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INTRO

Introduction to Cisco
Networking Technologies
Student Guide
Version 1.0a
Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
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(0203R)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a i
COURSE INTRODUCTION 1
Overview 1
Course Outline 1
Course Goal and Objectives 2
Cisco Certifications 5
Learner Skills and Knowledge 6
Learner Responsibilities 7
General Administration 8
Course Flow Diagram 9
Ìcons and Symbols 10
Learner Ìntroductions 11
Course Evaluations 12
MODULE 1 - INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING 1-1
Overview 1-1
Objectives 1-1
Outline 1-2
LESSON ONE: COMPUTING BASICS 1-3
Overview 1-3
Relevance 1-3
Objectives 1-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 1-4
Outline 1-4
PC Components 1-5
PC vs. Laptop 1-10
Network Ìnterface Card 1-11
NÌC Ìnstallation 1-12
Bits, Bytes, and Measurements Terms 1-13
Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 1-15
Binary-to-Decimal Conversion 1-17
Binary-to-Hex Conversion 1-19
Hex-to-Binary Conversion 1-23
Summary 1-25
Quiz 1-26
Quiz Answer Key 1-28
LESSON TWO: NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS 1-29
Overview 1-29
Relevance 1-29
Objectives 1-29
Learner Skills and Knowledge 1-30
Outline 1-30
Basic Networking Terminology 1-31
Network Applications 1-33
Computer Networks 1-35
The OSÌ Reference Model 1-38
The OSÌ Layers and Functions 1-41
Data Communications 1-49
The TCP/ÌP Protocol Stack 1-53
TCP/ÌP Protocol Stack vs. OSÌ Reference Model 1-54
Summary 1-55
Quiz 1-57
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Quiz Answer Key 1-60
LESSON THREE: NETWORK DEVICES 1-61
Overview 1-61
Relevance 1-61
Objectives 1-61
Learner Skills and Knowledge 1-62
Outline 1-62
Layer 1 Devices 1-63
Layer 2 Devices 1-65
Layer 3 Devices 1-69
Voice, DSL, and Optical Devices 1-71
Firewalls and AAA Servers 1-74
Summary 1-75
Quiz 1-77
Quiz Answer Key 1-79
LESSON FOUR: NETWORK TOPOLOGIES 1-81
Overview 1-81
Relevance 1-81
Objectives 1-81
Learner Skills and Knowledge 1-82
Outline 1-82
Physical vs. Logical 1-83
Bus 1-85
Star and Extended Star 1-86
Ring 1-88
Mesh and Partial Mesh 1-90
Summary 1-92
Quiz 1-93
Quiz Answer Key 1-94
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 1-95
Overview 1-95
Relevance 1-95
Quiz 1-1: Computing Basics 1-96
Quiz 1-2: Networking Fundamentals 1-98
Quiz 1-3: Network Devices 1-100
Quiz 1-4: Network Topologies 1-102
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 1-104
MODULE 2 - NETWORK TYPES 2-1
Overview 2-1
Objectives 2-1
Outline 2-1
LESSON ONE: LANS 2-3
Overview 2-3
Relevance 2-3
Objectives 2-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 2-4
Outline 2-4
LAN Standards 2-5
Ethernet and CSMA/CD 2-7
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a iii
Ethernet Protocol Description 2-9
Fast Ethernet 2-10
Gigabit Ethernet 2-11
Gigabit Ìnterface Converter 2-12
Summary 2-13
Quiz 2-14
Quiz Answer Key 2-15
LESSON TWO: WANS 2-17
Overview 2-17
Relevance 2-17
Objectives 2-17
Learner Skills and Knowledge 2-18
Outline 2-18
Global Ìnternet 2-19
WAN Technology Overview 2-20
WAN Devices 2-22
WAN Service Providers and Signaling Standards 2-26
WANs and the Physical Layer 2-30
WANs and the Data-Link Layer 2-32
Summary 2-33
Quiz 2-34
Quiz Answer Key 2-36
LESSON THREE: OTHER TYPES OF NETWORKS 2-37
Overview 2-37
Relevance 2-37
Objectives 2-37
Learner Skills and Knowledge 2-38
Outline 2-38
Metropolitan-Area Networks 2-39
Storage Area Networks 2-40
Content Networks 2-43
Virtual Private Networks 2-45
Types of VPNs 2-46
Ìntranets and Extranets 2-47
Summary 2-49
Quiz 2-51
Quiz Answer Key 2-53
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 2-55
Overview 2-55
Outline 2-55
Quiz 2-1: LANs 2-56
Quiz 2-2: WANs 2-58
Quiz 2-3: Other Types of Networks 2-61
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 2-63
MODULE 3 - NETWORK MEDIA 3-1
Overview 3-1
Objectives 3-1
Outline 3-1
LESSON ONE: NETWORK MEDIA TYPES 3-3
iv Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Overview 3-3
Relevance 3-3
Objectives 3-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 3-4
Outline 3-4
Twisted-Pair Cable 3-5
Coaxial Cable 3-8
Fiber-Optic Cable 3-10
Wireless Communication 3-12
Comparing Media Types 3-14
Summary 3-15
Quiz 3-16
Quiz Answer Key 3-17
LESSON TWO: CABLING THE LAN 3-19
Overview 3-19
Relevance 3-19
Objectives 3-19
Learner Skills and Knowledge 3-20
Outline 3-20
LAN Physical Layer 3-21
Ethernet in the Campus 3-22
Ethernet Media and Connector Requirements 3-23
Connection Media 3-24
UTP Ìmplementation 3-27
Summary 3-33
Quiz 3-34
Quiz Answer Key 3-35
LESSON THREE: CABLING THE WAN 3-37
Overview 3-37
Relevance 3-37
Objectives 3-37
Learner Skills and Knowledge 3-38
Outline 3-38
WAN Physical Layer 3-39
WAN Serial Connections 3-40
Routers and Serial Connections 3-42
Routers and ÌSDN BRÌ Connections 3-46
Routers and DSL Connections 3-47
Routers and Cable Connections 3-49
Setting Up Console Connections 3-50
Summary 3-51
Quiz 3-52
Quiz Answer Key 3-54
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 3-55
Overview 3-55
Outline 3-55
Quiz 3-1: Network Media Types 3-56
Quiz 3-2: Cabling the LAN 3-58
Quiz 3-3: Cabling the WAN 3-60
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 3-62
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a v
MODULE 4 - SWITCHING FUNDAMENTALS 4-1
Overview 4-1
Objectives 4-1
Outline 4-2
LESSON ONE: SHARED LAN TECHNOLOGY 4-3
Overview 4-3
Relevance 4-3
Objectives 4-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 4-4
Outline 4-4
Ìdentifying Segment Limitations 4-5
Extending the LAN Segment 4-6
Communicating Within the LAN 4-7
Defining a Collision Domain 4-8
Consuming Bandwidth 4-9
Creating Multiple Collision Domains 4-10
Summary 4-12
Quiz 4-13
Quiz Answer Key 4-15
LESSON TWO: LAN SWITCHING 4-17
Overview 4-17
Relevance 4-17
Objectives 4-17
Learner Skills and Knowledge 4-18
Outline 4-18
Defining LAN Switching 4-19
Ìdentifying Switching Features 4-20
Categorizing Switches by Switching Technique 4-21
Categorizing Switches by Bandwidth Allocation 4-22
Categorizing Switches by Layer Functionality 4-23
Switching Frames 4-24
Flooding the Network 4-25
Preventing Loops 4-27
Summary 4-28
Quiz 4-29
Quiz Answer Key 4-31
LESSON THREE: VIRTUAL LANS 4-33
Overview 4-33
Relevance 4-33
Objectives 4-33
Learner Skills and Knowledge 4-34
Outline 4-34
Defining a Virtual LAN 4-35
Ìdentifying VLAN Benefits 4-36
vi Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Ìdentifying VLAN Components 4-37
Establishing VLAN Membership 4-38
Communicating Between VLANs 4-39
Summary 4-40
Quiz 4-41
Quiz Answer Key 4-42
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 4-43
Overview 4-43
Outline 4-43
Quiz 4-1: Shared LAN Technology 4-44
Quiz 4-2: LAN Switching 4-46
Quiz 4-3: Virtual LANs 4-48
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 4-50
MODULE 5 - TCP/IP 5-1
Overview 5-1
Objectives 5-1
Outline 5-1
LESSON ONE: NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOL OVERVIEW 5-3
Overview 5-3
Relevance 5-3
Objectives 5-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 5-3
Outline 5-3
Defining the Network Layer 5-5
Describing the Functions of ÌP 5-6
Describing the Functions of ÌCMP 5-8
Describing the Functions of ARP 5-9
Describing the Functions of RARP 5-10
Describing the Functions of DHCP 5-11
Ìdentifying Components of the ÌP Datagram 5-12
Defining the Protocol Field 5-14
Summary 5-15
Quiz 5-16
Quiz Answer Key 5-18
LESSON TWO: TRANSPORT LAYER OVERVIEW 5-19
Overview 5-19
Relevance 5-19
Objectives 5-19
Learner Skills and Knowledge 5-20
Outline 5-20
Communicating Between Devices 5-21
Defining TCP/ÌP 5-23
Describing the Functions of TCP 5-24
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a vii
Describing the Functions of UDP 5-26
Supporting TCP/ÌP Applications 5-27
Summary 5-28
Quiz 5-29
Quiz Answer Key 5-31
LESSON THREE: TRANSPORT LAYER FUNCTIONALITY 5-33
Overview 5-33
Relevance 5-33
Objectives 5-33
Learner Skills and Knowledge 5-34
Outline 5-34
Establishing a Connection with a Peer System 5-35
Encapsulating a Message 5-36
Ìdentifying Components of the TCP Header 5-37
Ìdentifying Components of the UDP Header 5-38
Establishing a TCP Connection 5-39
Ensuring Receipt of Segments 5-40
Controlling Traffic Flow 5-41
Directing Multiple Conversations 5-43
Terminating a Connection 5-44
Summary 5-45
Quiz 5-46
Quiz Answer Key 5-49
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 5-51
Overview 5-51
Outline 5-51
Quiz 5-1: Network Layer Protocol Overview 5-52
Quiz 5-2: Transport Layer Overview 5-55
Quiz 5-3: Transport Layer Functionality 5-57
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 5-60
MODULE 6 - IP ADDRESSING AND ROUTING 6-1
Overview 6-1
Objectives 6-1
Outline 6-2
LESSON ONE: IP NETWORK ADDRESSING 6-3
Overview 6-3
Relevance 6-3
Objectives 6-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 6-4
Outline 6-4
ÌP Addressing 6-5
ÌP Address Structure 6-6
ÌP Address Classes 6-7
viii Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Reserved ÌP Addresses 6-10
Public and Private ÌP Addresses 6-13
ÌPv4 Address Allocation 6-15
ÌPv4 vs. ÌPv6 6-16
CÌDR 6-17
Summary 6-19
Quiz 6-21
Quiz Answer Key 6-23
LESSON TWO: IP SUBNETTING 6-25
Overview 6-25
Relevance 6-25
Objectives 6-25
Learner Skills and Knowledge 6-26
Outline 6-26
Subnetworks 6-27
Subnet Masking 6-29
Determining the Subnet Number 6-31
Modifying a Default Subnet Mask 6-33
Network Address Planning 6-35
Subnetting Class C Addresses 6-37
Summary 6-42
Quiz 6-43
Quiz Answer Key 6-45
LESSON THREE: ROUTING BASICS 6-47
Overview 6-47
Relevance 6-47
Objectives 6-47
Learner Skills and Knowledge 6-48
Outline 6-48
Router Functions 6-49
Encapsulation 6-50
Routed vs. Routing Protocols 6-51
Path Determination 6-52
Routing Tables 6-53
Routing Protocols/Algorithms 6-55
Routing Metrics 6-56
Summary 6-57
Quiz 6-58
Quiz Answer Key 6-60
LESSON FOUR: ROUTING PROTOCOLS 6-61
Overview 6-61
Relevance 6-61
Objectives 6-61
Learner Skills and Knowledge 6-62
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a ix
Outline 6-62
ÌGPs and EGPs 6-63
Routing Protocols 6-65
RÌPv1 and RÌPv2 6-70
ÌGRP 6-71
EÌGRP 6-72
OSPF 6-73
BGP 6-74
Summary 6-75
Quiz 6-77
Quiz Answer Key 6-79
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 6-81
Overview 6-81
Outline 6-81
Quiz 6-1: ÌP Network Addressing 6-82
Quiz 6-2: ÌP Subnetting 6-84
Quiz 6-3: Routing Basics 6-86
Quiz 6-4: Routing Protocols 6-88
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 6-91
MODULE 7 - WAN TECHNOLOGIES 7-1
Overview 7-1
Objectives 7-1
Outline 7-1
LESSON ONE: WAN TECHNOLOGY BASICS 7-3
Overview 7-3
Relevance 7-3
Objectives 7-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 7-4
Outline 7-4
WAN Technology Basics 7-5
Circuit Switching 7-6
Packet Switching 7-7
Point-to-Point 7-8
Bandwidth 7-9
Multiplexing 7-10
Summary 7-14
Quiz 7-16
Quiz Answer Key 7-18
LESSON TWO: WAN ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES 7-19
Overview 7-19
Relevance 7-19
Objectives 7-19
Learner Skills and Knowledge 7-20
Outline 7-20
PPP 7-21
HDLC 7-23
ÌSDN 7-24
x Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
DSL 7-26
DSL Types 7-27
DSL Standards 7-28
DSL Advantages and Disadvantages 7-29
Frame Relay 7-30
ATM and Cell Switching 7-32
SONET 7-34
Summary 7-35
Quiz 7-37
Quiz Answer Key 7-39
LESSON THREE: MODEMS 7-41
Overview 7-41
Relevance 7-41
Objectives 7-41
Learner Skills and Knowledge 7-42
Outline 7-42
Analog Modems 7-43
Analog Modem Standards 7-44
Cable Modems 7-45
How Cable Modems Work 7-46
Cable Modem Advantages and Disadvantages 7-48
Summary 7-49
Quiz 7-50
Quiz Answer Key 7-51
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 7-53
Overview 7-53
Relevance 7-53
Quiz 7-1: WAN Technology Basics 7-54
Quiz 7-2: WAN Access Technologies 7-56
Quiz 7-3: Modems 7-59
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 7-60
MODULE 8 - OPERATING AND CONFIGURING CISCO IOS DEVICES 8-1
Overview 8-1
Objectives 8-1
Outline 8-1
LESSON ONE: OPERATING CISCO IOS SOFTWARE 8-3
Overview 8-3
Relevance 8-3
Objectives 8-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 8-4
Outline 8-4
Cisco ÌOS Software Features 8-5
Configuring Network Devices 8-6
External Configuration Sources 8-8
Cisco ÌOS Command-Line Ìnterface Functions 8-10
Entering the EXEC Modes 8-11
Summary 8-13
Quiz 8-14
Quiz Answer Key 8-17
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a xi
LESSON TWO: STARTING A SWITCH 8-19
Overview 8-19
Relevance 8-19
Objectives 8-19
Learner Skills and Knowledge 8-20
Outline 8-20
Physical Startup of the Catalyst Switch 8-21
Switch LED Ìndicators 8-22
Verifying Port LEDs During Switch POST 8-26
Viewing Ìnitial Bootup Output from the Switch 8-28
Logging Ìn to the Switch 8-30
Examining the Help Facility in the Switch CLÌ 8-31
Configuring a Switch from the Command Line 8-32
Showing the Switch Ìnitial Startup Status 8-36
Summary 8-41
Quiz 8-42
Quiz Answer Key 8-46
LESSON THREE: STARTING A ROUTER 8-47
Overview 8-47
Relevance 8-47
Objectives 8-47
Learner Skills and Knowledge 8-48
Outline 8-48
Ìnitial Startup of Cisco Routers 8-49
Ìnitial Setup of the Router 8-51
Logging Ìn to the Router 8-58
Keyboard Help in the Router CLÌ 8-62
Enhanced Editing Commands 8-66
Router Command History 8-69
Showing the Router Ìnitial Startup Status 8-71
Summary 8-74
Quiz 8-75
Quiz Answer Key 8-78
LESSON FOUR: CONFIGURING A ROUTER 8-79
Overview 8-79
Relevance 8-79
Objectives 8-79
Learner Skills and Knowledge 8-80
Outline 8-80
Router Configuration Modes 8-81
Configuring a Router from the Command Line 8-84
Configuring Router Ìnterfaces 8-88
Configuring the Router ÌP Address 8-93
Verifying the Ìnterface Configuration 8-94
Summary 8-100
References 8-101
Next Steps 8-101
Quiz 8-102
Quiz Answer Key 8-106
Lab Exercise 8-1: Cisco Remote Lab Connection 8-107
Lab Exercise 8-2: Switch Startup and Ìnitial Configuration 8-112
Lab Exercise 8-3: Cisco Router Startup and Ìnitial Configuration 8-126
Lab Exercise 8-4: Using the Router Command-Line Ìnterface 8-136
xii Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lab Exercise 8-5: Operating and Configuring a Cisco ÌOS Device 8-143
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 8-151
Overview 8-151
Outline 8-151
Quiz 8-1: Operating Cisco ÌOS Software 8-152
Quiz 8-2: Starting a Switch 8-154
Quiz 8-3: Starting a Router 8-157
Quiz 8-4: Configuring a Router 8-160
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 8-163
MODULE 9 - MANAGING YOUR NETWORK ENVIRONMENT 9-1
Overview 9-1
Objectives 9-1
Outline 9-2
LESSON ONE: DISCOVERING NEIGHBORS ON THE NETWORK 9-3
Overview 9-3
Relevance 9-3
Objectives 9-3
Learner Skills and Knowledge 9-4
Outline 9-4
Cisco Discovery Protocol 9-5
Ìnformation Obtained with CDP 9-6
Ìmplementation of CDP 9-7
Using the show cdp neighbors Command 9-8
Monitoring and Maintaining CDP 9-9
Creating a Network Map of the Environment 9-11
Summary 9-12
Quiz 9-13
Quiz Answer Key 9-16
LESSON TWO: GETTING INFORMATION ABOUT REMOTE DEVICES 9-17
Overview 9-17
Relevance 9-17
Objectives 9-17
Learner Skills and Knowledge 9-18
Outline 9-18
Establishing a Telnet Connection 9-19
Suspending and Resuming a Telnet Session 9-22
Closing a Telnet Session 9-23
Alternate Connectivity Tests 9-24
Summary 9-26
Quiz 9-27
Quiz Answer Key 9-29
LESSON THREE: ROUTER STARTUP AND CONFIGURATION
MANAGEMENT
9-31
Overview 9-31
Relevance 9-31
Objectives 9-31
Learner Skills and Knowledge 9-32
Outline 9-32
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a xiii
Stages of the Router Power-On/Bootup Sequence 9-33
Ìnternal Router Components 9-35
How a Cisco Device Locates and Loads Cisco ÌOS and Configuration Files 9-38
Configuration Register 9-43
Summary 9-48
Quiz 9-49
Quiz Answer Key 9-51
LESSON FOUR: MANAGING CISCO DEVICES 9-53
Overview 9-53
Relevance 9-53
Objectives 9-53
Learner Skills and Knowledge 9-54
Outline 9-54
Cisco ÌOS File System and Devices 9-55
Managing Cisco ÌOS Ìmages 9-57
Managing Device Configuration Files 9-61
Cisco ÌOS copy Command 9-63
Executing Adds, Moves, and Changes 9-66
Using debug on Operational Cisco Devices 9-70
Summary 9-74
References 9-75
Next Steps 9-75
Quiz 9-76
Quiz Answer Key 9-79
Written Exercise: Commands to Load and Back Up Cisco ÌOS Software
Ìmage Files
9-80
Lab Exercise 9-1: Gathering Ìnformation About Neighboring Devices and
Using System Files
9-81
LESSON ASSESSMENTS 9-91
Overview 9-91
Outline 9-91
Quiz 9-1: Discovering Neighbors on the Network 9-92
Quiz 9-2: Getting Ìnformation About Remote Devices 9-95
Quiz 9-3: Router Startup and Configuration Management 9-97
Quiz 9-4: Managing Cisco Devices 9-99
Lesson Assessment Answer Key 9-102
APPENDIX A: COURSE GLOSSARY A-1
Course Glossary A-1
xiv Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
INTRO
Course Introduction
Overview
The Introauction to Cisco Networking Technologies (INTRO) course Iocuses on introducing
networking techniques, terminology, and technology Ior those learners who do not have a
technical background. This course includes an overview oI the basics oI communications and
networking elements, a discussion oI the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model and the
TCP/IP protocol stack, common LAN and WAN protocols, and switching and routing. Finally,
INTRO provides you with the basic skills and knowledge to conIigure a Cisco IOS router Ior
network connectivity.
Course OutIine
This outline lists the modules included in this course.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5
Course OutIine
· Introduction to Networking
· Network Types
· Network Media
· Switching FundamentaIs
· TCP/IP
· IP Addressing and Routing
· WAN TechnoIogies
· Operating and Configuring Cisco IOS Devices
· Managing Your Network Environment
2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Course GoaI and Objectives
This section describes the course goal and objectives.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6
Course Objectives
· Describe the major components of a personaI
computer, binary and hexadecimaI numbering
systems, and the components and functions
of computer network devices
· Describe the functions, operations, and
primary components of common types of
networks
· Describe the primary types of network media,
incIuding cabIes and connectors
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4
Course GoaI
"Provide an overview of fundamentaI
networking techniques, terminoIogy,
and technoIogy for those Iearners who
do not have a technicaI background."
Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Course Ìntroduction 3
Upon completing this course, you will be able to meet these objectives:
Describe the major components oI a personal computer, binary and hexadecimal numbering
systems, and the components and Iunctions oI computer network devices
Describe the Iunctions, operations, and primary components oI common types oI networks
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8
Course Objectives (Cont.)
· Describe the functions of major WAN
technoIogies and access technoIogies, as
weII as the functions of anaIog and cabIe
modems
· CompIete and verify the initiaI IOS software
device configuration
· Manage devices on a network according to
designated best practices
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7
Course Objectives (Cont.)
· Describe the functions and operations of
LANs and VirtuaI LANs
· Describe the functions and operations of the
network and transport Iayers of the IP
protocoI stack
· Describe the major aspects of IP addressing
and caIcuIate vaIid IP subnet addresses and
masks, as weII as expIain the functions of
routing, incIuding major routing protocoIs
4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describe the primary types oI network media, including cables and connectors
Describe the Iunctions and operations oI LANs and Virtual LANs
Describe the Iunctions and operations oI the network and transport layers oI the IP protocol
stack
Describe the major aspects oI IP addressing and calculate valid IP subnet addresses and
masks, as well as explain the Iunctions oI routing, including major routing protocols
Describe the Iunctions oI major WAN technologies and access technologies, as well as the
Iunctions oI analog and cable modems
Complete and veriIy the initial IOS soItware device conIiguration
Manage devices on a network according to designated best practices
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Course Ìntroduction 5
Cisco Certifications
This topic lists the certiIication requirements oI this course.
Cisco provides three levels oI general career certiIications Ior IT proIessionals with several
diIIerent tracks to meet individual needs. Cisco also provides Iocused Cisco QualiIied
Specialist (CQS) certiIications Ior designated areas such as cable communications, voice, and
security.
There are many paths to Cisco certiIication, but only one requirementpassing one or more
exams demonstrating knowledge and skill. For details, go
to:http://www.cisco.com/go/certiIications.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-9
Cisco Certifications
6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
This topic lists the course prerequisites.
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic computer literacy
Basic understanding oI personal computing hardware conIigurations
Basic understanding oI networking business drivers
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-10
Prerequisite Learner SkiIIs
and KnowIedge
Basic Computer
Literacy
Basic KnowIedge of
PC Hardware
Configuration
Basic KnowIedge
of Networking
Business Drivers
Introduction to Cisco
Networking TechnoIogies
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Course Ìntroduction 7
Learner ResponsibiIities
This topic discusses the responsibilities oI the learners.
To take Iull advantage oI the inIormation presented in this course, you must have completed the
prerequisite requirements.
In class, you are expected to participate in all lesson exercises and assessments.
In addition, you are encouraged to ask any questions relevant to the course materials.
II you have pertinent inIormation or questions concerning Iuture Cisco product releases and
product Ieatures, please discuss these topics during breaks or aIter class. The instructor will
answer your questions or direct you to an appropriate inIormation source.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-11
Learner ResponsibiIities
· CompIete
prerequisites
· Introduce
yourseIf
· Ask questions
8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
GeneraI Administration
This topic lists the administrative issues Ior the course.
The instructor will discuss these administrative issues:
Sign-in process
Starting and anticipated ending times oI each class day
Class breaks and lunch Iacilities
Appropriate attire during class
Materials that you can expect to receive during class
What to do in the event oI an emergency
Location oI the rest rooms
How to send and receive telephone and Iax messages
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-12
GeneraI Administration
CIass-ReIated
· Sign-in sheet
· Length and times
· Break and Iunchroom
Iocations
· Attire
FaciIities-ReIated
· Site emergency
procedures
· Rest rooms
· TeIephones/faxes
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Course Ìntroduction 9
Course FIow Diagram
This topic covers the suggested Ilow oI the course materials.
The schedule reIlects the recommended structure Ior this course. This structure allows enough
time Ior the instructor to present the course inIormation and Ior you to work through the
laboratory exercises. The exact timing oI the subject materials and labs depends on the pace oI
your speciIic class.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-13
Course FIow Diagram
WAN
TechnoIogies
Course
Introduction
Introduction to
Networking
Managing Your
Network
Environment
Lunch
Network
Media
Operating and
Configuring IOS
Devices
A
M
P
M
IP Addressing
and Routing
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Switching
FundamentaIs
Network
Types
TCP/IP
10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Icons and SymboIs
This topic shows the Cisco icons and symbols used in this course.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-14
Cisco Icons and SymboIs
Router
Bridge
Workgroup
Switch
MuItiIayer
Switch
Network
CIoud
SeriaI Line Ethernet Line
Access
Server
PIX FirewaII ATM
Switch
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-15
Cisco Icons and SymboIs (Cont.)
Headquarters FirewaII
Phone
DSU/CSU
Modem Home Office
Workstation
(Sun)
PC Branch
Office
FiIe Server Repeater Hub
DSU/CSU
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Course Ìntroduction 11
Learner Introductions
This is the point in the course where you introduce yourselI.
Prepare to share the Iollowing inIormation:
Your name
Your company
II you have most or all oI the prerequisite skills
A proIile oI your experience
What you would like to learn Irom this course
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-16
Learner Introductions
· Your name
· Your
company
· SkiIIs and
knowIedge
· Brief history
· Objective
12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Course EvaIuations
Cisco relies on customer Ieedback to make improvements and guide business decisions. Your
valuable input will help shape Iuture Cisco learning products and program oIIerings.
On the Iirst and Iinal days oI class, your instructor will provide the Iollowing inIormation
needed to Iill out the evaluation:
Course acronym (printea on stuaent kit siae label) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Course version number (printea on stuaent kit siae label) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Cisco Learning Partner ID # ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Instructor ID #¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Course ID # (for courses registerea in Cisco Learning Locator) ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Please use this inIormation to complete a brieI (approximately 10 minutes) online evaluation
concerning your instructor and the course materials in the student kit. To access the evaluation,
go to http://www.cisco.com/go/clpevals.
AIter the completed survey has been submitted, you will be able to access links to a variety oI
Cisco resources, including inIormation on the Cisco Career CertiIication programs and Iuture
Cisco Networkers events.
II you encounter any diIIiculties accessing the course evaluation URL or submitting your
evaluation, please contact Cisco via email at clpevals¸support¸external.cisco.com.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-17
Course EvaIuations
ModuIe 1
Introduction to Networking
Overview
There are several Iundamental elements involved in the networking oI computers, including
computers themselves and their components that are designed Ior network connectivity, as well
as other network devices, such as bridges, hubs, and routers. In addition, there are standards
that ensure compatibility and interoperability among the various network technologies. The two
standards that apply to networking are the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reIerence model
and the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack. Both oI these
standards explain, in diIIerent networking environments, how data travels Irom application
programs (such as spreadsheets) through a network medium (such as wires) to other application
programs located on other computers on a network. Finally, there are a number oI types oI
network topologies, each designed to accomplish certain networking Iunctions.
This module provides an overview oI the components and Iunctions oI personal computers and
computer networks.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to deIine the major components oI a personal
computer, as well as describe the components, Iunctions, and operations oI computer network
devices. This includes being able to do the Iollowing:
IdentiIy the major components oI a computer system and convert binary, decimal, and
hexadecimal numbers
DeIine basic computer and networking terminology and describe the beneIits and Iunctions
oI the OSI reIerence model and TCP/IP protocol stack, as well as the process oI
communication between layers oI the OSI reIerence model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at the diIIerent
layers oI the OSI model, including bridges; hubs; switches; routers; Iirewalls;
authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) servers; and remote access servers
Describe the Ieatures oI diIIerent network topologies
1-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
OutIine
The module contains these components:
Computing Basics
Networking Fundamentals
Network Devices
Network Topologies
Lesson Assessments
Computing Basics
Overview
There are several major hardware elements oI computers that allow network connectivity,
including the CPU, bus, drives, memory components, ports, and cards. Computers process
inIormation as electrical impulses, using only 1s and 0s to represent the present or absence oI
electrical impulses. There are terms that describe the speed at which computers process, store,
and transmit data in the Iorm oI these impulses. There are also speciIic numbering systems,
such as binary and hexadecimal, by which computers perIorm the computations required Ior
processing and transmitting data.
ReIevance
Computers are a signiIicant part oI a network, and learning about their major components is
important preparation Ior learning how networks Iunction. In addition, learning about the
numbering systems by which computers recognize and process inIormation will prepare you to
understand how data is transIerred over networks.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to identiIy the major components oI a computer
system and convert binary, decimal, and hexadecimal numbers This includes being able to meet
these objectives:
IdentiIy the major components oI a personal computer
State the Iunctions oI network interIace cards (NICs)
List the components needed Ior NIC installation
Describe the units used to measure the size oI digital data, data transmission rate, and
microprocessor speed
Convert a decimal number to a binary number
Convert a binary number to a decimal number
Convert a binary number to a hexadecimal number
Convert a hexadecimal number to a binary number
1-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
PC Components
PC vs. Laptop
Network InterIace Card
NIC Installation
Bits, Bytes, and Measurement Terms
Decimal-to-Binary Conversion
Binary-to-Decimal Conversion
Binary-to-Hex Conversion
Hex-to-Binary Conversion
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-5
PC Components
Because computers are important building blocks in a network, you must be able to recognize
and name their major components. This topic provides an overview oI the major components oI
a PC.
Many networking devices are special-purpose computers and have many oI the same parts as
normal PCs. For you to be able to use the computer as a reliable means oI obtaining
inIormation, it must be in good working order. II the need arises to troubleshoot a simple
hardware or soItware problem, you should be able to recognize, name, and state the purpose oI
the Iollowing PC components:
Bus: A collection oI wires through which data is transmitted Irom one part oI a computer to
another. The bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU. The Industry-
Standard Architecture (ISA) and the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) are two
types oI buses.
CD-ROM drive: A compact disk read-only memory drive that can read inIormation Irom a
CD-ROM.
CPU: The 'brain¨ oI the computer, where most oI the calculations take place.
Expansion card: A printed circuit board that you can insert into a computer to give the
computer added capabilities.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-5
CPU
The CPU is a
siIicon-based
microprocessor.
1-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Expansion slot: An opening in a computer into which you can insert a circuit board to add
new capabilities to the computer
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-6
Expansion SIot
The expansion
sIot serves as an
interface between
the system and
the devices
attached to it.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-7
Floppy disk drive: A disk drive that can read and write to Iloppy disks
Hard disk drive: The device that reads and writes data on a hard disk
Microprocessor: A silicon chip that contains a CPU
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-7
FIoppy Disk Drive
A fIoppy disk drive
uses removabIe
storage media
caIIed fIoppy disks.
1-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Motherboard: The main circuit board oI a computer.
Power supply: The component that supplies power to a computer.
Printed circuit board (PCB): A thin plate on which chips (integrated circuits) and other
electronic components are placed.
Random access memory (RAM): Memory that has new data written into it as well as
stored data read Irom it. It is also known as read-write memory. A drawback oI RAM is
that it requires electrical power to maintain data storage. II the computer is turned oII or
loses power, all data stored in RAM is lost unless the data was previously saved to disk.
Read-only memory (ROM): The computer memory on which data has been prerecorded.
System unit: The main part oI a PC. It includes the chassis, microprocessor, main memory,
bus, and ports. The system unit does not include the keyboard, monitor, or any other
external devices connected to the computer.
BackpIane Components
The Iollowing items are backplane components oI a PC:
Backplane: A large circuit board that contains sockets Ior expansion cards
Interface: A piece oI hardware, such as a modem connector, that allows two devices to be
connected together
Mouse port: A port that is designed Ior connecting a mouse to a PC
Network card: An expansion board inserted into a computer to enable connection to a
network
Parallel port: An interIace capable oI transIerring more than one bit simultaneously, used
Ior connecting external devices, such as printers
Power cord: A cord connecting an electrical device to an electrical outlet to provide power
to the device
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-8
Motherboard
The motherboard
contains the primary
components of the
computer system.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-9
Serial port: An interIace that can be used Ior serial communication in which only one bit is
transmitted at a time
Sound card: An expansion board that handles sound Iunctions
Video card: A board that plugs into a PC to give it display capabilities
1-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
PC vs. Laptop
There are a Iew diIIerences between the components oI a desktop PC and those oI a laptop PC.
This topic describes the major diIIerences.
Laptop computers and notebook computers have become very popular. The main diIIerence
between PCs and laptops is that laptop components are smaller than those Iound in a PC. In a
laptop, the expansion slots become Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
(PCMCIA) card slots, or PC slots, through which NICs, modems, hard drives, and other useIul
devices (usually the size oI a thick credit card) are connected.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-9
PCMCIA Card
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-11
Network Interface Card
A network interIace card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication
capabilities to and Irom a personal computer. This topic describes a NIC and its Iunctions, as
well as considerations Ior selecting a NIC Ior a computer.
Also called a LAN adapter, the NIC plugs into a motherboard and provides a port Ior
connecting to the network. The NIC constitutes the computer interIace with the LAN.
The NIC communicates with the network through a serial connection, and with the computer
through a parallel connection. When a NIC is installed in a computer, it requires an interrupt
request line (IRQ), an input/output (I/O) address, a memory space Ior the operating system
(such as DOS or Windows), and drivers in order to perIorm its Iunction. An IRQ is a signal that
inIorms a CPU that an event needing its attention has occurred. An IRQ is sent over a hardware
line to the microprocessor. An example oI an interrupt request being issued is when a key is
pressed on a keyboard, and the CPU must move the character Irom the keyboard to RAM. An
I/O address is a location in memory used by an auxiliary device to enter or retrieve data Irom a
computer.
When selecting a NIC Ior a network, consider the Iollowing:
Type of network: Ethernet NICs are designed Ior Ethernet LANs
Type of media: The type oI port or connector used by the NIC Ior network connection is
speciIic to media type, such as twisted-pair
Type of system bus: Because PCI slots are Iaster than ISA slots, the latter are being
phased out
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-10
Network Interface Card
1-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
NIC InstaIIation
The ability to install a NIC correctly is an important aspect oI preparing a computer Ior network
connectivity. This topic lists the resources required Ior installing a NIC.
To install a NIC, as shown in the Iigure, you must have knowledge oI:
How the network card is conIigured, including jumpers, 'plug-and-play¨ soItware, and
erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM)
Network card diagnostics, including the vendor-supplied diagnostics and loopback test (see
the documentation Ior the card)
How to resolve hardware resource conIlicts, including IRQ, I/O base address, and direct
memory access (DMA), which is used to transIer data Irom RAM to a device without going
through the CPU
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-11
InstaIIing NIC
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-13
Bits, Bytes, and Measurement Terms
At the most basic level, computers perIorm their computations by using 1s and 0s instead oI the
decimal system. This topic provides an overview oI the binary numbering system as well as the
terms used to describe the speed and storage capacity oI computers.
Computers are made up oI electronic switches. At the lowest levels oI computation, computers
depend on these electronic switches to make decisions. Computers react only to electrical
impulses, understood by the computer as either 'on¨ or 'oII¨ states (1s or 0s).
Computers can understand and process only data that is in a binary Iormat, represented by 0s
and 1s. These 0s and 1s represent the two possible states oI an electrical impulse and are
reIerred to as binary digits (bits).
Most computer coding schemes use 8 bits to represent a number, letter, or symbol. A series oI 8
bits is reIerred to as a byte. One byte represents a single addressable storage location.
The Iollowing are commonly used computer measurement terms:
bit: The smallest unit oI data in a computer. A bit equals 1 or 0 in the binary Iormat in
which data is processed by computers.
byte: A byte is a unit oI measure used to describe the size oI a data Iile, the amount oI
space on a disk or other storage medium, or the amount oI data being sent over a network.
One byte equals 8 bits oI data.
Kb: A kilobit is approximately 1000 bits.
