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Glossary Abacus The uppermost part of a column capital, carrying the architrave. Abaton See Adyton.

n. Adyton (also Abaton) A room or chamber, sometimes underground, in a sanctuary that was reserved for special rites and initiations. It could not be entered unless one had undergone special preparations and purifications. Aedicula A substructure in the form of a temple-front, featuring two columns or pilasters crowned with an entablature and a pediment; used to frame a statue, a niche, or any wall opening. Aediculae were often used to call attention to a smaller feature within a large structure. Aedile A Roman official with responsibilities concerning public works. Agonothetes Originally the judge of a contest. Also the sponsor and/or president of games and athletic contests. Agora A market, political center, and meeting place of a Greek city, usually composed of public and sacred buildings with one or more stoas, framing an irregularly shaped open space. Unlike the Roman agora (forum), the Greek agora was normally not entirely enclosed. Akropolis Literally ''high city'', this was the upper, originally fortified part of an ancient Greek city. Akrolithic Having ends made of stone; e.g. a statue with head, arms, and legs consisting of marble (the rest of wood). Akroterion Statuary or other decorations, made of marble or terra-cotta, supported by blocks resting on the vertex and lower extremities of the pediment. Aleipterion A room or area in a gymnasium (or Roman bath) for applying oil to one's body. Altis The sacred district of Zeus in Olympia. The word altis is the Elean form of the word for ''sacred grove,'' alsos. By extension, altis refers to any sacred district, usually marked by an enclosure wall (see also temenos). Ambo The raised platform of an ancient Christian church for the reading of epistle and gospel, usually located on the side of the nave, roughly halfway between the narthex and the chancel. It is sometimes richly decorated. Stairs are leading up to the platform on both its western and eastern side suggesting a ritual entry and exit. Amphictyony A league of neighboring ancient Greek states sharing a common religious center or shrine, particuarly Delphi. Amphiprostylos A temple with a row of four columns in front and in back of its cella, and two columns in antis in the pronaos. There are no columns on its sides. Amphora A tall jar for oil or wine with a narrow mouth and two handles. Analemma Originally a pedestal for a sundial, often showing latitude and meridian; more generally any high erection of substructures. Anathyrosis The smooth, marginal dressing or contact plane of a joint surface (as in column drums) of which the central portion is roughened and sunk to avoid contact. Andesite A dark grayish or brown rock of volcanic origin, composed primarily of oligorlase and feldspar, used as a building material. Antae The projecting walls of the cella of a temple forming the pro-naos and opisthodomos; two columns are usually placed between the antae (de-scribed as ''columns in antis''). Anthemion An ornamental band consisting of alternating palmettes and lotus flowers, decorating the frieze of a wall or the uppermost part of a column.

Apodyterion The dressing room of a gymnasium or bath complex; later also the dressing room associated with a baptistry. Apse A recess in the wall at the end of a building, usually semi-circular. Aquaeduct A conduit or artificial channel for conveying water. Aquaeducts are of-ten many kilometers long and, in the Roman period, cross valleys on impressive arched support structures. Architrave The lowest portion of the entablature, which rests directly on the column capitals. Arris The sharp edge between the concave moldings of the flutes of Doric a column (see Fillets). Ashlar Masonry technique in which dressed rectangular slabs are fitted together without mortar. Astragal A type of decorative molding which often combines bead-and-reel motifs with egg-and-dart. Atlantes Male statues used instead of columns to support the architrave of a portico. Atrium An entrance hall or inner court of a building (a house or a court of a church), usually open-air, often surrounded by colonnaded porticoes. Balbides The posts (and/or sill) at the starting line in a Greek stadium. Baldachin An ornamental canopy which projects from the wall or is supported by columns, especially over an altar or seat of honor. See also Ciborium. Base See Ionic Column Base. Basilica A roofed hall of a secular or religious building with two internal colonnades which divide the hall into one central and two side aisles. Major Christian churches may have as many as four internal colonnades. In the early Christian period, any Christian assembly hall could be designated as a basilica. Bead-and-Reel Type of decorative molding with an alternating pattern of one larger circle and two much smaller circles. Often found just below egg-and-dart decoration. Bema A raised platform for a speaker or a tribunal, often in a central position in a Roman forum. Bothros A ritual pit used to devote offerings to chthonic deities. Boukranion A bulls head or skull, carved in frontal view, used in ornamental design and found especially on altars and sometimes tombs and friezes, often in combination with garlands which recall the bulls garlanded for sacrifice. Boule The council of a city, composed of elders or elected or appointed re-presentatives. It is distinct from the demos (the assembly of all citizens), and the prytaneis (the presiding officers of the city government). Bouleuterion Meeting hall for the city council. Caldarium The hottest room in a bath complex, in which the hot-water basins are located (see tepidarium, frigidarium). Capital The uppermost portion of a column. See Corinthian Order, Doric Order, Ionic Order. Cardo A central street, which usually ran north-south, perpendicular to the main thoroughfare, or decumanus . Caryatid A column in the form of a maiden (sometimes a male figure), used in porticoes to support an entablature.

