidents in e-government can be interpreted as a symbolic means for realistic

The visions and goals of the e-government presented by each administration are all the results of mutual interactions of political, social, economic and industrial, and technological environment factors. In other words, the visions and goals, while reflecting environmental conditions, it also reflects the social needs for overcoming the limitations and advancing such environmental conditions. Although the 1st Stage is launched under a small concept of achieving efficiency and productivity as those of advanced nation, the 2nd Stage adds service to citizens on top of the efficiency and productivity and the 3rd Stage progresses the IT development to add transparency and strengthening of bi-directional democracy by attracting citizens participation. In other words, the principal of e-government evolved from efficiency to transparency and responsibility, and then to include citizens participation from governance stand point. The visions and goals of the 1 st Stage eGovernment (1997~1995) was to achieve small


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but efficient government. The project visions s and goals were set as improvement on public service creation and delivery method, elevate citizens convenience, and improve national competitiveness. The 2nd Stage Project set its visions and goals as creation of small and efficient government and achieving expedited civil services. In other words, the 1st Stage set its priority in improving productivity of the administration process, creation of small government, improving citizens convenience, and enhancing national competitiveness. The facing agenda was to establish small and efficient government to overcome government failures such as stagflation as shown in advanced nations governments. The new information technology including personal computers provides new productivity enhancement opportunities for both government and private sector corporations that were at the verge of competitiveness risk. The 1st Stage of Korea es Government Project was pursued based on the new public management principals with efforts in establishing small but efficient government and as a part of the government efforts in s steadily progressing democracy and providing social welfare service all at the same time while continuously achieving pressurized growth. The 2nd Stage was pursued with the addition of enhancement of the service to the citizens and improved efficiency of the Framework Plan for the Promotion of IT Development. Establishing customer service centers as the internet service became widely distributed and strengthening the sharing and openness of information are all

efforts on improving the service for the public. The Phase 1 of the 3rd Stage e-Government Project (2001~2002) had ambitious goals of providing highest standard service to citizens, maximize productivity and transparency, provide most optimized corporate activity environment, and achieve stability and reliability of the IT infrastructure, all under the vision of becoming one of the worldtop nation in the 21st s Century. It was the detailed plan of the national vision of economic development and advancement of democracy implemented through e-government by the Kim Dae-Jung Administration. The e-government was directly managed by the presidential office as the presidential agenda to prevent corruption in government by improving transparency and to provide the benefits of administrative process reformation to citizens and corporations by achieving one-stop civil service (Special Committee on e-Government, 2003: 49, 55). Roh Moo-Hyun Administration had the vision of building world best open es government system. The administration set goals to build networked government through innovation in service delivery system, establishment of knowledge based government through improvement of administration efficiency and transparency, and establishment of citizens participating government that truly acknowledges the rights of the people. The administration pursued networking of informatization and government innovation, implementation of end user oriented projects, establishment of performance objective and


E-Government of Korea

performance management per phases, and fostering of IT industries (Government Innovation Decentralization Committee, 2005: 13-29). The common characteristics of the visions and objectives of the 1 st and the 2 nd Stage eGovernment Projects were: first, pursue world s highest quality e-government system based on the advancements and achievements of the information technology and second, the principals of transparency and participation by the people were added to the improved efficiency of the administrative process and government for the people through nationwide civil service enhancement. From economic and industry perspective, the government incorporated IT development and fostering of the IT industries as priority together with the e-government objectives and implemented the strategies to achieve sequential achievements of the development objectives. The IT Industry Fostering Committee, established in 1983, was merged into the IT Network Commission established in 1987 with all its industry fostering related projects being absorbed by the IT Network Commission (Jung Hong-shik, 2007: 300, 319) or the designation and implementation of the IT industry fostering as one of the roadmap objective of the 2nd Stage eGovernment Project commenced in 2003 (Government Innovation Decentralization Committee, 2005: 28-29) can be noted as the representative cases.