KB: A kilobyte is approximately 1000 bytes (1024 bytes exactly).
kbps: kilobits per second. This is a standard unit oI measurement oI the data transmission
rate over a network connection.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-12
Units of Information
Units Units Bytes Bytes Bits Bits
8 bits 8 bits
megabyte (MB) megabyte (MB) 8 miIIion bits 8 miIIion bits 1 miIIion bytes 1 miIIion bytes
kiIobyte (KB) kiIobyte (KB) 1000 bytes 1000 bytes
8 biIIion bits 8 biIIion bits 1 biIIion bytes 1 biIIion bytes
bit (b) bit (b) 1 bit 1 bit - -
byte (B) byte (B)
1 byte 1 byte
8000 bits 8000 bits
gigabyte (GB) gigabyte (GB)
1-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
kBps: kilobytes per second. This is another standard unit oI measurement oI the data
transmission rate over a network connection.
Mb: A megabit is approximately 1 million bits.
MB: A megabyte is approximately 1 million bytes (1,048,576 bytes exactly). A megabyte
is sometimes reIerred to as a 'meg.¨
Mbps: megabits per second. This is a standard unit oI measurement oI the data
transmission rate over a network connection.
MBps: megabytes per second. This is a standard unit oI measurement oI the data
transmission rate over a network connection.
Note Ìt is a common error to confuse KB with Kb and MB with Mb. Remember to do the proper
calculations when comparing transmission speeds that are measured in kBps and those
measured in kbps. For example, modem software usually shows the connection speed in
kilobits per second (for example, 45 kbps). However, popular browsers display file-download
speeds in kilobytes per second, meaning that with a 45-kbps connection, the download
speed would be a maximum of 5.76 kBps. Ìn practice, this download speed cannot be
reached because of other factors consuming bandwidth at the same time.
Hz: A hertz is a unit oI Irequency. It is the rate oI change in the state or cycle in a sound
wave, alternating current, or other cyclical waveIorm. It represents one cycle per second
and is used to describe the speed oI a computer microprocessor.
MHz: A megahertz represents one million cycles per second. This is a common unit oI
measurement oI the speed oI a processing chip, such as a computer microprocessor.
GHz: A gigahertz represents one billion (1,000,000,000) cycles per second. This is a
common unit oI measurement oI the speed oI a processing chip, such as a computer
microprocessor.
Note PC processors are getting faster all the time. The microprocessors used on PCs in the
1980s typically ran under 10 MHz (the original ÌBM PC was 4.77 MHz). Today they are
measured in GHz.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-15
DecimaI-to-Binary Conversion
Converting a decimal number to a binary number is one oI the most common procedures
perIormed in computer operations. This topic introduces the process Ior converting Iamiliar
decimal numbers to binary numbers.
Computers recognize and process data using the binary, or base 2, numbering system. The
binary numbering system uses only two symbols (0 and 1) instead oI the ten symbols used in
the decimal numbering system. The position, or place, oI each digit represents the number 2
(the base number) raised to a power (exponent), based on its position (2
0
, 2
1
, 2
2
, 2
3
, 2
4
, and so
on).
The Iigure illustrates how a decimal number is converted to a binary number.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-13
DecimaI-to-Binary Conversion
(r = remainder)
253/2 = 126 r 1
126/2 = 63 r 0
63/2 = 31 r 1
31/2 = 15 r 1
15/2 = 7 r 1
7/2 = 3 r 1
3/2 = 1 r 1
1/2 = 0 r 1
(r = remainder)
253/2 = 126 r 1
126/2 = 63 r 0
63/2 = 31 r 1
31/2 = 15 r 1
15/2 = 7 r 1
7/2 = 3 r 1
3/2 = 1 r 1
1/2 = 0 r 1
Converting a decimaI number (253) to binary by successive division by 2 Converting a decimaI number (253) to binary by successive division by 2
Write the binary number in order of the Iast bit first: 11111101
1-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The steps Ior converting the number 35 to a binary number are listed in the table.
Converting a DecimaI Number to a Binary Number Procedure
Step Action
1.
Looking at the figure, what is the greatest power of 2 that is less than or
equal to 35? Starting with the largest number, 2
5
(32) is smaller than 35.
Place a ¨1¨ in that column and calculate how much is left over by subtracting
32 from 35. The result is 3.
2.
Next, check to see if 16 (the next lower power of 2) fits into 3. Because it
does not, a ¨0¨ is placed in that column. The value of the next number is 8,
which is larger than 3, so a ¨0¨ is placed in that column too.
3.
The next value is 4, which is still larger than 3, so it too receives a ¨0.¨
4.
The next value is 2, which is smaller than 3. Because 2 fits into 3, place a ¨1¨
in that column. Now subtract 2 from 3, and the result is 1.
5.
The value of the last number is 1, which fits in the remaining number.
Therefore, place a ¨1¨ in the last column. The binary equivalent of the
decimal number 35 is 100011.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-14
Base 2 Numbering System
SymboIs SymboIs
PIace VaIue PIace VaIue
Base
Exponent
Base
Exponent
ExampIe:
Convert decimaI
35 to binary
ExampIe:
Convert decimaI
35 to binary
Number of
SymboIs
Number of
SymboIs
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1 0, 1
2
7
2
7
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
5
2
6
2
6
2
4
2
4
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
0
128 128 4 4 32 32 64 64 16 16 8 8 2 2 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-17
Binary-to-DecimaI Conversion
You can also convert binary numbers to decimal Iormat. This topic describes how to
accomplish that conversion.
As with decimal-to-binary conversion, there is usually more than one way to convert binary
numbers to decimal numbers. The Iigure illustrates one conversion method.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-15
Binary-to-DecimaI Conversion
Convert the binary number 11111101 to a decimaI number
(Binary bits have decimaI vaIues)
Convert the binary number 11111101 to a decimaI number
(Binary bits have decimaI vaIues)
DecimaI Position VaIue 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 or 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
DecimaI Position VaIue DecimaI Position VaIue 128 128 64 64 32 32 16 16 8 8 4 4 2 2 1 1
1 or 0 1 1 1 1 or 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
128*1 + 64*1 + 32*1 + 16*1 + 8*1 + 4*1 + 2*0 + 1*1 128*1 + 64*1 + 32*1 + 16*1 + 8*1 + 4*1 + 2*0 + 1*1
128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 253 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 253
1-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The steps Ior converting the binary number 10111001 to a decimal number are in the Iollowing
table.
Converting a Binary Number to a DecimaI Number Procedure
Step Action
1.
As shown in the figure, the number in the 2
7
(128) column is 1, so the
decimal total is 128.
2.
Next, there is a 0 in the 2
6
(64) column. The decimal total is 128+0=128.
Now, there is a 1 in the 2
5
(32) column. The decimal total becomes
128+32=160.
3.
Next, there is a 1 in the 2
4
(16) column. Adding the value to the decimal
total gives 160+16=176. The next column, 2
3
, has a 1, so the value 8
needs to be added to the decimal total 176+8=184.
4.
Next, there are 0s in the 2
2
and 2
1
columns. Add 0s to the decimal total:
184+0+0=184.
5.
Finally, there is a 1 in the 2
0
(1) column. Now, add 1 to 184. The result is
185. The decimal equivalent of the binary number 10111001 is 185.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-16
Base 2 Number System
SymboIs SymboIs
PIace VaIue PIace VaIue
Base
Exponent
Base
Exponent
ExampIe:
Binary Number
ExampIe:
Binary Number
Number of
SymboIs
Number of
SymboIs
2 2
0, 1 0, 1
2
7
2
7
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
5
2
6
2
6
2
4
2
4
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
0
128 128 4 4 32 32 64 64 16 16 8 8 2 2 1 1
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
DecimaI number
TotaI: 185
DecimaI number
TotaI: 185
128 128 0 0 32 32 0 0 16 16 8 8 0 0 1 1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-19
Binary-to-Hex Conversion
The base 16, or hexadecimal (hex), numbering system is used Irequently when working with
computers because it can be used to represent binary numbers in a more readable Iorm. This
topic explains how to convert binary numbers to hexadecimal Iormat.
The computer perIorms computations in binary, but there are instances when the binary output
oI a computer is expressed in hexadecimal Iormat to make it easier to read.
Converting a hexadecimal number to binary, and vice versa, is a common task when dealing
with the 16-bit conIiguration register in Cisco routers. That 16-bit binary number can be
represented as a Iour-digit hexadecimal number. For example, 0010000100000010 in binary
equals 2102 in hex.
Layer 2 MAC addresses are typically written in hex. For Ethernet and Token Ring topologies,
these addresses are 48 bits, or six octets (one octet is eight bits). Because these addresses
consist oI six distinct octets, you can write them as 12 hex numbers.
Instead oI writing 10101010.11110000.11000001.11100010.01110111.01010001, you can
write the much shorter hex equivalent: AA.F0.C1.E2.77.51. To make handling hex versions oI
MAC addresses even easier, the dots are placed only aIter each Iour hex digits, as in
AAF0.C1E2.7751.
The most common way Ior computers and soItware to express hexadecimal output is using
'0x¨ in Iront oI the hexadecimal number. Thus, whenever you see '0x,¨ you know that the
number that Iollows is a hexadecimal number. For example, 0x1234 means 1234 in base 16.
It is reIerred to as base 16 because it uses 16 symbols. Combinations oI these symbols can
represent all possible numbers. Because there are only 10 symbols that represent digits (0, 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) and base 16 requires six more symbols, the extra symbols are the letters A, B,
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-17
Binary-and-HexadecimaI Systems
DecimaI DecimaI Binary Binary
HexadecimaI HexadecimaI
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
9 9
10 10
8 8
11 11
12 12
13 13
14 14
15 15
16 16
32 32
64 64
128 128
255 255
00000000 00000000
00000001 00000001
00000010 00000010
00000011 00000011
00000100 00000100
00000101 00000101
00000110 00000110
00000111 00000111
00001000 00001000
00001001 00001001
00001010 00001010
00001011 00001011
00001100 00001100
00001101 00001101
00001110 00001110
00001111 00001111
00010000 00010000
00100000 00100000
01000000 01000000
10000000 10000000
11111111 11111111
00 00
01 01
02 02
03 03
04 04
05 05
06 06
07 07
09 09
0A 0A
08 08
0B 0B
0C 0C
0D 0D
0E 0E
0F 0F
10 10
20 20
40 40
80 80
FF FF
1-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
C, D, E, and F. The 'A¨ represents the decimal number 10, 'B¨ represents 11, 'C¨ represents
12, 'D¨ represents 13, 'E¨ represents 14, and 'F¨ represents 15.
The position oI each symbol (digit) in a hex number represents the base number 16 raised to a
power (exponent) based on its position. Moving Irom right to leIt, the Iirst position represents
16
1
(or 16), the second position represents 16
2
(or 256), the third position represents 16
3
(or
4096), and so on.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-21
Converting binary to hex is easy because base 16 (hexadecimal) is a power oI base 2 (binary).
Every Iour binary digits (bits) are equal to one hexadecimal digit. The Iigure compares the
binary and hexadecimal numbering systems. II there is a binary number that looks like
01011011, you can break it into two groups oI Iour bits: 0101 and 1011. When converting these
two groups to hex, they become 5 and B, so the hexadecimal equivalent oI the binary 01011011
is 5B.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-18
0001 0001
0000 0000
Binary Binary
0010 0010
0011 0011
0100 0100
0101 0101
0110 0110
0111 0111
HexadecimaI HexadecimaI
Binary Binary HexadecimaI HexadecimaI
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
1001 1001
1000 1000
1010 1010
1011 1011
1100 1100
1101 1101
1110 1110
1111 1111
8 8
9 9
A A
B B
C C
D D
E E
F F
Binary-and-HexadecimaI Number
Systems
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
1-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
No matter how large the binary number, always apply the same conversion. Start Irom the right
oI the binary number and break the number into groups oI Iour. II the Iar leIt group does not
contain Iour digits, add zeros to the leIt end until there are Iour digits (bits) in every group.
Then convert each group oI Iour to its hex equivalent. The Iigure shows an example.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-19
Binary-to-HexadecimaI Conversion
ExampIe
0001 0010 0100 0101 1111 0111 1101 1100 1001 0001 0010 0100 0101 1111 0111 1101 1100 1001
1 2 4 5 F 7 D C 9 1 2 4 5 F 7 D C 9
So: So:
= 1245F7DC9 hexadecimaI = 1245F7DC9 hexadecimaI
100100100010111110111110111001001 Binary 100100100010111110111110111001001 Binary
Converts to: Converts to:
100100100010111110111110111001001 100100100010111110111110111001001
Converts to: Converts to:
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-23
Hex-to-Binary Conversion
You can also convert hexadecimal numbers to binary Iormat. This topic explains the process
Ior converting hex numbers to binary numbers.
To convert Irom hexadecimal to binary, convert every hex digit into Iour binary digits (bits).
For example, to convert hex AC (0xAC) to binary, Iirst convert hex A, which is 1010 binary,
and then convert hex C, which is 1100 binary. So the conversion oI hex AC is 10101100
binary.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-20
Binary-and-HexadecimaI Systems
DecimaI DecimaI Binary Binary
HexadecimaI HexadecimaI
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
9 9
10 10
8 8
11 11
12 12
13 13
14 14
15 15
16 16
32 32
64 64
128 128
255 255
00000000 00000000
00000001 00000001
00000010 00000010
00000011 00000011
00000100 00000100
00000101 00000101
00000110 00000110
00000111 00000111
00001000 00001000
00001001 00001001
00001010 00001010
00001011 00001011
00001100 00001100
00001101 00001101
00001110 00001110
00001111 00001111
00010000 00010000
00100000 00100000
01000000 01000000
10000000 10000000
11111111 11111111
00 00
01 01
02 02
03 03
04 04
05 05
06 06
07 07
09 09
0A 0A
08 08
0B 0B
0C 0C
0D 0D
0E 0E
0F 0F
10 10
20 20
40 40
80 80
FF FF
1-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The Iigure shows another example oI converting a hexadecimal number to a binary number,
where 0x2102 ÷ 0010 0001 0000 0010 in binary. Be especially careIul to include Iour binary
digits Ior each hexadecimal character, adding zeros to the leIt oI the number when necessary.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-21
HexadecimaI-to-Binary Conversion
ExampIe
2 1 0 2 2 1 0 2
0010 0001 0000 0010 0010 0001 0000 0010
So: So:
2102 hexadecimaI converts to: 0010 0001 0000 0010 binary 2102 hexadecimaI converts to: 0010 0001 0000 0010 binary
Converts to: Converts to:
0x2102 0x2102
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-25
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-22
Summary
· Computers are vitaI components of every network.
The more you know about computers, the easier it
is to understand networks.
· It is important to be famiIiar with the components
of a computer, and to understand the functions of a
network interface card (NIC). It is aIso important to
be abIe to instaII a NIC.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-23
Summary (Cont.)
· Computers can recognize and process data onIy
by using the binary numbering system. The binary
number system is made up of 0s and 1s.
· DecimaI numbers can be converted to binary
numbers by foIIowing specific procedures.
· The hexadecimaI number system is used
frequentIy at higher IeveIs of computation. The
hexadecimaI number system uses 16 symboIs: 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
1-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is a backplane component oI a PC?
A) network card
B) power supply
C) sound card
D) power cord
Q2) What are PCMCIA slots?
A) slots used in laptops
B) slots used as expansion slots in all computers
C) expansion slots Ior a NIC card
D) slots Ior certain specialized devices
Q3) How does a network card communicate with the network?
A) serial connection
B) parallel connection
C) backplane
D) none oI the above
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing correctly describes the resources needed beIore you install a
NIC?
A) knowledge oI how the network card is conIigured
B) knowledge oI how to use the network card diagnostics
C) ability to resolve hardware resource conIlicts
D) all oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-27
Q5) Match the Iollowing terms with their deIinitions:
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. bit
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. byte
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. kbps
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. Hz
A) the smallest unit oI data in a computer
B) a standard unit oI measurement oI the data transmission rate over a network
connection
C) a unit oI Irequency; the rate oI change in the state or cycle in a sound wave,
alternating current, or other cyclical waveIorm
D) a unit oI measure used to describe the size oI a data Iile, the amount oI space
on a disk or other storage medium, or the amount oI data being sent over a
network
Q6) What is the decimal number 151 in binary?
A) 10100111
B) 10010111
C) 10101011
D) 10010011
Q7) What is the binary number 11011010 in decimal?
A) 186
B) 202
C) 218
D) 222
Q8) Convert the binary number 0010000100000000 to a hexadecimal number.
A) 0x2100
B) 0x2142
C) 0x0082
D) 0x0012
Q9) Convert the hexadecimal number 0x 2101 to a binary number.
A) 0010 0001 0000 0001
B) 0001 0000 0001 0010
C) 1000 0000 1000 0100
D) 1000 1000 1000 0100
1-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: PC Components
Q2) A
ReIates to: PC vs. Laptop
Q3) A
ReIates to: Network Ìnterface Card
Q4) D
ReIates to: NÌC Ìnstallation
Q5) A ÷ bit; B ÷ kbps; C ÷ Hz; D ÷ byte
ReIates to: Bits, Bytes, and Measurement Terms
Q6) B
ReIates to: Decimal-to-Binary Conversion
Q7) C
ReIates to: Binary-to-Decimal Conversion
Q8) A
ReIates to: Binary-to-Hex Conversion
Q9) A
ReIates to: Hex-to-Binary Conversion
Networking Fundamentals
Overview
Like all technologies, networking has its own 'language.¨ There are certain basic terms and
applications that are Iundamental to an understanding oI the components oI a network and how
it operates. The OSI reIerence model was created to help explain how networks Iunction in
general. The TCP/IP protocol stack is used to describe the actual Iunctions and terms that are
implemented in IP networks.
ReIevance
Learning some oI the most commonly used terms related to the components, types, and
Iunctions oI networks will be important to your understanding oI this environment. Learning
how the OSI reIerence model and the TCP/IP protocol stack are structured will provide you
with a valuable reIerence and Iramework oI how all the elements and processes oI networking
Iunction and relate to each other.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to deIine basic computer and networking
terminology and describe the beneIits and Iunctions oI the OSI reIerence model and TCP/IP
protocol stack, as well as the process oI communication between layers oI the OSI reIerence
model. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
DeIine basic networking terms
Describe some commonly used network applications
Describe the main purposes and Iunctions oI networking
Describe the history and purposes oI the OSI reIerence model
Discuss the Iunctions oI each oI the seven layers oI the OSI reIerence model and provide
examples oI each
Describe the basic process oI communication between the layers oI the OSI reIerence
model
1-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describe the Iunctions oI the TCP/IP protocol stack and provide examples oI each layer`s
Iunction
Compare the TCP/IP protocol stack to the OSI reIerence model
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Basic Networking Terminology
Network Applications
Computer Networks
The OSI ReIerence Model
The OSI Layers and Functions
Data Communications
The TCP/IP Protocol Stack
TCP/IP Protocol Stack vs. OSI ReIerence Model
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-31
Basic Networking TerminoIogy
Computer networking, like most industries, has its own jargon, which includes technical terms,
abbreviations, and acronyms. This topic deIines some oI the most Iundamental terms related to
computer networking.
Without a good grasp oI the terminology, it will be diIIicult to understand the concepts and
processes in this course. The Iollowing list oI terms and their deIinitions is intended to be a
quick reIerence that deIines some oI the most important words, phrases, and acronyms related
to computer networking. Each deIinition is expanded upon in the modules that Iollow in this
course. Please reIer to the Course Glossary Ior a more comprehensive list oI deIinitions.
Network interface card (NIC): Pronounced 'nick,¨ also called the LAN adapter, or just
the network interIace, this card typically goes into an ISA, PCI, or PCMCIA (PC card) slot
in a computer and connects to the network medium. It then connects to other computers
through the network media.
Media: Media reIers to the various physical environments through which transmission
signals pass. Common network media include twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cable,
and even the atmosphere through which wireless transmission occurs.
Protocol: A protocol is a set oI rules. In the case oI a network protocol, it is a set oI rules
by which computers communicate. The term 'protocol suite¨ describes a set oI several
protocols that perIorm diIIerent Iunctions related to diIIerent aspects oI the communication
process.
Cisco IOS software: The Cisco IOS, which runs on Cisco equipment and devices, is the
industry-leading and most widely deployed network system soItware. It delivers intelligent
network services Ior enabling the rapid deployment oI Internet applications.
Cisco IOS soItware provides a wide range oI Iunctionality, Irom basic connectivity,
security, and network management to technically advanced services. The Iunctionality oI
Cisco IOS soItware is the result oI a technological evolution. First-generation networking
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-5
Basic Networking TerminoIogy
· NIC
· Media
· ProtocoI
· Cisco IOS® software
· NOS
· Connectivity devices
· LAN
· MAN
· WAN
· PhysicaI topoIogy
· LogicaI topoIogy
1-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
devices could only store and Iorward data packets. Today, Cisco IOS soItware can
recognize, classiIy, and prioritize network traIIic, optimize routing, support voice and video
applications, and much more. Cisco IOS soItware runs on most Cisco routers and Cisco
switches. These network devices carry most oI the Internet traIIic today.
Network operating system (NOS): NOS usually reIers to server soItware such as
Windows NT, Windows 2000 Server, Novell NetWare, UNIX, and Linux. The term
sometimes reIers to the networking components oI a client operating system such as
Windows 95 or the Macintosh OS.
Connectivity devices: This term reIers to several diIIerent device types, all oI which are
used to connect cable segments, connect two or more smaller networks (or subnets) into a
larger network, or divide a large network into smaller ones. The term encompasses
repeaters, hubs, switches, bridges, and routers.
Local-area network (LAN): A LAN is a network that is conIined to a limited geographic
area. This area can be a room, a Iloor, a building, or even an entire campus.
Metropolitan-area network (MAN): A MAN is a network that is larger in size than a
LAN and smaller in size than a WAN. This is a network that covers approximately the area
oI a large city or metropolitan area.
Wide-area network (WAN): A WAN is made up oI interconnected LANs. It spans wide
geographic areas by using WAN links such as telephone lines or satellite technology to
connect computers in diIIerent cities, countries, or even diIIerent continents.
Physical topology: The physical topology reIers to the layout or physical shape oI the
network, and includes these topologies:
Bus: Computers arranged so that cabling goes Irom one to another in a linear Iashion
Ring: When there are no clear beginning points or endpoints within a topology,
Iorming a circle
Star: II the systems 'meet in the middle¨ by connecting to a central hub
Mesh: When multiple redundant connections make pathways to some or all oI the
endpoints
Logical topology: The logical topology is the path that the signals take Irom one computer
to another. The logical topology may or may not correspond to the physical topology. For
instance, a network can be a physical 'star,¨ in which each computer connects to a central
hub, but inside the hub the data can travel in a circle, making it a logical 'ring.¨
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-33
Network AppIications
Network applications are soItware programs that run between diIIerent computers connected
together on a network. This topic describes some oI the most common network applications.
Some oI the more common uses oI network applications include using a web browser program
to Iind content Irom the World Wide Web, or using an e-mail program to send e-mails over the
Internet.
Network applications are selected based on the type oI work that needs to be done. A complete
set oI application-layer programs is available to interIace with the Internet. Each application
program type is associated with its own application protocol. Some examples include:
HTTP: The World Wide Web uses HTTP, which is the communications protocol used to
connect to web servers. Its primary Iunction is to establish a connection with a web server
and transmit HTML pages to the client browser.
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3): E-mail programs support the POP3 application-layer
protocol Ior electronic mail. POP3 is a standard e-mail server commonly used on the
Internet. It provides a message storage container that holds incoming e-mail until users log
on and download it.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP is a simple Iile utility program Ior transIerring Iiles
between remote computers, which also provides Ior basic user authentication.
Telnet: Telnet is a remote access application and protocol Ior connecting to remote
computer consoles, which also provides Ior basic user authentication. Telnet is not a
graphical user interIace but is command-line driven or character mode only.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): Network management programs use
SNMP Ior monitoring the network device status and activities.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-6
WWW Request-Response
Web Browser Web Server
1-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
It is important to emphasize that the application layer is just another protocol layer in the OSI
model or TCP/IP protocol stack. The programs interIace with application-layer protocols.
E-mail client applications (such as Eudora, MicrosoIt Mail, Pegasus, and Netscape Mail) all
work with the POP3 protocol. The same principle is true with web browsers. The two most
popular web browsers are MicrosoIt Internet Explorer and Netscape Communicator. The
appearance oI these two web browser programs is very diIIerent, but they both work with the
application-layer HTTP protocol.
Electronic mail enables you to send messages between connected computers. The procedure Ior
sending an e-mail document involves two separate processes: sending the e-mail to the user`s
post oIIice, which is a computer running the POP3 server soItware, and delivering the e-mail
Irom that post oIIice to the user`s e-mail client computer, which is the recipient.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-7
Sending E-MaiI
CIient A CIient B
E-maiI
Server
E-maiI
Server
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-35
Computer Networks
One oI the primary purposes oI a network is to increase productivity by linking computers and
computer networks, so that people have easy access to inIormation regardless oI diIIerences in
time, place, or type oI computer system. This topic provides an overview oI how a computer
network Iunctions.
Because companies have adopted networks as part oI their business strategy, they typically
subdivide and map corporate networks to the corporate business structure. In the Iigure, the
network is deIined based on the grouping oI employees (users) in the Iollowing ways:
A main oIIice is a site where everyone is connected via a LAN and where the bulk oI
corporate inIormation is located. A main oIIice can have hundreds or even thousands oI
people who depend on network access to do their jobs. It may have several LANs, or it may
be a campus that contains several buildings. Because everyone needs access to central
resources and inIormation, it is common to see a high-speed backbone in a LAN as well as
a data center with high-perIormance computers or servers and networked applications.
A variety oI remote access locations connect to the main oIIice or each other using WAN
services:
Branch offices: In branch oIIices, smaller groups oI people work and connect to each
other via a LAN. To connect to the main oIIice, these users must use WAN services
such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Although some corporate
inIormation may be stored at a branch oIIice, it is more likely that branch oIIices have
local network resources, such as printers, but have to access inIormation directly Irom
the main oIIice.
Home offices: When individuals work Irom home, the setup is called a home oIIice.
Home oIIice workers most likely require on-demand connections to the main oIIice or
a branch oIIice to access inIormation or use network resources such as Iile servers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-8
Defining Components of the Network
Home Office MobiIe Users
Branch Office Main Office
Internet
1-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Mobile users: These individuals connect to the main oIIice LAN when they are at the
main oIIice, at the branch oIIice, or on the road. Their network access needs are based
on where they are located.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-37
In order to understand what types oI equipment and services to deploy in a network and when
to deploy them, it is important to understand the business and user needs. The Iigure shows
how to map an organization`s business or user requirements to a network. In this example, the
business needs may require LAN connectivity within the campus to interconnect the servers
and end-user PCs, and WAN connectivity to connect the campus to the remote branch oIIice
and telecommuters. The WAN connection to the remote branch oIIice requires a permanent
connection, such as a leased line, and the home oIIice connection requires a dialup connection,
such as ISDN.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-9
Computer Networks
Branch
Office
Home
Office
ISDN
Remote Campus
FIoor 1
FIoor 2
Server
Farm
1-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The OSI Reference ModeI
The OSI reIerence model is the primary model Ior network communications. This topic
explains the origin and purpose oI the OSI reIerence model.
The early development oI LANs, MANs, and WANs was chaotic in many ways. The early
1980s saw tremendous increases in the number and sizes oI networks. As companies realized
that they could save money and gain productivity by using networking technology, they added
networks and expanded existing networks as rapidly as new network technologies and products
were introduced.
By the mid-1980s, companies began to experience diIIiculties Irom all the expansions they had
made. It became more diIIicult Ior networks using diIIerent speciIications and implementations
to communicate with each other. The companies realized that they needed to move away Irom
proprietary networking systems, those systems which are privately developed, owned, and
controlled. In the computer industry, proprietary is the opposite oI open. Proprietary means that
one company or a small group oI companies control(s) all usage oI the technology. Open means
that Iree usage oI the technology is available to the public.
To address the problem oI networks being incompatible and unable to communicate with each
other, the International Organization Ior Standardization (ISO) researched diIIerent network
schemes. As a result oI this research, the ISO created a model that would help vendors create
networks that would be compatible with, and operate with, other networks.
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reIerence model, released in 1984, was the descriptive
scheme that the ISO had created. It provided vendors with a set oI standards that ensured
greater compatibility and interoperability between the various types oI network technologies
produced by companies around the world. Although other models exist, most network vendors
today relate their products to the OSI reIerence model, especially when they want to educate
customers on the use oI their products. It is considered the best tool available Ior teaching
people about sending and receiving data on a network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-10
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
The OSI Reference ModeI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-39
The OSI reIerence model has seven numbered layers, each illustrating a particular network
Iunction. This separation oI networking Iunctions is called layering. The OSI reIerence model
deIines the network Iunctions that occur at each layer. More importantly, the OSI reIerence
model Iacilitates an understanding oI how inIormation travels throughout a network. In
addition, the OSI reIerence model describes how data travels Irom application programs (Ior
example, spreadsheets), through a network medium, to an application program located in
another computer, even iI the sender and receiver are connected using diIIerent network media.
1-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Dividing the network into these seven layers provides these advantages:
Reduces complexity: It breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts.
Standardizes interfaces: It standardizes network components to allow multiple-vendor
development and support.
Facilitates modular engineering: It allows diIIerent types oI network hardware and
soItware to communicate with each other.
Ensures interoperable technology: It prevents changes in one layer Irom aIIecting the
other layers, allowing Ior quicker development.
Accelerates evolution: It provides Ior eIIective updates and improvements to individual
components without aIIecting other components or having to rewrite the entire protocol.
Simplifies teaching and learning: It breaks network communication into smaller
components to make learning easier.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-11
Why a Layered Network ModeI?
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
· Reduces compIexity
· Standardizes interfaces
· FaciIitates moduIar engineering
· Ensures interoperabIe technoIogy
· AcceIerates evoIution
· SimpIifies teaching and Iearning
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-41
The OSI Layers and Functions
The practice oI moving inIormation between computers is divided into seven techniques in the
OSI reIerence model.
Each oI the seven techniques is represented by its own layer in the model. The seven layers oI
the OSI reIerence model are as Iollows:
Layer 7: Application layer
Layer 6: Presentation layer
Layer 5: Session layer
Layer 4: Transport layer
Layer 3: Network layer
Layer 2: Data-link layer
Layer 1: Physical layer
Each OSI layer contains a set oI Iunctions perIormed by programs to enable data packets to
travel Irom a source to a destination on a network. Following is a brieI description oI each layer
in the OSI reIerence model.
1-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Layer 7: The AppIication Layer
The application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user. This layer provides network
services to the user`s applications. It diIIers Irom the other layers in that it does not provide
services to any other OSI layer, but rather, only to applications outside the OSI model. The
application layer establishes the availability oI intended communication partners and
synchronizes and establishes agreement on procedures Ior error recovery and control oI data
integrity.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-12
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
Network Processes to AppIications
· Provides network services to
appIication processes (such as
eIectronic maiI, fiIe transfer,
and terminaI emuIation)
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-43
Layer 6: The Presentation Layer
The presentation layer ensures that the inIormation that the application layer oI one system
sends out is readable by the application layer oI another system (Ior example, a PC program
communicates with another computer, one using extended binary coded decimal interchange
code (EBCDIC) and the other using ASCII to represent the same characters). II necessary, the
presentation layer translates between multiple data Iormats by using a common Iormat.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-13
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
Data Representation
· Ensures data is readabIe by
receiving system
· Formats data
· Structures data
· Negotiates data transfer syntax
for appIication Iayer
Network Process to AppIications
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
1-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Layer 5: The Session Layer
The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating
hosts. It provides its services to the presentation layer. The session layer also synchronizes
dialogue between the presentation layers oI the two hosts and manages their data exchange. For
example, web servers have many users, so there are many communication processes open at a
given time. It is important, then, to keep track oI which user communicates on which path. In
addition to session regulation, the session layer oIIers provisions Ior eIIicient data transIer,
class oI service, and exception reporting oI session-layer, presentation-layer, and application-
layer problems.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-14
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Interhost Communication
· EstabIishes, manages, and
terminates sessions between
appIications
Network Process to AppIications
Data Representation
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-45
Layer 4: The Transport Layer
The transport layer segments data Irom the sending host`s system and reassembles the data into
a data stream on the receiving host`s system. For example, business users in large corporations
oIten transIer large Iiles Irom Iield locations to a corporate site. Reliable delivery oI the Iiles is
important, so the transport layer will break down large Iiles into smaller segments that are less
likely to incur transmission problems.
The boundary between the transport layer and the session layer can be thought oI as the
boundary between application protocols and data-Ilow protocols. Whereas the application,
presentation, and session layers are concerned with application issues, the lower Iour layers are
concerned with data transport issues.
The transport layer attempts to provide a data-transport service that shields the upper layers
Irom transport implementation details. SpeciIically, issues such as reliability oI transport
between two hosts are the concern oI the transport layer. In providing communication service,
the transport layer establishes, maintains, and properly terminates virtual circuits. Transport
error detection and recovery and inIormation Ilow control are used to provide reliable service.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-15
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
End-to-End Connections
· HandIes transportation issues
between hosts
· Ensures data transport reIiabiIity
· EstabIishes, maintains and
terminates virtuaI circuits
· Provides reIiabiIity through fauIt
detection and recovery
information fIow controI
Interhost Communication
Network Process to AppIications
Data Representation
1-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Layer 3: The Network Layer
The network layer provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may
be located on geographically separated networks. The growth oI the Internet has increased the
number oI users accessing inIormation Irom sites around the world, and it is the network layer
that manages this connectivity.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-16
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Data DeIivery
· Provides connectivity and path
seIection between two host systems
· Routes data packets
· SeIects best path to deIiver data
Network Process to AppIications
Data Representation
End-to-End Connections
Interhost Communication
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-47
Layer 2: The Data-Link Layer
The data-link layer deIines how data is Iormatted Ior transmission and how access to the
network is controlled.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-17
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Access to Media
· Defines how data is formatted for
transmission and how access to the
network is controIIed
Network Process to AppIications
Data Representation
End-to-End Connections
Data DeIivery
Interhost Communication
1-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Layer 1: The PhysicaI Layer
The physical layer deIines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and Iunctional speciIications
Ior activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems.
Characteristics such as voltage levels, timing oI voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum
transmission distances, physical connectors, and other similar attributes are deIined by physical
layer speciIications.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-18
The Seven Layers of the OSI ModeI
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
Binary Transmission
· Defines the eIectricaI, mechanicaI,
proceduraI, and functionaI
specifications for activating,
maintaining, and deactivating the
physicaI Iink.
Network Process to AppIications
Data Representation
End-to-End Connections
Data DeIivery
Access to Media
Interhost Communication
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-49
Data Communications
All communications on a network originate at a source and are sent to a destination. This topic
explains how the process oI transmitting data Irom one site to another operates.
EncapsuIation
The inIormation sent on a network is reIerred to as data or data packets. II one computer (Host
A) wants to send data to another computer (Host B), the data must Iirst be packaged by a
process called encapsulation. The encapsulation process can be thought oI as putting a letter
inside an envelope, and then properly writing the recipient`s mail address on the envelope so it
can be properly delivered by the postal system.
Encapsulation wraps data with the necessary protocol inIormation beIore network transit.
ThereIore, as the data moves down through the layers oI the OSI model, each OSI layer adds a
header (and a trailer iI applicable) to the data beIore passing it down to a lower layer. The
headers and trailers contain control inIormation Ior the network devices and receiver to ensure
proper delivery oI the data and to ensure that the receiver can correctly interpret the data.
The Iigure illustrates how encapsulation occurs. It shows the manner in which data travels
through the layers. These steps occur in order to encapsulate data:
Step 1 The user data is sent Irom an application to the application layer.
Step 2 The application layer adds the application-layer header (Layer 7 header) to the user
data. The Layer 7 header and the original user data become the data that is passed
down to the presentation layer.
Step 3 The presentation layer adds the presentation-layer header (Layer 6 header) to the
data. This then becomes the data that is passed down to the session layer.
Step 4 The session layer adds the session-layer header (Layer 5 header) to the data. This
then becomes the data that is passed down to the transport layer.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-19
Data EncapsuIation
HDR = header
Sender
Bits
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
L2
HDR
L3
HDR
L4
HDR
L5
HDR
L6
HDR
L7
HDR
FCS
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L6
HDR
L6
HDR
L6
HDR
L6
HDR
L5
HDR
L5
HDR
L5
HDR
L4
HDR
L4
HDR
L3
HDR
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
1-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Step 5 The transport layer adds the transport-layer header (Layer 4 header) to the data. This
then becomes the data that is passed down to the network layer.
Step 6 The network layer adds the network-layer header (Layer 3 header) to the data. This
then becomes the data that is passed down to the data-link layer.
Step 7 The data-link layer adds the data-link-layer header and trailer (Layer 2 header and
trailer) to the data. A Layer 2 trailer is usually the Irame check sequence (FCS),
which is used by the receiver to detect whether or not the data is in error. This then
becomes the data that is passed down to the physical layer.