Cavea The rounded, often semi-circular, section of the theater or amphitheater containing the seats for the spectators. Cella Central part of a temple in which the temple statue is placed. See Naos. Cenotaph An honorary tomb or monument for persons whose remains are kept or buried elsewhere as, for example, soldiers who died in foreign wars. Chalkidikum A closed space at either end of a stoa, which originally was used for the storage of weapons. Chancel Portion of a church containing the altar, often separated from the nave by a screen and/or steps. Chiton Tunic, worn by both Greek women and men to full- and knee-length, respectively. Chlamys A short mantle fastened on the right shoulder. Chrismarion The place in which one is anointed with oil immediately following baptism. Chryselephantine A statue-type with a wooden core overlaid with gold and ivory to represent drapery and flesh respectively. Ciborium A baldachin or canopy, usually supported by four columns, over a sacred object or martyrs relics. Coffer A recessed panel in a ceiling, vault, or soffit. Colonnade A row of columns along a street or building (see Stoa). Corbelled A type of opening in a building fringed by repeating courses of masonry until it takes the form of a false arch or vault which can have semi-circular form despite the horizontal plane of the courses. Corinthian Order Closely related to the Ionic Order with respect to the columns and entablature. The capitals of its columns and pilasters, however, are decorated with acanthus leaves. Cornice (also Geison) The projecting, upper part of the entablature below the sima. Course Horizontal row of blocks or bricks in a building. Crenellation Regular spaces provided along the top of a wall or parapet through which missiles could be fired. Crepidoma (also Crepis) The upper part of the stereobate, resting on the foundations, usually consisting of three steps, of which the uppermost is the stylobate. Crepis See Crepidoma. Cryptoporticus A porch under the main level of a building or market place. Cuirass A piece of armor covering the body from neck to hips with a breastplate and a back piece. decumanus maximus The main road in a Roman settlement, usually running east-west, perpendicular to the cardo . Demos The assembly of all citizens of a city who were qualified to vote (see Boule). Dentils Small rectangular cuttings which extend down from the lower edge of the cornice. Diakonikon The Sacristy at the right or north side of the chancel opposite the prothesis. Diazoma A semi-circular corridor in the cavea of a theater, giving access to the seats, usually dividing the cavea into lower and upper segments. Dipteros A temple with two rows of columns on all sides and usually several rows of columns in its pronaos, but normally lacking an opisthodomos.