In summary, the visions and strategic objectives of the e-government reasonably reflected both domestic and international political and social democratization, development of economy and industry, as well as the technological advancement process and contributed towards the government efficiency and adaptation by the society.
2) Project Priority

The information system growth stage theory was focused on the automation process of the organization during the ~ (Nolan, 1979; 70s 80s King and Kraemer, 1985; Galliers and Sutherland, 1991). In the information technology was 90s, linked with rebuilding of administrative process (Snellen, 1990; Venkatraman, 1994), and during and after 2000, the efforts were changing towards mutual interaction between work and customers as well as participation by the general public (UNDESA, 2005; OECD, 2004; UNESCO, 2005). In addition, the results of benchmarking leading nations e-government were categorized as the front office and back office management. 5) Koreae-government is comparably in line with s such information system maturity directions. s In other words, the project details and s characteristics progressed from simple automation of back office process to interactive online front office services of multi-department or all-departments (Song Hee-joon, 2004: 13-14). The project objective during this process evolved

5) The Central Information Technology Unit (UK CITY) of Great Britain categorized the e-government projects of major countries into the demand (front office), the supply (back office), change management, and development of infrastructure (UK CITU, 2000; 2001), and the 11 major projects of the e-Government Project implemented by the Special Committee on the e-Government during 2001~2003 was categorized into the front office, back office and e-government infrastructure project (Special Committee on e-Government, 2003:105).


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from efficiency of government internal s administrative process to mass public service and participation. The Phase 1 of the 1st Stage Project (1987 ~1991) involved building 5 major national information DB of administration, finance, education & research, national defense, and national security. The 2nd Stage Project (1992~ 1996) was the project for building 7 management systems including public welfare, postal service, meteorology, oceanic freight, and intellectual property rights. The administrative inter-department network built as a part of the National Basic Information System Project, internal process has made the internal government process more efficient while automating mass public civil services. For example, the citizen registry management s process, which was previously conducted by a civil service clerk at the dong-office via copying the amended or full registry of the original created manually, was changed to computerized system and citizen reporting of change of s address was able to be conducted from distant location thanks to the inter-department network by district government branches. Such ability to process administrative services from remote locations through the inter-department network is the significant achievement of the 1st Stage eGovernment Project (Song Hee-joon, Kim Junhan, 1991). Simultaneously, the 1 st Stage contributed transparency in economic activities by implementing real name verification policy for financial activities (Aug. 1993) for civil services, real estate, and financial transactions

as well as the real estate real name verification policy (Jul. 1995) (O Gwang-seok, 2005: 49). However, there was the limitation of having such verification certificates to be issued only by the issuing agencies in their premises via visit in person process because the internet service was not yet widely distributed. The 2nd Stage included the development of the initial versions of homepages, document distribution system, and e-approval system lead by the MIC under the guidance of the IT Development Committee. Through the innovation of the Common Business Process (CBP) (OECD, 2005: 69), which organized the work activities networked through time and space, the inter-department sharing and communal usage was launched. The 3rd Stage was primarily focused on the multi-department front office services but its priority elevated as the Presidential Order eGovernment Project. However, during the formation and implementation process of the e-government 11th project or the 31st roadmap, s it was implemented as the participatory governance with active management by the Special Committee on e-Government (Outside Initiative Model, Cobb et al.). In other words, to overcome the limitations of not being able to seamlessly implement the Inside Initiative Model as a result of lack of inter-department cooperation and coordination and to pursue projects in nationwide level, the president utilized the professionalism of external organizations and governance (Song Hee-joon, 2004). However, in the 3rd Stage, there are certain


E-Government of Korea

differences in implementation strategies between the Phase 1 and Phase 2 Projects. The former is more inclined towards the centralized model with the governance by the Special Committee on e-Government until the completion of the project but the Phase 2, although its agendas are similar to the Phase 1, it is more inclined towards the Inside Initiative Model with each independent departments taking charge of their portion of the project from implementation to completion. The 1 st Stage e-Government Project was

composed of 11 segmented projects consisting of 4 front office related, 4 back office related, and 3 infrastructure related projects. Majority parts of the 4 back office management process also includes system for mass public service and it is composed of multi-department projects such as G4C and SIIS. The 2nd Stage e-Government Project consisted of 4 sectors, 10 agendas, 31 major projects, and 45 unit projects. Itroadmap s included first, integrate and expand the infrastructure from multi-department network to nationwide network; second, develop interactive