Step 8 The physical layer then transmits the bits onto the network media.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-51
De-EncapsuIation
When the remote device receives a sequence oI bits, the physical layer at the remote device
passes the bits to the data-link layer Ior manipulation. The data-link layer perIorms the
Iollowing:
Step 1 It checks the data-link trailer (the FCS) to see iI the data is in error.
Step 2 II the data is in error, it may be discarded, and the data-link layer may ask Ior the
data to be retransmitted.
Step 3 II the data is not in error, the data-link layer reads and interprets the control
inIormation in the data-link header.
Step 4 It strips the data-link header and trailer, and then passes the remaining data up to the
network layer based on the control inIormation in the data-link header.
This process is reIerred to as de-encapsulation. Each subsequent layer perIorms a similar de-
encapsulation process. Think oI de-encapsulation as the process oI reading the address on a
letter to see iI it is Ior you or not, and then removing the letter Irom the envelope iI the letter is
addressed to you.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-20
Data De-EncapsuIation
HDR = header
Receiver
Bits
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
User Data User Data
L2
HDR
L3
HDR
L4
HDR
L5
HDR
L6
HDR
L7
HDR
FCS
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L7
HDR
L6
HDR
L6
HDR
L6
HDR
L6
HDR
L5
HDR
L5
HDR
L5
HDR
L4
HDR
L4
HDR
L3
HDR
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
1-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Peer-to-Peer Communication
So that data packets can travel Irom the source to the destination, each layer oI the OSI model
at the source must communicate with its peer layer at the destination. This Iorm oI
communication is reIerred to as peer-to-peer communication. During this process, the protocols
at each layer exchange inIormation, called protocol data units (PDUs), between peer layers.
Data packets on a network originate at a source and then travel to a destination. Each layer
depends on the service Iunction oI the OSI layer below it. To provide this service, the lower
layer uses encapsulation to put the PDU Irom the upper layer into its data Iield. It then adds
whatever headers the layer needs to perIorm its Iunction. As the data moves down through
Layers 7 through 5 oI the OSI model, additional headers are added. The grouping oI data at the
Layer 4 PDU is called a segment.
The network layer provides a service to the transport layer, and the transport layer presents data
to the internetwork subsystem. The network layer moves the data through the internetwork by
encapsulating the data and attaching a header to create a packet (the Layer 3 PDU). The header
contains inIormation required to complete the transIer, such as source and destination logical
addresses.
The data-link layer provides a service to the network layer by encapsulating the network layer
packet in a Irame (the Layer 2 PDU). The Irame header contains the physical addresses
required to complete the data-link Iunctions, and the Irame trailer contains the FCS.
The physical layer provides a service to the data-link layer, encoding the data-link Irame into a
pattern oI 1s and 0s (bits) Ior transmission on the medium (usually a wire) at Layer 1.
Network devices such as hubs, switches, and routers work at the lower three layers. Hubs are at
Layer 1, switches are at Layer 2, and routers are at Layer 3.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-21
Peer-to-Peer Communication
Receiver Sender
Network
Bits
Frames
Packets
Segments
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-53
The TCP/IP ProtocoI Stack
Although the OSI reIerence model is universally recognized, the historical and technical open
standard oI the Internet is the TCP/IP protocol stack. This topic describes the layers oI the
TCP/IP protocol stack.
The TCP/IP protocol stack has Iour layers: the application layer, the transport layer, the Internet
layer, and the network access layer. It is important to note that although some oI the layers in
the TCP/IP protocol stack have the same names as layers in the OSI model, the layers have
diIIerent Iunctions in each model.
Application layer: The application layer handles high-level protocols, including issues oI
representation, encoding, and dialog control. The TCP/IP model combines all application-
related issues into one layer and ensures that this data is properly packaged Ior the next
layer.
Transport layer: The transport layer deals with quality-oI-service issues oI reliability,
Ilow control, and error correction. One oI its protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), provides Ior reliable network communications.
Internet layer: The purpose oI the Internet layer is to send source packets Irom any
network on the internetwork and have them arrive at the destination, regardless oI the path
they took to get there.
Network access layer: The name oI this layer is very broad and somewhat conIusing. It is
also called the host-to-network layer. It includes the LAN and WAN protocols, and all the
details in the OSI physical and data-link layers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-22
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Internet Internet
Network Access Network Access
TCP/IP ModeI
1-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
TCP/IP ProtocoI Stack vs. OSI Reference ModeI
There are both similarities and diIIerences between the TCP/IP protocol stack and the OSI
reIerence model. This topic describes these similarities and diIIerences.
SimiIarities
There are certain similarities between the TCP/IP protocol stack and the OSI model:
Both have application layers, though they include diIIerent services.
Both have comparable transport and network layers.
Both assume packet-switched technology, not circuit-switched. (Analog telephone calls are
an example oI circuit-switched.)
Differences
There are also some diIIerences between the TCP/IP protocol stack and the OSI model:
TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layers into its application layer.
TCP/IP combines the OSI data-link and physical layers into the network access layer.
TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the Internet developed, so the TCP/IP
protocol stack gains credibility just because oI its protocols. In contrast, networks are not
typically built on the OSI model, even though the OSI model is used as a guide.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-23
TCP/IP ProtocoI Stack vs. OSI ModeI
AppIication
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
PhysicaI
AppIication
Transport
Internet
Network
Access
TCP/IP ProtocoI Stack OSI ModeI
Networks
ProtocoIs
Data FIow
Layers
AppIication
Layers
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-55
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-24
Summary
· There are a number of basic computer network
terms, incIuding NIC, media, protocoI, physicaI
topoIogy, and IogicaI topoIogy, that are
fundamentaI to an understanding of networks.
· Network appIications are software programs that
run between computers that are connected
together on a network.
· Some common network appIications incIude
HTTP, POP3, FTP, TeInet, and SNMP.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-25
Summary (Cont.)
· There are many different ways in which a computer
network can be constructed to meet the
requirements of an organization, but user
components are generaIIy grouped into the
categories of main office, remote Iocations, and
mobiIe users.
· The ISO created and reIeased the OSI reference
modeI in 1984 to provide vendors with a set of
standards to ensure greater compatibiIity and
interoperabiIity between various types of network
technoIogies.
1-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-26
Summary (Cont.)
· The OSI reference modeI reduces compIexity,
standardizes interfaces, faciIitates moduIar
engineering, ensures interoperabIe technoIogy,
acceIerates evoIution, and simpIifies teaching and
Iearning.
· Each Iayer of the OSI modeI has a set of unique
functions. The seven Iayers of the OSI modeI are
the appIication, presentation, session, transport,
network, data-Iink, and physicaI Iayers.
· EncapsuIation is the process in which data is
wrapped in a particuIar protocoI header before
network transit.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-27
Summary (Cont.)
· The TCP/IP protocoI stack has four Iayers: the
appIication Iayer, transport Iayer, internet Iayer,
and network access Iayer.
· There are both simiIarities and differences between
the TCP/IP protocoI stack and the OSI reference
modeI.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-57
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Match each oI the Iollowing terms with their deIinitions:
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. LAN
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. WAN
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. Protocol
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. Physical topology
A) the layout or physical shape oI the network
B) a network that is conIined to a limited geographic area
C) a network that spans wide geographic areas by using serial links to connect
computers in diIIerent cities, countries, or even diIIerent continents
D) a set oI rules by which computers communicate
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is an example oI a network application?
A) e-mail
B) word processor
C) spreadsheet
D) database
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing does not describe a main oIIice network?
A) A main oIIice is where everyone is connected via a LAN, and where the bulk
oI corporate inIormation is located.
B) A main oIIice can have only up to 500 people who depend on the network
access to do their jobs.
C) A main oIIice may have several LANs, or it may be a campus that contains
several buildings.
D) In a main oIIice, it is common to see a high-speed backbone LAN as well as a
legacy data center with mainIrame computers and applications.
Q4) What is the OSI model?
A) a conceptual Iramework that speciIies how inIormation travels through
networks
B) a model that describes how data makes its way Irom one application program
to another throughout a network
C) a conceptual Iramework that speciIies which network Iunctions occur at each
layer
D) all oI the above
1-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q5) Which oI the Iollowing is the correct order Ior the network layers in the OSI model?
A) 1: physical
2: data-link
3: transport
4: network
5: presentation
6: session
7: application
B) 1: physical
2: data-link
3: network
4: transport
5: session
6: presentation
7: application
C) 1: physical
2: data-link
3: network
4: session
5: transport
7: application
7: presentation
D) 1: physical
4: network
6: session
2: data-link
3: transport
5: application
7: presentation
Q6) Which layer oI the OSI model handles physical addressing, network topology, network
access, error notiIication, ordered delivery oI Irames, and Ilow control?
A) the physical layer
B) the data-link layer
C) the transport layer
D) the network layer
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing best deIines encapsulation?
A) segmenting data so it Ilows uninterrupted through the network
B) compressing data so it moves Iaster
C) moving data in groups so it stays together
D) wrapping oI data in a particular protocol header
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-59
Q8) An e-mail message is sent Irom Host A to Host B on a LAN. BeIore this message can
be sent, the data must be encapsulated. Which oI the Iollowing best describes what
happens aIter a packet is constructed?
A) The packet is transmitted along the medium.
B) The packet is put into a Irame.
C) The packet is segmented into Irames.
D) The packet is converted to binary Iormat.
Q9) In the TCP/IP protocol stack, which layer deals with reliability, Ilow control, and error
correction?
A) application
B) transport
C) Internet
D) network access
Q10) Which oI the Iollowing statements regarding TCP/IP is true?
A) TCP/IP combines the OSI data-link and session layer issues into its application
layer.
B) TCP/IP combines the OSI data-link and physical layers into one layer.
C) TCP/IP combines OSI network and application layers into one network layer.
D) TCP/IP combines the bottom Iour layers oI the OSI model into one Internet
layer.
1-60 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A ÷ Physical Topology; B ÷ WAN; C ÷ LAN; D ÷ Protocol
ReIates to: Basic Networking Terminology
Q2) A
ReIates to: Network Applications
Q3) B
ReIates to: Network Computers
Q4) D
ReIates to: The OSÌ Model
Q5) B
ReIates to: The OSÌ Layers and Functions
Q6) B
ReIates to: The OSÌ Layers and Functions
Q7) D
ReIates to: Data Communication
Q8) B
ReIates to: Data Communication
Q9) B
ReIates to: The TCP/ÌP Protocol Stack
Q10) B
ReIates to: TCP/ÌP Protocol Stack vs. OSÌ Reference Model
Network Devices
Overview
When examining the components oI a network, you should use the OSI model as a reIerence so
that you can relate the components to their network Iunctions. Starting with the lowest layers oI
the OSI model, Layers 1 through 3, there are a number oI common devices used such as hubs,
repeaters, network interIace cards, bridges, and routers. In addition, there are other devices used
at these OSI layers, including Iirewall and AAA services, access servers, packet telephony
devices, and optical platIorms.
ReIevance
Learning about some oI the hardware elements (hubs, switches, routers, and so Iorth) that are
responsible Ior carrying data over a network will provide a better understanding oI how
networks Iunction.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation
oI network devices used at the diIIerent layers oI the OSI model, including bridges; hubs;
switches; routers; Iirewalls; authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) servers; and
remote access servers. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at Layer 1 oI the
OSI model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at Layer 2 oI the
OSI model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at Layer 3 oI the
OSI model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI access servers, packet telephony devices,
and optical platIorms
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI Iirewalls and AAA servers
1-62 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI basic PC components
Knowledge oI basic computer and networking terminology
Knowledge oI the layers and Iunctions oI the OSI model
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Layer 1 Devices
Layer 2 Devices
Layer 3 Devices
Voice, DSL, and Optical Devices
Firewalls and AAA Servers
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-63
Layer 1 Devices
There is a wide variety oI Layer 1 components and devices. This topic describes some oI the
most common Layer 1 devices.
These are some common Layer 1 devices:
Repeaters
Hubs
Repeater
A repeater is a networking device that exists at Layer 1, the physical layer, oI the OSI reIerence
model. As data leaves a source and goes out over a network, it is transIormed into either
electrical or light pulses that pass along the networking media. These pulses are reIerred to as
signals. When signals leave a transmitting station, they are clean and easily recognizable.
However, the longer the cable length, the more the signals deteriorate. The purpose oI a
repeater is to regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level, allowing them to travel a
longer distance on the media.
The term 'repeater¨ originally reIerred to a device with a single 'in¨ port and a single 'out¨
port. Today, multiport repeaters also exist. Repeaters are classiIied as Layer 1 devices in the
OSI model because they act only at the bit level and look at no other inIormation.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-5
Repeater
1-64 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Hub
The purpose oI a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. Because a hub is similar to a
repeater, it is also known as a multiport repeater. The diIIerence between a repeater and a hub is
the number oI cables that connect to the device. A repeater typically has only two ports, while a
hub generally has Irom Iour to 20 or more ports, as shown in the Iigure. A repeater receives on
one port and repeats on the other, while a hub receives on one port and transmits on all other
ports.
Hubs have these properties:
Hubs ampliIy signals.
Hubs propagate signals through the network.
Hubs do not perIorm Iiltering.
Hubs do not perIorm path determination or switching.
Hubs are used as network concentration points.
Hubs are commonly used in Ethernet 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T networks. Hubs create a
central connection point Ior the wiring media and increase the reliability oI the network,
because the Iailure oI any single cable will not disrupt the entire network. This Ieature diIIers
Irom the bus topology, where Iailure oI one cable disrupts the entire network. (Network
topology is discussed later in this module.) Hubs are considered Layer 1 devices because they
only regenerate the signal and repeat it out all oI their ports (network connections).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-6
Hub (MuItiport Repeater)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-65
Layer 2 Devices
In Layer 2, the data-link layer oI the OSI model, there are other commonly used devices that
Iacilitate the transmission oI data. This topic describes Layer 2 devices.
Network Interface Card
NICs are considered Layer 2 devices because each individual NIC throughout the world carries
a unique code, called a MAC address. This address is used to control data communication Ior
the host on the LAN. The NIC controls the access oI the host to the medium.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-7
Network Interface Card
1-66 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Bridge
A bridge is a Layer 2 device designed to create two or more LAN segments, where each
segment is a separate collision domain. ThereIore, by Iiltering traIIic on a LAN to keep local
traIIic local, yet allowing connectivity to other segments Ior traIIic speciIically directed there,
bridges make more bandwidth available Ior valid data exchange.
Every networking device has a unique MAC address on the NIC. The bridge keeps track oI
which MAC addresses are on each side oI the bridge and makes Iorwarding decisions based on
this MAC address list. Because bridges Iilter network traIIic by looking only at the MAC
address, they are not concerned with the network-layer protocol and can rapidly Iorward Irames
regardless oI their payload.
The Iollowing are the important properties oI bridges:
Bridges are more 'intelligent¨ than hubs. That is, they can analyze incoming Irames and
Iorward (or drop) them based on address inIormation.
Bridges collect and pass packets between two or more LAN segments.
Bridges create multiple collision domains, allowing more than one device to transmit
simultaneously without causing a collision.
Bridges maintain MAC address tables.
The Iigure shows an example oI how a bridge is used. The appearances oI bridges vary greatly,
depending on the type. A bridge is deIined by its Layer 2 Iiltering oI Irames and how that is
accomplished. In order to Iilter or selectively deliver network traIIic, bridges build tables oI all
MAC addresses located on a network segment and other networks, and map them to associated
ports.
II data comes along the network media, a bridge compares the destination MAC address carried
by the data to MAC addresses contained in its tables. II the bridge determines that the
destination MAC address oI the data is Irom the same network segment as the source, it does
not Iorward the data to other segments oI the network. II the bridge determines that the
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-8
Bridge
Segment 2 Segment 1
Corporate
Internet
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-67
destination MAC address oI the data is not Irom the same network segment as the source, it
Iorwards the data to the appropriate segment.
By perIorming this process, bridges can signiIicantly reduce the amount oI unnecessary traIIic
between network segments.
1-68 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Layer 2 Switch
Like repeaters and hubs, another device, called a switch, is used Ior multiple bridge
connections. A switch, also called a LAN switch, oIten replaces hubs and works with existing
cable inIrastructures to provide minimal disruption to existing networks.
Switches are data-link layer devices that, like bridges, enable multiple physical LAN segments
to be interconnected into single larger networks. Like bridges, switches Iorward traIIic based on
MAC addresses. Because switching is perIormed in hardware instead oI soItware, it is
signiIicantly Iaster. Think oI each switch port as a microbridge. This process is called
microsegmentation. Thus, each switch port acts as a separate bridge and, when connected to an
individual host, gives the Iull bandwidth oI the medium to that host.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-9
Switch
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-69
Layer 3 Devices
Layer 3 oI the OSI model is the transport layer, and there are several devices that manage the
movement oI the data Irom one location on a network to another. This topic describes Layer 3
devices.
Router
Networking has two addressing schemes. One uses the physical address (MAC address), which
is a data-link (Layer 2) address. The other uses a logical address located at the network layer
(Layer 3) oI the OSI model. An example oI a Layer 3 address is an IP address. A router is a
type oI internetworking device that passes data packets between networks, based on Layer 3
addresses. A router can make decisions regarding the best path Ior delivery oI data on the
network.
Working at Layer 3 allows the router to make decisions based on network addresses, as
opposed to individual Layer 2 MAC addresses. Routers can also connect diIIerent Layer 2
technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data InterIace (FDDI).
Because oI their capability to route packets based on Layer 3 inIormation, routers have become
the backbone oI the Internet, running the IP protocol.
The purpose oI a router is to examine incoming packets (Layer 3 data), choose the best path Ior
them through the network, and then direct them to the proper outgoing port. Routers are the
most important traIIic-regulating devices on large networks. Routers enable virtually any type
oI computer to communicate with any other computer, anywhere in the world.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-10
Cisco 2600 Series Router
1-70 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
MuItiIayer Switch
A multilayer switch works much like a Layer 2 switch. In addition to switching using Layer 2
MAC addresses, a multilayer switch also uses Layer 3 network addresses (IP).
Traditionally, Layer 3 Iunctions have occurred only within routers. However, over the past Iew
years, improved hardware has allowed many Layer 3 routing Iunctions to occur in hardware.
Layer 3 routing has traditionally been a soItware-bound process that creates network
bottlenecks. With the advent oI high-speed, hardware-based multilayer switches, Layer 3
Iunctions can be perIormed as quickly as Layer 2 Iunctions. Layer 3 no longer is a bottleneck.
Layer 3 Iunctions include added capability Ior quality oI service (QoS) and Ior security.
Packets can be prioritized based on the network (IP) that they are coming Irom, or the network
to which they are being sent. TraIIic Irom speciIic networks can be barred Irom entering the
network.
A multilayer switch can also examine Layer 4 inIormation, including TCP headers that can help
identiIy the type oI application Irom which the protocol data unit (PDU) came, or to which the
PDU is directed.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-71
Voice, DSL, and OpticaI Devices
Recent networking trends have resulted in the development oI new networking devices. This
topic describes those devices.
Some oI the newer networking devices include:
Voice gateways Ior handling converged packetized voice and data traIIic
Digital subscriber line access multiplexers (DSLAMs) used at the service provider`s central
oIIice Ior concentrating DSL modem connections Irom hundreds oI homes
Optical platIorms Ior sending and receiving data over Iiber-optic cable, providing high-
speed connection
Voice Gateway
A gateway is a special-purpose device that perIorms an application layer conversion oI
inIormation Irom one protocol stack to another. The Cisco AS5400 Series Universal Access
Server provides cost-eIIective platIorms that combine routing, remote access, voice gateway,
Iirewall, and digital modem Iunctionality. The Iigure shows a Cisco AS5400 Series Universal
Gateway, which oIIers unparalleled capacity in only two rack units. The Cisco AS5400 oIIers
data, voice, wireless, and Iax services on any port at any time.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-11
Cisco AS5400 Series UniversaI Gateway
1-72 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
DSLAM
A DSLAM is a device used in a variety oI digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. A
DSLAM serves as the point oI interIace between a number oI subscriber premises and the
carrier network. The Iigure shows a Cisco 6100 Series Advanced DSL Access Multiplexer.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-12
Cisco DSLAM 6100
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-73
OpticaI PIatforms
Several optical platIorms are available on the market Ior the optical network. The Iigure shows
a Cisco ONS 15454 dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical network system.
The Cisco ONS 15454 provides the Iunctions oI multiple network elements in a single
platIorm. Part oI Cisco`s unrivaled IP¹Optical product line, the Cisco ONS 15454 combines the
capacity oI optical transport with the intelligence oI IP to cost-eIIectively deliver next-
generation voice and data services.
Several optical platIorms are available on the market Ior the optical network. The Iigure shows
a Cisco ONS 15454 DWDM optical network system. DWDM increases bandwidth by using
multiple discrete wavelengths, each carrying there own data stream to share a single Iiber.
Coupled with the increased distance between repeaters (ampliIiers), this oIIers a huge cost
beneIit to WAN and MAN service providers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-13
OpticaI PIatform - Cisco ONS 15454
DWDM OpticaI Network System
1-74 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
FirewaIIs and AAA Servers
Other common network devices that work at more than only the lower three layers include
Iirewalls and AAA servers. This topic describes those multilayer devices.
FirewaII
The term 'Iirewall¨ reIers to either a Iirewall program(s) running on a router or server, or a
special standalone hardware component oI a network. A Iirewall protects the resources oI a
private network Irom users in other networks.
Working closely with a router program, a Iirewall examines each network packet to determine
whether or not to Iorward it to its destination. Using a Iirewall is like using a traIIic cop to
ensure that only valid traIIic can enter or leave certain networks.
AAA Server
An authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server is a program that handles user
requests Ior access to computer and network resources. It provides AAA services Ior an
enterprise. The AAA server ensures that only authenticated users can get into the network
(authentication), that the users are allowed access only to the resources they need
(authorization), and that records are kept oI everything they do aIter they are allowed entry
(accounting).
An AAA server is like the credit card system. In order to put charges on a credit card, the
merchant must veriIy to see iI the credit card actually belongs to the person using it
(authentication). The merchant must also check to see iI the credit card has enough credit leIt
Ior the requested charge amount (authorization), and then record the charge to the user`s
account (accounting).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-14
FirewaIIs
CaIifornia
Vermont
New
Hampshire
Massachusetts
AIIow
Access
to HQ
No Access
to HQ
AAA
Server
· Permit access from MA
· Permit packets from NH
· Permit packets from VT
· Deny aII other packets
AIIow
Access
to HQ
Corporate
Headquarters
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-75
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-15
Summary
· Networking devices are products used to connect
networks.
· Hubs, switches, and routers interconnect devices
within LANs, MANs, and WANs.
· Networking devices function at different Iayers of
the OSI modeI, primariIy Layers 1, 2, and 3.
· Repeaters reshape, ampIify, and retime signaIs
before sending them aIong the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-16
Summary (Cont.)
· The term "hub" (aIso caIIed a muItiport repeater) is
used instead of "repeater" when referring to the
device that serves as a connection point in a
network. Hubs work Layer 1 onIy and make no
fiItering decisions.
· Layer 2 LAN switches work at Layer 2, and they
make Iimited MAC hardware address decisions.
· Routers can make decisions as to the best path for
deIivery of data on the network.
1-76 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-17
Summary (Cont.)
· Working at Layers 2, 3, and 4, muItiIayer switches
enabIe impIementation of Layer 3 QoS and security
functionaIity and perform many of the same
functions as routers do, but in hardware.
· Voice gateways, DSLAMs, and opticaI devices are
newer types of network connectivity devices.
· FirewaIIs and AAA servers provide security to the
network.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-77
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Multiport repeaters can provide a simple solution Ior which oI the Iollowing problems?
A) too many types oI incompatible equipment on the network
B) too much traIIic on a WAN network
C) too-slow data transmission rates
D) too many nodes or not enough cable
Q2) What is one disadvantage oI using a hub?
A) A hub cannot extend the network operating distance.
B) A hub cannot Iilter network traIIic.
C) A hub cannot send weakened signals over a network.
D) A hub cannot ampliIy weakened signals.
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing is true concerning bridges and their Iorwarding decisions?
A) Bridges operate at OSI Layer 2 and use IP addresses to make decisions.
B) Bridges operate at OSI Layer 3 and use IP addresses to make decisions.
C) Bridges operate at OSI Layer 2 and use MAC addresses to make decisions.
D) Bridges operate at OSI Layer 3 and use MAC addresses to make decisions.
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing is true concerning the Iunction oI switches?
A) Switches increase the sizes oI collision domains.
B) Switches combine the connectivity oI a hub with the traIIic regulation oI a
bridge.
C) Switches combine the connectivity oI a hub with the traIIic direction oI a
router.
D) Switches perIorm Layer 4 path selection.
Q5) What does a router do?
A) A router matches inIormation in the routing table with the destination IP
address oI the data and sends incoming data to the correct subnetwork and
host.
B) A router matches inIormation in the routing table with the destination IP
address oI the data and sends incoming data to the correct subnetwork.
C) A router matches inIormation in the routing table with the destination IP
address oI the data and sends incoming data to the correct network.
D) A router matches inIormation in the routing table with the destination IP
address oI the data and sends incoming data to the correct subnet.
1-78 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q6) Which oI the Iollowing statements is true?
A) A gateway is a special-purpose device that perIorms an application layer
conversion oI inIormation Irom one protocol stack to another.
B) The Cisco AS5400 Series Universal Gateway oIIers unparalleled capacity in
only two rack units, with universal port data, voice, wireless, and Iax services
on any port at any time.
C) A DSLAM serves as the point oI interIace between a number oI subscriber
premises and the carrier network.
D) All oI the above are correct.
Q7) What are the Iunctions oI AAA servers?
A) ensure that only authenticated users can get in the network
B) ensure that the users are allowed access only to the resources they need
C) record everything the users do aIter they are allowed entry
D) all oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-79
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Layer 1 Devices
Q2) B
ReIates to: Layer 1 Devices
Q3) C
ReIates to: Layer 2 Devices
Q4) B
ReIates to: Layer 2 Devices
Q5) A
ReIates to: Layer 3 Devices
Q6) D
ReIates to: Voice, DSL, and Optical Devices
Q7) D
ReIates to: Firewalls and AAA Servers
1-80 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Network Topologies
Overview
There are several types oI networks, each with its own design and Iunctionality, called a
topology. The network topology deIines the way in which the computers, printers, network, and
other devices are connected. Some oI the types oI network topologies include bus, star and
extended-star, mesh and partial-mesh, and ring.
ReIevance
Learning about each oI the major network topologies will help you understand how diIIerent
kinds oI networks can transmit data diIIerently and meet a variety oI requirements.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Ieatures oI diIIerent network
topologies. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
DeIine physical and logical topologies
DeIine and discuss the bus topology
DeIine and discuss star and extended-star topologies
DeIine and discuss the ring topology
DeIine and discuss mesh and partial-mesh topologies
1-82 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic email usage skills
Knowledge oI basic PC components
Knowledge oI basic computer and networking terminology
Knowledge oI the layers and Iunctions oI the OSI model
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Physical vs. Logical
Bus
Star and extended star
Ring
Mesh and Partial Mesh
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-83
PhysicaI vs. LogicaI
The topology oI a network describes the layout oI the wire and devices as well as the paths
used by data transmissions. This topic compares physical topologies to logical topologies.
Networks can have both a physical and a logical topology.
PhysicaI TopoIogy
The physical topology oI a network reIers to the physical layout oI the devices and media.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-4
PhysicaI TopoIogies
Bus TopoIogy Ring TopoIogy Star TopoIogy
Mesh TopoIogy Extended Star TopoIogy
1-84 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
LogicaI TopoIogy
The logical topology oI a network reIers to the logical paths that signals travel Irom one point
on the network to another (that is, the way in which data accesses media and transmits packets
across it).
The physical and logical topologies oI a network can be the same. For instance, in a network
physically shaped as a linear bus, the data travels along the length oI the cable. ThereIore, it has
both a physical bus topology and a logical bus topology.
A network can also have physical and logical topologies that are quite diIIerent. For example, a
physical topology in the shape oI a star, where cable segments can connect all computers to a
central hub, can have a logical ring topology. Remember that in a ring, the data travels Irom
one computer to the next, and inside the hub, the wiring connections are such that the signal
actually travels around in a circle Irom one port to the next, creating a logical ring. ThereIore,
you cannot always predict how data travels in a network by simply observing its physical
layout.
Token Ring uses a logical ring topology in either a physical ring or a physical star, whereas
Ethernet uses a logical bus topology in either a physical bus or a physical star. Star topology is
by Iar the most common implementation oI LANs today. Token Ring is used in some places;
however, most LANs are Ethernets.
The Iollowing sections discuss the diIIerent types oI topologies, including bus, star, ring, and
mesh.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-5
LogicaI TopoIogies
Bridge Bridge
Repeater Repeater
Workgroup
Switch
Workgroup
Switch
Main
Switch
Main
Switch
Main
Server
Main
Server
D
E
G
I
F
H
J
E0 E0
E2 E2
E1 E1
Internet
1
2
A C B
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-85
Bus
Commonly reIerred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one
single cable. This topic describes a bus topology.
As illustrated in the Iigure, in a bus topology a cable proceeds Irom one computer to the next
like a bus line going through a city.
With a physical bus topology, the main cable segment must end with a terminator that absorbs
the signal when it reaches the end oI the line or wire. II there is no terminator, the electrical
signal representing the data bounces back at the end oI the wire, causing errors in the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-6
Bus TopoIogy
1-86 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Star and Extended Star
The star topology is the most common physical topology in Ethernet LANs. This topic
describes both the star topology and the extended-star topology.
Star TopoIogy
When installed, the star topology resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel. It is made up oI a central
connection point that is a device such as a hub, switch, or router, where all the cabling
segments actually meet. Each host in the network is connected to the central device with its
own cable.
Although a physical star topology costs more to implement than the physical bus topology, the
advantages oI a star topology make it worth the additional cost. Each host is connected to the
central device with its own wire, so that when that cable has a problem, only that host is
aIIected and the rest oI the network remains operational. This beneIit is extremely important,
and is the reason why almost every newly designed Ethernet LAN has a star topology.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-7
Star TopoIogy
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-87
Extended-Star TopoIogy
When a star network is expanded to include an additional networking device that is connected
to the main networking device, it is called an extended-star topology.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-8
Extended-Star TopoIogy
1-88 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Ring
The logical ring topology is another important topology in LAN connectivity. This topic
describes both types oI ring topology, single-ring and dual-ring.
As the name implies, hosts are connected in the Iorm oI a ring or circle. Unlike the physical bus
topology, it has no beginning or end that needs to be terminated. Data is transmitted in a way
unlike the logical bus topology. A token travels around the ring, stopping at each node. II a
node wants to transmit data, it adds that data as well as the destination address to the token. The
token then continues around the ring until it Iinds the destination node, which takes the data out
oI the token. The advantage oI using this type oI method is that there are no collisions oI data
packets. There are two types oI ring topology: single-ring and dual-ring.
SingIe-Ring TopoIogy
All the devices on the network share a single cable, and the data travels in one direction only.
Each device waits its turn to send data over the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-9
Ring TopoIogy
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-89
DuaI-Ring TopoIogy
Two rings allow data to be sent in both directions. This setup creates redundancy (Iault
tolerance), meaning that iI one ring Iails, data can be transmitted on the other ring. Most oI the
time dual rings are used in FDDI.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-10
DuaI-Ring TopoIogy
Two Iinks connected to the
same networking device
1-90 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Mesh and PartiaI Mesh
Mesh topology is yet another type oI network topology. This topic describes both Iull-mesh and
partial-mesh topologies.
FuII-Mesh TopoIogy
The Iull-mesh topology connects all devices (nodes) to each other Ior redundancy and Iault
tolerance. Implementing the Iull-mesh topology is expensive and diIIicult.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-11
FuII-Mesh TopoIogy
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-91
PartiaI-Mesh TopoIogy
In a partial-mesh topology, at least one device maintains multiple connections to others,
without being Iully meshed.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-12
PartiaI-Mesh TopoIogy
1-92 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-13
Summary
· A physicaI topoIogy describes the pIan for wiring
the physicaI devices, whiIe a IogicaI topoIogy
describes how information fIows through a
network.
· In a physicaI bus topoIogy, a singIe cabIe connects
aII the devices.
· The most commonIy used architecture in Ethernet
LANs is the physicaI star topoIogy, with each host
in the network connected to the centraI device with
its own cabIe.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-1-14
Summary (Cont.)
· When a star network is expanded to incIude
additionaI networking devices that are connected
to the main networking device, it is caIIed an
extended-star topoIogy.
· In a ring topoIogy, aII the hosts are connected in
the form of a ring or circIe.
· A fuII-mesh topoIogy connects aII devices to each
other, whiIe in a partiaI-mesh topoIogy, at Ieast one
device has muItipIe connections to others.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Ìntroduction to Networking 1-93
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing correctly describes networking topology?
A) The network topology deIines the way in which the computers, printers,
network devices, and other devices are connected.
B) Networks can have either a physical or a logical topology.
C) A physical topology describes the paths that signals travel Irom one point on
the network to another.
D) A logical topology deIines the layout oI the device and media.
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing statements best describes bus topology?
A) All oI its nodes connect directly to a central point.
B) All oI its nodes connect directly to one physical link.
C) All oI its nodes connect directly to each other.
D) All oI its nodes connect to exactly two other nodes.
Q3) Which topology has all its nodes connected directly to one center point, and has no
other connections between nodes?
A) bus
B) ring
C) star
D) mesh
Q4) What is the primary purpose oI the second ring in a dual-ring network?
A) duplex
B) signaling
C) redundancy
D) none oI the above
Q5) In a complete, Iull-mesh topology, every node:
A) is linked directly to every other node
B) is connected to two central nodes
C) is linked wirelessly to a central node
D) none oI the above
1-94 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A
ReIates to: Physical vs. Logical
Q2) B
ReIates to: Bus
Q3) C
ReIates to: Star and Extended Star
Q4) C
ReIates to: Ring
Q5) A
ReIates to: Mesh and Partial Mesh
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 1-1: Computing Basics
Quiz 1-2: Networking Fundamentals
Quiz 1-3: Network Devices
Quiz 1-4: Network Topologies
1-96 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 1-1: Computing Basics
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
IdentiIy the major components oI a personal computer
State the Iunctions oI NICs
List the components needed Ior NIC installation
Describe the units used to measure the size oI digital data, data transmission rate, and
microprocessor speed
Convert a decimal number to a binary number
Convert a binary number to a decimal number
Convert a binary number to a hexadecimal number
Convert a hexadecimal number to a binary number
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) The ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ is a signal that inIorms a CPU that an event that needs its attention
has occurred.
A) Iiber-optic pulse
B) Irequency
C) I/O address
D) IRQ
Q2) What computer component allows the computer to communicate with the network?
A) sound card
B) NIC
C) video card
D) port adapter
E) none oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 1-97
Q3) Today, what are the common measurements Ior the speed oI a computer
microprocessor? (Choose two.)
A) Hz
B) Kbps
C) MHz
D) Mbps
E) GHz
Q4) Convert the decimal number 240 into binary.
A) 11110000
B) 11101110
C) 11111000
D) 11101111
E) none oI the above
Q5) What is the binary number 10111001 in decimal?
A) 180
B) 18
C) 179
D) 178
E) none oI the above
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
1-98 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 1-2: Networking FundamentaIs
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
DeIine basic networking terms
Describe some commonly used network applications
Describe the main purposes and Iunctions oI networking
Describe the history and purposes oI the OSI reIerence model
Discuss the Iunctions oI each oI the seven layers oI the OSI reIerence model and provide
examples oI each
Describe the basic process oI communication between the layers oI the OSI reIerence
model
Describe the Iunctions oI the TCP/IP protocol stack and provide examples oI each layer`s
Iunction
Compare the TCP/IP protocol stack to the OSI reIerence model
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) The ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ topology is the path that the signals take Irom one
computer to another.
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is an application-layer protocol?
A) HTTP
B) FTP
C) Telnet
D) SMNP
E) all oI the above
Q3) Telecommuters are most likely to connect to the main oIIice LAN using what WAN
technology?
A) Irame relay
B) X.25
C) ISDN
D) leased lines
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 1-99
Q4) What organization created the OSI reIerence model?
A) IEEE
B) ISO
C) DEC
D) DIX
E) none oI the above
Q5) What layer deIines voltage levels, timing oI voltage changes, maximum transmission
distances, physical connectors, and physical data rates?
A) physical layer
B) network layer
C) session layer
D) data-link layer
E) transport layer
Q6) An e-mail message is sent Irom Host A to Host B on a LAN. To send this message, the
data must be encapsulated. Which oI the Iollowing best describes the Iirst step oI data
encapsulation?
A) Alphanumeric characters are converted into data.
B) The message is segmented into easily transportable chunks.
C) A network header is added to the message (source and destination addresses).
D) The message is converted into binary Iormat.