Doric Order Doric columns stand directly on the stylobate without a base. The col-umns have 16-20 flutes which are separated by sharp arrises. The col-umn capitals consist of two parts: a square abacus, which rests upon a bell-shaped echinus. The entablature is composed of (from bottom to top): an architrave of undecorated stone beam, a frieze with alternating triglyphs and metopes, and a cornice or geison which usually projects outward. Dromos A term for the Sacred Way, as well as the route of a foot-race and a passage way to the orchestra of a theater. Drum One of several cylindrical sections that comprise a column. Duovir One of two men (duumviri) appointed to act for various civic purposes, in Roman colonies the highest magistrates. Echinus The lower part of a Doric capital. See Doric Order. Egg-and-Dart A type of molding decoration characteristic of the Ionic Order. The pattern consists of repeated egg shaped ovals with dart-like decorations between each of them. Entablature The upper part of a building which rests on a wall or columns, consisting of architrave, frieze, and cornice, and which carries the pediment and roof of the building. See Doric Order, Ionic Order. Epinaos See Opisthodomos. Epistyle The architectural components above the columns of a building, consisting of architrave, frieze, and geison (see Entablature). Euthynteria The dressed uppermost course of the foundation which carries the crepidoma. Exedra A small, usually semi-circular stone or marble seat or recess. Faade The front of a building which is given special, often superficial, architectural treatment. Fasciae The three (sometimes two) lightly projecting bands of the architrave of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders. Fillets Narrow projecting vertical strips on an Ionic column which separate its concave flutes. Finial Usually floral detail or ornament crowning the peak of a conical roof, corresponding to the akroterion on a pediment. Flutes The vertical channels of columns which are separated from one another by an arris (Doric Order) or by a fillet (Ionic Order). Forum The Roman counterpart of the Greek agora, usually a rectangular open air building, enclosed on all sides and including shops, temples, and public buildings, often with porticos on all four sides. Frieze Part of the entablature above a colonnade or the uppermost part of a wall, usually decorated with reliefs. Decorated friezes also appear on the top of the walls of peripteros temples inside the colonnades. Frigidarium The room in a bath complex which contains the cold water pool. Geison See cornice. Hekatompedon A building measuring ''one hundred feet'' in length, often an Archaic temple. Hellanodikoi The chief judges for the competition in the Olympic Games. The term was also used for the judges at the games in Nemea, Epidauros, and Isthmia.

Herm A square pillar surmounted by a sculpted head. Male genitals (often an erect phallus) are the only sculptures on the pillar itself. The name derives from the god Hermes. Herms were commonly used as boundary markers, but were also incorporated into household worship and were often used as decorative statues and memorials for famous persons. Heroon A cenotaph shrine or funerary monument to a hero or heroine. Hexastyle A temple with a row of six columns in front of its cella. Hieromnemon Representative of Amphictyonic state at Delphi. Hierophant The priestly figure who teaches or interprets sacred objects and ritual proceedures; often used specifially of the officiant of the Eleusinian mysteries. Himation A heavy mantle worn by Greek women and men. Hippodamian Grid A street plan in which the streets intersect at right angles. Used in several Greek cities for its convenience in dividing newly alloted land. Named in honor of Hippodamos (5th century BCE), architect of Miletos, often credited (in ancient times) with the grid's invention and instrumental in its spread. Hippodrome A long oval stadium for horse and chariot races. Homo novus Someone who has recently risen to the aristocracy. Hydreion A reservoir or watering place. Hypaethral A room enclosed on all sides but open to the sky without a roof. The sekos of a large Greek temple is often hypaethral, while the temple statue is placed in a small naiskos within this room. Hypocausts Tile or brick columns supporting the floors of the caldarium and tepidarium in a bath, thus creating a space for the circulation of hot air from an underground furnace or fire chamber. Hyposkenion The space under a scene that is supported by columns or pillars. Hypostyle A building in which the ceiling is supported exclusively by means of interior columns. Impost A block, capital, or molding from which an arch springs. Insula(e) One of the rectangular plots defined by the street grid of a town; a block of shops or houses. Ionic Column Base The base rests on the stylobate and supports the column. It consists of a square plinth, spira, and one or two rounded tori, separated by fillets. Ionic Order Each Ionic column stands on a base, consisting of plinth, spira, and torus which is set upon the stylobate. The columns have 20-24 flutes which are separated by blunt fillets. The capitals consist of an egg-and-dart band, volutes, and a narrow abacus. The entablature is composed of the ar-chitrave (normally consisting of three fasciae), the frieze (often decorated with an uninterrupted band of reliefs), and the cornice or geison with of a band of egg-and-dart and a band of dentils. Isodomic Building blocks of equal size which are arranged in such a way that the ends of each block are placed directly above the center of the blocks in the lower course. Kalathos See Modius. Kantharos A large two-handled drinking cup. Katechumenon The place of instruction for those about to be baptized. Kerkis The wedge-shaped division of the seats in the cavea of a theater. Koinon ''Common.'' Denotes a league or federation, perhaps a guild or other association.