<Chart 5> Per Stage Evolution of e-Government Visions and Objectives

Stage Plan Phase 1 Information Network (87-91) Phase 2 Information Network (92-96) Framework Act on Informatization Promotion Plan (96-00) Vision Create Small Government & Advanced Economy Create Small But Powerful Government Primary Objective - Improve public service productivity & delivery method - Enhance citizenconvenience s - Improve national competitiveness - Create small but efficient government - Achieve speedy response in civil service - Innovation in civil service - Promote publicutilization and s transparency of government information - Create infrastructure for the expansion of usage of administrative information - Supplement and upgrade existing system - Administrative service for mass public - Corporate friendly environment - Improved productivity and transparency of administration - Achieve stability and reliability of information infrastructure - Create networked government through innovation in service delivery - Create knowledge based government by improving efficiency and transparency - Create PeopleParticipating Government s that upholds citizenrights s Administrative Principal


Create Small But Efficient e-Government

Efficiency + mass public service

Phase 1 e-Government (01-02) Phase 2 e-Government (03-07)

Become World s Technologically Advanced Nation in the 21st Century

Efficiency + mass public service + transparency

Create WorldMost s Advanced Open e-Government

Efficiency + mass public service + transparency + participation


Informatization Policy

<Chart 6> Formation of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 e-Government Project

Phase Phase 1 e-Government Phase 2 e-Government6) Front Office 4 9 Back Office 4 13 Build Infrastructure 3 9 Total 11 31

websites (Q&A, FAQ, etc.), and details for stimulating participation by customers, relative parties, civic groups, and general population in government policy activities to ensure transparency in civil service handling phases and governance perspective; and third, the roadmap includes advanced integrated design model for government functions, duties, information s resource, and other core factors, applied in all branches throughout the government (Government Innovation Decentralization Committee, 2005: 50-52). After the the Korea e-government well 80s, s grasped the social necessity of evolution of information technology and innovation in government process as well as the era s characteristics and established appropriate project objectives, implementation strategies, and resource distribution methods, which resulted in accelerated development of IT industry to one of the world most advanced level. The process s progressed from single department infrastructure to networking of back office and front office and then to networking of multi-departments and finally, total integration of nationwide government branches.

4. Implementation Organization & Resource Distribution

1) Implementation Organization

The implementation organization is organizational resource employed during the implementation stage of the project. It is the combination of government group and external group mutually interacting the interests and leadership of the president to achieve the policy visions and strategies under the given political and industrial, economic and industrial, as well as technological conditions. The core implementation structure of the National Basic Information System Project included the formation of the Information Network Supervisory Commission chaired by the Presidential Chief of Staff, appointment of secretary for the Ministry of Post and Telecommunication, and the enactment of legislature, the Act on Expansion of Information Network and Promotion of its Usage as the legal basis. The most notable factor is that the Presidential Chief of Staff, who in general, cannot have any other official title, was appointed as the

6) Although the Stage 1 e-Government Project officially categorized and sub-grouped the project into 4 front office, 4 back office and 3 infrastructure projects, the Stage 2 Project did not. Because the 31 roadmap projects either shared little bits of 3 sub-groups or is repletion of some, it is difficult to categorize them but the author of this thesis categorized in accordance with the priority of the project detail for the convenience of the study.


E-Government of Korea

Commissioner of the Information Network Supervisory Commission for 2 years between 1987 to 1989 and managed overall aspects of the National Basic Information System Project, played a leading role in resolving interdepartment differences, supervised necessary standardization and security issues associated with sharing of information among departments, integration of network, and sharing of computer and telecommunication resources, as well as obtaining financial resources for the project. The Phase 2 Project, which was launched in 1992, did not achieve much success as a result of weakened implementation organization, obtaining resources, and change in implementation methods. It was the result of weakened presidential power during the Kim Young-Sam Administration, whose presidency was during the transitional democratization period. 7) As a result, the National Basic Information System Project, from 1989 when the Commissioner of the Information Network Supervisory Commission was changed from the Presidential Chief of Staff to the Minister of the Ministry of the Post and Telecommunication, did not had much influence until the commission was merged into the IT Development Implementation Committee, chaired by the Prime Minister, in the second half of 1995. Particularly, with the funding and operation method changing from invest first, settle later to budget oriented per each implementing