E) The user data is sent Irom an application to the application layer.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
1-100 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 1-3: Network Devices
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at Layer 1 oI the
OSI model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at Layer 2 oI the
OSI model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI network devices used at Layer 3 oI the
OSI model
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI access servers, packet telephony devices,
and other optical platIorms
Describe the Iunctions, Ieatures, and operation oI Iirewalls and AAA servers
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is a characteristic oI a hub?
A) They do layer 2 Iiltering.
B) They do layer 2 path determination.
C) They are used as network concentration points.
D) They cannot ampliIy signals.
E) None oI the above are correct.
Q2) What universally unique identiIier does each Layer 2 device have?
A) IP address
B) subnet address
C) MAC address
D) Layer 2 address
E) none oI the above
Q3) What does a router route?
A) Layer 1 bits
B) Layer 2 Irames
C) Layer 3 packets
D) Layer 4 segments
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 1-101
Q4) What does DSLAM stand Ior?
A) device Ior segments, links, and multiplexers
B) digital subscriber line access multiplexer
C) device Ior segments, links, and multilayer switches
D) digital subscriber link access multiplexer
Q5) Which oI the Iollowing characteristics do Iirewalls have? (Select all that apply.)
A) soItware-based
B) hardware-based
C) Iilter traIIic
D) Layer 2 device
E) none oI the above
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
1-102 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 1-4: Network TopoIogies
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
DeIine physical and logical topologies
DeIine and discuss the bus topology
DeIine and discuss star and extended-star topologies
DeIine and discuss the ring topology
DeIine and discuss mesh and partial-mesh topologies
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Place the topology name next to the appropriate diagram.
Extended Star
TopoIogy
Bus TopoIogy
Star TopoIogy Mesh TopoIogy Ring TopoIogy
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 1-103
Q2) In a star topology, what happens when a cable between a device and the central device
Iails?
A) The whole network becomes disconnected.
B) The network resets itselI.
C) The device at the end oI the cable becomes disconnected.
D) Nothing, the devices remain on-line.
E) None oI the above are correct.
Q3) The rings in a dual-ring topology operate in diIIerent directions.
A) true
B) Ialse
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
1-104 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 1-1: Computing Basics
Q1) D
Q2) B
Q3) C, E
Q4) A
Q5) E
Quiz 1-2: Networking FundamentaIs
Q1) Logical
Q2) E
Q3) C
Q4) B
Q5) A
Q6) E
Quiz 1-3: Network Devices
Q1) D
Q2) C
Q3) C
Q4) B
Q5) A, B, C
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 1-105
Quiz 1-4: Network TopoIogies
Q1)
Q2) C
Q3) A
Extended Star
TopoIogy
Bus TopoIogy Ring TopoIogy Star TopoIogy
Mesh TopoIogy
1-106 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ModuIe 2
Network Types
Overview
There are many types oI computer networks, including local-area networks (LANs), wide-area
networks (WANs), metropolitan-area networks (MANs), storage area networks (SANs),
content networks (CNs), and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the Iunctions, operations, and
primary components oI common types oI networks. This includes being able to do the
Iollowing:
Describe the Iunctions and operation oI important LAN technologies, including Ethernet,
Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet
Describe the Iunctions, operation, and primary components oI a WAN
Describe the Iunctions, operations, and primary components oI a MAN, a SAN, a CN, and
a VPN
OutIine
The module contains these components:
LANs
WANs
Other Types oI Networks
Lesson Assessments
2-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) V1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
LANs
Overview
Ethernet LANs are the most common local-area networks, and this term is oIten used to reIer to
all types oI LANs. Since Ethernet was Iirst developed more than 20 years ago, it has been
upgraded several times to meet evolving technology demands. There are, thereIore, diIIerent
types oI Ethernet LAN technologies, including Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet.
ReIevance
LANs are a common type oI network, Iound in most business environments. Learning about
their standards and Iunctions will give you a working perspective about local-area network
components and technologies.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions and operation oI
important LAN technologies, including Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. This
includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe diIIerent types oI LAN standards
Explain how Ethernet LANs work
Describe the structure oI an Ethernet protocol
Describe the Iunctions and operation oI Fast Ethernet
Describe the Iunctions and operation oI Gigabit Ethernet
Describe the Iunctions oI a GBIC
2-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
LAN Standards
Ethernet and CSMA/CD
Ethernet Protocol Description
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit InterIace Converter
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-5
LAN Standards
LANs are high-speed, low-error data networks that cover a relatively small geographic area, up
to a Iew thousand meters. LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices
in a single building or other geographically limited area. This topic describes the standards that
apply to LANs in relation to the OSI reIerence model.
LAN standards speciIy cabling and signaling at both the physical and data-link layers oI the
Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. The Iigure shows how LAN protocols map to the
OSI reIerence model.
Ethernet, the most common type oI LAN, was originally developed by DEC, Intel, and Xerox,
and was called DIX Ethernet. It later came to be called thick Ethernet because oI the thickness
oI the cable used in this type oI network, and ran at 10 Mbps. The standard Ior Ethernet was
updated in the 1980s to add more capability, and the new version oI Ethernet was reIerred to as
Ethernet II, or thin Ethernet. The Type II Irame identiIies the upper-layer protocol using an
'Ethertype¨ Iield in the Irame header.
The Institute oI Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a proIessional organization that
deIines network standards. The IEEE standards are the predominant and best-known LAN
standards in the world today. When a work group oI this body (reIerred to as IEEE 802.3)
deIined standards Ior Ethernet in the mid-1980s, the standard was called Ethernet 802.3. It was
based on the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process that is discussed
later in this lesson, and it speciIied the physical layer (Layer 1) and the Media Access Control
(MAC) portion oI the data-link layer (Layer 2). Today this standard is most oIten reIerred to as
simply Ethernet.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-4
LAN Standards
Data Link
Layer
PhysicaI
Layer
LLC
SubIayer
PhysicaI
Layer
MAC
SubIayer
IEEE 802.2
E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t
I
E
E
E

8
0
2
.
3
I
E
E
E

8
0
2
.
3
u
I
E
E
E

8
0
2
.
3
z
I
E
E
E

8
0
2
.
3
a
b
T
o
k
e
n

R
i
n
g
/
I
E
E
E

8
0
2
.
5
F
D
D
I
OSI Layers LAN Specification
2-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The IEEE divides the OSI data-link layer into these two separate sublayers:
Logical Link Control (LLC) (transitions up to the network layer)
MAC (transitions down to the physical layer)
LLC
The IEEE created the LLC sublayer to allow part oI the data-link layer to Iunction
independently Irom existing technologies. This layer provides versatility in services to network
layer protocols that are above it, while communicating eIIectively with the variety oI MAC and
Layer 1 technologies below it. The LLC, as a sublayer, participates in the encapsulation
process.
An LLC header tells the data-link layer what to do with a packet when it receives a Irame. For
example, a host receives a Irame and then looks in the LLC header to understand that the
packet is destined Ior the IP protocol at the network layer.
The original Ethernet header (prior to IEEE 802.2 and 802.3) did not use an LLC header.
Instead, it used a type Iield in the Ethernet header to identiIy the Layer 3 protocol being carried
in the Ethernet Irame.
MAC
The MAC sublayer deals with the physical media access. The IEEE 802.3 MAC speciIication
deIines MAC addresses, which uniquely identiIy multiple devices at the data-link layer. The
MAC sublayer maintains a table oI MAC addresses (physical addresses) oI devices. Each
device must have a unique MAC address to participate on the network.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-7
Ethernet and CSMA/CD
Ethernet signals, or Irames, are transmitted to every station connected to the LAN, using a
special set oI rules to determine which station can talk at any particular time. This topic
describes how those rules Iunction in an Ethernet LAN.
Ethernet LANs manage the signals on a network by a process called carrier sense multiple
access collision detect (CSMA/CD).
In an Ethernet LAN, beIore transmitting, a computer Iirst listens to the media. II the media is
idle, the computer sends its data. AIter a transmission has been sent, the computers on the
network once again compete Ior the next available idle time in order to send another Irame.
This contention Ior idle time means that no station has an advantage over another on the
network.
Stations on a CSMA/CD LAN can access the network at any time. BeIore sending data,
CSMA/CD stations listen to the network to determine whether it is already in use. II it is, then
they wait. II the network is not in use, the stations transmit. A collision occurs when two
stations listen Ior network traIIic, hear none, and transmit simultaneously (see Iigure). In this
case, both transmissions are damaged, and the stations must retransmit at some later time.
CSMA/CD stations must be able to detect collisions so that they know when they must
retransmit.
When a station transmits, the signal is reIerred to as a carrier. The network interIace card (NIC)
'senses¨ the carrier and consequently restrains itselI Irom broadcasting a signal. II there is no
carrier, a waiting station knows that it is Iree to transmit. This is the carrier sense part oI the
protocol.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-5
CSMA/CD
A B D C
A B D C
A B D C
A B D C
JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM
Carrier sense muItipIe access coIIision detect (CSMA/CD)
Carrier
Sense
MuItipIe
Access
CoIIision
CoIIision
Detection
(Backoff
AIgorithm)
CoIIision CoIIision
2-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
In the CSMA/CD process, priorities are not assigned to particular stations. ThereIore, all
stations on the network have equal access. This is the multiple access part oI the protocol. II
two or more stations attempt a transmission simultaneously, a collision occurs. The stations are
alerted oI the collision, and they execute a backoII algorithm that randomly schedules
retransmission oI the Irame. This scenario prevents the machines Irom repeatedly attempting to
transmit at the same time. Collisions are normally resolved in microseconds. This is the
collision detect part oI the protocol. The Iigure summarizes the CSMA/CD process.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-6
CSMA/CD Process
1. Host wants to transmit 1. Host wants to transmit
2. Is carrier sensed? 2. Is carrier sensed?
3. AssembIe frame 3. AssembIe frame
4. Start transmitting 4. Start transmitting
5. Is a coIIision detected? 5. Is a coIIision detected?
6. Keep transmitting 6. Keep transmitting
7. Is the transmission done? 7. Is the transmission done?
8. Transmission compIeted 8. Transmission compIeted
9. Broadcast jam signaI 9. Broadcast jam signaI
10. Attempts = Attempts + 1 10. Attempts = Attempts + 1
11. Attempts > Too many ? 11. Attempts > Too many ?
12. Too many coIIisions; abort transmission 12. Too many coIIisions; abort transmission
13. AIgorithm caIcuIates backoff 13. AIgorithm caIcuIates backoff
14. Wait for t microseconds 14. Wait for t microseconds
1 1
8 8 12 12
2 2
5 5
7 7 11 11
3 3
4 4
6 6 10 10
9 9
13 13
14 14
Yes
Yes
Yes Yes
No
No
No
No
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-9
Ethernet ProtocoI Description
There are Iour common protocols related to Ethernet. This topic provides an overview oI these
protocols.
Ethernet reIers to the Iamily oI LAN protocols that includes these Iour popular
implementations:
10-Mbps Ethernet: These LAN speciIications (IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II) operate at 10
megabits per second (Mbps) over coaxial or twisted-pair cable.
100-Mbps Ethernet: This single LAN speciIication (IEEE 802.3u), also known as Fast
Ethernet, operates at 100 Mbps over twisted-pair cable.
Gigabit Ethernet: An extension oI the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard, Gigabit Ethernet
increases speed tenIold over Fast Ethernet, to 1000 Mbps, or 1 gigabit per second (Gbps).
Two IEEE 802.3 standards, IEEE 802.3z and IEEE 802.3ab, deIine Gigabit Ethernet
operations over Iiber optics and twisted-pair cable.
10000-Mbps (10-Gbps) Ethernet: This version will soon be implemented.
Ethernet protocols are usually described as a Iunction oI data rate, maximum segment length,
and medium (see Iigure). As Iaster types oI Ethernet are used, more users can be added to the
network without degrading network perIormance.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-7
Ethernet ProtocoI Description
LAN speed
100 Mbps
Indicates type of cabIe
and maximum Iength.
If a number, maximum
Iength = No. x 100m
100BASE-FX
BASE = Baseband
Broad = Broadband
2-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet reIers primarily to its increased speed over 10-Mbps Ethernet. This topic
describes the speciIications oI Fast Ethernet.
The Fast Ethernet standard (IEEE 802.3u) raises the Ethernet speed Irom 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps
with only minimal changes to the existing cable structure. Data can move Irom 10 Mbps to 100
Mbps without protocol translation or changes to application and networking soItware and
hardware.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-8
Fast Ethernet Specifications
ProtocoI ProtocoI Maximum Segment
Length (m)
Maximum Segment
Length (m)
Transmission
Medium
Transmission
Medium
AppIication AppIication
100BASE-FX 100BASE-FX
100BASE-T 100BASE-T
100BASE-T4 100BASE-T4
100BASE-TX 100BASE-TX
100BASE-X 100BASE-X
400 400
100 100
100 100
100 100
Refers to two stands, 100BASE-FX, and two pairs, 100BASE-TX Refers to two stands, 100BASE-FX, and two pairs, 100BASE-TX
Two strands of muItimode fiber-optic
cabIe
Two strands of muItimode fiber-optic
cabIe
UnshieIded twisted
pair (UTP)
UnshieIded twisted
pair (UTP)
100BASE-T
function + More
100BASE-T
function + More
Four pairs
Category 3-5 UTP
Four pairs
Category 3-5 UTP
Two pairs UTP or
shieIded twisted
pair (STP)
Two pairs UTP or
shieIded twisted
pair (STP)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-11
Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet provides a greatly increased speed and operates over diIIerent media. This
topic describes the speciIications and uses Ior Gigabit Ethernet.
Gigabit Ethernet is an extension oI the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard. IEEE 802.3z speciIies
operations over Iiber optics and IEEE 802.3ab speciIies operations over twisted-pair cable.
Gigabit Ethernet builds on the Ethernet protocol but increases speed tenIold over Fast Ethernet,
to 1000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps. It has become a dominant player in high-speed LAN backbones and
server connectivity. Gigabit Ethernet uses Ethernet as its basis, and network managers have
been able to take advantage oI their existing knowledge to manage and maintain gigabit
networks.
The Gigabit Ethernet speciIication addresses Iour Iorms oI transmission media (see Iigure).
1000BASE-LX: Long-wave laser over single-mode and multimode Iiber
1000BASE-SX: Short-wave laser over multimode Iiber
1000BASE-CX: Transmission over balanced, shielded, 150-ohm two-pair shielded
twisted-pair (STP) copper cable
1000BASE-T: Category 5 unshielded twisted-par (UTP) copper wiring
Gigabit Ethernet is oIten used Ior connecting buildings on the campus to a central multilayer
gigabit switch located at the campus data center. Servers located at the campus data center
would also be connected to the same gigabit multilayer switch that providing connectivity to
the entire campus.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-9
Gigabit Ethernet Specifications
ProtocoI ProtocoI
1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-LX
1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-SX
1000BASE-CX 1000BASE-CX
1000BASE-T 1000BASE-T
Maximum Segment
Length (m)
Maximum Segment
Length (m)
3 km (singIe mode)-
500 m (muItimode)
3 km (singIe mode)-
500 m (muItimode)
500 m 500 m
25 m 25 m
100 m 100 m
Transmission
Medium
Transmission
Medium
Long-wave Iaser over
singIe-mode and
muItimode fiber
Long-wave Iaser over
singIe-mode and
muItimode fiber
Short-wave Iaser over
muItimode fiber
Short-wave Iaser over
muItimode fiber
BaIanced shieIded
150-ohm two-pair STP
copper cabIe
BaIanced shieIded
150-ohm two-pair STP
copper cabIe
Category 5 UTP
copper wiring
Category 5 UTP
copper wiring
2-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Gigabit Interface Converter
The industry-standard Cisco Gigabit InterIace Converter (GBIC) is a hot-swappable
input/output device that plugs into a Gigabit Ethernet port (slot), linking the port with the
physical media used by the network. This topic describes a GBIC.
GBICs can be used and interchanged on a wide variety oI Cisco products and can be intermixed
in combinations oI IEEE 802.3z-compliant 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX/LH, or 1000BASE-
ZX interIaces on a port-by-port basis.
Cisco oIIers a 1000BASE-LX/LH interIace that is Iully compliant with the IEEE 802.3z
1000BASE-LX standard, but has the ability to go up to 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) over single-
mode Iiber, which is 5 km (3.1 m) Iarther than generic 1000BASE-LX interIaces.
As additional capabilities are developed, these modules make it easy to upgrade to the latest
interIace technology, maximizing investment protection. Cisco GBICs are shown in the Iigure.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-10
Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-13
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. Course acronym vx.x-#-11
Summary
· LAN standards specify cabIing and signaIing at
the physicaI and data-Iink Iayers of the OSI modeI.
· Ethernet uses carrier sense muItipIe access
coIIision detect (CSMA/CD).
· There are severaI types of Ethernet: Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. Each type is
associated with a different transfer rate, maximum
segment Iength, and medium.
· A Cisco Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) is a
hot-swappabIe input/output device that pIugs into
a Gigabit Ethernet port (sIot), Iinking the port with
the fiber-optic network.
2-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is one oI the recognized IEEE sublayers?
A) Media Access Control
B) Data Link Control
C) Logical Link Control
D) None oI the above
Q2) What is the name oI the method used in Ethernet that explains how Ethernet works?
A) TCP/IP
B) CSMA/CD
C) CMDA/CS
D) CSMA/CA
Q3) Fast Ethernet supports up to what transIer rate?
A) 5 Mbps
B) 10 Mbps
C) 100 Mbps
D) 1000 Mbps
Q4) IdentiIy two Gigabit Ethernet cable speciIications.
A) 1000BASE-TX
B) 1000BASE-FX
C) 1000BASE-CX
D) 1000BASE-LX
E) 1000BASE-X
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-15
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) B
ReIates to: LAN Standards
Q2) B
ReIates to: Ethernet
Q3) C
ReIates to: Fast Ethernet
Q4) C, D
ReIates to: Gigabit Ethernet
2-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WANs
Overview
Wide-area networks (WANs) are networks that cover large geographic areas. While the Internet
is one oI the most Iamiliar examples oI a WAN, this type oI network can also be private,
connecting the worldwide locations oI a corporation, educational system, or government
oIIices. WANs employ a number oI special devices, physical and data-link protocols, and
connections obtained Irom service providers.
ReIevance
Understanding how a WAN operates will enable you to understand how networks can connect
users and services beyond the physical limitations oI LANs.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions, operation, and primary
components oI a WAN. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the global Internet
Describe WAN technology
Describe devices used in WAN operations
Describe WAN service providers and signaling standards
Describe WAN physical layer protocols
Describe WAN data-link layer protocols
2-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN Iunctions and operations
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Global Internet
WAN Technology Overview
WAN Devices
WAN Service Providers and Signaling Standards
WANs and the Physical Layer
WANs and the Data-Link Layer
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-19
GIobaI Internet
By deIinition, an internet is a network oI networks, and the Internet is the interconnection oI
thousands oI large and small networks all over the world. This topic discusses WANs by
looking at the hierarchy oI the Internet, the largest WAN oI all.
Using the analogy oI the telephone system to explain the concept oI the Internet, the telephone
system is really a collection oI interconnected local phone service providers. The Internet is
practically the same thing: it is a collection oI local network providers oI IP connectivity.
There is a hierarchy in the Internet and the way it is deployed. The largest component oI the
Internet is commonly reIerred to as the Internet backbone. There is no one entity that can be
pointed to as the Internet backbone; it is a collection oI large transit networks operated by many
diIIerent network service providers. This is the highest level oI connectivity in the Internet.
From there, the Internet branches down to individual Internet service providers (ISPs), which
sell Internet access to businesses and individual consumers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-4
Internet Hierarchy
ISP
POP
Network
Access
Point
San Francisco
Backbone
Boston
ISP
POP
Network
Access
Point
2-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WAN TechnoIogy Overview
A WAN is a data communications network that operates beyond the geographic scope oI the
LAN. This topic provides an overview oI how a WAN Iunctions and how WAN technologies
relate to the OSI reIerence model.
The main way that a WAN diIIers Irom a LAN is that WAN members must subscribe to an
outside WAN service provider, such as a regional Bell operating company (RBOC), to use
WAN carrier network services. A WAN uses data-link layer protocols, such as ISDN and
Frame Relay, that are provided by carriers to transmit data over wide areas.
A WAN connects the locations oI an organization to each other, to locations oI other
organizations, to external services (such as databases), and to remote users.
WANs generally carry a variety oI traIIic types, such as voice, data, and video.
WAN technologies Iunction at the three lowest layers oI the OSI reIerence model: the physical
layer, the data-link layer, and the network layer. The Iigure illustrates the relationship between
the common WAN technologies and the OSI reIerence model.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-5
WAN TechnoIogies
· WAN technoIogies operate at the Iowest IeveIs of the
OSI reference modeI.
WAN
CSU/DSU
CSU/DSU
Router
Router
Layer 3
Layer 2 Layer 2
Layer 1 Layer 1
Layer 3
Layer 2 Layer 2
Layer 1 Layer 1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-21
Telephone and data services are the most commonly used WAN services, connected Irom the
building point oI presence (POP) to the WAN provider`s central oIIice (CO). The CO is the
local telephone company oIIice to which all local loops in a given area connect, and in which
circuit switching oI subscriber lines occurs.
There are three main types oI WAN provider services:
Circuit switching: This access method gives each user a dedicated path to the network. In
order to operate, there is a call setup phase. This Ieature sets up and clears calls between
telephone users. Also called signaling, call setup uses a separate channel not used Ior other
traIIic. The most commonly used call setup is Signaling System 7 (SS7), which uses call
control messages and signals between the transIer points along the way to the called
destination.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM): Data Irom many sources has bandwidth allocated on
a single medium. Circuit switching uses signaling to determine the call route, which is a
dedicated path between the sender and the receiver. By multiplexing traIIic into Iixed time
slots, TDM avoids congested Iacilities and variable delays. Basic telephone service and
ISDN use TDM circuits.
Frame Relay: InIormation contained in Irames shares bandwidth with other WAN Frame
Relay subscribers. Frame Relay is a statistical multiplexed service. Unlike TDM, Frame
Relay uses Layer 2 identiIiers and permanent virtual circuits.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-6
WAN Services
TDM Circuits
(56/64-kbps or T1/E1)
TDM Circuits
(56/64-kbps or T1/E1)
Basic
TeIephone
Service
Basic
TeIephone
Service
Data
Service
Data
Service
S S S S
Frame ReIay
Networks
CaII Setup
(SS7 or other)
B C
A E
CO CO
2-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WAN Devices
A variety oI devices are involved in a WAN operation. This topic covers the main types oI
WAN devices and explains how they Iunction.
WANs use several types oI devices:
Routers, which oIIer many services, including LAN and WAN interIace ports
WAN switches, such as an ATM switch, used Ior voice, data, and video communication
Modems and channel service units/data service units (CSUs/DSUs), which are used as
interIaces between the end-user devices (such as PCs or routers) and the service provider
switches
Access servers, which are used to concentrate modem connections (For example, an ISP
needs access servers so that its dialup customers can call in and connect to its services.
Access servers usually contain many built-in modems.)
Router
Routers are devices that implement the network layer services. They provide a wide range oI
interIaces, such as Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet Ior LAN connections, and
serial and ATM interIaces Ior WAN connections.
The Internet contains many thousands oI routers. Routers are the traIIic cops in the Internet that
direct how a packet should travel to reach its destination.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-7
WAN Devices
Access
Server
Router
Modem
CSU/DSU
WAN
Switch
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-23
WAN Switch
A WAN switch is a multiport networking device that switches traIIic such as Frame Relay,
X.25, and ATM. WAN switches usually operate at the data-link layer oI the OSI reIerence
model. The Iigure illustrates two routers at remote ends oI a WAN that are connected by ATM
WAN switches.
A virtual circuit is used by the WAN switches to logically connect the two routers. It is called a
virtual circuit because the routers do not have a physical connection to each other. Each router
has only one physical connection to the ATM switch that it connects to directly. The ATM
switches in the ATM network establish a virtual circuit to logically connect the two routers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-8
WAN Switch ExampIe: ATM Switches
· WAN switches can connect two routers at remote ends of
a WAN.
2-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Modem
A modem is a device that interprets digital and analog signals by modulating and demodulating
the signals, enabling data to be transmitted over voice-grade telephone lines. At the source,
digital signals are converted to a Iorm that is suitable Ior transmission over analog
communication Iacilities. At the destination, these analog signals are returned to digital Iorm.
The Iigure illustrates a simple modem-to-modem connection through the public switched
telephone network (PSTN).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-9
Modem
· Modems perform conversion of the digitaI data to and
from the PC to anaIog data and through the pubIic
switched teIephone network (PSTN).
Modem
Modem
PSTN
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-25
CSU/DSU
A CSU/DSU is a digital interIace device (or sometimes two separate digital devices) that adapts
the physical interIace on a data terminal equipment (DTE) device (such as a terminal) to the
interIace oI a data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) device (such as a switch) in a
switched-carrier network. The Iigure illustrates the placement oI the CSU/DSU in a WAN
implementation. Sometimes CSUs/DSUs are integrated in the router interIace.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-10
CSU/DSU
· A CSU/DSU is Iike a digitaI modem. It converts from one
digitaI format to another digitaI format.
CSU/DSU
Switch
2-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WAN Service Providers and SignaIing
Standards
Advances in technology over the past decade have made many WAN solutions available to
network designers. When selecting an appropriate WAN solution, you should discuss the costs
and beneIits oI each with the service providers. This topic provides an overview oI WAN
services as well as WAN signaling standards.
When an organization subscribes to an outside WAN service provider Ior network resources,
the provider speciIies connection requirements to the subscriber, such as the type oI equipment
to be used to receive services.
Two routers (see Iigure) can be connected by the service provider, using either a dialup (circuit-
switched) connection or a permanent leased-line (point-to-point) connection. Choosing which
type oI connection to use most oIten depends on the cost, availability oI the service, and the
traIIic requirements.
The Iollowing are the most commonly used terms associated with WAN services:
Customer premises equipment (CPE): Devices physically located on the subscriber`s
premises. Includes devices owned by the subscriber and devices leased to the subscriber by
the service provider.
Demarcation (or demarc): The point at which the CPE ends and the local-loop portion oI
the service begins. This oIten occurs at the point oI presence (POP) oI a building.
Local loop (or ~last mile¨): Cabling (usually copper wiring) that extends Irom the
demarcation into the WAN service provider`s central oIIice.
CO switch: A switching Iacility that provides the nearest POP Ior the provider`s WAN
service.
Point of presence: A place where service provider`s equipment is installed.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-11
WAN Service Providers
S S S S S S
S S S S
S S
CPE
Demarcation
CO Switch
WAN Service Provider
ToII Network
Trunks and
Switches
LocaI
Loop
Point-to-Point or
Circuit-Switched
Connection
S S
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-27
Toll network: The collective switches and Iacilities (called trunks) inside the WAN
provider`s cloud. The traIIic may cross a trunk to a primary center, then to a sectional
center, and then to a regional, or international, carrier center as the call travels the long
distance to its destination.
2-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
DTE/DCE
A key interIace in the customer`s site occurs between the DTE and the DCE. Typically the
DTE is the router and the DCE is the device used to convert the user data Irom the DTE into a
Iorm acceptable to the Iacility providing WAN services. As shown in the Iigure, the DCE is the
attached modem or CSU/DSU.
The WAN path between the DTE and the DCE is called the link, circuit, channel, or line. The
DCE primarily provides an interIace Ior the DTE into the communication link in the WAN
cloud. The DTE/DCE interIace acts as a boundary where responsibility Ior the traIIic passes
between the WAN subscriber and the WAN provider.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-12
DTE/DCE
· Data communication over WANS interconnects DTEs so
that they can share resources over a wide area.
Modem or
CSU/ DSU
DTE DCE
S S S S S S
S S S S S S
DTE DCE DTE DCE
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-29
WAN SignaIing Standards and Capacity
WAN links can be ordered Irom the WAN provider at various speeds, which are stated in bits
per second (bps). This bps capacity determines how Iast data can be moved across the WAN
link. The Iigure lists WAN link types and bandwidth.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-13
WAN Link Types and Bandwidth
Line Type Line Type Bit-Rate Capacity Bit-Rate Capacity
56 56
SignaI Standard SignaI Standard
64 64
T1 T1
E1 E1
E3 E3
J1 J1
T3 T3
OC-1 OC-1
OC-3 OC-3
OC-9 OC-9
OC-12 OC-12
OC-18 OC-18
OC-24 OC-24
OC-36 OC-36
4836 4836
DSO DSO
DSO DSO
DS1 DS1
ZM ZM
M3 M3
Y1 Y1
DS3 DS3
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
SONET SONET
56 kbps 56 kbps
64 kbps 64 kbps
1.544 Mbps 1.544 Mbps
2.048 Mbps 2.048 Mbps
34.064 Mbps 34.064 Mbps
2.048 Mbps 2.048 Mbps
44.736 Mbps 44.736 Mbps
51.84 Mbps 51.84 Mbps
155.54 Mbps 155.54 Mbps
466.56 Mbps 466.56 Mbps
622.08 Mbps 622.08 Mbps
933.12 Mbps 933.12 Mbps
1244.16 Mbps 1244.16 Mbps
1866.24 Mbps 1866.24 Mbps
2488.32 Mbps 2488.32 Mbps
2-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WANs and the PhysicaI Layer
The WAN physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical, operational,
and Iunctional connections Ior WAN services. This topic includes a description oI the physical
layer standards related to WANs.
Most WANs require an interconnection that is provided by a communications service provider
(such as an RBOC), an alternative carrier (such as an Internet service provider), or a Post,
Telephone, and Telegraph (PTT) agency.
The WAN physical layer also describes the interIace between the DTE and the DCE. Typically,
the DCE is the service provider and the DTE is the attached device. In the Iigure, the services
oIIered to the DTE are made available through a modem or a CSU/DSU.
Several physical layer standards deIine the rules governing the interIace between the DTE and
the DCE:
EIA/TIA-232: This common physical layer interIace standard, developed by the Electronic
Industries Alliance (EIA) and the Telecommunications Industry Alliance (TIA), supports
signal speeds oI up to 64 kbps. It was Iormerly known as RS-232. This standard has been in
place Ior many years.
EIA/TIA-449: This popular physical layer interIace, developed by the EIA and TIA, is
essentially a Iaster (up to 2 Mbps) version oI the EIA/TIA-232, capable oI longer cable
runs.
EIA/TIA-612/613: This standard describes High-Speed Serial InterIace (HSSI), which
provides access to services at T3 (45 Mbps), E3 (34 Mbps), and Synchronous Optical
Network (SONET) STS-1 (51.84 Mbps) rates. The actual rate oI the interIace depends on
the external DSU and the type oI service to which it is connected.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-14
WAN PhysicaI Layer ProtocoIs
Modem or
CSU/DSU
EIA/TIA-232
V.35
X.21
HSSI
Others
Data TerminaI Equipment
(DTE)-User device with
interface connecting to
the WAN Iink
Data Circuit-Termination
Equipment (DCE)-End of
the WAN provider's side of
the communication faciIity.
DTE DTE DCE DCE
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-31
V.24: This standard is an International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard Ior a physical layer interIace between DTE and
DCE.
V.35: This ITU-T standard describes a synchronous, physical layer protocol used Ior
communications between a network access device and a packet network. V.35 is most
commonly used in the United States and in Europe.
X.21: This ITU-T standard Ior serial communications over synchronous digital lines is
used primarily in Europe and Japan.
G.703: This ITU-T electrical and mechanical speciIication Ior connections between
telephone company equipment and DTE uses Bayonett Neill Concelman connectors
(BNCs) and operates at E1 data rates.
2-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WANs and the Data-Link Layer
Data-link layer protocols describe how Irames are carried between systems on a data link. They
are designed to operate over dedicated point-to-point, multipoint, and multiaccess switched
services such as Frame Relay. This topic includes a description oI the data-link protocols
related to WANs.
The common data-link layer encapsulations associated with synchronous serial lines include the
Iollowing:
Cisco high-level data link control (HDLC): This Cisco standard is not compatible with
the industry-standard HDLC protocol. Cisco`s HDLC contains a protocol Iield to identiIy
the network layer protocol being carried in Cisco`s HDLC Irame.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): This protocol is described by RFC 1661. PPP contains a
protocol Iield to identiIy the network layer protocol being carried in the PPP Irame.
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) Protocol: This protocol is an IBM-designed
WAN data-link protocol Ior Systems Network Architecture (SNA) environments. It is
largely being replaced by the more versatile HDLC.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP): This is a WAN data link protocol Ior carrying IP
packets. It has largely been replaced by the more versatile PPP.
Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB): This data link protocol is used by X.25 and
ISDN. It has extensive error-checking capabilities.
Link Access Procedure on the D channel (LAPD): This WAN data-link protocol is used
Ior signaling and call setup on an ISDN D channel. Data transmissions take place on the
ISDN B channels.
Link Access Procedure for Frame Relay (LAPF): This protocol speciIies the Irame
structure, Iormat oI Iields and access procedures Ior Irame mode bearer services. This
WAN data-link protocol is based on LAPD but is used with Frame Relay technologies.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-15
WAN Data Link Layer ProtocoIs
X.25, Frame
ReIay, ISDN
Cisco HDLC, PPP, LAPB
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-33
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-17
Summary (Cont.)
· The main parts of WAN services incIude CPE,
demarcation, IocaI Ioop, CO switch, point of
presence, and toII network.
· Wan Iinks can be ordered from a WAN provider at
various speeds (stated in bits per second).
· WAN physicaI Iayer protocoIs describe how to
provide eIectricaI, mechanicaI, operationaI, and
functionaI connection for WAN services.
· WAN data-Iink Iayer protocoIs describe how frames
are carried between systems on a singIe data Iink.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-16
Summary
· The Internet is the interconnection of thousands of
Iarge and smaII networks aII over the worId.
· A WAN is a data communications network that
operates beyond the geographic scope of a LAN.
· Many types of WAN provider services are avaiIabIe
to the WAN subscriber,incIuding caII setup, TDM,
and Frame ReIay.
· WAN devices incIude routers, WAN switches,
access servers, and CSU/DSUs.
2-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing statements best describes a WAN?
A) connects LANs that are separated by a large geographic area
B) connects workstations, terminals, and other devices in a metropolitan area
C) connects LANs within a large building
D) connects workstations, terminals, and other devices within a building
Q2) What is a group oI networks that are networked to each other called?
A) an internet
B) a WAN
C) a LAN
D) a workgroup
Q3) A CSU/DSU is generally used as what type oI equipment?
A) router
B) DTE
C) switch
D) DCE
Q4) DCE or DTE equipment is Iound at which layer oI the OSI reIerence model?
A) network
B) data link
C) physical
D) transport
Q5) Which physical layer standard is used primarily in Europe and Japan?
A) EIA/TIA-232
B) V.35
C) X.21
D) G.703
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-35
Q6) Which data-link layer has been replaced by PPP?
A) HDLC
B) SLIP
C) SDLS
D) LAPF
2-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A
ReIates to: WAN Technology Overview
Q2) A
ReIates to: WAN Technology Overview
Q3) D
ReIates to: WAN Devices
Q4) C
ReIates to: WAN Service Providers and Signaling Standards
Q5) C
ReIates to: WANs and the Physical Layer
Q6) B
ReIates to: WANs and the Data-Link Layer
Other Types oI Networks
Overview
There are many types oI networks besides LANs and WANs, each with its own purpose and
Iunctions. Some oI those other types oI networks include metropolitan-area networks (MANs),
storage-area networks (SANs), content networks (CNs), and virtual private networks (VPNs).
ReIevance
Learning about the components oI these other types oI networks and how they Iunction will
expand your understanding oI how networks operate and how they meet diIIerent data
communication needs.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions, operations, and primary
components oI a MAN, a SAN, a CN, and a VPN: This includes being able to meet these
objectives:
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a MAN
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a SAN
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a CN
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a VPN
Describe the types oI VPNs
Describe intranets and extranets
2-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Metropolitan-Area Networks
Storage Area Networks
Content Networks
Virtual Private Networks
Types oI VPNs
Intranets and Extranets
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-39
MetropoIitan-Area Networks
A metropolitan-area network (MAN) is a network that spans a metropolitan area such as a city
or suburban area. This topic describes the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a MAN.
A MAN usually consists oI two or more LANs in a common geographic area (see Iigure). For
example, a bank with multiple branches may utilize a MAN. Typically, a service provider is
used to connect two or more LAN sites using T1 private lines or optical services. A MAN can
also be created using wireless bridge technology by beaming signals across public areas. The
higher optical bandwidths that are currently available make MANs a more Iunctional and
economically Ieasible option than in the past.
Traditionally, most MANs have been designed using either SONET or a similar technology
known as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). SONET and SDH are selI-healing network
architectures that prevent interruption in service by rerouting traIIic almost instantaneously iI a
Iiber is cut. A ring topology, however, requires provisioning Ior the maximum bandwidth
required in the network on every segment, regardless oI the actual load on the segment.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-4
MetropoIitan-Area Network
Access
Network
Long-HauI
Network
MetropoIitan-Area
Network
SAN Site CoIocation
Site
Core
POP
Customer
Premises
Leaf
POP
Customer
Premises
2-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Storage Area Networks
A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated, high perIormance network used to move data
between heterogeneous servers and storage resources. This topic describes the Ieatures and
Iunctions oI a SAN.