Konisterion (also Konistra) An area in a gymnasium, school, or theater covered with dust and used as a wrestling arena. Kore ''Young woman.'' Denotes an Archaic Greek statue type of a standing female figure. Kouretes Armed dancers at mystery rites; at Ephesos, a religious college consisting of six members. Kouros ''Young man.'' Denotes an Archaic Greek statue type of a standing male figure. Krater A deep, wide-mouthed bowl with a base, used for mixing wine. Kymation Decorative molding that resembles waves. Lekythos A tall vase used for funerary offerings of oil for the dead. Lintel The horizontal architectural piece above a door or other opening. Logeion ''Speaking place.'' Opening or door in the second storey of the scenae frons. Loutron A bath or bathing complex. Malta Cross A cross with arms of equal length, but with the outer face of each arm indented in a V-shape. Manteion Place for the issuing of an oracle. Martyrium The place where the relics of a martyr are kept, either a separate (sometimes octagonal) building, chapel, or a crypt inside a church under the altar or apse. Megaron The central room of a house in the Mycenaean and Archaic (and later) periods, especially the kings hall; it contains the hearth and is usually entered through a forecourt. Analogies to the Megaron have been found in prehistoric settlements in Europe and Asia. Metope In Doric architecture the square (or nearly square) field between two triglyphs in the entablature, often decorated with sculptures in low relief. Metroon A sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods, often used for the archives of a city. Micaceous Containing a high content of the mineral mica. Modius (also Kalathos) A dry measure in the form of a round basket; typical headdress of the Egyptian god Sarapis. Monolith A column (usually in the Ionic Order), statue, or obelisk hewn out of a single stone. Monopteros A round temple with a circular colonnade, but without a cella. Naidion See Naiskos. Naiskos A little naos; a small temple or shrine. See Naos. Naos (also Cella or Oikos) The shrine or innermost part of a temple in which the temple statue was placed. Narthex The entrance hall of a Christian basilica, situated between the atrium and the church, usually rectangular. From the narthex, one enters the main sanctuary, or nave and aisles, of the basilica, usually by means of three doorways. Nave The central aisle in a basilica (public hall or church), usually higher and wider than the two side aisles, extending from the rear wall to the apse or screen of the altar. In a cruciform church, it does not include the transept. Neokoros Used in early times for priestly officers of high rank; under the Roman emperors, the term became a title of dignity for cities which had received permission to erect temples for the imperial cult and were regarded as guardians of the official provincial cult of the emperor. Nilometer A device for measuring the rise and ebb of the Nile, later used in Greece for ritual purposes connected with the worship of Egyptian deities such as Isis.

Nymphaeum/-eion In Greek times a sanctuary of the nymphs, this took a more defined form in Roman times when it was a chamber, sometimes subterranean, containing plants, flowers, and a fountain or running water. Odeion A roofed concert or lecture hall, generally much smaller than open-air theaters. Oikos ''House.'' Sometimes used with reference to the innermost part of a temple. See Naos. Oinochoe A wine pitcher. Opisthodomos The rear chamber of a peripteros or double antae temple, corresponding to the pronaos on the opposite side, often used as a treasury. opus cementicium Roman concrete composed of rubble aggregate laid in lime mortar. opus incertum Irregular wall made of stones of different sizes, often also with cement. opus sectile Floor or wall covering of small marble slabs of different colors arranged in geometric patterns. Orchestra ''The space where the chorus danced.'' The earliest orchestra was apparently diamond-shaped, later a circular or semi-circular area between the front row of the cavea and the scene. Orthostats Large, usually upright stone blocks used to form the first (lowest) course of a wall's construction. Palaestra An open area for athletic training, usually surrounded by porticos. It could be either a separate building or attached to a larger bath or gym-nasium complex. Palisade A fence of stakes used for defense. Paludamentum A military cloak, worn over the cuirass by emperors and generals. Pankration A contest of strength between two male athletes in which everything was permitted, including hitting (with the open hand), kicking, tripping, twisting, and strangling (but not biting and scratching). The fight ended when one of the contestants raised his hand admitting defeat. The contest was first introduced in Olympia in 548/47 BCE. Parapet A hanging curtain or screen that can also be imitated in relief. Parascenia The projecting wings of the scene (stage building) in the theater. Parian marble Fine quality marble from the island of Paros. Parodos The entrance way into the Greek theater, one on each side between the wing of the cavea and the scene building, through which the chorus processed into the orchestra. Gates were often built at the entrance to the orchestra. Parodoi See Parodos. Patera An earthenware or metal saucer used for drinking and libations. Pediment The triangular space in the gable of a building above the entablature, including the tympanum and geison, usually decorated with sculpture in high relief . Pendentive One of the triangular spherical sections between arches that spring from the corners of a rectangular ground plan and serve to allow the room to be covered by a cupola. Pentathlon ''Contest of the Five Exercises.'' A competition which consisted of throwing (discus, actually a quoit), jumping, hurling a javelin, running, and wrestling, probably in this order. The victor was the athlete who won the first three or at least three of the five. First mention of this competition at Olympia comes from the year 708/07 BCE. Pentelic marble Fine quality marble from Mt. Pentelikon near Athens. Peplos A heavy garment worn by Greek women, fastened at both shoulders. Peribolos An enclosed area, usually of a temple or sacred precinct.