departments and ministries, there was the problem of being put off during the budgeting process due to lack of technological knowledge by the executives of each departments and ministries. Furthermore, there were also notable difficulties in being able to make long term plans because the budgeting process at the time was done on an annual basis. The 2nd Stage Project was reinforced with the IT Development Implementation Committee (Chairman: Prime Minister), the Ministry of Information of Communication (implementation body), as well as the Framework Act on Informatization Promotion. Such transformation of the Kim Young-Sam Administration was influenced by the pursuit of high speed broadband network projects in major countries following the USA National Information s Infrastructure (NII) Project in 1993. In 1994, the government established the High Speed Broadband Network Project Plan and as the implementation organization of the project, reorganized the Ministry of the Post and Telecommunication to the Ministry of Communication (MIC) on December of 1994. In addition, the government also enacted the Framework Act on Informatization Promotion in 1995 and established the Basic Plan for Informatization Promotion8) and integrated all the functions necessary for implementing the 2 nd Stage Project. The Information Network Supervisory Commission, which was chaired

7) Since the Kim Young-Sam Administration placed high importance in hardware type, or physical democratization, apart from the past s military dictatorship government, during its initial administrative period (1993), the interest in IT development received lesser priority. 8) The 1st Stage IT Development Basic Plan (1996~2000) was implemented as a part of the 2nd Stage Basic Plan titled the Cyber Korea 21 (1999~2001) and the 3rd Stage Basic Plan (2002~2006), titled the e-Korea Vision 2006 is currently being implemented.


Informatization Policy

by the Minister of the Ministry of Post and Telecommunication, has been elevated and renamed as the IT Development Implementation Committee chaired by the Prime Minister. However, with the order of the president, the administrative control influence of the Prime Minister for inter-department relationship and the technical support resource of the MIC were significantly limited. However, the MIC appropriately utilized the Informatization Promotion Fund and managed the IT development projects with the support by the National Information Society Agency (NIA). Since 2001, the Kim Dae-Jung Administration pursued the e-government project, which required professionalism and centralization of multi-departments, under the presidential governance. To achieve successful implementation of the project, the Special Committee on eGovernment, with leading role by the private sector, was formed under the Government Innovation Decentralization Committee and appointed powerful authority with supervision by the Secretary of Administration and Planning, who reported periodically directly to the president. This is the reinstatement of similar structure as the Information Network Supervisory Commission in the 1st Stage, which the chairman was the Presidential Chief of Staff. Especially, since the Special Committee had direct reporting line to the president, it was able to be independent from resistance by the individual departments and none cooperation. In addition, the Special Committee employed the cooperative system of three important departments of the

Planning and Budgeting Office (government innovation support), the MIC (technology & financial support), and the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (cooperation of government organizations and district government branches) and implemented the multi-department projects (Special Committee on e-Government, 2003: 25). In 2003, the Roh Moo-Hyun Administration implemented the e-government project under the management of the Government Innovation Decentralization Committee with purpose of juxtaposition and reformation of administration, decentralization of government authority, reformation of personnel placement and appointment, and reformation of finance and taxation. Although the exterior formation of the e-government project being integrated with the government innovation efforts and being elevated to presidential agenda is similar to that of the Kim Dae-Jung Administration but the authority of the Special Committee as well as administrative and financial support to the departments has been weakened (Government Innovation Decentralization Committee, 2005: 37-48). In other words, even though the establishment of projects in accordance with the e-government roadmap and its implementation was lead by the none government affiliated experts to ensure professionalism and neutralism among the departments, once the roadmap projects have become established and confirmed, the controlling influence of the Special Committee on e-Government became limited and the actual implementation functions were transferred from


E-Government of Korea

<Chart 7> e-Government Implementation Body

Stage Plan Phase 1 Network I Phase 2 Network Committee Chairperson Presidential Chief of Staff (87-89) Minister of the Ministry of Post and Telecommunication (89-95) Managing Organization Ministry of Post and Telecommunication Ministry of Post and Telecommunication

Information Network Supervisory Commission (1987-1995)

Framework Plan for IT Development Promotion Phase 1 e-Government

IT Development Implementation Committee (1996-current) Special Committee on e-Government (2001-current)

Prime Minister (96-current) Civilian (Secretary of Policy Planning) Civilian (Secretary of Innovation Management)

