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OBJECTIVE:1- To investigate the factors that affects the defect to present?

2- To find the best way to overcome the defect?

INTRODUCTION:Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material. The term "sand casting" can also refer to an object produced via the sand casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries. Over 70% of all metal castings are produced via a sand casting process. Sand casting is relatively cheap and sufficiently refractory even for steel foundry use. In addition to the sand, a suitable bonding agent (usually clay) is mixed or occurs with the sand. The mixture is moistened, typically with water, but sometimes with other substances, to develop strength and plasticity of the clay and to make the aggregate suitable for molding. The sand is typically contained in a system of frames or mold boxes known as a flask. The mold cavities and gate system are created by compacting the sand around models, or patterns, or carved directly into the sand. The product of the sand casting is not always in a perfect form. There will be some defect occur on the product such as gas bubbles, penetration and enlargement of the product. The defect occurrence depends on type of material, casting process used, geometry of the die, fluid flow and heat transfer of the molten metal.

INTEGRATED LEARNING ISSUES:1. What is the most likely source of the gas bubbles and why are they present only at the location noted?

The most likely source of the gas bubble would be from the formation of metal oxides that become entrapped during the solidification process. The gas porosity is only present at the location noted due to turbulence flow of the molten metal right after a sharp bend of the T shape pipe. Turbulence flow tends to accelerate the formation of metal oxide. The gas may also be hydrogen gases which resulted from using a no bake mould due to the reaction of molten metal with the humidity of the mould.

2. What factors may have caused the penetration defect and why is the defect near the bottom of the casting, but not near the top?

The penetration defect occurs at the bottom of the mould because of the pressure inflicted on the walls of the bottom part mould. Mechanical pressure of the molten metal forces itself into the mould and the liquid pressure when the molten metal is fully poured into the mould because of the height of the mould.

3. What factors led to enlargement of the casting at point C and what would you recommend correcting this problem?

The enlargement that occurs at point C is caused by the erosion of mould during pouring process due to too high pouring velocity or brittle mould Wall due to insufficient packing of sand. Make sure the sand mould used is fully packed to prevent it from erosion.

4. Could these molds and cores be reclaimed (recycled) after breakout?

The sand and cores that were used for sand casting cant be recycled for further casting process but it can be used in other sector such as agricultural and residential depending on the chemical composition of the sand.

CONCLUSION:As conclusion, the factor that effect the present of defect is the inconstant flow rate of the molten metal, type of material used and also the geometry of the die. First, molten metal is poured into the mould without uniform flow rate will make the gas bubbles present in the product. Second, the geometry of the die used must be considering all the physical properties such as height and volume because it will effect the molten metal that flowing in it. Lastly, the type of sand used is not suitable as it is no fully packed which result the penetration will occur.