Periodos The course of contests for the four great public games: Olympia, Delphi, Isthmia, and Nemea. An athlete who won in all four games was a ''periodos victor.'' Peripteros A temple in which the cella is surrounded on all sides by one row of columns with two columns in antis in the pronaos and opisthodomos. Perirrhanterion An open bowl for sprinkling water used for purification, placed as boundary markers in sacred places, also at the entrances to agoras, or at the door of a temple. Peristasis See Peristyle. Peristyle (also Peristasis) The covered colonnade around a building (e.g., temple) or the colonnades that surround the inner court of a house. Phiale A shallow open bowl used to pour libations Photisterion ''The place of illumination'' = the baptistery itself, that is, the room in which the baptismal font was located. Phrygian cap A close-fitting, conical cap. Pier Usually refers to the architectural member which supports an arch or lintel, which can be a column or pilaster. Also indicates the wall between two openings, such as windows or doors. Pilaster A rectangular pier projecting from a wall with a base and capital; it is treated like a column according to the appropriate architectural order of the building to which it belongs. Pithos A large storage jar without handles. Plektrum The ancient counterpart of the modern pick, used for plucking musical string instruments. Plinth The square block which serves as the bottom of an Ionic or Corinthian column base. Also refers to the lowest portion of a pedestal. Podium A continuous and raised base for a structure (e.g., temple) or wall. Polychromy The decoration of sculpture or architectural ornaments in combinations of several colors. Pompeia The vessels and sacred objects carried in festival processions. Pompeian Styles Derived from the decorations of the town of Pompeii, which was buried in lava and ash in 79 CE and excavated in the eighteenth century. The dates of trhe First Pompeian Style are XXXXXX-ask Ken. Pontifex The priest of the state cult in Rome or Roman colonies. Poros Soft, coarse limestone, found in abundance in the Peloponnesos, and commonly used as a building material, especially for foundations. Portico See Stoa. Praefurnium The heating room or the hot anteroom in a bath complex. Proedria The front row(s) in a theater containing the seats of honor for priests and dignitaries. Pronaos The front chamber of a temple, through which the cella is accessible, usually with two columns in antis. Propylon A gate or entrance building to a market or an enclosed sacred district, often with interior columns. More elaborate entrance structures are de-signated as ''Propylaia.'' Proscenium The front area of the stage in front of the scenae frons. Prostyle A temple with a row of columns in front of its cella and two columns in antis in its pronaos. Proteichisma An outer fortification wall.