Ministry of Information and Communication


Phase 2 e-Government

the MIC to the MGAHA. Despite of increasing integration and merging of inter-department affairs, the controlling body being degraded to the level of central government level made coordination among the departments highly difficult (Song, 2004).9) The unlike the 1st Stage eGovernment, which the project establishment until the completion is supervised by the Special Committee on e-Government, the 2 Stage end

level departments on a single project which accomplishments for individual department are measured. It must be noted that US Federal Government, as their e-government progressed to the 3rd Stage, the Office of Management and Budgeting (OMB) was made and independent and single responsible organization in charge of centralization and achieving inter-department cooperation (Wolfe, 1999).
2) Information Technology & Supporting Network

Government Project is pursued in distributed manner in which the Special Committee is only involved with the establishing the project and while each individual departments implementing their pertaining part of the project under the overall management by the MGAHA. It has already been proven that under the government management, it is highly difficult for a government department to manage other equal e-Government is a social and technical system requiring appropriate information technology support. Korea e-government developed s through appropriate incorporation and utilization of evolving technologies per each development stage. In addition to the National Basic Information System Project and distribution

9) Notably, the issue associated with selecting which Ministry, among the Office of Planning and Coordination, the MGAHA, and MIC, will be in charge of the multi-department related project among the 31st e-government roadmap, was put aside until the end of 2007.


Informatization Policy

of personal computers, the e-government s technological infrastructure was reinforced with high speed broadband network for providing online administrative services and information including patents, taxes, and education to the mass public and functioned as the mean for delivering services of the e-government. Furthermore, in line with the evolution of technologies, the e-government was supported with various IT strategies including the Informatization Strategy Plan (ISP) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR) (National Information Society Agency, 2007b: 66-72). The National Information Society Agency (NIA), which was established in 1987 and have since been providing technological support for nation IT development and e-government s projects to this date, is evaluated to be one of the success cases of the institution building. In addition, there are government affiliated research institutes such as the Korea Information Society Development Institute (KISDI), Korea Information Security Agency (KISA), and Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) as well as KT and private sector corporations related with the IT development joined in the policy network and contributed greatly towards policy making and providing technological expertise to the e-government projects. Particularly, the Informatization Promotion Fund, established after the initiation of privatization process of the telecommunication sector in 1981, played an important role in building the framework for information society through the high speed broadband network and

research and development projects (MIC, 2003: 70-86).

3) Resource Distribution

Even from financial resource management perspective, the e-government is evaluated to have acquired sufficient resources which were invested appropriately. In case of 1st Stage eGovernment Project, the finance resource implementation was done via invest first, settle later method but to supplement the weakness and utilize the positive aspects of such method, the Informatization Promotion Fund, financed by the government funding, loan, funding by the fixed and mobile telecommunication companies, as well as by the dividend payout from shares of Korea Telecom or selling of the corporate stocks, were established in 1993 (Song, 2004: 83). The fund, which was managed by the MIC, was provided in a form of a matching fund to each government branches for their IT development projects and stimulated the incentive system for pursuing risk associated projects. In an environment where the success was not proven and with low background of expertise, such policy backed system played an important role in promoting implementation of risky projects by each department. Such funding system, unlike the fixed budget process, provided flexibility in financial management for pursuing long-term projects from investment perspective and contributed towards launching of never before used or experienced emerging technologies, even with their associated risk of failure. Many of the


E-Government of Korea

informatization projects were pushed aside or placed in lower priority in many departments as a result of low awareness and knowledge in the technology or risk involved. 10) Under such conditions, the fund overcame the limitations of budgeting and provided powerful incentive in a form of matching fund. For example, the procurement EDI Project, established as the initiative to strengthen the national competitiveness on August of 1995, received the matching fund from the Informatization Promotion Fund. It was implemented in accordance with the EDI Framework Plan jointly established by the Office of Procurement and NIA. Built on to the EDI Project, the internet based e-procurement system was developed as part of the 11th e-Government Project in 2001, which received the UN Public Service Award (PSA) as the model success case in the world. The fund principal mechanism is to be utilized s as flexible alternative to the existing budgeting system for implementing long term IT development projects in accordance with the president agenda and IT industry policy s s objectives. One of the success factors in e-government is