Being a separate dedicated network, a SAN avoids any traIIic conIlict between clients and
servers. Adopting SAN technology through the use oI Fibre Channel, hubs, and switches allows
high-speed server-to-storage, storage-to-storage, or server-to-server connectivity. This method
uses a separate network inIrastructure that relieves any problems associated with existing
network connectivity.
Note Fibre Channel is a technology for transmitting data between computer devices at a data rate
of up to 1 billion bits per second (Gbps). Fibre Channel is especially suited for connecting
computer servers to shared storage devices and for interconnecting storage controllers and
drives.
SANs also have the potential to allow cable lengths up to 500 meters (1640.4 Ieet) today, and
up to 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) in the Iuture, so that servers in diIIerent buildings can share
external storage devices.
SANs oIIer the Iollowing Ieatures:
Performance: SANs enable concurrent access oI disk or tape arrays by two or more
servers at high speeds across Fibre Channel, providing enhanced system perIormance.
Availability: SANs have disaster tolerance built in because data can be mirrored using a
Fibre Channel SAN up to 10 km away.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-5
Storage Area Network
Internet
Storage-Area
Network
Server
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-41
Cost: Because a SAN is an independent network, initial costs to set up the inIrastructure
are higher, but the potential exists Ior rapid unit cost erosion as the SAN installed base
increases.
Scalability: Scalability is natural to SAN architecture, depending on the SAN network
management tools used. Like a LAN or WAN, it can use a variety oI technologies. This
allows easy relocation oI backup data, restore operations, Iile migration, and data
replication between heterogeneous environments.
Manageability: SANs are data centric, meaning the technology is speciIically designed Ior
data services as opposed to voice or other services. SANs implement a thin protocol that is
limited in Iunctionality but provides low latency.
2-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The Cisco SN 5420 Storage Router is based on both IP and SAN standards. It provides
interoperability with existing LAN, WAN, optical, and SAN equipment. Network
administrators Iamiliar with IP networking will be instantly Iamiliar with the Cisco SN 5420
Storage Router and its management interIaces.
The Cisco SN 5420 Storage Router enables the Internet Small Computer Systems InterIace
over IP (iSCSI), which is the Iirst storage networking implementation based on IP standards
and interoperability. It has the ability to automatically discover the storage devices on the
attached Fibre Channel and iSCSI networks. It also allows easy mapping oI servers to storage
devices.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-6
Cisco SN 5420 Storage Router
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-43
Content Networks
A content network (CN) is a globally coordinated network oI devices designed to accelerate the
delivery oI inIormation over the Internet inIrastructure. This topic describes the Ieatures and
Iunctions oI a CN.
By taking advantage oI content-aware services in the core IP network and OSI Layers 47,
enterprises and service providers are able to accelerate and improve the use oI rich content such
as streaming multimedia. This will also improve network perIormance and eliminate the stream
oI rich media on the inIrastructure.
Content networks bypass potential sources oI congestion by distributing the load across a
collection oI content engines, which are located close to the viewing audience. Rich web and
multimedia content is replicated to the content engines, and users are routed to an optimally
located content engine. For example, when you download a large movie Irom an ISP, iI the ISP
is using the CN technology, the movie may take only minutes to download rather than hours,
because a CN can accelerate the delivery oI inIormation.
The Cisco content networking solution is a tiered solution that starts with highly reliable Layer
2 and Layer 3 networks delivered by the Cisco IOS soItware core network. The Cisco content
networking solution is deIined in Iive major technology categories:
Content distribution and management: Distributes content to the network edge and
provides the business/operations support system (BSS/OSS) Ior the content network service
Content routing: Locates the optimum site to serve a speciIic content request based on
network topology, network latency, server load, and policy
Content switching: Selects the best server within that site to deliver the content request
based not only on server availability and load, but also on veriIication oI content and
application availability; provides content services based on end-user session and the
speciIic content requested
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-7
Content Networks
Web Hosting E-Commerce Streaming AppIications
Content Distribution
and Management
Content
Routing
Content
Switching
Content
Edge DeIivery
InteIIigent Network Services
HighIy AvaiIabIe, ScaIabIe, Performance Network at Layer 2/3
Content
DeIivery
Services
Content
Networks
L2/L3
Networks
Fixed
WireIess
MobiIe CabIe DSL Dedicated
ATM/FR
ISDN/DiaI
2-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Content edge delivery: Delivers static and streaming content at the network edge and
keeps the content continuously Iresh
Intelligent network services: Augments the content networks with IP core services such
as Layer 3 quality oI service (QoS), Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), security, and
multicast
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-45
VirtuaI Private Networks
A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network inIrastructure, such as
the Internet. In a VPN, access is controlled to permit peer connections only within a deIined
community oI interest. This topic describes the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a VPN.
A VPN is constructed through portioning oI a common underlying communications medium.
This communications medium provides services to the network on a nonexclusive basis.
For example, using a VPN, a telecommuter can access the company headquarters network
through the Internet by building a secured tunnel between the telecommuter`s PC and a VPN
router in the headquarters.
Cisco products support the latest in VPN technology. VPNs oIIer secure, reliable connectivity
over a shared public network inIrastructure such as the Internet, maintaining the same security
and management policies as a private network. They are the most cost-eIIective method Ior
establishing a point-to-point connection between remote users and an enterprise customer`s
network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-8
VPN Components
Internet/IP/FR/ATM
Home Office
Branch Office
Headquarters
TeIecommuter
IP Network
VPN
2-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Types of VPNs
There are several types oI VPNs, each designed to satisIy certain requirements. This topic
describes the three main types oI VPNs.
These are the three main types oI VPNs:
Access VPNs: Access VPNs provide remote access to a mobile worker, and a small oIIice,
home oIIice (SOHO) to the headquarters intranet or extranet over a shared inIrastructure.
Access VPNs use analog, dial-up, ISDN, digital subscriber line (DSL), mobile IP, and
cable technologies to securely connect mobile users, telecommuters, and branch oIIices.
Intranet VPNs: Intranet VPNs link regional and remote oIIices to the headquarters internal
network over a shared inIrastructure using dedicated connections. Intranet VPNs diIIer
Irom extranet VPNs in that they allow access only to the enterprise customer`s employees.
Extranet VPNs: Extranet VPNs link business partners to the headquarters network over a
shared inIrastructure using dedicated connections. Extranet VPNs diIIer Irom intranet
VPNs in that they allow access to users outside the enterprise.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-9
VPN TechnoIogies
VPN
Corporate
Business Partner
with Cisco Router
Remote Office
with Cisco Router
RegionaI Office
with Cisco PIX
FirewaII
SOHO with Cisco
IDSN/DSL Router
POP
MobiIe Worker
with Cisco Secure VPN
CIient on Laptop Computer
Cisco PIX
FirewaII
Main Site
Perimeter
Router
VPN
Concentrator
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-47
Intranets and Extranets
Intranet VPNs allow access only to the members oI an enterprise, while extranet VPNs allow
access to a wider range. This topic compares intranets to extranets.
Intranets
One common conIiguration oI a LAN is an intranet. Intranet web servers diIIer Irom public
web servers in that the public does not have access to an organization`s intranet without the
proper permissions and passwords. Intranets are designed to be accessed by users who have
access privileges to an organization`s internal LAN. Within an intranet, web and Iile servers are
installed in the network, and browser technology is used as the common Iront end to access
graphical or text-based data stored on those servers.
The addition oI an intranet on a network is just one oI many Ieatures that can cause an increase
in the amount oI bandwidth needed. New desktops and servers should be outIitted with
100/1000-Mbps Ethernet NICs to provide the most conIiguration Ilexibility, thus enabling
network administrators to dedicate bandwidth to individual end stations as needed. Some high
traIIic servers may need to be outIitted with Gigabit Ethernet NICs.
Extranets
Extranets reIer to applications and services that are intranet based, but that provide extended,
secured access to external users or enterprises. This access is usually accomplished through
passwords, user IDs, and other application-level security mechanisms. ThereIore, an extranet is
the extension oI two or more intranet strategies with a secure interaction between participant
enterprises and their respective intranets.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-10
Intranet/Extranet VPN
VPN
Router
FirewaII
AppIiance
FirewaII
AppIiance
VPN Router
WAN Router
Integrated VPN router w/ BB Access
Broadband
Access
VPN
Access
Company B Company B
Extranet VPN Extranet VPN
Company A
Remote Site
Company A
Remote Site
Intranet VPN Intranet VPN Intranet Intranet Intranet Intranet
Internet,
IP, FR, ATM
Company A
Core SIte
Company A
Core SIte
2-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The extranet maintains control oI access to those intranets within each enterprise in the
deployment. Extranets link customers, suppliers, partners, or communities oI interest to a
corporate intranet over a shared inIrastructure using dedicated connections. Businesses use the
same policies as a private network, including security, quality oI service (QoS), manageability,
and reliability.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-49
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-12
Summary (Cont.)
· A VPN is a private network that is constructed
within a pubIic network infrastructure.
· A VPN offers reIiabIe connectivity over a shared
pubIic network infrastructure, maintaining the
same security and management poIicies as a
private network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-11
Summary
· A MAN is a network that spans a metropoIitan area
such as a city or suburban area.
· A SAN is a dedicated, high-performance network
used to move data between heterogeneous servers
and storage resources.
· A content network is a gIobaIIy coordinated
network of devices designed to acceIerate the
deIivery of information over the Internet
infrastructure.
2-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-2-13
Summary (Cont.)
· Three main types of VPNs are access, intranet, and
extranet VPNs.
· Intranets are designed to be accessed by users
who have access priviIeges to an organization's
internaI network.
· Extranets are designed to deIiver appIications and
services that were intranet based, but that empIoy
extended, secured access to externaI users or
enterprises.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-51
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing statements correctly describes a MAN?
A) A MAN is a network that connects workstations, peripherals, terminals and
other devices in a single building.
B) A MAN is a network that serves users across a broad geographic area, and
oIten uses transmission devices provided by common carriers.
C) A MAN is a network that spans a metropolitan area such as a city or suburban
area.
D) A MAN is a network that is interconnected by routers and other devices and
Iunctions as a single network.
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is one oI the Ieatures oI a storage area network?
A) SANs enable concurrent access oI disk or tape arrays, providing enhanced
system perIormance.
B) SANs provide a reliable disaster recover solution.
C) SANs are scalable.
D) SANs minimize the system and data availability.
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing does correctly describe the Ieatures oI content networks?
A) Content networks accelerate and improve the use oI rich content, and eliminate
the stream oI rich content on the inIrastructure.
B) Content networks utilize a collection oI content engines, located close to the
audience, to distribute the content.
C) The content network was designed to accelerate the delivery oI inIormation
over the MAN inIrastructure.
D) The Cisco content networks solution is a tiered solution.
Q4) What service oIIers secure, reliable connectivity over a shared public network
inIrastructure?
A) Internet
B) Virtual Private Network
C) virtual public network
D) wide-area network
2-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q5) What links enterprise customer headquarters, remote oIIices, and branch oIIices to an
internal network over a shared inIrastructure?
A) access VPNs
B) intranet VPNs
C) extranet VPNs
D) Internet VPNs
Q6) What is the name Ior the part oI the company`s LAN that is made available to select
parties such as employees, customers, or partners?
A) the internet
B) the extranet
C) the intranet
D) the LAN
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Types 2-53
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) C
ReIates to: Metropolitan-Area Networks
Q2) D
ReIates to: Storage-Area Networks
Q3) C
ReIates to: Content Networks
Q4) B
ReIates to: Virtual Private Network
Q5) B
ReIates to: Benefits of VPNs
Q6) B
ReIates to: Ìntranets and Extranets
2-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 2-1: LANs
Quiz 2-2: WANs
Quiz 2-3: Other Types oI Networks
2-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 2-1: LANs
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe diIIerent types oI LAN standards
Explain how Ethernet LANs work
Describe the structure oI an Ethernet protocol description
Describe the Iunctions and operation oI Fast Ethernet
Describe the Iunctions and operation oI Gigabit Ethernet
Describe the Iunctions oI a GBIC
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Why did the IEEE create LLC?
A) to allow Ior data encryption beIore transmission
B) to replace an older IBM protocol
C) to create a protocol that would not be controlled by the U.S. government
D) to meet the need to have part oI the data-link layer Iunction independently oI
existing technologies
Q2) What happens in the event oI a collision on an Ethernet segment?
A) Transmission with higher priority is unaIIected and lower-priority
transmissions are lost.
B) Initially, the data is lost but is resent using a backoII algorithm.
C) Transmissions are lost and not resent.
D) Nothing, the Ethernet is immune to collisions.
Q3) Which is the IEEE standard Ior Fast Ethernet?
A) 802.3z
B) 802.10
C) 802.3u
D) 802.5
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 2-57
Q4) What is the transmission medium Ior 1000BASE-SX?
A) long-wave laser over single-mode and multimode Iiber
B) Category 5 UTP copper wiring
C) balanced, shielded, 150-ohm, two-pair STP copper cable
D) short-wave laser over multimode Iiber
Q5) Which statement is true about a Cisco GBIC?
A) A 1000BASE-LX/LH interIace has the ability to go up to 20 kilometers over
single-mode Iiber.
B) A Cisco GBIC is hot swappable.
C) Cisco`s GBIC has been accepted as an industry standard.
D) Cisco GBIC can be intermixed in diIIerent combinations on a port-by-port
basis.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
2-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 2-2: WANs
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the global Internet
Describe WAN technology
Describe WAN devices
Describe WAN service providers and signaling standards
Describe WAN physical layer protocols
Describe WAN data-link layer protocols
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) What is the largest component oI the Internet commonly reIerred to as?
A) structured hierarchy
B) the Internet backbone
C) global carrier
D) LANs
Q2) Select all correct attributes oI a WAN.
A) It operates at the same geographical level as a LAN.
B) WAN users must subscribe to services.
C) It uses only Layers 14 (physical through transport) oI the OSI model.
D) WANs can transport data, voice, and video.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 2-59
Q3) IdentiIy each WAN device.
Q4) The WAN path between DTEs is known as what?
A) the link
B) the circuit
C) the channel
D) all oI the above
Q5) Match the physical layer standard to its description.
This ITU-T standard describes a synchronous, physicaI Iayer protocoI used for
communications between a network access device and a packet network. It is most
commonIy used in the United States and in Europe.
This ITU-T standard describes a synchronous, physicaI Iayer protocoI used for
communications between a network access device and a packet network. It is most
commonIy used in the United States and in Europe.
This popuIar physicaI Iayer interface, deveIoped by the EIA and TIA, is essentiaIIy a
faster (up to 2 Mbps) version of EIA/TIA-232, capabIe of Ionger runs.
This popuIar physicaI Iayer interface, deveIoped by the EIA and TIA, is essentiaIIy a
faster (up to 2 Mbps) version of EIA/TIA-232, capabIe of Ionger runs.
This ITU-T standard for seriaI communications over synchronous digitaI Iines is
used primariIy in Europe and Japan.
This ITU-T standard for seriaI communications over synchronous digitaI Iines is
used primariIy in Europe and Japan.
This common physicaI Iayer interface standard, deveIoped by the EIectronic
Industries AIIiance (EIA) and TeIecommunications Industries AIIiance (TIA),
supports signaI speeds of up to 64 kbps. It was formerIy known as RS-232. This
standard has been in pIace for many years.
This common physicaI Iayer interface standard, deveIoped by the EIectronic
Industries AIIiance (EIA) and TeIecommunications Industries AIIiance (TIA),
supports signaI speeds of up to 64 kbps. It was formerIy known as RS-232. This
standard has been in pIace for many years.
This standard is an InternationaI TeIecommunication Union TeIecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard for a physicaI Iayer interface between
DTE and DCE.
This standard is an InternationaI TeIecommunication Union TeIecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard for a physicaI Iayer interface between
DTE and DCE.
This standard describes High-Speed SeriaI Interface (HSSI), which provides access
to services at T3 (45-Mbps), E3 (34-Mbps), and Synchronous OpticaI Network
(SONET) STS-1 (54.84-Mbps) rates. The actuaI rate of the interface depends on the
externaI DSU and the type of service to which it is connected.
This standard describes High-Speed SeriaI Interface (HSSI), which provides access
to services at T3 (45-Mbps), E3 (34-Mbps), and Synchronous OpticaI Network
(SONET) STS-1 (54.84-Mbps) rates. The actuaI rate of the interface depends on the
externaI DSU and the type of service to which it is connected.
This ITU-T eIectricaI and mechanicaI specification for connections between
teIephone company equipment and DTE uses British navaI connectors (BNCs) and
operates at E1 data rates.
This ITU-T eIectricaI and mechanicaI specification for connections between
teIephone company equipment and DTE uses British navaI connectors (BNCs) and
operates at E1 data rates.
EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-449 EIA/TIA-612/613 G.703
V.24 V.35 X.21
PhysicaI Layer PhysicaI Layer Description Description
2-60 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q6) Match the data-link protocol to its Iunction.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
A Cisco standard that is not compatibIe with the
industry-standard protocoI. Cisco's protocoI contains
a fieId to identify the network Iayer protocoI being
carried in the frame.
This protocoI is described by RFC 1661. It contains a
protocoI fieId to identify the network Iayer protocoI
being carried in the frame.
This protocoI is an IBM-designed WAN data-Iink
protocoI for Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
environments. It is IargeIy being repIaced by the
more versatiIe HDLC.
This is a very popuIar WAN data-Iink protocoI for
carrying IP packets onIy. It is being repIaced in many
appIications by the more versatiIe PPP.
This data-Iink protocoI is used by X.25. It has
extensive error-checking capabiIities.
This WAN data-Iink protocoI is used for signaIing and
caII setup on an ISDN D channeI. Data transmissions
take pIaceon the ISDN B channeIs.
This protocoI is for Frame ReIay mode bearer
services. SimiIar to LAPD, this WAN data-Iink
protocoI is used with Frame ReIay technoIogies.
Cisco-High-LeveI Data
Link ControI (HDLC)
Data Link Data Link Function Function
Link Access Procedure
BaIanced (LAPB)
Link Access Procedure
on the D channeI (LAPD)
Link Access Procedure
to Frame-mode Bearer
Services (LAPF)
Point-to-Point ProtocoI
(PPP)
SeriaI Line Internet
ProtocoI (SLIP)
Synchronous Data Link
ControI ProtocoI (SDLC)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 2-61
Quiz 2-3: Other Types of Networks
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a MAN
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a storage area network
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a content network
Describe the Ieatures and Iunctions oI a VPN
Describe the types oI VPNs
Describe intranets and extranets
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which two aspects oI CNs make them better than traditional transmission over the
Internet? (Choose two.)
A) They bypass potential sources oI congestion by distributing the load across a
collection oI content engines.
B) They take advantage oI Layers 13 to optimize WAN communication.
C) They locate content engines near the audience.
D) They run over Gigabit Ethernet.
E) None oI the above are correct.
Q2) What is the name given to a private network that is constructed within a public network
inIrastructure?
A) the Internet
B) ISDN
C) Frame Relay
D) VPN
E) none oI the above
2-62 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q3) What type oI VPN links regional and remote oIIices to the headquarters` internal
network?
A) access VPN
B) intranet VPN
C) dialup VPN
D) extranet VPN
E) None oI the above
Q4) An extranet is the extension oI two or more intranet strategies with a secure interaction
between participant enterprises and their respective intranets.
A) true
B) Ialse
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 2-63
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 2-1: LANs
Q1) D
Q2) B
Q3) C
Q4) D
Q5) A
Quiz 2-2: WANs
Q1) B
Q2) B, D
Q3)
Q4) D
2-64 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q5)
This ITU-T standard describes a synchronous, physicaI Iayer protocoI used for
communications between a network access device and a packet network. It is most
commonIy used in the United States and in Europe.
This ITU-T standard describes a synchronous, physicaI Iayer protocoI used for
communications between a network access device and a packet network. It is most
commonIy used in the United States and in Europe.
This popuIar physicaI Iayer interface, deveIoped by the EIA and TIA, is essentiaIIy a
faster (up to 2 Mbps) version of EIA/TIA-232, capabIe of Ionger runs.
This popuIar physicaI Iayer interface, deveIoped by the EIA and TIA, is essentiaIIy a
faster (up to 2 Mbps) version of EIA/TIA-232, capabIe of Ionger runs.
This ITU-T standard for seriaI communications over synchronous digitaI Iines is
used primariIy in Europe and Japan.
This ITU-T standard for seriaI communications over synchronous digitaI Iines is
used primariIy in Europe and Japan.
This common physicaI Iayer interface standard, deveIoped by the EIectronic
Industries AIIiance (EIA) and TeIecommunications Industries AIIiance (TIA),
supports signaI speeds of up to 64 kbps. It was formerIy known as RS-232. This
standard has been in pIace for many years.
This common physicaI Iayer interface standard, deveIoped by the EIectronic
Industries AIIiance (EIA) and TeIecommunications Industries AIIiance (TIA),
supports signaI speeds of up to 64 kbps. It was formerIy known as RS-232. This
standard has been in pIace for many years.
This standard is an InternationaI TeIecommunication Union TeIecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard for a physicaI Iayer interface between
DTE and DCE.
This standard is an InternationaI TeIecommunication Union TeIecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard for a physicaI Iayer interface between
DTE and DCE.
This standard describes High-Speed SeriaI Interface (HSSI), which provides access
to services at T3 (45-Mbps), E3 (34-Mbps), and Synchronous OpticaI Network
(SONET) STS-1 (54.84-Mbps) rates. The actuaI rate of the interface depends on the
externaI DSU and the type of service to which it is connected.
This standard describes High-Speed SeriaI Interface (HSSI), which provides access
to services at T3 (45-Mbps), E3 (34-Mbps), and Synchronous OpticaI Network
(SONET) STS-1 (54.84-Mbps) rates. The actuaI rate of the interface depends on the
externaI DSU and the type of service to which it is connected.
This ITU-T eIectricaI and mechanicaI specification for connections between
teIephone company equipment and DTE uses British navaI connectors (BNCs) and
operates at E1 data rates.
This ITU-T eIectricaI and mechanicaI specification for connections between
teIephone company equipment and DTE uses British navaI connectors (BNCs) and
operates at E1 data rates.
EIA/TIA-232
EIA/TIA-449
EIA/TIA-612/613
G.703
V.24
V.35
X.21
PhysicaI Layer PhysicaI Layer Description Description
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 2-65
Q6)
Quiz 2-3: Other Network Types
Q1) A, C
Q2) D
Q3) B
Q4) A
A Cisco standard that is not compatibIe with the
industry-standard protocoI. Cisco's protocoI contains
a fieId to identify the network Iayer protocoI being
carried in the frame.
This protocoI is described by RFC 1661. It contains a
protocoI fieId to identify the network Iayer protocoI
being carried in the frame.
This protocoI is an IBM-designed WAN data-Iink
protocoI for Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
environments. It is IargeIy being repIaced by the
more versatiIe HDLC.
This is a very popuIar WAN data-Iink protocoI for
carrying IP packets onIy. It is being repIaced in many
appIications by the more versatiIe PPP.
This data-Iink protocoI is used by X.25. It has
extensive error-checking capabiIities.
This WAN data-Iink protocoI is used for signaIing and
caII setup on an ISDN D channeI. Data transmissions
take pIaceon the ISDN B channeIs.
This protocoI is for Frame ReIay mode bearer
services. SimiIar to LAPD, this WAN data-Iink
protocoI is used with Frame ReIay technoIogies.
Cisco-High-LeveI Data
Link ControI (HDLC)
Data Link Data Link Function Function
Link Access Procedure
BaIanced (LAPB)
Link Access Procedure
on the D channeI (LAPD)
Link Access Procedure
to Frame-mode Bearer
Services (LAPF)
Point-to-Point ProtocoI
(PPP)
SeriaI Line Internet
ProtocoI (SLIP)
Synchronous Data Link
ControI ProtocoI (SDLC)
2-66 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ModuIe 3
Network Media
Overview
This module examines several types oI network media, including twisted-pair cable, coaxial
cable, Iiber-optic cable, and wireless. It highlights the concepts and procedures Ior assembling
and cabling Cisco routers. This module also covers cabling and connectors used to interconnect
switches and routers in a LAN or WAN. Finally, it presents Iactors that you should consider
when selecting network devices.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the primary types oI network media,
including cabling and connectors. This includes being able to do the Iollowing:
Describe the primary types oI network cabling, including shielded and unshielded twisted-
pair, coaxial, Iiber-optic (multimode and single-mode), as well as wireless communications
Describe types and characteristics oI cabling and connectors used in an Ethernet LAN
Describe the necessary components Ior enabling WAN connectivity over serial or ISDN
BRI, local loop using DSL, and a cable connection Ior a Cisco router
OutIine
The module contains these components:
Network Media Types
Cabling the LAN
Cabling the WAN
Lesson Assessments
3-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) V1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Network Media Types
Overview
Media is the actual physical environment through which data travels as it moves Irom one
component to another, and it connects network devices. The most common types oI network
media are twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, Iiber-optic cable, and wireless, and each media type
has speciIic capabilities and serves speciIic purposes.
ReIevance
Understanding the types oI connections that can be used within a network will provide a better
understanding oI how networks Iunction in transmitting data Irom one point to another.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the primary types oI network cabling,
including shielded and unshielded twisted-pair, coaxial, Iiber-optic (multimode and single-
mode), as well as wireless communications. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the primary types, characteristics, and uses oI twisted-pair cables
Describe the primary types, characteristics, and uses oI coaxial cables
Describe the primary types, characteristics, and uses oI Iiber-optic cables
Describe the primary types and uses oI wireless communication
Compare and contrast the primary types and uses oI diIIerent media types
3-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Twisted-Pair Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber-Optic Cable
Wireless Communication
Comparing Media Types
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-5
Twisted-Pair CabIe
Twisted-pair is a copper wire-based cable that may be either shielded or unshielded. This topic
describes the types, characteristics, and uses oI twisted-pair cable.
UnshieIded Twisted-Pair CabIe
Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable is a Iour-pair wire. Each oI the eight individual copper
wires in UTP cable is covered by an insulating material. In addition, the wires in each pair are
twisted around each other. The advantage oI UTP cable is its ability to cancel interIerence,
because the twisted-wire pairs limit signal degradation Irom electromagnetic interIerence
(EMI) and radio Irequency interIerence (RFI). To Iurther reduce crosstalk between the pairs in
UTP cable, the number oI twists in the wire pairs varies. UTP, as well as shielded twisted-pair
(STP) cable, must Iollow precise speciIications as to how many twists or braids are permitted
per meter.
UTP cable is used in a variety oI networks. When used as a networking medium, UTP cable has
Iour pairs oI either 22- or 24-gauge copper wire. UTP used as a networking medium has an
impedance oI 100 ohms, diIIerentiating it Irom other types oI twisted-pair wiring such as that
used Ior telephone wiring. Because UTP cable has an external diameter oI approximately 0.43
cm (0.17 inches), its small size can be advantageous during installation. Also, because UTP can
be used with most oI the major networking architectures, it continues to grow in popularity.
There are several categories oI UTP cable:
Category 1: Used Ior telephone communications; not suitable Ior transmitting data
Category 2: Capable oI transmitting data at speeds oI up to 4 Mbps
Category 3: Used in 10BASE-T networks; can transmit data at speeds up to 10 Mbps
Category 4: Used in Token Ring networks; can transmit data at speeds up to 16 Mbps
Category 5: Capable oI transmitting data at speeds up to 100 Mbps
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-4
UnshieIded Twisted-Pair (UTP)
· Speed and throughput: 10-100 Mbps
· Average cost per node: Least expensive
· Media and connector size: SmaII
· Maximum cabIe Iength: 100 m (short)
3-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Category 5e: Used in networks running at speeds up to 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps)
Category 6: Consists oI Iour pairs oI 24-gauge copper wires which can transmit data at
speeds up to 1000 Mbps
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-7
ShieIded Twisted-Pair CabIe
Shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable combines the techniques oI shielding and the twisting oI
wires to Iurther protect against signal degradation. Each pair oI wires is wrapped in a metallic
Ioil. The Iour pairs oI wires are then wrapped in an overall metallic braid or Ioil, usually 150-
ohm cable. SpeciIied Ior use in Ethernet network installations, STP reduces electrical noise
both within the cable (pair-to-pair coupling, or crosstalk), and Irom outside the cable (EMI and
RFI). Token Ring network topology uses STP.
Using UTP and STP
When you consider using UTP and STP Ior your network media, consider the Iollowing:
Speed oI either media type is usually satisIactory Ior local-area distances.
Both are the least-expensive media Ior data communication. UTP is less expensive than
STP.
Because most buildings are already wired with UTP, many transmission standards are
adapted to use it to avoid costly rewiring with an alternative cable type.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-5
ShieIded Twisted-Pair (STP)
· Speed and throughput: 10-100 Mbps
· Average cost per node: ModerateIy
expensive
· Media and connector size: Medium to Large
· Maximum cabIe Iength: 100 m (short)
3-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
CoaxiaI CabIe
Coaxial cable consists oI a hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner wire
made oI two conducting elements. This topic describes the characteristics and uses oI coaxial
cable.
The single inner wire located in the center oI a coaxial cable is a copper conductor, surrounded
by a layer oI Ilexible insulation. Over this insulating material is a woven copper braid or
metallic Ioil that acts both as the second wire in the circuit and as a shield Ior the inner
conductor. This second layer, or shield, can help reduce the amount oI outside interIerence. An
outer jacket covers this shield.
Coaxial cable supports 10 to 100 Mbps and is relatively inexpensive, although more costly than
UTP. Coaxial cable can be laid over longer distances than twisted-pair cable. For example,
Ethernet can run approximately 100 meters using twisted-pair cable, but 500 meters using
coaxial cable.
Coaxial cable oIIers several advantages Ior use in LANs. It can be run, with Iewer boosts Irom
repeaters, Ior longer distances between network nodes than either STP or UTP cable.
(Repeaters regenerate the signals in a network so that they can cover greater distances.) Coaxial
cable is less expensive than Iiber-optic cable, and the technology is well known. It has been
used Ior many years Ior all types oI data communication.
When you work with cable, it is important that you consider its size. As the thickness, or
diameter, oI the cable increases, so does the diIIiculty in working with it. Cable must oIten be
pulled through existing conduits and troughs that are limited in size. Coaxial cable comes in a
variety oI sizes. The largest diameter, Irequently reIerred to as Thicknet, was speciIied Ior use
as Ethernet backbone cable because historically it had greater transmission length and noise
rejection characteristics. Thicknet cable can be too rigid to install easily in some environments
because oI its thickness. Generally, the more diIIicult the network media is to install, the more
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-6
CoaxiaI CabIe
· Speed and throughput: 10-100 Mbps
· Average cost per node: Inexpensive
· Media and connector size: Medium
· Maximum cabIe Iength: 500 m (medium)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-9
expensive it is to install. Coaxial cable is more expensive to install than twisted-pair cable, and
Thicknet cable is almost never used except Ior special-purpose installations.
In the past, coaxial cable with an outside diameter oI only 0.35 cm, sometimes reIerred to as
Thinnet, was used in Ethernet networks. It was especially useIul Ior cable installations that
required the cable to make many twists and turns. Because it was easier to install, it was also
cheaper to install. Thus, it was also reIerred to as Cheapernet. However, because the outer
copper or metallic braid in coaxial cable comprised halI the electrical circuit, special care
needed to be taken to ground it properly, by ensuring that a solid electrical connection existed
at both ends oI the cable. Installers Irequently Iailed to make a good connection. Connection
problems resulted in electrical noise, which interIered with signal transmission. For this reason,
despite its small diameter, Thinnet is no longer commonly used in Ethernet networks.
3-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Fiber-Optic CabIe
Fiber-optic cable is a networking medium capable oI conducting modulated light transmission.
This topic describes the types, characteristics, and uses oI Iiber-optic cable.
Fiber-optic cable used Ior networking consists oI two Iibers encased in separate sheaths.
Viewing it in cross section, you can see that each optical Iiber is surrounded by layers oI
protective buIIer material: usually a plastic shield, then a plastic such as Kevlar, and Iinally, an
outer jacket that provides protection Ior the entire cable. The plastic conIorms to appropriate
Iire and building codes. The purpose oI the Kevlar is to Iurnish additional cushioning and
protection Ior the Iragile, hair-thin glass Iibers (see Iigure). Where buried Iiber-optic cables are
required by codes, a stainless steel wire is sometimes included Ior added strength.
The light-guiding parts oI an optical Iiber are called the and the . The core is
usually very pure glass with a high index oI reIraction. When a cladding layer oI glass or
plastic with a low index oI reIraction surrounds the core glass, light can be trapped in the Iiber
core. This process is called total internal reIlection, and it allows the optical Iiber to act like a
light pipe, guiding light Ior long distances, even around bends. Fiber-optic cable is the most
expensive oI the three types discussed in this lesson, but it supports 100¹ Mbps line speeds.
Fiber-optic cable does not carry electrical impulses like copper wire. Instead, signals that
represent bits are converted into pulses oI light. There are two types oI Iiber-optic cable:
Single-mode: Single-mode Iiber-optic cable allows only one mode (or wavelength) oI light
to propagate through the Iiber. This type oI cable is capable oI higher bandwidth and
greater distances than multimode and is oIten used Ior campus backbones. Single-mode
cable uses lasers as the light-generating method, and is much more expensive than
multimode cable. The maximum cable length oI single-mode cable is 60¹ kilometers (km).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-7
Fiber-Optic CabIe
· Speed and throughput: 100+ Mbps
· Average cost per node: Most expensive
· Media and connector size: SmaII
· SingIe-mode, maximum cabIe Iength: Up to 60 km
· MuItimode, maximum cabIe Iength: Up to 2000 m
· SingIe-mode: One stream of Iaser-generated Iight
· MuItimode: MuItipIe streams of LED-generated Iight
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-11
Multimode: Multimode Iiber cable allows multiple modes oI light to propagate through the
Iiber. Multimode cable is oIten used Ior workgroup applications, using light emitting
diodes (LEDs) as light-generating devices. The maximum length oI multimode cable is 2
kilometers.
The characteristics oI the diIIerent media have a signiIicant impact on the speed oI data
transIer. Fiber-optic cable, although it is more expensive, is not susceptible to EMI and is
capable oI higher data rates than any oI the other types oI networking media discussed here.
Note Even though light is an electromagnetic wave, light in fibers is not considered wireless
because the electromagnetic waves are guided in the optical fiber. The term is
reserved for radiated, or unguided, electromagnetic waves.
3-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WireIess Communication
Not all networks are connected by cables. Wireless networks are becoming increasingly
popular, and they utilize a diIIerent type oI technology. This topic explains the components and
Iunctions oI a wireless network.
Wireless communication uses radio Irequencies (RFs) or inIrared waves to transmit data
between devices on a LAN. For wireless LANs, a key component is the wireless hub, or access
point, used Ior signal distribution. To receive the signals Irom the access point, a PC or laptop
needs to install a wireless adapter card, or wireless network interIace card (NIC).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-8
WireIess Network
· AII desktop and Iaptop computers have a wireIess card
adapter instaIIed.
Ethernet Backbone
Internet
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-13
Wireless signals are electromagnetic waves that can travel through the vacuum oI outer space,
and through a medium such as air. No physical medium is necessary Ior wireless signals,
making them a versatile way to build a network. They use portions oI the RF spectrum to
transmit voice, video, and data. Wireless Irequencies range Irom 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The data-
transmission rates range Irom 9 kbps to 54 Mbps. The Iigure shows the electromagnetic
spectrum chart.
You can diIIerentiate electromagnetic waves by their Irequency. Low-Irequency
electromagnetic waves have a long wavelength (the distance Irom one peak to the next on the
sine wave), while high-Irequency electromagnetic waves have a short wavelength.
Some common applications oI wireless data communication include:
Accessing the Internet using a cellular phone
Home or business Internet connection over satellite
Beaming data between two hand-held computing devices
Wireless keyboard and mouse Ior the PC
Another common application oI wireless data communication is the wireless LAN (WLAN),
which is built in accordance with Institute oI Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.11
standards. WLANs typically use radio waves (Ior example, 902 MHz), microwaves (Ior
example, 2.4 GHz), and IR waves (Ior example, 820 nm) Ior communication. Wireless
technologies are a crucial part oI the Iuture oI networking.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-9
EIectromagnetic Spectrum
3-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Comparing Media Types
The choice oI media type will aIIect the type oI network interIace cards installed, the speed oI
the network, and the ability oI the network to meet Iuture needs. This topic compares the
various types oI network media.