Prothalamos An anteroom or waiting room. Prothesis The table on which the Eucharist is prepared, located in the chancel. Prytaneion The building, in which the acting magistrates had their office; sometimes the sacred hearth was located in this building. Prytanis Usually an acting magistrate of a Greek city; in Ephesos the chief su-pervisor of the cult of Artemis. Pseudodipteral A style of temple construction modeled on the dipteral temple, but in which the interior row of columns either is entirely lacking from the sides and read of the temple, or is simulated there by half-columns on the exterior of the cella wall (''wall columns,'' or ''engaged columns''). Quadriga Four horses harnessed abreast drawing a chariot. Quaestor A Roman financial officer in charge of public monies. Also a public judge or prosecutor in criminal trials. Revetment The facing of a wall of a building with stones or other materials; e.g., marble revetment of a brick wall. Rostrum (also Tribunal) Orators platform in the Roman Forum. Scarp The almost vertical side of a ditch located below the parapet of a fortification. Scenae frons The front of the raised wall behind the stage of a theater or odeion which faces the viewer, often several storeys high with doors, windows, and niches; it is usually decorated with sculptures and reliefs. Scene The entire stage building of a theater or odeion. Scotia A concave molding in the bases of columns. Sekos The unroofed inner cella of a large dipteros temple; a small naiskos for the temple statue is built inside against the back wall of the sekos. Sima The gutter of a building attached to the geison; its spouts are often scul-pted as animals (lions) head. Sistrum A percussion instrument used in the worship of Isis, consisting of metal rods or loops attached to a metal frame. Socle The projecting foot of a wall or pedestal. Soffit The underside of an arch, often decorated with reliefs, paintings, or mosaics. Sphendone Literally, a headband worn by Greek women; also generally denotes a semicircular architectural feature, especially the horseshoe-shaped end of a stadium or hippodrome. Spira Concave molding, in an Ionic or Corinthian column base above the plinth and below the torus. Spoils (Spolia) Building materials which have been previously used. Stele A stone pillar or slab carved with a legal, political, or commemorative inscription. Stereobate The substructure of a colonnade or wall, consisting of: (1) the undressed or roughly dressed foundations which lie under the ground level; (2) the euthynteria, or the dressed uppermost course of the foundations; and (3) the crepidoma, the stepped platform of dressed stones above the ground level. Stoa (also Portico) A long covered colonnade or arcade, either free-standing or alongside a building. Stylobate The uppermost step of the crepidoma which carries the columns or the column bases. Sudatorium A hot-air room used for sweat baths. Syrinx Pans pipe, or the mouthpiece attached to the aulos.

Synthronon The seating behind the altar for the clergy in a church. Tabula ansata A ''double-eared'' plaque, either of metal or imitated in sculpted relief, usually bearing an inscription. Its shape is rectangular, with an equilateral triangle projecting horizontally from each of its vertical sides. Temenos A sacred precinct, cut off from common usage and dedicated to a god. It usually consists of the land immediately surrounding a temple, often marked by a low wall. Tepidarium The room in a bath complex containing warm (tepid) water pools. Tesselated A floor made with small tiles, either set irregularly or forming a pattern. Tesserae (also Tesellae) Cut mosaic cubes. Tetraprostyle See Tetrastyle. Tetrastyle (also Tetraprostyle) A temple consisting of an oikos and a row of four columns set before its entrance, with two columns in antis in its pronaos. Thalassa Water basin in Christian churches used for cleaning of holy vessels. Tholos A round temple with a circular colonnade surrounding a cella. Or, a circular building in general. Thyrsos The staff of Dionysos. Torus Convex molding, usually found as the upper part of a column base, above the spira. Tribelon A three-partite entrance structure without doors that could be closed by a curtain; often found in Christian basilicas. Tribunal See Rostrum. Triclinium A dining couch, or a room which contains couches for reclining (or-dinarily for the purpose of eating and drinking). Triglyph An ornament of a Doric Order frieze consisting of a projecting rectangular tablet with two vertical channels. The triglyphs are usually located above each column, with one or two (or even three) in the spaces between the columns. Tropeion A trophy or monument of an enemy's defeat, usually of wood, sometimes of bronze or stone. Tympanum The recessed triangular space of the pediment, above the cornice; also the space within an arch above a lintel. It is usually decorated. Volute An ornamental motif in the form of a spiral curve, typical of Ionic capitals. Xoanon A rudely-carved, wooden image of a deity. In many ancient religions, the xoanon was the cult statue (distinct from the temple statue) that was decorated and carried in processions. Xystos A long portico used for athletic exercises and training, especially for running and therefore of the same length as a stadium.