implementation of performance oriented investment policy similar to those employed in enterprises which pursues innovation in work process (OECD, 2004: 54). In fact, one of the attributing factor to the success of the egovernment during its 2nd Stage even under the government transitional period, was the appropriate level of support provided through incentive fund to those departments, universities, and small and mid sized businesses which have accomplished certain level of achievements. However, since 2005, the fund was transformed as the Information and Telecommunication Promotion Fund, which was primarily focused on the R&D efforts in information technology and as the management of the e-government became under the management of the MGAHA, the budgeting for e-government projects was incorporated into general budget process (government investment) and settles as annual budget category. 11) Notably in 2005, the IT Development Budgeting Committee, which is chaired by the Director of the Office of Planning and Budgeting, was established under the IT Development Implementation Committee and commenced overall management of the IT

10) When the Special Committee on e-Government was established in 2001, many senior officials of the government branches had highly insufficient level of knowledge in the concept of e-government and project objective. Some even stated during the meetings, do not know I much about the e-government,and added,But I hear about the e-government until my ears fall off from the president.It was such keen interest by the president that these officials had no choice but to place e-government in high priority (e-Government White Paper, 2003: 58). Prior to the 3rd Stage e-Government Project, except for the civil officials directly involved with the informatization project, interest and knowledge in e-government by general civil service employees and high positioned officials were generally low. However, as the reengineering of the inter-department work process became more widely expanded through the e-government and as the general knowledge in information technology increased throughout general population, the adaptation of the e-government by the public service employees has also expanded. However, since this research does not cover how the e-government was adopted by the public service employees per each stage, there is a need for additional study to supplement such limitations. 11) As the fund from the liquidation of KT stocks and selling of IMT-2000 business license started to diminish, together with the transfer of the egovernment project management from the MIC to MGAHA, the Informatization Promotion Fund seized to provide funding to egovernment projects as of 2005 and policy was established for the fund to be utilized only for information and telecommunication related R&D projects.


Informatization Policy

development related budgets.

example of implementation structure, when the Kim Dae-Jung Administration expanded the egovernment from single department oriented to multiple inter-department oriented system, the IT Development Implementation Committee managed by the Office of Planning and Coordination and the MIC was replaced with the newly established Presidential Special Committee on e-Government, which was the result of the research on previous cases of project management and implementation capability. From development project perspective, the 2 nd Stage e-Government Project included modification and updating of already established DB systems, such as citizens registry, real estate, and finance, as part of the 10 major projects of the Framework Plan for Informatization Promotion (1996~1998) (MIC, 2003: 146). Some of the projects outlined in the e-Government roadmap of the Roh Moo-Hyun Administration also included supplementing and technological updating of the 11th e-Government Project of the Kim Dae-Jung Administration (Government Innovation Decentralization Committee, 2005: 53-54). Therefore, the learning of prior project cases was not conducted on the past mid and

5. Feedback and Learning

The feedback and learning process are activities for reflecting project achievement assessment results towards improvement of future activities. Since e-government project is not a one time but an on-going project, improvement efforts through such feedback and learning process is important to enhance performance and outputs. As the e-government progressed over number of Stages, each stage was reviewed to identify the success and failure factors and such process minimized the failure risks while maximizing the chances of success in the future projects. As an example for mid and long term strategy, the 2nd Stage overcame the difficulties associated with information sharing among administrative institutions and implemented high speed broadband network project to provide mass public online service because the 1st Stage eGovernment resulted in low usage of available information due to insufficient network infrastructure (MIC and NIA, 2005: 34-35). As an

<Chart 8> e-Government Financial Support Structure

Period 1987~1992 1993~2004 2005~current Funding Structure Invest First, Settle Later Informatization Promotion Fund General Budget Managing Ministry MPT MIC MGAHA Legal Basis Act on IT Network Framework Act on Informatization Promotion (General Provisions for Informatization) Budgeting and Accounting Act (General Accounting e?Government Investment Fund)

* Source: Government Innovation Decentralization Committee (2005:45), e-Government of the Participatory Government.