This Iigure compares the Ieatures oI the common network media, including UTP, STP, coaxial
cable, Iiber-optic, and wireless connections.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-10
Media Type Comparison
Media Type Media Type
Maximum
Segment
Length
Maximum
Segment
Length
Speed Speed Cost Cost Advantages Advantages Disadvantages Disadvantages
UTP UTP
STP STP
CoaxiaI CoaxiaI
Fiber-Optic Fiber-Optic
WireIess WireIess
100 m 100 m
100 m 100 m
500 m (Thicknet)
185 m (Thinnet)
500 m (Thicknet)
185 m (Thinnet)
3 km and further
(SingIe-mode)
2 km and further
(muItimode)
3 km and further
(SingIe-mode)
2 km and further
(muItimode)
50-gIobaI 50-gIobaI
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
10-100 Mbps 10-100 Mbps
10-100 Mbps 10-100 Mbps
100-100 Gbps
(singIe-mode)
100 Mbps-9.92
Gbps (muItimode)
100-100 Gbps
(singIe-mode)
100 Mbps-9.92
Gbps (muItimode)
1-10 Mbps 1-10 Mbps
Least
expensive
Least
expensive
More expensive
than UTP
More expensive
than UTP
ReIativeIy
inexpensive,
but more costIy
than UTP
ReIativeIy
inexpensive,
but more costIy
than UTP
Expensive Expensive
Expensive Expensive
Easy to instaII; wideIy
avaiIabIe and wideIy used
Easy to instaII; wideIy
avaiIabIe and wideIy used
Reduced crosstaIk; more
resistant to EMI than Thinnet
or UTP
Reduced crosstaIk; more
resistant to EMI than Thinnet
or UTP
Less susceptibIe to EMI
interference than other types
of copper media
Less susceptibIe to EMI
interference than other types
of copper media
Cannot be tapped, so security
is better; can be used over
great distances; not
susceptibIe to EMI; higher data
rate than
coaxiaI and twisted-pair
Cannot be tapped, so security
is better; can be used over
great distances; not
susceptibIe to EMI; higher data
rate than
coaxiaI and twisted-pair
Does not require instaIIation
of media
Does not require instaIIation
of media
SusceptibIe to
interference; can cover
onIy a Iimited distance
SusceptibIe to
interference; can cover
onIy a Iimited distance
DifficuIt to work with;
can cover onIy a
Iimited distance
DifficuIt to work with;
can cover onIy a
Iimited distance
DifficuIt to work with
(Thicknet); Iimited
bandwidth; Iimited
appIication (Thinnet);
damage to cabIe can
bring down entire
network
DifficuIt to work with
(Thicknet); Iimited
bandwidth; Iimited
appIication (Thinnet);
damage to cabIe can
bring down entire
network
DifficuIt to terminate DifficuIt to terminate
SusceptibIe to at-
mospheric conditions
SusceptibIe to at-
mospheric conditions
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-15
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-11
Summary
· UTP cabIe is a copper wire-based cabIe used in a
variety of networks.
· STP cabIe combines the techniques of shieIding,
canceIIation, and twisting of wires.
· CoaxiaI cabIe consists of a hoIIow outer cyIindricaI
conductor that surrounds a singIe inner wire
conductor.
· Fiber-optic cabIe is a networking medium capabIe
of conducting moduIated Iight transmission.
· WireIess signaIs are eIectromagnetic waves that
can traveI through the vacuum of outer space, and
through media such as air.
3-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) What is the maximum cable length Ior STP?
A) 100 It
B) 150 It
C) 100 m
D) 1000 m
Q2) What is an advantage that coaxial cable has over STP or UTP?
A) It is capable oI achieving 10 to 100 Mbps.
B) It is inexpensive.
C) It can run Ior a longer distance unboosted.
D) None oI the above are correct.
Q3) A ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Iiber-optic cable transmits multiple streams oI LED-generated light.
A) multimode
B) multichannel
C) multiphase
D) none oI the above
Q4) Wireless communication uses which oI the Iollowing to transmit data between devices
on a LAN?
A) radio Irequencies
B) LED-generated light
C) Iiber-optics
D) none oI the above
Q5) What is one advantage oI using Iiber-optic cable in networks?
A) It is inexpensive.
B) It is easy to install.
C) It is an industry standard and is available at any electronics store.
D) It is capable oI higher data rates than either coaxial or twisted-pair cable.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-17
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) C
ReIates to: Twisted-Pair Cable
Q2) C
ReIates to: Coaxial Cable
Q3) A
ReIates to: Fiber-Optic Cable
Q4) A
ReIates to: Wireless Communication
Q5) D
ReIates to: Comparing Media Types
3-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Cabling the LAN
Overview
Several types oI cables and connectors may be used in LANs, depending on the requirements
Ior the network and the type oI Ethernet that will be implemented.
ReIevance
Learning about the diIIerent types oI cables and connectors in an Ethernet LAN and their
various Iunctions will help you understand more about how a LAN works.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe types and characteristics oI cabling
and connectors used in an Ethernet LAN. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the LAN physical layer implementations
Describe the main connectivity requirements Ior implementing Ethernet in the campus
IdentiIy diIIerent types oI connectors speciIied Ior Ethernet use
Describe the connection media Ior an Ethernet LAN
Describe UTP cables and connectors in an Ethernet LAN
3-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
LAN Physical Layer
Ethernet in the Campus
Ethernet Media and Connector Requirements
Connection Media
UTP Implementation
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-21
LAN PhysicaI Layer
Ethernet is the most widely used LAN technology. This topic describes the various
speciIications Ior Ethernet in relation to the OSI reIerence model.
Since its initial implementation, Ethernet has been extended to three new types known as
802.3u (Fast Ethernet), 802.3z (Gigabit Ethernet over Fiber), and 802.3ab (Gigabit Ethernet
over UTP).
The cabling aspects oI the LAN exist at Layer 1 oI the Open System Interconnection (OSI)
reIerence model. The Iigure shows a subset oI physical layer implementations that can be
deployed to support Ethernet.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-4
LAN PhysicaI Layer ImpIementation
· PhysicaI Iayer impIementations vary.
· Some impIementations support muItipIe physicaI
media.
Data Link
Layer
PhysicaI
Layer
IEEE 802.2
E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
2
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
5
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
T
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
F
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
T
X
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
F
X
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
T
4
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
T
1
0
B
A
S
E
-
C
X
DIX
Standard
802.3 Specifications
for 10-Mbps
Ethernet
802.3u
Specifications for
100-Mbps (Fast)
Ethernet
802.3u
Specifications for
1000-Mbps
(Gigabit)
Ethernet
3-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Ethernet in the Campus
BeIore implementing a network, you will need to determine the requirements Ior the network.
This topic outlines recommendations on how various Ethernet technologies can be used in a
campus network environment.
In modern installations, although many customers are considering providing Gigabit Ethernet
Irom the backbone to the end user, costs Ior cabling and adapters can be high. Using the
appropriate Ethernet connectivity will provide the necessary speed Ior the parts oI the network
that require it while controlling costs.
In general, you can use Ethernet technologies in a campus network in several diIIerent ways:
An Ethernet speed oI 10 Mbps can be used at the user level to provide good perIormance.
In addition, 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet can be used Ior high-bandwidth-consuming clients or
servers.
Fast Ethernet is used as the link between the user-level and network devices, supporting the
aggregate traIIic Irom each Ethernet segment on the access link.
To enhance client-server perIormance across the campus network and avoid bottlenecks at
the server, Fast Ethernet links can be used to connect enterprise servers. Fast Ethernet, in
combination with switched Ethernet, creates an eIIective solution Ior avoiding slow
networks.
Fast Ethernet links can provide the connection between the distribution layer and the core.
Because the campus network model supports dual links between each distribution layer
router and core switch, it is possible to load-balance the aggregate traIIic Irom multiple-
access switches across the links.
Fast Ethernet (or Gigabit Ethernet) can be used between switches and the backbone. The
Iastest aIIordable media should be implemented between backbone switches.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-5
Ethernet Connectivity Recommendations
Ethernet 10 BASE-T
Positions
Ethernet 10 BASE-T
Positions
Fast Ethernet
Position
Fast Ethernet
Position
Gigabit Ethernet
Position
Gigabit Ethernet
Position
Provides connectivity
between the end-user
device and the user-IeveI
switch.
Provides connectivity
between the end-user
device and the user-IeveI
switch.
Gives high-performance PC
workstations 100 Mpbs
access to the servers.
Gives high-performance PC
workstations 100 Mpbs
access to the servers.
Provides connectivity between
end user and workgroup.
Provides connectivity from the
workgroup to backbone.
Provides connectivity from the
server bIock to the backbone
Iayer.
Provides connectivity between
end user and workgroup.
Provides connectivity from the
workgroup to backbone.
Provides connectivity from the
server bIock to the backbone
Iayer.
Provides inter-switch
connectivity.
Provides inter-switch
connectivity.
Provides backbone
and inter-switch
connectivity.
Provides backbone
and inter-switch
connectivity.
- -
- -
- -
- -
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-23
Ethernet Media and Connector Requirements
In addition to considering the requirements Ior the Ethernet LAN, the media and connector
requirements Ior each implementation must be considered. This topic outlines the cable and
connector speciIications used to support Ethernet implementations.
The cable and connector speciIications used to support Ethernet implementations are derived
Irom the Electronic Industries Alliance and (newer) Telecommunications Industry Alliance
(EIA/TIA) standards body. The categories oI cabling deIined Ior the Ethernet are derived Irom
the EIA/TIA-568 (SP-2840) Commercial Building Telecommunications Wiring Standards.
EIA/TIA speciIies an RJ-45 connector Ior UTP cable. The letters 'RJ¨ stand Ior registerea
fack, and the number '45¨ reIers to a speciIic physical connector that has eight conductors.
The Iigure compares the cable and connector speciIications Ior the most popular Ethernet
implementations. The important diIIerence to note is the media used Ior 10-Mbps Ethernet
versus 100-Mbps Ethernet. In today`s networks, in which you will see a mix oI 10- and 100-
Mbps requirements, you must be aware oI the need to change over to UTP Category 5 to
support Fast Ethernet.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-6
Comparing Ethernet Media Requirements
Media Media
Maximum
Segment
Length
Maximum
Segment
Length
TopoIogy TopoIogy
Connector Connector
10
BASE-2
10
BASE-2
10
BASE-5
10
BASE-5
10
BASE-T
10
BASE-T
50-ohm
coaxiaI
(Thinnet)
50-ohm
coaxiaI
(Thinnet)
185 m
(606.94 ft)
185 m
(606.94 ft)
Bus Bus
Attachment
unit
interface
(AUI)
Attachment
unit
interface
(AUI)
50-ohm
coaxiaI
(Thicknet)
50-ohm
coaxiaI
(Thicknet)
500 m
(1640.4 ft)
500 m
(1640.4 ft)
Bus Bus
AUI AUI
EIA/TIA
Category 3,
4, 5 UTP 2
pair
EIA/TIA
Category 3,
4, 5 UTP 2
pair
100 m
(328 ft)
100 m
(328 ft)
Star Star Star Star
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
100
BASE-TX
100
BASE-TX
EIA/TIA
Category
5 UTP 2
pair
EIA/TIA
Category
5 UTP 2
pair
100 m
(328 ft)
100 m
(328 ft)
100
BAS-FX
100
BAS-FX
62.5/125
micro
muItimode
fiber
62.5/125
micro
muItimode
fiber
400 m
(1312.3 ft)
400 m
(1312.3 ft)
Point to
Point
Point to
Point
DupIex
media
interface
connector
(MIC) ST
DupIex
media
interface
connector
(MIC) ST
1000
BASE-CX
1000
BASE-CX
STP STP
25 m
(82 ft)
25 m
(82 ft)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
1000
BASE-T
1000
BASE-T
1000
BASE-SX
1000
BASE-SX
1000
BASE-LX
1000
BASE-LX
EIA/TIA
Category
5 UTP 4
pair
EIA/TIA
Category
5 UTP 4
pair
62.5/50
micro
muItimode
fiber
62.5/50
micro
muItimode
fiber
9 micron
singIe-
mode
fiber
9 micron
singIe-
mode
fiber
100 m
(328 ft)
100 m
(328 ft)
260 m
(853 ft)
260 m
(853 ft)
3-10 km
(1.86-6.2
miIes)
3-10 km
(1.86-6.2
miIes)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
ISO 8877
(RJ-45)
- - - - - - - -
- - - -
3-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Connection Media
There are several connection media that can be used in an Ethernet LAN implementation. This
topic describes the various types oI connection media.
RJ-45
The Iigure illustrates diIIerent connection types, RJ-45 and AUI, used by each physical layer
implementation. The RJ-45 connector and jack are the most prevalent. RJ-45 connectors are
discussed in more detail later in this lesson.
AUI
In some cases, the type oI connector on a NIC does not match the type oI media that it needs to
connect to. As shown in the Iigure, an interIace exists Ior the attachment unit interIace (AUI)
connector. The AUI is the 15-pin physical connector interIace between a computer`s NIC and
Ethernet cable.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-7
Differentiating Between Connections
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-25
GBIC
A Gigabit InterIace Converter (GBIC) is a hot-swappable input/output device that plugs into a
Gigabit Ethernet port. A key beneIit oI using a GBIC is that GBICs are interchangeable. This
allows users the Ilexibility to deploy other 1000BASE-X technology without having the need to
change the physical interIace/model on the router or switch. GBICs support UTP (copper) and
Iiber-optic media Ior Gigabit Ethernet transmission
Typically, GBICs are used in the LAN Ior aggregation and use in the backbone, and are also
seen in SANs and MANs.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-8
GigaStack GBIC
3-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The Iiber-optic GBIC is a transceiver that converts serial electric currents to optical signals, and
optical signals to digital electric currents. Some oI the optical GBICs include:
Short wavelength (1000BASE-SX)
Long wavelength/long haul (1000BASE-LX/LH)
Extended distance (1000BASE-ZX)
This Iigure shows a Cisco WS-X2931 Gigabit Ethernet Module with the GBIC out.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-9
Cisco WS-X2931 Gigabit Ethernet
ModuIe with GBIC Out
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-27
UTP ImpIementation
In a UTP implementation, you must determine the EIA/TIA type oI cable as well as whether to
use a straight-through or crossover cable. This topic describes the types oI connectors used in a
UTP implementation and also describes the characteristics and uses oI straight-through and
crossover cables.
II you look at the RJ-45 transparent end connector, you can see eight colored wires, twisted into
Iour pairs. Four oI the wires (two pairs) carry the positive or true voltage and are considered tip
(T1 through T4); the other Iour wires carry the inverse oI Ialse voltage grounded and are called
ring (R1 through R4). Tip and ring are terms that originated in the early days oI the telephone.
Today, these terms reIer to the positive and the negative wires in a pair. The wires in the Iirst
pair in a cable or a connector are designated as T1 and R1, the second pair is T2 and R2, and so
on.
The RJ-45 plug is the male component, crimped at the end oI the cable. As you look at the male
connector Irom the Iront, the pin locations are numbered Irom 8 on the leIt to 1 on the right.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-10
RJ-45 Connector
3-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The jack is the Iemale component in a network device, wall, cubicle partition outlet, or patch
panel.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-11
RJ-45 Jack
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-29
In addition to identiIying the correct EIA/TIA category oI cable to use Ior a connecting device
(depending on what standard is being used by the jack on the network device), you will need to
determine which oI the Iollowing to use:
A straight-through cable
A crossover cable
The RJ-45 connectors on both ends show all the wires in the same order. II the two RJ-45 ends
oI a cable are held side by side in the same orientation, the colored wires (or strips or pins) will
be seen at each connector end. II the order oI the colored wires is the same at each end, then the
cable is straight-through (see Iigure).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-12
UTP ImpIementation (Straight-Through)
CabIe 10BASE-T/
100BASE-TX Straight-Through
Pin LabeI Pin LabeI
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TX+
TX-
RX+
NC
NC
RX-
NC
NC
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TX+
TX-
RX+
NC
NC
RX-
NC
NC
Hub/Switch Server/Router
Straight-Through CabIe
Wires on cabIe ends
are in same order.
1
8 1
8
1 8
w
g
br w
br
o w
b
b w
o
g
1 8
w
g
br w
br
o w
b
b w
o
g
3-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
With crossover, the RJ-45 connectors on both ends show that some oI the wires on one side oI
the cable are crossed to a diIIerent pin on the other side oI the cable. SpeciIically, Ior Ethernet,
pin 1 at one RJ-45 end should be connected to pin 3 at the other end. Pin 2 at one end should be
connected to pin 6 at the other end, as shown in the Iigure.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-13
1
8 1
8
1 8 1 8
w
g
br w
br
o w
b
b w
o
g w
g
br w
br
o b w
o
g w
b
UTP ImpIementation (Crossover)
CabIe 10BASE-T/
100BASE-TX Straight-Through
Hub/Switch Server/Router
Crossover CabIe
Some wires on cabIe
ends are crossed.
Pin LabeI Pin LabeI
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TX+
TX-
RX+
NC
NC
RX-
NC
NC
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TX+
TX-
RX+
NC
NC
RX-
NC
NC
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-31
This Iigure shows the guidelines Ior choosing what type oI cable to use when interconnecting
Cisco devices. In addition to veriIying the category speciIication on the cable, you must
determine when to use a straight-through or crossover cable.
Use straight-through cables Ior the Iollowing cabling:
Switch to router
Switch to PC or server
Hub to PC or server
Use crossover cables Ior the Iollowing cabling:
Switch to switch
Switch to hub
Hub to hub
Router to router
PC to PC
Router to PC
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-14
UTP ImpIementation - Straight-Through
vs. Crossover
3-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
This Iigure illustrates how a variety oI cable types may be required in a given network. Note
that the category oI UTP required is based on the type oI Ethernet that you choose to
implement.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-15
CabIing the Campus
1000-Mbps
Category 5
Crossover
10-Mbps
Category 3, 4, 5
Straight-Through
100-Mbps
Category 5
Straight-Through
10-Mbps
Category 3, 4, 5
Crossover
10-Mbps
Category 3, 4, 5
Straight-Through
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-33
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-16
Summary
· The three principIe LAN impIementation categories are
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet.
· There are severaI connection media used for Ethernet,
incIuding RJ-45, AUI, and GBIC.
· A Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) is a hot-swappabIe
input/output device that pIugs into a Gigabit
Ethernet port.
· A crossover cabIe is used to connect between simiIar
devices (such as switch to switch, router to router, PC
to PC, and hub to hub).
· A straight-through cabIe is used to connect between
dissimiIar devices (such as switch to router, switch to
PC, hub to router, and hub to PC).
3-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is an 802.3u speciIication?
A) 10BASE-F
B) 10BASE-T
C) 100BASE-TX
D) 1000BASE-CX
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is a more appropriate choice Ior Ethernet connectivity?
A) 10-Mbps Ethernet as a connection between server and LAN
B) Gigabit Ethernet as the link at the user level to provide good perIormance
C) Fast Ethernet as a link between the user level and network devices to support
the aggregate traIIic Irom each Ethernet segment on the access link
D) none oI the above
Q3) Which standard body created the cables and connector speciIication used to support
Ethernet implementation?
A) ISO
B) ANSI
C) EIA/TIA
D) IETF
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing statements does not correctly describe a media connector?
A) RJ-45 connectors and jacks are slightly smaller than RJ-11 connectors and
jacks.
B) An AUI is a 15-pin connector used between an NIC and an Ethernet cable.
C) The GBIC is a transceiver that converts serial electric currents to optical
signals and vice versa.
D) None oI the above are correct.
Q5) For which oI the Iollowing would you not need to provide a crossover cable?
A) connecting uplinks between switches
B) connecting routers to switches
C) connecting hubs to switches
D) none oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-35
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) C
ReIates to: LAN Physical Layer
Q2) C
ReIates to: Ethernet in the Campus
Q3) C
ReIates to: Ethernet Media and Connector Requirements
Q4) A
ReIates to: Connection Media
Q5) B
ReIates to: UTP Ìmplementation
3-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Cabling the WAN
Overview
Just as there are several types oI physical layer implementations Ior LANs, there are also
various kinds oI serial and router connections that can be used in a WAN environment,
depending on the network requirements.
ReIevance
Learning about the diIIerent types oI WAN serial and router connections and their Iunctions
will help you understand more about how a WAN works.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the necessary components Ior
enabling WAN connectivity over serial or ISDN BRI, local loop using DSL, and a cable
connection Ior a Cisco router. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the WAN physical layer implementations
IdentiIy the diIIerent types oI WAN serial connections
Describe serial connection requirements Ior routers
Describe ISDN BRI connection requirements Ior routers
Describe a DSL connection with a router
Describe how a cable router is connected to a cable system
Describe the setup oI console connections Ior Cisco devices
3-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables
as well as wireless communication
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
WAN Physical Layer
WAN Serial Connections
Routers and Serial Connections
Routers and ISDN BRI Connections
Routers and DSL Connections
Routers and Cable Connections
Setting Up Console Connections
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-39
WAN PhysicaI Layer
Many physical implementations carry traIIic across the WAN. Needs vary, depending on the
distance oI the equipment Irom the services, the speed, and the actual service itselI. This topic
describes the common types oI WAN physical layer implementations.
The Iigure lists a subset oI physical implementations that support some oI the more prominent
WAN solutions today.
Serial connections are used to support WAN services such as dedicated leased lines that run the
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) or Frame Relay. The speed oI these connections ranges up to E1
(2.048 Mbps).
Other WAN services, such as ISDN, oIIer dial-on-demand connections or dial backup services.
An ISDN BRI is composed oI two 64-kbps bearer channels (B channels) Ior data, and one 16-
kbps data channel (D channel) Ior signaling and other link-management tasks. PPP is typically
used to carry data over the B channels.
With the increasing demand Ior residential broadband high-speed services, DSL and cable
modem connections are beginning to dominate. For example, typical residential DSL service
can oIIer a speed oI up to 1.5 Mbps over the existing telephone line. Cable services, which
work over the existing coaxial cable TV line, also oIIer high-speed connectivity matching or
surpassing that oI DSL.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-4
WAN PhysicaI Layer ImpIementations
· PhysicaI Iayer impIementations vary
· CabIe specifications define speed of Iink
ISDN BRI (with PPP)
C
i
s
c
o

H
D
L
C
P
P
P
F
r
a
m
e

R
e
I
a
y
DSL Modem CabIe Modem
EIA/TIA-232
EIA/TIA-449
X.21 V.24 V.35
HSSI
RJ-48
ISDN BRI cabIe
pinouts are different than
the pinouts for Ethernet.
The RJ-48 and RJ-45
Iook the same, but the
pinouts are different.
RJ-11
Works
over teIephone
Iine
BNC
Works
over CabIe TV
Iine
3-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WAN SeriaI Connections
For long-distance communication, WANs use serial transmission. This topic deIines serial
transmission and identiIies the various serial connection options.
Serial transmission is a method oI data transmission in which bits oI data are transmitted
sequentially over a single channel. This one-at-a-time transmission contrasts with parallel data
transmission, which transmits several bits at a time. To carry the bits, serial channels use a
speciIic electromagnetic or optical Irequency range.
The Iigure shows all the diIIerent serial connector options available. Serial ports on Cisco
routers use a proprietary 60-pin connector or smaller 'smart serial¨ connector. The type oI
connector on the other end oI the cable is dependent on the service provider or end-device
requirements.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-5
WAN SeriaI Connection Options
End-User
Device
Modem or
CSU/DSU
DCE
DTE
Service
Provider
Network Connections at the CSU/DSU
Router Connections
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-41
Frequencies, described in terms oI their cycles per second (Hz), Iunction as a band or spectrum
Ior communication. For example, the signals transmitted over voice-grade telephone lines use
up to 3 kHz. The size oI this Irequency range is called the bandwidth. Another way to express
bandwidth is to speciIy the amount oI data in bits per second that can be carried using two oI
the physical layer implementations (EIA/TIA-232 and EIA/TIA-449). The Iigure compares
physical standards Ior these two WAN serial connection options.
Several types oI physical connections allow you to connect to serial WAN services. Depending
on the physical implementation that you choose or the physical implementation that your
service provider imposes, you will need to select the correct serial cable type to use with the
router.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-6
Comparison of PhysicaI Standards
Data (bps) Data (bps)
Distance (Meters)
EIA/TIA-232
Distance (Meters)
EIA/TIA-232
Distance (Meters)
EIA/TIA-449
Distance (Meters)
EIA/TIA-449
2400 2400
4800 4800
6900 6900
19,200 19,200
38,400 38,400
115,200 115,200
T1 (1.544 Mbps) T1 (1.544 Mbps)
60 60
30 30
15 15
15 15
15 15
3.7 3.7
- -
1250 1250
625 625
312 312
156 156
78 78
15 15
- -
3-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Routers and SeriaI Connections
In addition to determining the cable type, you will need to determine whether you need data
terminal equipment (DTE) or data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) connectors Ior your
WAN equipment. This topic describes the diIIerent Iunctions oI DTE and DCE connectors.
The DTE is the endpoint oI the user`s device on the WAN link. The DCE is typically the point
where responsibility Ior delivering data passes into the hands oI the service provider.
As shown in the Iigure, iI connecting directly to a service provider, or to a device (like a
channel/data service unit |CSU/DSU|) that will perIorm signal clocking, then the router is a
DTE and needs a DTE serial cable. This is typically the case Ior routers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-7
SeriaI ImpIementation of DTE and DCE
· DTE/DCE: The point where responsibiIity passes
DTE DTE DCE DCE
DTE DCE
Modem
CSU/DSU
Data TerminaI Equipment:
· Endpoint of the user's device
on the WAN Link
Data Communications Equipment:
· Endpoint of the WAN provider's
sIide of the communication faciIity
· ResponsibIe for cIocking
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-43
There are cases when the router will need to be the DCE. For example, iI perIorming a back-to-
back router scenario in a test environment, one oI the routers will be a DTE and the other will
be a DCE.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-8
Back-to-Back SeriaI Connection
A
B
S1 (DTE)
S0 (DCE)
3-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
When cabling routers Ior serial connectivity, the routers will have either Iixed or modular ports.
The type oI port being used will aIIect the syntax that you use later to conIigure each interIace.
The Iigure shows an example oI a router with Iixed serial ports (interIaces). Each port is given
a label oI port type and port number; Ior example, 'serial 0.¨ To conIigure a Iixed interIace,
speciIy the interIace using this convention.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-9
Fixed Interfaces
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-45
The Iigure shows examples oI routers with modular serial ports. Usually, each port is given a
label oI port type, slot (the location oI the module), and port number. To conIigure a port on a
modular card, it is necessary to speciIy the interIace using the convention 'port type slot
number/port number.¨ For example, 'serial 1/0,¨ where the type oI interIace is a serial
interIace, the slot number where the interIace module is installed is slot 1, and the port
reIerenced on that serial interIace module is port 0.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-10
ModuIar SeriaI-Port Interfaces
3-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Routers and ISDN BRI Connections
With ISDN BRI, two types oI interIaces can be used: BRI S/T and BRI U. To determine the
appropriate interIace, it is necessary to veriIy whether you or the service provider will provide a
network termination 1 (NT-1) device. This topic describes these two types oI interIaces.
An NT-1 device is an intermediate device between the router and the service provider ISDN
switch (cloud) that is used to connect Iour-wire subscriber wiring to the conventional two-wire
local loop. In North America, the customer typically provides the NT-1, while in the rest oI the
world the service provider provides the NT-1 device.
It may be necessary to provide an external NT-1 iI it is not integrated into the router. Looking
at the labeling on the router interIace is the easiest way to determine iI the router has an
integrated NT-1. A BRI interIace with an integrated NT-1 is labeled 'BRI U¨ and a BRI
interIace without an integrated NT-1 is labeled 'BRI S/T.¨ Because routers can have multiple
ISDN interIace types, the interIace needed must be determined when the router is purchased.
The type oI ISDN connector that the router has can be determined by looking at the port label.
The Iigure shows the diIIerent port types Ior the ISDN interIace. In order to interconnect the
ISDN BRI port to the service-provider device, use a UTP Category 5 straight-through cable.
Caution Ìt is important to insert a cable running from an ÌSDN BRÌ port only to an ÌSDN jack or an
ÌSDN switch. ÌSDN BRÌ uses voltages that can seriously damage non-ÌSDN devices.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-11
CabIing Routers for ISDN Connections
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-47
Routers and DSL Connections
Routers can also be connected to an asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL). This topic
describes how a router is connected to DSL.
The Cisco 827 ADSL Router has one ADSL interIace. To connect an ADSL to the ADSL port
on a router, one end oI the phone cable is connected to the ADSL port on the router. The other
end oI the phone cable is connected to the external wall phone jack.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-12
Routers and DSL Connections
3-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
To connect a router Ior DSL service, you need a phone cable with RJ-11 connectors. DSL
works over standard telephone lines. It only uses two pins on the RJ-11 connector.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-13
TeIephone Connector Pinouts (RJ-11)
Pin Pin Function Function
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
Unused Unused
Unused Unused
Unused Unused
Unused Unused
Ring Ring
Tip Tip
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-49
Routers and CabIe Connections
Cisco`s uBR905 Cable Access Router provides high-speed network access on the cable
television system to residential and small oIIice, home oIIice (SOHO) subscribers. This topic
describes the connection oI this router to the cable system.
The uBR905 Router has an F-connector coaxial cable interIace that can be connected to a cable
system.
To connect the Cisco uBR905 Cable Access Router to the cable system, a cable
splitter/directional coupler can be installed, iI needed, to separate signals Ior TV and computer
use. II necessary, you can also install a high-pass Iilter to prevent interIerence between TV and
computer signals.
The coaxial cable is connected to the F connector oI the router (see Iigure), and all other
coaxial cable connectors, intermediate splitters, couplers, or ground blocks are connected to the
Cisco uBR905 Router.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-14
Cisco uBR905 Router
3-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Setting Up ConsoIe Connections
In order to initially conIigure the Cisco device, you must provide a management connection,
also known as a console connection, directly to the device. This topic describes how the
console connection is established.
For Cisco equipment, this management attachment is called a console port. The console port
allows monitoring and conIiguring oI a Cisco hub, switch, or router.
The cable used between a terminal and a console port is a rollover cable, with RJ-45 connectors
(see Iigure). The rollover cable, also known as a console cable, has a diIIerent pinout than the
straight-through or crossover RJ-45 cables used with Ethernet or the ISDN BRI.
Note The AUX port is used to provide out-of-band management through a modem. The AUX port
must be configured using the console port before it can be used.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-15
Setting Up a ConsoIe Connection
· PCs require an RJ-45-to-DB-9 or RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter.
· COM port settings are 9600 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit,
no fIow controI.
· This provides out-of-band consoIe access.
· AUX port (switch or router if provided) may be used for a
modem-connected consoIe.
Device with ConsoIe PC
RJ-45-to-RJ-45
RoIIover CabIe
RJ-45-to-DB-9
Adapter
(IabeIed TERMINAL)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-51
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-16
Summary
· Many types of physicaI Iayer impIementations
carry traffic across a WAN.
· A router is usuaIIy the DTE, and needs a DTE seriaI
cabIe to connect to a DCE device Iike a CSU/DSU.
· The ISDN BRI has two types of interfaces: S/T and
U interfaces. To interconnect the ISDN BRI port to
the service-provider device, a UTP Category 5
straight-through cabIe wiII be used.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-3-17
Summary (Cont.)
· A phone cabIe and an RJ-11 connector are used to
connect a router for DSL service.
· CoaxiaI cabIe and a BNC connector are used to
connect a router for cabIe service.
· RoIIover cabIe is used to connect a terminaI and
the consoIe port of a router.
3-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is a physical WAN implementation?
A) DSL
B) ISDN
C) Frame Relay
D) Gigabit Ethernet
Q2) What type oI data transmission method is used by a WAN?
A) parallel
B) serial
C) single
D) none oI the above
Q3) What best describes DCE?
A) user device at the end oI a network
B) equipment that serves as the data source and/or destination
C) physical devices such as protocol translators and multiplexers
D) devices that make up the network end oI the user-to-network interIace
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing media is used to interconnect the ISDN BRI port to the service-
provider device?
A) category 5 UTP straight-through
B) category 5 UTP crossover
C) coaxial
D) Iiber-optic
Q5) What type oI connector is used Ior DSL connection?
A) RJ-45
B) RJ-11
C) BNC
D) DB-9
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-53
Q6) What type oI connector is used to connect a router and cable system?
A) RJ-45
B) RJ-11
C) BNC
D) AUI
Q7) What type oI cable is used to connect a terminal and a console port?
A) straight-through
B) rollover
C) crossover
D) coaxial
3-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: WAN Physical Layer
Q2) B
ReIates to: WAN Serial Connections
Q3) D
ReIates to: Routers and Serial Connections
Q4) A
ReIates to: Routers and ÌSDN BRÌ Connections
Q5) B
ReIates to: Routers and DSL Connections
Q6) C
ReIates to: Routers and Cable Connections
Q7) B
ReIates to: Setting Up Console Connections
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 3-1: Network Media Types
Quiz 3-2: Cabling the LAN
Quiz 3-3: Cabling the WAN
3-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 3-1: Network Media Types
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the primary types, characteristics, and uses oI twisted-pair cables
Describe the primary types, characteristics, and uses oI coaxial cables
Describe the primary types, characteristics, and uses oI Iiber-optic cables
Describe the primary types and uses oI wireless communication
Compare and contrast the primary types and uses oI diIIerent media types
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is true with regard to UTP?
A) UTP must Iollow speciIications as to how many twists or braids there are per
meter.
B) UTP comprises Iour twisted pairs oI individual cable.
C) Category Iour UTP cable is usually seen in Ethernet networks.
D) UTP cable is made oI either 22- or 24- gauge copper wire.
Q2) What is the maximum cable length Ior coaxial cable?
A) 100 meters
B) 185 meters
C) 500 meters
D) 1600 meters
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-57
Q3) IdentiIy the Iiber-optic cable components.
Q4) What are the transmission rates oI wireless communication?
A) 911 Mbps
B) 9 Kbps54 Mbps
C) 19 Mbps
D) 1 Kbps9 Mbps
Q5) Match the cable media type to the appropriate description.
CoaxiaI Fiber-Optic UTP STP
3 km and farther
(singIe-mode)
2 km and farther
(muItimode)
100 m
500 m (Thicknet)
185 m (Thinnet)
100 m
100 Mbps-100 Gbps
(singIe-mode)
100 Mbps-9.92 Gbps
(muItimode)
10-100 Mbps
10-100 Mbps
10-100 Mbps Least Expensive
ReIativeIy inexpensive,
But more costIy than
UTP
More expensive than
UTP
Expensive
Media Type
Maximum
Segment Length
Speed Cost
3-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 3-2: CabIing the LAN
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the LAN physical layer implementations
Describe the main connectivity requirements Ior implementing Ethernet in the campus
IdentiIy diIIerent types oI connectors speciIied Ior Ethernet use
Describe the connection media Ior an Ethernet LAN
Describe UTP cables and connectors in an Ethernet LAN
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) At which layer oI the OSI model do the cabling aspects oI a LAN exist?
A) transport
B) network
C) data-link
D) physical
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing are optical GBICs?
A) short wavelength (1000BASE-SX)
B) high-Irequency wavelength (1000BASE-FX/HX)
C) long wavelength/long haul (1000BASE-LX/LH)
D) extended distance (1000BASE-ZX)
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-59
Q3) IdentiIy the cable type.
3-60 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 3-3: CabIing the WAN
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the WAN physical layer implementations
IdentiIy the diIIerent types oI WAN serial connections
Describe serial connection requirements Ior routers
Describe ISDN BRI connection requirements Ior routers
Describe a DSL connection with a router
Describe how a cable router is connected to a cable system
Describe the setup oI console connections Ior Cisco devices
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) How is serial transmission diIIerent Irom parallel transmission? (Select two.)
A) Serial transmission is Iaster than parallel transmission.
B) They use diIIerent connectors.
C) Serial transmission sends data one bit at a time, and parallel transmission sends
several bits at one time.
D) Parallel transmission is used over WAN links.
Q2) Typically, a router is a ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
A) DTE device
B) DCE device
C) both a DTE and a DCE device
D) neither a DTE nor a DCE device
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-61
Q3) II you are using an ISDN device that has an interIace marked 'BRI S/T,¨ what does
this imply?
A) The BRI interIace is capable oI supertransmission.
B) The device has an NT-1 built-in.
C) The device does not have an NT-1 built-in.
D) It implies nothing.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
3-62 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 3-1: Network Media Types
Q1) C
Q2) C
Q3)
Q4) B
Q5)
Quiz 3-2: CabIing the LAN
Q1) D
Q2) B
3 km and farther
(singIe-mode)
2 km and farther
(muItimode)
100 m
500 m (Thicknet)
185 m (Thinnet)
100 m
100 Mbps-100 Gbps
(singIe-mode)
100 Mbps-9.92 Gbps
(muItimode)
10-100 Mbps
10-100 Mbps
10-100 Mbps Least Expensive
ReIativeIy inexpensive,
But more costIy than
UTP
More expensive than
UTP
Expensive
Media Type
Maximum
Segment Length
Speed Cost
Fiber-Optic
STP
CoaxiaI
UTP
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Network Media 3-63
Q3)
Quiz 3-3: CabIing the WAN
Q1) B, C
Q2) A
Q3) C
3-64 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ModuIe 4
Switching Fundamentals
Overview
Today`s local-area networks (LANs) are becoming increasingly congested and overburdened.
