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Chemistry Lab: STRUCTURE, BONDING, AND PROPERTIES Most of the physical and chemical properties of a substance can be related

to the type of bonding present in that substance. The type of bonding, together with the geometry of the molecule, determine whether the molecule is polar. Polarity influences many characteristics such as those investigated in this lab. For each of the experiments below, follow the procedure, record your observations, and answer the questions. EXPERIMENT 1. The effect of a charged rod on liquid jets. Charge a plastic rod or ruler by rubbing it on your hair. Hold the rod about 1 cm from a jet of water issuing from a burette. Repeat the procedure with a jet of alcohol and a jet of hexane. 1. Which of the liquids contain charged molecules? How do you know? 2. Explain the effect of the charged rod on the jets of liquid. EXPERIMENT 2 Miscibility of liquids Using small test tubes, mix together the following combinations a. water and alcohol b. water and hexane c. alcohol and hexane 3. Explain the results in terms of polarities of the molecules in the liquids. EXPERIMENT 3 Solubility of iodine (I2) in liquids

Observe. Record your observations. 4. Is iodine ionic, polar covalent or nonpolar covalent? Explain in terms of your results. EXPERIMENT 4 Solubility of carbon (charcoal) in liquids

Observe. Record your observations. 5. Is charcoal ionic, polar covalent or nonpolar covalent? Explain in terms of your results.

EXPERIMENT 5

Solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl) in liquids

Observe. Record your observations. 6. Is NaCl2 ionic, polar covalent or nonpolar covalent? Explain in terms of your results.

EXPERIMENT 6 Conductivity Use the conductivity sensor to test conductivity. Relative, rather than absolute values are important. a. Test the conductivity of each of the three liquids; water, alcohol, and hexane. Record the conductivity values for each. Higher values signify greater conductivity. b. Test the conductivity of each of the solutions: salt water and sugar water 7. Which of the liquids and/or solutions conduct electricity? 8. Explain the conductivity in terms of the properties of the liquids and solutions. EXPERIMENT 7 Surface tension and volatility Place a drop of water, alcohol, and hexane on a glass microscope slide. Observe at eye level. Note the time for each to evaporate. 9. Explain the appearances of the three drops. 10. Explain the difference in time for evaporation. EXPERIMENT 8 The boiling points and molar masses of the three liquids are as follows: This is a dry lab, no procedure to follow. Read the data below and answer the question. bp mm Water 100C 18 g mol-1 Ethanol 78C 46 g mol-1 Hexane 69C 86 g mol-1 11. Explain the differences in boiling points in terms of intermolecular forces. Lab report: 1. For each experiment, present all observed results in a table 2. Answer all eleven questions.