E-Government of Korea

long term planning and individual projects but it also involved reviewing of the implementation organization and methods as well. Particularly, during this feedback and learning process, the NIA, KISDI, KISA, and relative organizations conducted in depth individual and group research on causes of failure of previously implemented projects and by sharing the results of such research, they played a leading contributing role towards development of future planning.12)

process, the increasing social awareness and interest in the efficiency of the information technology is once again reflected as the reinforced feedback on the next phase of the egovernment project. Among these, the common success factors for all e-government projects can be summarized as the determination and interest by the president, flexible resource distribution method, and technical support by relative institutes such as the MIC and NIA. In depth analysis of e-government implementation organizations in Korea and foreign nations shows that if the final decision maker is involved deeply, then the formation of agenda, distribution of human and material resources are done in the order from authority group to controlling interest group and downwards but if the implementation organization is government bureaucracy, then it tends to have characteristics of having difficulties in gaining cooperation among departments and fierce competitiveness in obtaining resources (Jung-Eun Park, Song Hee-joon , 2006: 126-127). From this perspective, the success of egovernment is the result of organizing human, material and technical resources through the backing by the strong determination and leadership of the president, which were efficiently utilized to achieve the objective of administrative efficiency, improve service to mass public, improve administrative process transparency, and citizens participation and

. Summary & Future Recommendations

The successful achievement of Korea IT s development and e-government is evaluated to be the result of combined efforts in implementing systemized and unified policies developed through government initiative mid- and longterm development strategies (NIA, 2005). This study did not presume scientific priority order of diverse influential factors that has contributed to such accomplishment, nor did it point out which played more or less contributing role. However, the success can be interpreted as the results of responding to the changing environment with establishment of mid- and long-term goals, formation of implementation organizations, budgeting, establishment of legislative basis, and provisioning information technology resources, all backed by strong determination and leadership of the president. Throughout the

12) Since the personnel placement, H/R management and appointment of the public official under the government bureaucracy is fully relying on the circulation assignment process, there was the weakness and limitations that the civil service employees were not able to accumulate the IT development related technologies and experiences within the departments but the long term contractual employees of the subgovernment organizations provided supplementing functions.


Informatization Policy

applied the advancing information technologies. Simultaneously, information industry promotion with the objective of advancing the IT industry was also implemented in each stage of the project as well as applying feedback and research results of previous experience on the next phase planning. However, there still remains number of issues that must be resolved before Koreae-government s can be assessed as total success in all aspects. First, it can be summarized that the foremost visions and the ultimate objectives of pursuing egovernment are improve government efficiency, participation. In this process, the government efficiency in the form of reduction of civil service employees and time, improvement on mass public service, and transparency as well as irresponsibleness of policies will be improved. From this perspective, there is a necessity for ongoing interest to ensure appropriate utilization of continuously evolving information technology and reengineering of government work process. Second, the performance management for improving system usage must be strengthened towards customer needs oriented rather than s provider preference oriented. As of 2007, the s usage rate survey (MOGAHA, 2007) showed egovernment usage to be below 50%. Precise diagnosis must be conducted to determine the needs of the citizens and provide consumer friendly service based on such needs. To achieve this, improvement must be made in the areas of customer selectivity, approachability, and s stimulate usage.

Third, to integrate and enhance the effectiveness of the networking of inter-department and interministry administrations in accordance with the nationwide administrative branch design model, there still remains a difficult hurdle in overcoming the stovepipe vertical process flow and territory guarding tendency by individual departments and ministries. To overcome this, there is a necessity to adapt the enterprise architecture model that can overcome the business reference model, which was adapted as one of e-government roadmap project. Fourth, the evolution of ubiquitous challenge to e-government. Particularly, the future policies for the IT industry must pursue strengthening of the development, distribution and support of LINUX based software that can be used on various e-government services and administrative applications. Especially, the strategies for organic integration of technology demand and service distribution must be reinforced with consideration to the fact that prior government administration pursued fostering of IT industry as a part of the egovernment strategies. Finally, there is a necessity to overcome the issues that arose with the transfer of the managing organization from MIC to MGAHA, as a result of restructuring of e-government implementation structure by the Roh Moo-Hyun Administration in addition to the redesigning of the information technology support network to be more efficient and technology oriented so that it can actively provide support, as it has done so

provide mass public service, and citizens information technology will bring forth a new


E-Government of Korea

in the past.


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