In addition to an ever-growing population oI network users, several Iactors have combined to
stress the capabilities oI traditional LANs. Workstations with 50 to 75 million instructions per
second oI processing power are common, and two modern engineering workstations on the
same LAN can easily saturate the LAN. Faster operating systems allow PC users to increase
their demands Ior network resources. All oI this network demand requires Iaster
interconnections.
Switching is a technology that alleviates congestion in Ethernet LANs by reducing traIIic and
increasing bandwidth. Switches, known as LAN switches, are designed to work with existing
cable inIrastructures so that they can be installed with minimal disruption to existing networks.
They oIten replace shared hubs. This module describes how LAN switching works, the
diIIerent types oI LAN switches, and how virtual LANs can expand the traditional LAN.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the Iunctions and operations oI
LANs and Virtual LANs. This includes being able to do the Iollowing:
Describe how technology can extend Ethernet LANs
Describe how LAN switching satisIies demand Ior network access
Describe how virtual networks meet the demand Ior extending LANs
4-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
OutIine
The module contains these components:
Shared LAN Technology
LAN Switching
Virtual LANs
Lesson Assessments
Shared LAN Technology
Overview
LANs were introduced as a low-cost, timesaving technology that evolved along with the PC
revolution. LANs allow multiple users in a relatively small geographical area to exchange Iiles
and messages, and to access shared resources such as Iile servers. Today, LANs have rapidly
evolved into support systems that are critical to communications within organizations, but that
have some limitations that require solutions.
ReIevance
LANs are common networking environments in both large and small organizations, and
learning about the Iunction oI an Ethernet LAN provides an understanding oI how data is
transmitted in local networking environments.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe how technology can extend Ethernet
LANs. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
IdentiIy a limitation oI a physical Ethernet segment
Describe a Layer 1 solution Ior extending Ethernet LAN segments
DeIine the three methods oI communications within an Ethernet LAN
DeIine a collision domain
IdentiIy common bandwidth consumers on an Ethernet LAN
Describe a Layer 2 solution Ior resolving excessive collisions on an Ethernet LAN
4-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI the OSI reIerence model
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
IdentiIying Segment Limitations
Extending the LAN Segment
Communicating Within the LAN
DeIining a Collision Domain
Consuming Bandwidth
Creating Multiple Collision Domains
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-5
Identifying Segment Limitations
Segment length is an important consideration when using Ethernet technology in a LAN. This
topic discusses the segment distance limitation oI an Ethernet LAN.
A segment is a network connection made by a single unbroken network cable. Ethernet cables
and segments can only span a limited physical distance aIter which transmissions will likely
Iail due to line noise, reduced signal strength, and Iailure to Iollow the carrier sense multiple
access collision detect (CSMA/CD) speciIications Ior collision detection.
Ethernet Segment Distance
Ethernet Specification Segment Length
10BASE5 500 meters
10BASE2 185 meters
10BASE-T 100 meters
10BASE-FL 2000 meters
100BASE-TX 100 meters
100BASE-FX 400 meters
100BASE-T4 100 meters
100BASE-T2 100 meters
1000BASE-LX 550 meters if 62.5 µ or 50 µ multimode fiber; 10 km if
10 µ single-mode fiber
1000BASE-SX 250 meters if 62.5 µ multimode fiber; 550 meters if 50 µ
multimode fiber
1000BASE-CX 25 meters
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-5
Identifying Segment Limitations
Segment Length
· SignaIs degrade with transmission distance
· Each Ethernet type has a maximum segment Iength
· A segment is the distance between a node and its hub or switch
4-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Extending the LAN Segment
A hub, or repeater, is a device that joins multiple Ethernet segments. This topic identiIies how
adding a hub can overcome the distance limitation in an Ethernet LAN.
Technology limits the distance a Irame can travel on a segment beIore the signal degrades.
Adding a hub, however, can overcome distance issues. However, there is a timing issue
regarding collision detection that hub technology cannot improve, so hubs cannot be cascaded
inIinitely.
A hub extends the Ethernet LAN, but the bandwidth limitation oI a shared technology remains.
Although each device has its own cable that connects into the hub, all users oI a given Ethernet
segment compete Ior the same amount oI bandwidth.
Hubs operate at Layer 1 in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. At the physical
layer, hubs support little in the way oI sophisticated networking. Hubs do not read any oI the
data passing through them and are not aware oI the source or destination oI the Irame.
Essentially, a hub simply receives incoming bits, ampliIies the electrical signal, and transmits
these bits out all ports to the other devices on the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-6
Extending LAN Segments
100 Meters 100 Meters
10BaseT Hub
· Bandwidth is shared
· Extends cabIe distances
· Repeats or ampIifies signaI
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-7
Communicating Within the LAN
Within a LAN, devices can communicate in diIIerent ways. This topic describes three ways
devices can communicate within an Ethernet LAN.
Communication between devices in a LAN network occurs in three ways:
Unicast: Communication where a Irame is sent Irom one host addressed to a speciIic
destination. In this case there is just one sender and one receiver. Unicast transmission is
still the predominant Iorm oI transmission on LANs and within the Internet.
Broadcast: Communication where a Irame is sent Irom one address to all other addresses.
In this case there is just one sender but the inIormation is sent to all connected receivers.
Broadcast transmission is essential when sending the same message to all devices on the
LAN.
Multicast: Communication where a destination addresses a speciIic group oI devices, or
clients. Unlike broadcast transmission, multicast clients must join the multicast group to
receive the inIormation.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-7
Communicating Within the LAN
Unicast
Broadcast
MuIticast
CIient Group
4-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Defining a CoIIision Domain
A collision occurs when two stations transmit bits at the same time on the same Ethernet
segment. This topic deIines a collision domain within an Ethernet LAN.
On a cable interconnecting all oI the devices on a LAN, the possibility oI conIlict, or more than
one user sending data at the same time, is high. The same is true iI a nonIiltering device, such
as a hub, interconnects segments oI a LAN.
A collision domain is a group oI Ethernet devices that are directly connected by hubs. Only one
device may transmit at any one time inside oI this collision domain. When a device is
transmitting, all other devices in the collision domain listen. II two or more stations on a shared
media try to transmit at the same time, a collision results. The more stations there are
attempting to transmit data, the more collisions will occur. The more collisions that occur, the
worse the congestion becomes, and network accessibility can become slow or nonexistent.
Hubs extend collision domains. Extending a run oI cable with a hub results in a larger collision
domain.
ExampIe: CoIIision Domain
Each node has its own bicycle messenger to deliver messages. As the number oI nodes on the
network increases, so does the number oI bicycle messengers trying to access the bicycle path.
As more messengers attempt to access the bicycle path, more collisions between bicyclists
occur and messages are dropped or not delivered.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-8
Defining a CoIIision Domain
I can't get to
the payroII
server
I can't get to
the payroII
server
I couId have
waIked to
Finance by
now
I couId have
waIked to
Finance by
now
CoIIision Domain
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-9
Consuming Bandwidth
Bandwidth is an important consideration in the Iunction oI Ethernet LANs. This topic identiIies
several examples oI bandwidth consumption.
Shared LAN segments have a Iixed amount oI bandwidth. As users are added, the amount oI
bandwidth per user decreases. This results in collisions, and collisions reduce perIormance.
In early PC applications, workstations delivered limited amounts oI traIIic to the network. With
Iaster CPUs, buses, peripherals, and more data-intensive applications, a single workstation can
saturate a network segment. Bandwidth-intensive applications, such as desktop publishing,
engineering applications, imaging applications, and multimedia applications quickly deplete
available bandwidth.
ExampIe: Bandwidth Consumers
This table illustrates the bandwidth consumption diIIerences between text and graphics Iiles.
Bandwidth Consumption
Item FiIe Size Network UtiIization
700-page novel (only text) 1 MB 3 seconds
Complete works of Shakespeare 5 MB 13 seconds
1 large GÌF image (uncompressed) 5 MB 13 seconds
1 large GÌF image (compressed) 1 MB 3 seconds
DVD movie trailer 68 MB 180 seconds
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-9
Consuming Bandwidth
4 MB
5 MB
2 MB
3 MB
1 MB
0 MB
700-
page
noveI
CompIete
works of
Shakespeare
One GIF fiIe
(uncompressed)
One GIF fiIe
(compressed)
13-sec movie
traiIer
4-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Creating MuItipIe CoIIision Domains
Ethernet uses collision detection, so a single collision domain with a large number oI users
leads to excessive Irame collisions. This topic explains how Layer 2 devices can reduce the size
oI collision domains in an Ethernet LAN.
The potential Ior Irame collision in an Ethernet LAN limits the eIIective size oI a network.
High-bandwidth applications consume bandwidth. Layer 2 networking devices, such as bridges
and switches, reduce the size oI collision domains as well as dedicate bandwidth to users
through a process called segmentation.
In a network comprised oI Layer 2 devices, each device builds a Irame-Iorwarding table, also
reIerred to as a Media Access Control (MAC) or content-addressable memory (CAM) table.
When a Irame is transmitted Irom a node, the switch then compares the destination MAC
address against the MAC table and Iorwards the Irame to the appropriate LAN segment.
Filtering is done based on the destination MAC address oI the Irame. The Irame is not
Iorwarded iI the destination is a station on the same segment where the Irame originated. II the
Irame is destined Ior a station on another LAN segment, the Irame is Iorwarded to the port that
connects to the segment on which the node with that address resides. This Iunction creates a
separate collision domain Ior each LAN segment. Frame collisions are reduced when only
broadcasts and Irames destined Ior MAC addresses not in the MAC table are Iorwarded to all
ports and the nodes connected to them.
Note There is a special rule controlling the interconnection of bridges or switches. There must be
only one path between any two computers in a LAN containing bridges and switches. Ìf
more than one parallel path exists, a loop is formed and the bridges or switches would
continually transmit frames over the loop. This action would soon result in overload of the
network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-10
Creating MuItipIe CoIIision Domains
CoIIision
Domain 1
CoIIision
Domain 2
CoIIision
Domain 3
CoIIision
Domain 3
ARP
TabIe
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-11
ExampIe: LAN Segments
A single bike path has become saturated with the maximum number oI bikes and traIIic has
slowed down to a standstill. You widen the bike path to provide a total oI ten lanes. This
enables bikes to travel at maximum speed, each in their own lane. However, iI traIIic continues
to increase, even these lanes could Iill up, causing the bikes to slow down again.
4-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-11
Summary
· An Ethernet segment is Iimited in distance.
· Hubs extend the distance of a LAN segment but
shared technoIogy Iimitations stiII exist.
· There are three common transmission methods
within a LAN: unicast, broadcast, and muIticast.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-12
Summary (Cont.)
· A coIIision occurs when two stations transmit bits
at the same time on the same Ethernet segment.
· Too many users and high-bandwidth appIications
can cause congestion and reduce performance on
the network.
· Layer 2 devices can reduce coIIisions by fiItering
traffic.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-13
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) What is the maximum distance Ior thick Ethernet without using a repeater?
A) 185 meters
B) 250 meters
C) 500 meters
D) 800 meters
Q2) Which statements describe a Ieature oI a hub? (Choose three.)
A) All resources are shared.
B) A hub Iilters traIIic based on a MAC address.
C) A hub implements physical layer Iunctionality.
D) A hub implements data-link layer Iunctionality.
E) A hub reduces the size oI the collision domain.
F) A hub transmits all bits to all devices on a segment.
Q3) Which behavior best describes a unicast transmission?
A) A Irame is Iiltered through a single bridge.
B) A Irame is sent Irom one point to another point.
C) A Irame is passed but not Iiltered through a hub.
D) A Irame is sent Irom one point to all other points.
E) A Irame is sent simultaneously to a speciIic group oI devices.
Q4) Which behavior best describes a broadcast transmission?
A) A Irame is Iiltered through a single bridge.
B) A Irame is sent Irom one point to another point.
C) A Irame is passed but not Iiltered through a hub.
D) A Irame is sent Irom one point to all other points.
E) A Irame is sent simultaneously to a speciIic group oI devices.
Q5) Which behavior best describes a multicast transmission?
A) A Irame is Iiltered through a single bridge.
B) A Irame is sent Irom one point to another point.
C) A Irame is passed but not Iiltered through a hub.
D) A Irame is sent Irom one point to all other points.
E) A Irame is sent simultaneously to a speciIic group oI devices.
Q6) What term is used to describe the results oI two or more stations on a network trying to
transmit simultaneously?
A) Iiltering
B) collision
C) switching
D) propagation
E) broadcasting
4-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q7) Which condition is a likely cause oI network congestion?
A) short cables
B) too many collision domains
C) multiple segments on a bridge
D) bandwidth-intensive applications
Q8) Which statements describe a Ieature oI a switch? (Choose three.)
A) operates at Layer 1 oI OSI model
B) builds and maintains a MAC address table
C) interconnects multiple LAN segments
D) increases the size oI the collision domain
E) Iilters Irames based on the destination address
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-15
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) C
ReIates to: Ìdentifying Segment Limitations
Q2) A, C, F
ReIates to: Extending the LAN Segment
Q3) B
ReIates to: Communicating Within the LAN
Q4) D
ReIates to: Communicating Within the LAN
Q5) E
ReIates to: Communicating Within the LAN
Q6) B
ReIates to: Defining a Collision Domain
Q7) D
ReIates to: Consuming Bandwidth
Q8) B, C, E
ReIates to: Creating Multiple Collision Domains
4-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
LAN Switching
Overview
Hub-connected networks previously worked well Ior end-user stations that could only drive
traIIic at a Iraction oI the carrying capacity oI the network. Today, end-user stations are so Iast
and complex that a single end-user station can exceed the entire capacity oI 10-Mbps Ethernet.
ReIevance
Understanding how switching technology contributes to the eIIiciency oI a LAN increases your
understanding oI how LANs Iunction in high-speed networking environments.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe how LAN switching satisIies demand
Ior network access. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
DeIine LAN switching
List Iour Ieatures oI a LAN switch
IdentiIy two common switching methods
IdentiIy a switch type by bandwidth allocation
IdentiIy a switch type by layer Iunctionality
Describe how a LAN switch Iorwards Irames
Describe two problems that may occur in a bridged environment
IdentiIy a solution to bridging loops
4-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI the OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI basic LAN components and Iunctions
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
DeIining LAN Switching
IdentiIying Switching Features
Categorizing Switches by Switching Technique
Categorizing Switches by Bandwidth Allocation
Categorizing Switches by Layer Functionality
Switching Frames
Flooding the Network
Preventing Loops
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-19
Defining LAN Switching
LAN switching reIers to a technology that is similar to a bridge in many ways. This topic
deIines LAN switching.
Functionally, LAN switches are virtually identical to multiport bridges. Like bridges, switches
connect LAN segments, reduce traIIic, and use a table oI MAC addresses to determine the
segment on which a Irame needs to be transmitted.
The diIIerence between LAN switches and multiport bridges is in the internal hardware and
cost. LAN switches use either proprietary or third-party application-speciIic integrated circuits
(ASICs), which have the switching code optimized and embedded in hardware, resulting in
Iaster execution time. Switches operate at much higher speeds than bridges, and can support
new Iunctionality such as virtual LANs. Also, LAN switches provide much higher port density
at a lower cost than traditional bridges.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
What is a LAN Switch?
· SimiIar to a muItiport bridge
· Switching code embedded in hardware for faster
processing
· Lower per port cost
LAN Switch
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data Link Data Link
PhysicaI PhysicaI
OSI Reference ModeI
4-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Identifying Switching Features
Although LAN switches have some similarities to bridges, they also have some additional
Ieatures. This topic explains the major capabilities that set switches apart Irom bridges.
LAN switches are similar to bridges in Iunctions such as learning the topology, Iorwarding, and
Iiltering. However, LAN switches additionally support these Ieatures:
Dedicated communication between devices: This increases Iile-transIer throughput.
Creating private or dedicated segments with one user per segment is called
microsegmentation. In this type oI conIiguration, each user receives access to the Iull
bandwidth and does not have to contend Ior available bandwidth with other users. As a
result, collisions do not occur.
Multiple simultaneous conversations: Multiple simultaneous conversations can occur by
Iorwarding, or switching, several packets at the same time, thereby increasing network
capacity by the number oI conversations supported.
Full-duplex communication: This eIIectively doubles the throughput. For example, point-
to-point 100-Mbps connections have 100 Mbps oI transmit capacity and 100 Mbps oI
receive capacity, Ior an eIIective 200-Mbps capacity on a single connection. Full-duplex
can only occur on dedicated connections.
Media-rate allocation: The LAN switch can translate between 10 and 100 Mbps, allowing
bandwidth to be allocated as needed.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
LAN Switch Features
Dedicated communication
between devices
FuII-dupIex
communication
10MB 10MB
100MB 100MB
Media rate aIIocation Media rate aIIocation
MuItipIe simuItaneous
conversations
MuItipIe simuItaneous
conversations
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-21
Categorizing Switches by Switching Technique
There are two methodologies that switches use to Iorward Irames. This topic describes those
two methodologies.
LAN switches use one oI two types oI Iorwarding methods:
Store-and-Forward: In the store-and-Iorward switching method, error checking is
perIormed and erroneous Irames are discarded. The LAN switch copies the entire Irame
into its onboard buIIers and computes the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). The Irame is
discarded iI it contains a CRC error. The Irame is also discarded iI its size is less than 64
bytes (runt) or more than 1518 bytes (giant), including the CRC. II the Irame does not
contain any errors, the LAN switch looks up the destination address in the Iorwarding, or
MAC, table and determines the outgoing interIace. The switch then Iorwards the Irame
toward its destination.
Cut-Through: With cut-through switching, the LAN switch waits until it copies the
destination address, which is indicated in the Iirst six bytes Iollowing the preamble, into the
onboard buIIers oI the switch. The switch then looks up the destination address in the MAC
table, determines the outgoing interIace, and Iorwards the Irame toward its destination. The
cut-through switching method reduces latency by eliminating error checking and
Iorwarding the Irame as soon as the switch reads the destination address and determines the
outgoing interIace. However, cut-through switching does not support Layer 3 switching.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
MuItipIe Switching Methods
Destination
Address
Frame Frame
Cut-Through
Switching
Frame Frame
Frame
Store-and-Forward
Switching
4-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Categorizing Switches by Bandwidth AIIocation
This topic explains how switches can be characterized according to the proportion oI bandwidth
allocated to each port on the switch.
LAN switches provide switched connections between ports oI unlike bandwidths, such as a
combination oI 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. Switching also optimizes Ior client-server traIIic
Ilows where multiple clients simultaneously communicate with a server. More bandwidth can
be dedicated to a server port to prevent a bottleneck at that port.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Bandwidth AIIocation
Frame
10 MB 100 MB
Frame
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-23
Categorizing Switches by Layer FunctionaIity
LAN switches can be categorized as Layer 2, Layer 2 with some Layer 3, or multilayer
switches. This topic discusses how LAN switches can be categorized according to the OSI layer
at which they Iilter and Iorward Irames.
A Layer 2 LAN switch is operationally similar to a multiport bridge but has a much higher
capacity and supports many new Ieatures, such as Iull-duplex operation. A Layer 2 LAN switch
perIorms switching and Iiltering based on the OSI data-link layer (Layer 2) MAC address. As
with bridges, the switch is completely transparent to network protocols and user applications.
A multilayer switch makes switching and Iiltering decisions on the basis oI OSI data-link layer
(Layer 2) and OSI network-layer (Layer 3) addresses. This type oI switch dynamically decides
whether to switch (Layer 2) or route (Layer 3) incoming traIIic. A multilayer LAN switch
switches within LAN segments and routes between diIIerent networks.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Layer FunctionaIity
7 7
Layer 2
Switch
MuItiLayer
Switch
6
5
4
Network
Data-Link
1
6
5
4
3
1
Data-Link
4-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Switching Frames
A LAN switch Iollows a speciIic procedure. This section discusses the Iundamental operation
oI a LAN switch.
A switch learns the network topology by analyzing the source address oI incoming Irames Irom
all attached networks.
Switching Frames Procedure
Step Action
1.
The switch receives a frame from a network on the incoming port of the switch.
2.
The switch enters the source MAC address and the switch port that received the frame into
the MAC table.
3.
Ìf the destination address is unknown, the switch floods the frame to all ports.
4.
The destination device replies to the broadcast.
5.
The switch enters the MAC address and the switch port that received the frame of the
destination device into the MAC table.
6.
The switch can now switch frames between source and destination devices onto the network
without broadcasting.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Switching Frames
Frame Frame
F
r
a
m
e
F
r
a
m
e
1 1
2 2
3 3 MAC TabIe
Source Port: 2
Source Addr: 00e018c2b2b3
Destination Port: ?
Destination Addr: ?
My MAC Address
is 00e018c2f2c3
My MAC Address
is 00e018c2f2c3
4 4
MAC TabIe
Source Port: 2
Source Addr: 00e018c2b2b3
Destination Port: 4
Destination Addr: 00e018c2f2c3
5 5
Frame Frame
6 6
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-25
FIooding the Network
The problem oI looping can occur in a bridged network. This topic describes loops in a
switched network .
Loops are created when redundant Layer 2 paths exist between a source and a destination. II
these redundant paths are both Iorwarding data at the same time, the Irame circulates (loops)
between these two paths without being removed Irom the network. As the Irames pass through
the switch, the switch looks up the source and destination addresses. The MAC table may be
updated with erroneous inIormation, resulting in inaccurate Iorwarding and learning in bridging
environments.
In addition to basic connectivity problems, the proliIeration oI broadcast messages in networks
with loops represents a serious network problem. Because oI how switches operate, any
multicast, broadcast, or unknown traIIic will be Ilooded out to all ports except the incoming
port. The resulting eIIect is a storm oI traIIic being looped endlessly through the network,
almost instantly consuming the available bandwidth.
ExampIe: Loops in a Switched Network
Suppose that the host named 'London¨ sends a Irame to the host named 'Rome.¨ London
resides on network Segment A and Rome resides on network Segment B. Both hosts have
connections to network Segment A and Segment B to ensure continual operations in the case oI
a segment Iailure. Switch 1 and Switch 2 provide redundant connections between the two
network segments. Both Switch 1 and Switch 2 receive a Irame Irom London and correctly
learn that London is on Segment 2. Each switch Iorwards the Irame onto Segment 1.
Rome receives two copies oI the Irame Irom London through Switch 1 and Switch 2. However,
both switches also receive the Irame on their Segment B interIaces. The switches now change
their internal tables to indicate that London is on Segment B. II Rome replies to London, both
switches will receive and subsequently drop the reply Irames because the MAC table in each
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Loops
London
Rome
1
2
Segment A
Segment B
Frame
4-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
switch indicates that the destination (London) is on the same network segment as the source oI
the Irame (Rome).
II the initial Irame Irom London were a broadcast Irame, both switches would Iorward the
Irames endlessly, using all available network bandwidth and blocking the transmission oI other
packets on both segments.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-27
Preventing Loops
There is a means to resolve bridging loops in a redundant network. This topic explains the
Spanning-Tree Protocol that provides this resolution.
The solution to loops is the Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP). STP provides path redundancy
while preventing undesirable active loops in the network.
To provide path redundancy, STP deIines a tree that spans all switches in a network. STP
Iorces certain redundant data paths into a standby state. II one network segment becomes
unreachable, the STP reconIigures the spanning-tree topology and reestablishes the link by
activating the standby path.
STP operation is transparent to end stations, which are unaware whether they are connected to a
single LAN segment or a switched LAN oI multiple segments.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Spanning Tree
Standby Link Standby Link
Broadcast
Frame
4-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Summary
· Switches are simiIar to bridges in functions such
as Iearning the topoIogy, forwarding, and fiItering.
· Switches provide added functionaIity to increase
throughput as weII as a Iower per port cost.
· Switches use Cut-Through or Store-and-Forward
switching techniques.
· Switches can be characterized according to the
proportion of bandwidth aIIocated to each port.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-2
Summary (Cont.)
· Switches can be categorized as Layer 2, Layer 2
with some Layer 3, or muItiIayer switches.
· Switches have a set procedure for Iearning the
network topoIogy and for forwarding frames.
· Bridging Ioops occur in a switched environment
where there are redundant paths between devices.
· The Spanning-Tree ProtocoI provides path
redundancy whiIe preventing undesirabIe Ioops in
the network.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-29
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which characteristics best describe a LAN switch? (Choose two.)
A) separates broadcast domains
B) Iunctionally resembles a multiport bridge
C) connects remote and local-area networks together
D) code is optimized and embedded in hardware
E) Iorwards packets Irom a single source to a predeIined set oI client stations
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing Iunctionalities oI a switch diIIerentiate it Irom a bridge?
(Choose Iour.)
A) extends a collision domain
B) enables Iull-duplex communication
C) creates dedicated segments per user
D) connects two LAN segments together
E) uses MAC addresses to Iorward Irames
F) handles multiple simultaneous conversations
G) translates speeds between diIIerent rate segments
Q3) Which statements accurately describe the two Iorwarding methods used by switches?
(Choose two.)
A) Cut-through switching increases latency.
B) Store-and-Iorward switching perIorms error checking.
C) Store-and-Iorward switching reduces latency.
D) Store-and-Iorward switching copies only the destination address into the
buIIers.
E) Cut-through switching does not wait to receive the whole Irame beIore
Iorwarding it to the destination.
F) Cut-through switching discards Irames oI less than 64 bytes or more than 1518
bytes, including the CRC.
Q4) Which switch type provides switched connections between ports oI unlike bandwidths?
A) multilayer switch
B) symmetrical switch
C) asymmetrical switch
D) store-and-Iorward switch
4-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q5) Which Iunctionality best Iits a Layer 2 switch?
A) routes once, switches many
B) provides security through access lists
C) switches when it can, routes when it must
D) Iorwards Irames based on MAC addresses
E) switches or routes incoming traIIic dynamically
F) switches within a collision domain and routes between collision domains
Q6) Number the Irame Iorwarding sequence in the correct order oI occurrence.
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. The switch Iloods the Irame to all ports.
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. The destination device replies to the broadcast.
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. The switch Iorwards Irames without broadcasting.
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. The switch receives a source Irame Irom a network on an incoming
port.
¸¸¸¸¸ 5. The switch enters the source MAC address and the switch port that
received the Irame into the MAC table.
¸¸¸¸¸ 6. The switch enters the destination MAC address and the switch port
that received the Irame into the MAC table.
Q7) In which oI the Iollowing conditions would a bridging loop most likely occur?
A) a redundant network between two unique collision domains
B) a redundant routed network with the Spanning-Tree Protocol
C) a redundant bridged network with the Spanning-Tree Protocol
D) a redundant routed network without the Spanning-Tree Protocol
E) a redundant bridged network without the Spanning-Tree Protocol
Q8) The Spanning-Tree Protocol allows which oI the Iollowing?
A) creates multiple broadcast domains
B) switches when it can, routes when it must
C) creates static routes to prevent bridging loops
D) detects and breaks loops by placing some connections is a standby mode
E) sends an alarm to a management station in the event oI a link Iailure
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-31
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) B, D
ReIates to: Defining a LAN Switch
Q2) B, C, F, G
ReIates to: Ìdentifying Switching Features
Q3) B, E
ReIates to: Categorizing Switches by Switching Technique
Q4) D
ReIates to: Categorizing Switches by Bandwidth Allocation
Q5) D
ReIates to: Categorizing Switches by Layer Functionality
Q6) 3, 4, 6, 1, 2, 5
ReIates to: Switching Frames
Q7) E
ReIates to: Flooding the Network
Q8) D
ReIates to: Preventing Bridging Loops
4-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Virtual LANs
Overview
Because oI distance and the collision domain requirements oI the Ethernet technology, the
physical location oI devices can limit communications. As networks have grown, the need to
expand accessibility to geographically dispersed resources and end users has driven the need to
create Virtual LANs (VLANs).
This lesson deIines VLANs, discusses their beneIits, and explains what devices are used to
interconnect end users and resources.
ReIevance
Understanding how VLANs Iunction will increase your overall understanding oI the operations
oI LANs and how they meet diIIerent requirements Ior networking.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe how virtual networks meet the
demand Ior extending LANs. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
DeIine VLAN
List three beneIits oI VLANs
IdentiIy VLAN components
Describe two diIIerent ways oI establishing VLAN membership
State how communications take place between VLANs
4-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisites skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI the OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI basic LAN components and Iunctions
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
DeIining a Virtual LAN
IdentiIying VLAN BeneIits
IdentiIying VLAN Components
Establishing VLAN Membership
Communicating between VLANs
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-35
Defining a VirtuaI LAN
Virtual LANs provide an important connection Iunction in a local-area network. This topic
deIines a VLAN.
A VLAN is deIined as a group oI LANs that have diIIerent physical connections but which
communicate as iI the LANs are connected on a single network segment.
VLAN technology allows the grouping oI switch ports, and the devices connected to them, into
logically deIined communities oI interest. These groupings can be coworkers within the same
department, a cross-Iunctional product team, or diverse users sharing the same network
application or soItware. VLANs divide the network into broadcast domains and allow all
devices within that domain to receive broadcast Irames originating Irom any device within that
speciIic domain.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-3
VLAN Definition
FIoor 3
FIoor 2
FIoor 1
Fast
Ethernet
Engineering Marketing Accounting
4-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Identifying VLAN Benefits
There are several beneIits to using VLANs. This topic discusses the beneIits oI VLANs within
the network.
VLANs provide the Iollowing advantages:
Reduction of administration cost: VLANs enable logical groupings oI devices that are
physically dispersed on a network. When users on a VLAN move to a new physical
location but continue to perIorm the same job Iunction, the devices oI those users do not
need to be reconIigured. Similarly, iI users change their job Iunction, they need not
physically move: changing the VLAN membership oI the devices to that oI the new team
makes the users'` devices local to the new team.
Efficient bandwidth utilization: VLANs reduce the need to have routers deployed on a
network to contain broadcast traIIic. Flooding oI a packet is limited to the switch ports that
belong to a VLAN.
Enforcement of network security policies: By conIining the broadcast domains, devices
on a VLAN can be isolated Irom listening to or receiving broadcasts not intended Ior them.
Moreover, iI a router is not connected between the VLANs, the devices oI a VLAN cannot
communicate with the devices oI the other VLANs.
Reduction in network traffic: As a result oI conIinement oI broadcast domains on a
network, traIIic on the network is signiIicantly reduced.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-3
VLAN Benefits
Reduces Administrative Costs Reduces Administrative Costs
Promotes Efficient Bandwidth UtiIization Promotes Efficient Bandwidth UtiIization
Enforces Network Security PoIicies Enforces Network Security PoIicies
Reduces Network Traffic Reduces Network Traffic
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-37
Identifying VLAN Components
There are many types oI devices and technologies involved in a VLAN. This topic identiIies
the major components that make up VLANs.
VLANs are made up oI the Iollowing types oI devices and technologies:
Switches: Switches are primary components oI VLAN communication. They perIorm
critical VLAN Iunctions by acting as the entry point Ior end-station devices into the
network, Iacilitating communication across the organization, and providing the intelligence
to group users, ports, or logical addresses to Iorm common communities oI interest.
Routers: Routers provide the communication between logically deIined workgroups. They
also provide VLAN access to shared resources such as servers and hosts. Routers also
connect to other parts oI the network that are either logically segmented with the more
traditional subnet approach or require access to remote sites across wide-area links.
Trunks: A trunk is a point-to-point link between one or more switch ports and other
networking devices, such as routers or switches. Trunks carry the traIIic oI multiple
VLANs over a single link and allow you to extend VLANs across an entire network.
Trunks require a specialized link protocol Ior communications. You may have one or more
trunking encapsulation options, such as the Iollowing, depending on the platIorm:
Inter-Switch Link (ISL): ISL is a Cisco-proprietary trunking encapsulation, which pre-
dates the 802.1Q speciIication.
IEEE 802.1Q: 802.1Q is an industry-standard trunking encapsulation.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-3
VLAN Components
· Switches-
Membership
determination
· Trunking-Common
VLAN exchange
· Routers-Security,
controI, administration
4-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
EstabIishing VLAN Membership
There are two methods Ior establishing VLAN membership. This topic discusses those
methods.
There are two methods Ior determining and controlling how a Irame gets assigned to a VLAN.
Port-based VLANs: The administrator assigns each port oI a switch to a VLAN. The
switch determines the VLAN membership oI each Irame by noting the port on which the
Irame arrives. When a user is moved to a diIIerent port oI the switch, the administrator
reassigns the new port to the old VLAN oI the user. The network change is completely
transparent to the user and the administrator saves a trip to the wiring closet. II a hub is
attached to a port on the switch, all oI the users connected to that hub will be members oI
the same VLAN.
MAC-based VLANs: Membership oI a Irame is determined by the source MAC address.
Each switch maintains a database oI MAC addresses and their corresponding VLAN
memberships. A key advantage oI this method is that the switch does not need to be
reconIigured when a user moves to a diIIerent port. However, assigning VLAN
membership to each MAC address can be a time-consuming task. Also, a single MAC
address cannot easily be a member oI multiple VLANs. This can be a signiIicant limitation,
making it diIIicult to share server resources between more than one VLAN.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-3
EstabIishing VLAN Membership
MAC
Addresses
MAC
Addresses
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
MAC-Based
Membership
VLAN 1
Port-Based
Membership
VLAN 2
Port 1 Port 2
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-39
Communicating Between VLANs
This topic discusses how Irames Ilow between VLANs.
When a host device connected through a VLAN sends out packets, they will use the same
method Ior connecting to other network devices as a host that is connected by a traditional
Ethernet segment.
Step 1 The IP address oI the destination will be on the same network as the host.
Step 2 The host will then use its IP deIault gateway`s MAC address as the destination MAC
address oI the Irames.
Step 3 The deIault gateway (a router) will then Iorward the packet towards the destination.
This may be a directly connected network it may need to go through additional
routers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-3
Communicating Between VLANs
Packet
VLAN1 VLAN2
4-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-4-3
Summary
· VLANs have different physicaI connections as
weII as virtuaI connections.
· VLANs ease administration, reinforce security
poIicies, and Ioad-baIance traffic.
· VLANs are made up of many different types of
devices and technoIogies.
· VLAN memberships can be made by port or MAC
address.
· Routers provide the Iink between VLANs.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Switching Fundamentals 4-41
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which characteristic best describes a VLAN?
A) Devices within a VLAN are physically colocated.
B) VLANs must be interconnected with the same switch.
C) Devices within a VLAN must be interconnected with the same router.
D) Devices are geographically dispersed but communicate virtually as iI they are
on the same segment.
E) Devices are geographically in the same place but communicate virtually as iI
they are in diIIerent broadcast domains.
Q2) Which statements are beneIits oI adding a VLAN? (Choose two.)
A) Managing broadcasts reduces traIIic load.
B) Flooding oI a packet is limited to the switch ports that belong to a VLAN.
C) Security is ensured by reconIiguration each time a user moves to a new VLAN.
D) Changing the VLAN membership oI the devices to a new switch reduces port
costs.
Q3) Which oI these components is used as the entry point into the VLAN?
A) trunk port
B) MAC port
C) switch port
D) VLAN port
Q4) Which method can establish VLAN membership?
A) MAC address
B) routing protocol
C) Ethernet segment
D) Layer 3 access list
Q5) Which device provides communication between broadcast domains?
A) hub
B) bridge
C) trunk
D) router
E) switch
4-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Defining a Virtual LAN
Q2) A, B
ReIates to: Ìdentifying VLAN Benefits
Q3) C
ReIates to: Ìdentifying VLAN Components
Q4) A
ReIates to: Establishing VLAN Membership
Q5) D
ReIates to: Communicating Between VLANs
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 4-1: Shared LAN Technology
Quiz 4-2: LAN Switching
Quiz 4-3: Virtual LANs
4-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 4-1: Shared LAN TechnoIogy
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
IdentiIy a limitation oI a physical Ethernet segment
Describe a Layer 1 solution Ior extending Ethernet LAN segments
DeIine the three methods oI communications within an Ethernet LAN
DeIine a collision domain
IdentiIy common bandwidth consumers on an Ethernet LAN
Describe a Layer 2 solution Ior resolving excessive collisions on an Ethernet LAN
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Using a hub has the same results as having the network devices on one Ethernet
10BASE2 segment.
A) true
B) Ialse
Q2) Congestion causes which eIIects? (Choose two.)
A) shorter segment lengths
B) lower reliability and low traIIic
C) network unpredictability, high error rates
D) slower response times, longer Iile transIers, and network delays
Q3) What type oI traIIic can cause the most congestion on an Ethernet network?
A) unicast
B) multicast
C) broadcast
D) Domain Name Service
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 4-45
Q4) Which statements best describe a bridge? (Choose two.)
A) Iilters data packets based on access lists
B) routes data packets based on IP addresses
C) Iorwards data packets Irom one network segment to another
D) ampliIies and cleans signals beIore passing them along the network
E) addresses the problem oI too much traIIic on a segment or a network
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
4-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 4-2: LAN Switching
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
DeIine the term LAN switching
List Iour Ieatures oI a LAN switch
IdentiIy two common switching methods
IdentiIy a switch type by bandwidth allocation
IdentiIy a switch type by layer Iunctionality
Describe how a LAN switch Iorwards Irames
Describe two problems that may occur in a bridged environment
IdentiIy a solution to bridging loops
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) At what layer oI the OSI model do switches operate?
A) session layer
B) physical layer
C) network layer
D) data-link layer
E) transport layer
F) presentation layer
Q2) Which best describes a network segment?
A) section oI network that is a dead end
B) section oI network that contains Token Ring topology
C) section oI network bounded by routers, switches, or bridges
D) section oI network that is a logical grouping based on MAC addresses
Q3) Which statement is not a characteristic oI LAN switching?
A) operates at OSI Layer 2
B) microsegments the network
C) Iorwards packets based on IP addresses
D) learns the location oI a station by examining the source address
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 4-47
Q4) What Ieatures do store-and-Iorward mode allow the switch to perIorm? (Choose two.)
A) broadcasting
B) error checking
C) cell switching
D) Iull receipt oI all bits beIore Iorwarding the Irame
E) Iorwarding oI bits beIore entire Irame is received
Q5) Which switching method looks at the destination address oI the Irame and then
Iorwards the Irame without waiting to receive the entire Irame?
A) cut-through
B) Iast-Iorward
C) Iragment-Iree
D) store-and-Iorward
Q6) Which is a main Iunction oI the Spanning-Tree Protocol?
A) manages the entire topology inIormation
B) switches or routes inIormation based on the type oI data packet
C) provides routing inIormation to the connected neighboring hosts
D) transparently reconIigures bridges and switches to avoid the creation oI loops
Q7) What is the only switching method supported by bridges?
A) cut-through
B) Iast-Iorward
C) Iragment-Iree
D) store-and-Iorward
4-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 4-3: VirtuaI LANs
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
DeIine VLAN
List three beneIits oI VLANs
IdentiIy VLAN components
Describe two diIIerent ways oI establishing VLAN membership
State how communications take place between VLANs
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) What Iunction oI a Cisco switch allows a user to create separate broadcast domains?
A) VLAN
B) bridging
C) cut-through
D) store-and-Iorward
E) transparent bridging
Q2) IdentiIy the beneIits oI using a VLAN. (Choose two.)
A) reduced collision
B) decreased security
C) easier implementation
D) increased broadcast domains
Q3) What device is needed to pass a packet between VLANs?
A) hub
B) bridge
C) router
D) switch
E) repeater
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 4-49
Q4) Which statement pertaining to Virtual LANs is Ialse?
A) VLANs help in distributing traIIic load.
B) VLANs can be deIined according to port groups, users, or protocols.
C) Bridges Iorm one oI the core components oI VLAN communications.
D) VLAN beneIits include tighter network security with establishment oI secure
user groups, and better management and control oI broadcasts.
Q5) VLANs can be created according to which category? (Choose all that apply.)
A) ports
B) groups
C) MAC addresses
D) Iunctional teams
E) users sharing an application
Q6) What is the result oI segmenting a switch into multiple VLANS? (Choose two.)
A) network congestion increases
B) more broadcast traIIic is switched
C) the amount oI broadcast traIIic is limited
D) bandwidth is more eIIectively allocated
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
4-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 4-1: Shared LAN TechnoIogy
Q1) A
Q2) C, D
Q3) C
Q4) C, E
Quiz 4-2: LAN Switching
Q1) D
Q2) C
Q3) C
Q4) B, D
Q5) A
Q6) D
Q7) D
Quiz 4-3: VirtuaI LANs
Q1) A
Q2) A, D
Q3) C
Q4) C
Q5) A, C
Q6) C, D
ModuIe 5
TCP/IP
Overview
When computers communicate with one another, certain rules, or protocols, allow them to
transmit and receive data in an orderly Iashion. Throughout the world, one oI the most routinely
used sets oI protocols is the TCP/IP. This module covers connectionless data delivery at the
network layer, as well as reliable and unreliable delivery at the transport layer. Finally, this
module discusses the TCP/IP network and transport layer protocols.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the Iunctions and operations oI the
network and transport layers oI the IP protocol stack. This includes being able to do the
Iollowing:
IdentiIy network layer protocols
IdentiIy transport layer protocols
Describe transport layer Iunctionality
OutIine
The module contains these components:
Network Layer Protocol Overview
Transport Layer Overview
Transport Layer Functionality
Lesson Assessments
5-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Network Layer Protocol
Overview
Overview
The network layer oI the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack
resides just above the data-link layer and below the transport layer. This lesson describes the
protocols that operate at the TCP/IP network layer and explains their Iunctions.
ReIevance
Learning basic inIormation about the TCP/IP protocols provides you with a basis Ior
understanding how this important set oI protocols Iunctions in a networking environment.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to identiIy network layer protocols. This includes
being able to meet these objectives:
Name two protocols that operate at the network layer
IdentiIy three Iunctions oI the IP protocol
IdentiIy three Iunctions oI the ICMP protocol
Describe the Iunction oI ARP
Describe the Iunction oI RARP
Describe the Iunction oI DHCP
IdentiIy three Iields in an IP datagram
Describe the Iunction oI the protocol Iield in an IP datagram
5-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI the OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI basic LAN components and Iunctions
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
DeIining the Network Layer
Describing the Functions oI IP
Describing the Functions oI ICMP
Describing the Functions oI ARP
Describing the Functions oI RARP
Describing the Functions oI DHCP
IdentiIying Components oI the IP Datagram
DeIining the Protocol Field
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-5
Defining the Network Layer
The network layer provides a means Ior routing inIormation Irom the source to a destination.
This topic discusses the Iunctions oI the network layer.
Notice that the OSI reIerence model terms are used when discussing the layers oI the TCP/IP
protocol stack. The network layer routes inIormation Irom the source to a destination by
perIorming these tasks:
DeIining the packet and addressing scheme
Moving data between the link layer and transport layer
Routing oI packets to remote hosts
PerIorming Iragmentation and reassembly oI packets
These protocols are used to support the tasks:
Internet Protocol (IP): Provides best-eIIort delivery routing oI packets. It is not concerned
with the content oI the packets. Instead, it looks Ior a way to move the packets to their
destination.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP): Provides control and messaging capabilities.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): Determines the data-link layer address (MAC
addresses) Ior known IP addresses.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP): Determines IP addresses when data-link
layer addresses (MAC addresses) are known.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): Provides a Iramework Ior automatic
conIiguration oI IP hosts.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-4
Network Layer
AppIication
Transport
Data Link
PhysicaI
Network
· Internet ProtocoI (IP)
· Internet ControI Message ProtocoI
(ICMP)
· Address ResoIution ProtocoI (ARP)
· Reverse Address ResoIution
ProtocoI (RARP)
· Dynamic Host Configuration
ProtocoI (DHCP)
5-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describing the Functions of IP
The Internet Protocol is a protocol that deIines the manner in which the network layers oI two
hosts interact. This topic identiIies some oI the key Iunctions oI IP.
The IP protocol uses packets to carry inIormation through the network. A packet is a selI-
contained, independent entity oI data carrying suIIicient inIormation to be routed Irom the
source to the destination without reliance on earlier exchanges. The protocol is connectionless
and unreliable.
The IP is characterized as Iollows:
IP packets are treated independently, with each packet carrying the addresses oI the
receiver and the sender.
The IP service does not guarantee packet delivery. A packet can be misdirected, duplicated,
or lost on the way to its destination.
The IP protocol does not provide any special Ieatures that recover lost or corrupted packets.
These services are instead provided by the end systems.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-5
IP Characteristics
Packets are treated independentIy Packets are treated independentIy
Packet deIivery is not guaranteed Packet deIivery is not guaranteed
Lost or corrupted packets are not recovered Lost or corrupted packets are not recovered
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-7
ExampIe: DeIivering MaiI Through the PostaI Service
An analogy oI IP protocol services would be mail delivery by the postal service. In this
example, you live in San Francisco and your mother lives in New York. You write three
separate letters to your mother. You seal each letter in a separate envelope, address each letter
to your mother, and write your return address in the upper leIt hand corner oI each envelope.
You deposit the three letters in the outgoing mail slot at your local post oIIice. The postal
service will make the best attempt to delivery the three letters to your mother in New York.
However, the postal service will not guarantee that the letters will arrive at their destination.
The postal service will not guarantee that all three letters will be handled by the same carrier or
take the same route. Finally, the postal service will not guarantee that the letters will arrive in
the order in which you mailed them.
5-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describing the Functions of ICMP
The ICMP is an Internet protocol used in response to errors in TCP/IP messages This topic
identiIies some oI the key Iunctions oI the ICMP protocol.
ICMP deIines a small number oI messages used Ior diagnostic and management purposes.
ICMP depends on IP to move packets around the network. These are some oI the Iunctions oI
ICMP:
Announces network errors: ICMP announces errors such as a host or entire portion oI the
network being unreachable, due to some type oI Iailure. A TCP or User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) packet directed at a port number with no receiver attached is also reported by ICMP.
Announces network congestion: When a router cannot transmit packets as Iast as the
router receives them, the router will generate ICMP Source Quench messages. Directed at
the sender, these messages should cause the rate oI packet transmission to be slowed.
Assists troubleshooting: ICMP supports an echo Iunction, which just sends a packet on a
round trip between two hosts. Ping, a common IP network management application based
on this Ieature, will transmit a series oI packets, measuring average round-trip times and
computing loss percentages.
Announces timeouts: A router will discard a packet iI it has been in the network Ior too
long a period oI time. The router will generate an ICMP packet announcing this Iact.
Traceroute is a tool that maps network routes by sending packets with small time-to-live
values and watching the ICMP timeout announcements.
ICMP packet delivery is unreliable, however, so hosts cannot depend on receiving ICMP
packets Ior any network problem.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-6
ICMP
AppIication
Transport
Data Link
PhysicaI
Network
· Destination unreachabIe
· Echo (Ping)
· Other
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-9
Describing the Functions of ARP
ARP maps IP network addresses to the hardware addresses or the Media Access Control
(MAC) address. This topic identiIies some oI the key Iunctions oI ARP.
The term 'address resolution¨ reIers to the process oI binding a network-layer IP address oI a
remote computer in an Ethernet-connected network to its data-link layer MAC address. The
address is 'resolved¨ using a protocol in which the known inIormation (the destination IP
address) is broadcast by the originating ARP process executing on the local computer to a
target ARP process executing on the remote computer. The target recognizes itselI by reading
the broadcast packet and provides the required MAC address in its reply. The address
resolution procedure is completed when the originator receives a response Irom the target
containing the required MAC address and updates the table containing all the known bindings,
usually called the ARP cache. This table is used to maintain a correlation between each IP
address and its corresponding MAC address.
There are two types oI ARP messages that may be sent by the ARP protocol:
ARP request
ARP reply
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-7
ARP
IP: 172.16.3.2 = ??? IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???
IP: 172.16.3.2 = Ethernet: 0800.0200.1111 IP: 172.16.3.2 = Ethernet: 0800.0200.1111
Map IP Ethernet
LocaI ARP
I heard that
broadcast. That is me.
Here is my MAC
address.
I need the
MAC address
of 172.16.3.2
5-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describing the Functions of RARP
The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a protocol that permits a physical address,
such as a MAC address, to be translated into an IP address. This topic identiIies some oI the
key Iunctions oI RARP.
When booted, hosts, such as diskless workstations, may know their hardware interIace address,
or MAC address, but not their IP address. These types oI devices must discover the IP address
Irom an external source, usually a RARP server. RARP is deIined in RFC 903.
There are two types oI RARP messages that may be sent by the RARP protocol:
RARP request
RARP reply
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-8
RARP
Maps Ethernet IP
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: ????
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: ????
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: 172.16.3.25
Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111
IP: 172.16.3.25
I heard that
broadcast. Your
IP address is
172.16.3.25
What is my IP
address?
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-11
Describing the Functions of DHCP
The DHCP is an Internet protocol Ior automating the conIiguration oI computers that use
TCP/IP. This topic identiIies some oI the key characteristics oI DHCP.
This protocol can be used to automatically assign IP addresses, to deliver TCP/IP stack
conIiguration parameters such as the subnet mask and deIault router, and to provide other
conIiguration inIormation such as the addresses Ior printer, time, and news servers. DHCP
consists oI two components:
A protocol Ior delivering host-speciIic conIiguration parameters Irom a DHCP server to a
host
A mechanism Ior allocation oI network addresses to hosts
Using DHCP, a host can obtain an IP address quickly and dynamically. All that is required is a
deIined range oI IP addresses on a DHCP server. As hosts come online, they contact the DHCP
server and request an address. The DHCP server chooses an address and allocates it to that
host. With DHCP, both the IP address and subnet mask oI a computer can be obtained in one
message.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-9
DHCP
The DHCP server Ieases an address to the DHCP cIient.
CIient
CIient
CIient
Server
Server
D
H
C
P
cIien
t b
road
casts
d
iscover
m
essage
D
H
C
P
cIien
t
b
ro
adcasts
offer
m
essage
D
H
C
P
cIien
t
resp
on
d
s
w
ith
req
u
est
m
essag
e
D
H
C
P
server
seaIs
th
e
d
eaI w
ith
ackno
w
Ied
gem
en
t m
essag
e
5-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Identifying Components of the IP Datagram
There are a number oI Iields in an IP datagram. This topic discusses the various Iields oI the IP
datagram.
IP transIers inIormation through the network in the Iorm oI a packet. The Internet protocol
deIines the packet Iormat. The Iirst Iive or six 32-bit words oI the packet are control
inIormation called the header.
By deIault, the header is Iive words long; the sixth word is optional. The length oI the header is
variable, so the header includes a Iield called IP header length (IHL) that indicates the length oI
the header in words.
The header contains all the inIormation necessary to deliver the packet oI inIormation. These
are the Iields contained in the header:
Version: Version number (4 bits)
Header length: Header length in 32-bit words (4 bits)
Priority and type of service: How the datagram should be handled; the Iirst 3 bits are
priority bits (8 bits)
Total length: Total length (header ¹ data) (16 bits)
Identification: Unique IP datagram value (16 bits)
Flags: SpeciIies iI Iragmenting should occur (3 bits)
Fragment offset: Provides Iragmentation oI datagrams to allow diIIering maximum
transmission units (MTUs) in the Internet (13 bits)
Time-To-Live (TTL): IdentiIies how long a datagram is considered valid (8 bits)
Protocol: Next-level protocol sending the datagram (8 bits)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-10
IP Datagram
Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Ver. IHL Service Type Packet Length
Identification FIag Frag. Offset
Time to Live ProtocoI Header Checksum
Source Address
Destination Address
Options Padding
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-13
Header checksum: Integrity check on the header (16 bits)
Source IP address: 32-bit source IP address (32 bits)
Destination IP address: 32-bit destination IP address (32 bits)
IP options: Network testing, debugging, security, and others (0 or 32 bits, iI any)
Data: Upper-layer protocol data (varies)
5-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Defining the ProtocoI FieId
IP uses a protocol number in the datagram header to identiIy which protocol to use Ior a
particular datagram. This topic describes the protocol Iield oI the IP datagram.
The router reads the protocol number Irom the header oI the datagram, compares it to the
entries in the transport protocol table, and then passes it to the appropriate protocol. For
example, iI the protocol number is 6, IP delivers the datagram to TCP. II the protocol is 17, the
datagram is delivered to UDP.
Although most traIIic uses TCP or UDP, there are other protocols that can use IP. There are
approximately 100 transport-layer protocols registered Ior other special purposes. The numbers
used by TCP/IP protocols are assigned and published by a group called the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA). The lists oI assigned numbers maintained by the IANA are
currently documented in RFC 1700.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-11
ProtocoI FieId
Transmission ControI ProtocoI (TCP) Transmission ControI ProtocoI (TCP)
User Datagram ProtocoI (UDP) User Datagram ProtocoI (UDP)
Internet ControI Message ProtocoI Internet ControI Message ProtocoI
IPv6 IPv6
ICMP for IPv6 ICMP for IPv6
EIGRP EIGRP
ProtocoI ProtocoI ProtocoI FieId ProtocoI FieId
6 6
17 17
1 1
58 58
88 88
41 41
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-15
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-12
Summary
· The network Iayer provides a means for routing
information from the source to a destination.
· IP is a standard that defines the manner in which
the network Iayers of two hosts interact.
· ICMP is a protocoI sent in response to errors in
TCP/IP messages.
· ARP maps IP network addresses to the physicaI
addresses.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-13
Summary (Cont.)
· RARP maps physicaI addresses into IP addresses.
· DHCP automates the configuration of IP addresses
on devices that use TCP/IP.
· IP transfers information through the network in the
form of a datagram.
· IP uses a protocoI number in the datagram header
to identify which protocoI to use for a particuIar
datagram.
5-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which one oI the Iollowing protocols operates at the TCP/IP network layer?
A) FTP
B) ARP
C) TFTP
D) ICMP
E) SMTP
Q2) Which statements best describe a Iunction oI IP? (Choose three.)
A) operates at the transport layer
B) is an unreliable, best-eIIort delivery method
C) announces a network error each time a packet is lost
D) uses datagrams to carry inIormation through the network
E) addresses each packet with the source and destination address
F) uses a checksum technique to veriIy that packets are not corrupted
Q3) Which statements best describe a Iunction oI ICMP? (Choose three.)
A) resends unacknowledged packets
B) numbers packets Ior reordering at the destination
C) announces when a device is unreachable on the network
D) provides bidirectional binary Iile and ASCII Iile transIer support
E) generates messages to slow down network traIIic Irom the source
F) uses the echo Iunction to send a packet on a round trip between two devices
G) uses Iailed acknowledgements to alert the sender to slow down packet
transmission
Q4) Which statement best describes a Iunction oI ARP?
A) maintains an error resource table
B) maps an IP address to a MAC address
C) maps a given MAC address to an IP address
D) dynamically assigns addresses across the network
E) sends a broadcast message looking Ior the router address
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-17
Q5) Which statement best describes a Iunction oI RARP?
A) maintains an error resource table
B) maps an IP address to a MAC address
C) maps a given MAC address to an IP address
D) dynamically assigns addresses across the network
E) sends a broadcast message looking Ior the router address
Q6) Which statement best describes a Iunction oI DHCP?
A) maintains an error resource table
B) maps an IP address to a MAC address
C) maps a given MAC address to an IP address
D) dynamically assigns addresses across the network
E) sends a broadcast message looking Ior the router address
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing are Iields in the IP datagram? (Choose three.)
A) window
B) code bits
C) total length
D) Time-To-Live
E) sequence number
F) source IP address
G) acknowledgment number
Q8) Which statement best describes the Iunction oI a protocol Iield in an IP diagram?
A) identiIies a link-layer protocol
B) identiIies a session-layer protocol
C) identiIies a transport-layer protocol
D) identiIies an application-layer protocol
E) identiIies a network access-layer protocol
5-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Defining the Network Layer
Q2) B, D, E
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of ÌP
Q3) C, E, F
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of ÌCMP
Q4) B
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of ARP
Q5) C
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of RARP
Q6) D
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of DHCP
Q7) C, D, F
ReIates to: Ìdentifying Components of the ÌP Datagram
Q8) C
ReIates to: Defining the Protocol Field
Transport Layer Overview
Overview
Residing between the application and network layers, the transport layer is in the core oI the
TCP/IP layered network architecture. The transport layer has the critical role oI providing
communication services directly to the application processes running on diIIerent hosts.
ReIevance
Learning how the transport layer Iunctions provides an understanding oI how data is
transmitted in a TCP/IP networking environment.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to identiIy transport layer protocols. This
includes being able to meet these objectives:
DeIine communication protocol
DeIine TCP/IP
IdentiIy Iour Iunctions oI the TCP protocol
IdentiIy two diIIerences between the TCP and UDP protocols
IdentiIy two TCP/IP applications
5-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI the OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI basic LAN components and Iunctions
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Communicating Between Devices
DeIining TCP/IP
Describing the Functions oI TCP
Describing the Functions oI UDP
Supporting TCP/IP Applications
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-21
Communicating Between Devices
Computer networks make extensive use oI protocols. This topic deIines communications
protocol in a network environment.
When devices communicate with one another, they exchange a series oI messages. To
understand and act on these messages, devices must agree on the Iormat and the order oI the
messages exchanged, as well as the actions taken on the transmission or receipt oI a message
Communicating devices use a standard set oI rules, called a protocol, to deIine these tasks.
DiIIerent protocols are used to accomplish diIIerent communication tasks.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-4
Communications ProtocoI
TCP
Host
Host
5-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ExampIe: The ProtocoI of Conversation
An example oI a protocol is a conversation exchange between a student and a teacher in a
classroom.
Question/Answer Procedure
Step Action Notes
1. The teacher is lecturing on a particular
subject. The teacher stops to ask, "Are there
any questions?"
The teacher sends broadcast message to all
students in the class.
2. You raise your hand. You transmit an implicit message back to the
teacher.
3. The teacher responds with ¨Yes, what is your
question, John?¨
The teacher has acknowledged your implicit
message and signals you to send your next
message.
4. You ask your question. You transmit your message to the teacher.
5. The teacher hears your question and answers
it.
The teacher receives your message and
transmits a reply back to you.
6. You nod to the teacher that you understand
the answer.
You acknowledge receipt of the message from
the teacher.
The transmission and receipt oI messages, and a set oI conventional actions taken when sending
and receiving these messages, are at the heart oI this question-and-answer protocol.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-23
Defining TCP/IP
TCP/IP reIers to a whole Iamily oI protocols, oI which TCP and IP are just two. This topic
describes the TCP/IP protocol stack.
TCP provides transparent transIer oI data between end systems using the services oI the
network layer below to move packets between the two communicating systems. TCP is an
example oI a transport-layer protocol. IP is an example oI a network-layer protocol.
Similar to the OSI/ISO reIerence model, TCP/IP separates a Iull network protocol suite into a
number oI tasks. Each layer corresponds to a diIIerent Iacet oI communication. Conceptually, it
is useIul to envision TCP/IP as a protocol stack.
A protocol stack is organized so that the highest level oI communication resides at the top
layer. For example, the highest layer may deal with the applications Ior streaming audio or
video Irames, whereas the lowest layer may deal with raw voltages or radio signals. Every layer
in a stack builds upon the services provided by the layer immediately below it.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-5
TCP/IP ProtocoI Stack
TCP/IP ProtocoI Stack OSI Reference ModeI
TCP TCP
ICMP ICMP
FTP,
TeInet,
SMTP
FTP,
TeInet,
SMTP
IP IP OSPF OSPF IGRP IGRP RIP RIP INT, IS-IS INT, IS-IS
NetBIOS NetBIOS
DNS, SNMP DNS, SNMP
ARP, RARP, SNAP ARP, RARP, SNAP
LLC LLC
Many PhysicaI ImpIementations Many PhysicaI ImpIementations
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
AppIication AppIication
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Data-Iink Data-Iink
PhysicaI PhysicaI
5-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describing the Functions of TCP
The TCP protocol is a connection-oriented protocol that provides Ilow control and reliable data
delivery services. This topic identiIies some oI the key Iunctions oI TCP.
The services provided by TCP run in the host computers at either end oI a connection, not in
the network. ThereIore, TCP is a protocol Ior managing end-to-end connections. Since end-to-
end connections may exist across a series oI point-to-point connections, these end-to-end
connections are called virtual circuits. These are the characteristics oI TCP:
Connections-oriented: Two computers set up a connection to exchange data. The end
systems synchronize with one another to manage packet Ilows and adapt to congestion in
the network.
Full-duplex operation: A TCP connection is a pair oI virtual circuits, one in each
direction. Only the two synchronized end systems can use the connection.
Error checking: A checksum technique is used to veriIy that packets are not corrupted.
Sequencing: Packets are numbered so that the destination can reorder packets and
determine iI a packet is missing.
Acknowledgements: Upon receipt oI one or more packets, the receiver returns an
acknowledgement to the sender indicating that it received the packets. II packets are not
acknowledged, the sender may retransmit the packets or terminate the connection iI the
sender thinks the receiver is no longer on the connection.
Flow control: II the sender is overIlowing the buIIer oI the receiver by transmitting too
quickly, the receiver drops packets. Failed acknowledgements alert the sender to slow
down or stop sending.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-6
TCP Characteristics
Connection-Oriented ProtocoI Connection-Oriented ProtocoI
FuII-DupIex Operation FuII-DupIex Operation
Error Checking Error Checking
Sequencing Sequencing
AcknowIedgments AcknowIedgments
FIow ControI FIow ControI
Packet Recovery Packet Recovery
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-25
Packet recovery services: The receiver can request retransmission oI a packet. II packet
receipt is not acknowledged, the sender will resend the packets.
Reliable data delivery services are critical Ior applications such as Iile transIers, database
services, transaction processing, and other mission-critical applications in which delivery oI
every packet must be guaranteed.
ExampIe: Sending MaiI Certified
An analogy oI the TCP protocol services would be sending certiIied mail through the postal
service. You live in San Francisco and want to send a book to your mother in New York, but
the postal service will only handle letters. You rip the pages out oI the book, putting each page
in a separate envelope. To ensure that your mother reassembles the book correctly, you number
each envelope. You address the envelopes and send the Iirst one certiIied mail. The postal
service delivers the Iirst envelope by any truck and any route. However, upon delivery oI that
envelope, the carrier must get a signature Irom your mother and return that certiIicate oI
delivery to you.
Sending each page separately is tedious, so you send several envelopes together. The postal
service again delivers each envelope by any truck and any route. Your mother signs a separate
receipt Ior each envelope in the batch as she receives them. II one envelope is lost in transit,
you would not receive a certiIicate oI delivery Ior that numbered envelope and you would
resend that page. AIter receiving all the envelopes, your mother puts the pages in the right order
and pastes them back together to make the book.
5-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Describing the Functions of UDP
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an expansion oI the early IP protocol suite. This topic
identiIies some oI the key Iunctions oI the UDP.
The early IP suite consisted only oI TCP and IP, although IP was not diIIerentiated as a
separate service. However, some end-user applications had a need Ior timeliness rather than
accuracy. In other words, speed was more important than packet recovery. In real-time voice or
video transIers, a Iew lost packets are tolerable. Recovering packets creates excessive overhead
that reduces perIormance.
To accommodate this type oI traIIic, TCP architects redesigned the protocol suite to include the
UDP. The basic addressing and packet-Iorwarding service in the network layer was IP. TCP
and UDP are in the transport layer on top oI IP, and both use IP services.
UDP oIIers only minimal, nonguaranteed transport services and gives applications direct access
to the IP layer. UDP is used by applications that do not require the level oI service oI TCP or
that want to use communications services such as multicast or broadcast delivery, not available
Irom TCP.
ExampIe: Sending Advertising FIyers
An analogy oI the UDP protocol services would be using the postal service to send Iliers
notiIying all your neighbors oI your garage sale. In this example, you make up a Ilier
advertising the day, time, and location oI your garage sale. You address each Ilier with the
speciIic name and address oI each neighbor within a two-mile radius oI your house. The postal
service delivers each Ilier by any truck and any route. However, it is not important iI a Ilier is
lost in transit or iI a neighbor acknowledges receipt oI the Ilier.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-7
UDP Characteristics
MinimaI Service MinimaI Service
UnreIiabIe UnreIiabIe
Not-Guaranteed Not-Guaranteed
Direct Access to Datagrams Direct Access to Datagrams
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-27
Supporting TCP/IP AppIications
In addition to including the IP, TCP, and UDP protocols, the TCP/IP protocol suite also
includes applications that support other services such as Iile transIer, e-mail, and remote login.
This topic describes three oI the TCP/IP applications.
Some oI the applications that TCP/IP supports include:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP is a reliable, connection-oriented service that uses
TCP to transIer Iiles between systems that support FTP. FTP supports bidirectional binary
and ASCII Iile transIers.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP): TFTP is a connectionless service that uses UDP.
Routers use TFTP to transIer conIiguration Iiles and Cisco IOS images, and to transIer Iiles
between systems that support TFTP.
Terminal Emulation (Telnet): Telnet provides the capability to remotely access another
computer. Telnet enables a user to log on to a remote host and execute commands.
The TCP/IP protocols support the applications and utilities that comprise the Internet.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-8
*Used by the router
AppIication
Transport
Network
Data Link
PhysicaI
· FiIe Transfer
÷ TFTP *
÷ FTP *
÷ NFS
· E-MaiI
÷ SMTP
· Remote Login
÷ TeInet *
÷ rIogin *
· Network Management
÷ SNMP *
· Name Management
÷ DNS*
AppIication Layer Overview
5-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-9
Summary
· ProtocoIs define a standard set of ruIes for
communicating between devices.
· TCP/IP is a suite of protocoIs arranged as a stack.
· TCP is a connection-oriented protocoI that
provides fIow controI and reIiabIe data deIivery
services.
· UDP provides minimaI, non-guaranteed, transport
services.
· The transport Iayer supports muItipIe appIication
protocoIs.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-29
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which statement best describes a network protocol?
A) a tool that lets Macintosh and PC computers communicate with each other
B) a universal translator that allows diIIerent kinds oI computers to share data
C) a language that all the computers on a network must use to communicate with
each other
D) a standard set oI rules and conventions that determine how computers
communicate with each other across networks
Q2) Which statement best describes the TCP/IP protocol stack?
A) a suite oI protocols that allows LANs to connect into WANs
B) a suite oI protocols that allows Ior data transmission across a multitude oI
networks
C) a suite oI protocols that deIines rules Ior how packets oI inIormation are moved
across a network
D) a suite oI protocols that allows diIIerent devices to be shared by interconnected
networks
Q3) Which statements best describe characteristics oI TCP? (Choose Iour.)
A) TCP is a transport layer protocol.
B) TCP provides e-mail support between remote hosts.
C) Speed is more important than packet recovery.
D) TCP numbers segments so that the destination can reorder received segments.
E) A checksum technique is used to veriIy that data is not corrupted.
F) TCP gives applications direct access to the datagram service oI the IP layer.
G) TCP provides a synchronization method between end systems to manage
Ilows and adapt to congestion in the network.
Q4) Which descriptions best deIine the diIIerences between TCP and UDP? (Choose two.)
A) TCP oIIers a minimal, nonguaranteed transport service.
B) UDP oIIers accuracy rather than timeliness in packet delivery.
C) TCP uses datagrams to carry inIormation through the network.
D) TCP uses Iailed acknowledgements to alert the sender oI lost segments.
E) UDP oIIers applications direct access to the datagram service oI the IP layer.
F) UDP uses ping to transmit packets to measure average round-trip time between
devices.
5-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q5) Which applications are members oI the TCP/IP protocol stack? (Choose two.)
A) IP
B) FTP
C) ICMP
D) RFTP
E) TFTP
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-31
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Communicating Between Devices
Q2) C
ReIates to: Defining TCP/ÌP
Q3) A, D, E. G
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of TCP
Q4) D, E
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of TCP
ReIates to: Describing the Functions of UDP
Q5) B, E
ReIates to: Supporting TCP/ÌP Applications
5-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Transport Layer Functionality
Overview
The transport layer hides details oI any network-dependent inIormation Irom the higher layers
by providing transparent data transIer. The TCP/IP protocol stack includes two main protocols
at this layer: TCP and UDP.
ReIevance
Learning how the TCP/IP transport layer and the TCP and UDP protocols Iunction provides a
more complete understanding oI how data is transmitted with these protocols in a TCP/IP
networking environment.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe transport layer Iunctionality. This
includes being able to meet these objectives:
Name the steps to establish a peer system connection
IdentiIy the capsulation term at the layer oI the TCP/IP stack
DeIine three components oI a TCP header
DeIine two components oI a UDP header
Name the steps to establish a TCP connection
Describe TCP acknowledgment oI segments
DeIine TCP windowing
Name three characteristics oI a TCP port
Name the steps to terminate a TCP connection
5-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI the OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI basic LAN components and Iunctions
Basic knowledge oI TCP/IP Iunctions
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Establishing a Connection with a Peer System
Encapsulating a Message
IdentiIying Components oI the TCP Header
IdentiIying Components oI the UDP Header
Establishing a TCP Connection
Ensuring Receipt oI Segments
Controlling TraIIic Flow
Directing Multiple Conversations
Terminating a Connection
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-35
EstabIishing a Connection with a Peer System
A user oI a reliable transport-layer service must establish a connection-oriented session with its
peer system. This topic describes the basic concept oI a connection-oriented session.
For data transIer to begin, both the sending and the receiving applications inIorm their
respective operating systems that a connection will be initiated. One machine initiates a
connection that must be accepted by the other. Protocol soItware modules in the two operating
systems communicate by sending messages across the network to veriIy that the transIer is
authorized and that both sides are ready.
AIter successIul synchronization has occurred, the two end systems have established a
connection and data transIer can begin. During transIer, the two machines continue to veriIy
that the connection is still valid.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-5
EstabIishing a Connection
In a Connection
Host Host
TCP
5-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
EncapsuIating a Message
Encapsulation is the process by which data is prepared Ior transmission in a TCP/IP network
environment. This topic describes the encapsulation oI data in the TCP/IP stack
The data container looks diIIerent at each layer, and at each layer the container goes by a
diIIerent name. The names Ior the data containers created at each layer are as Iollows:
Message: The data container created at the application layer is called a message.
Segment or datagram: The data container created at the transport layer, which
encapsulates the application-layer message, is called a segment iI it comes Irom the
transport layer's TCP protocol. II the data container comes Irom the transport layer's UDP
protocol, it is called a datagram.
Packet: The data container at the network layer, which encapsulates the transport layer
segment, is called a packet.
Frame: The data container at the data-link layer, which encapsulates the packet, is called a
Irame. This Irame is then turned into a bit stream at the physical layer.
A segment is the unit oI end-to-end transmission in the TCP. In general discussion about
transmitting inIormation Irom one node to another, the term 'packet¨ is used loosely to reIer to
a piece oI data. However, we will consistently reIer to data Iormed by TCP in the transport
layer as a 'segment,¨ data at the network layer as a 'packet,¨ and data at the link layer as a
'Irame.¨
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-6
EncapsuIation
Message
Segment
Packet
Frame
AppIication
Transport
Network
Data Iink
PhysicaI
AppIication
Transport
Network
Data Iink
PhysicaI
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-37
Identifying Components of the TCP Header
The TCP header supplies inIormation that is speciIic to the TCP protocol. This topic deIines the
components oI the TCP header.
TCP segments are sent using IP packets. The TCP header Iollows the Internet header,
supplying inIormation speciIic to the TCP protocol. This division allows Ior the existence oI
host-level protocols other than TCP. These are the Iield deIinitions oI the TCP header:
Source Port: Number oI the calling port (16 bits)
Destination Port: Number oI the called port (16 bits)
Sequence Number: The sequence number oI the Iirst data octet in this segment, used to
ensure correct sequencing oI the arriving data (32 bits)
Acknowledgment Number: Next expected TCP octet (32 bits)
Header Length: Number oI 32-bit words in the header (4 bits)
Reserved: Set to zero (6 bits)
Code Bits: Control Iunctions such as setup and termination oI a session (6 bits)
Window: Number oI octets that the device is willing to accept (16 bits)
Checksum: Calculated checksum oI the header and data Iields (16 bits)
Urgent: Indicates the end oI the urgent data (16 bits)
Options: One currently deIined: Maximum TCP segment size (0 or 32 bits, iI any)
Data: Upper-layer protocol data (varies)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-7
TCP Header
16-Bit source Port 16-Bit Destination Port
32-Bit Sequence Number
4-Bit
Header
Length
32-Bit AcknowIedgment Number
Reserved
u
r
g
f
i
n
a
c
k
p
s
h
r
s
t
s
y
n
16-Bit Window Size
16-Bit TCP Checksum 16-Bit Urgent Pointer
Options
Data
5-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Identifying Components of the UDP Header
There is also a header Ior UDP, which contains Iewer Iields than the TCP header. This topic
deIines the components oI a UDP header.
The UDP header length is always 64 bits. These are the Iield deIinitions in the UDP header:
Source Port: Number oI the calling port (16 bits)
Destination Port: Number oI the called port (16 bits)
Length: Length oI UDP header and UDP data (16 bits)
Checksum: Calculated checksum oI the header and data Iields (16 bits)
Data: Upper-layer protocol data (varies)
Protocols that use UDP include Trivial File TransIer Protocol (TFTP), Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), Network File System (NFS), and Domain Name System
(DNS).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-8
UDP Header
16-Bit Source Port 16-Bit Destination Port
16-Bit UDP Checksum 16-Bit UDP Checksum
DATA
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-39
EstabIishing a TCP Connection
TCP requires a connection to be established between two end systems beIore data transIer can
begin. This topic describes the procedure used to establish a TCP connection.
TCP establishes the connection using synchronization (SYN) and acknowledgment (ACK)
segments between the two devices. Another important Iunction perIormed during connection
establishment is inIorming the other device oI the initial sequence number (ISN), which is used
to track data bytes on this connection. The table gives a simpliIied explanation oI this process.
TCP Connection Setup Procedure
Step Action Notes
1.
The connection requestor sends
a SYN segment to the receiving
device.
The SYN specifies the port number of the receiving device
to which the sender wants to connect. The SYN also
contains the initial sequence number. The ÌSN is sent
during the connection setup phase by setting the SYN
control bit.
2.
The receiving device responds
with a SYN and ACK segment.
The receiving device responds by indicating the sequence
number of the next byte of data the receiver expects from
the sender. The next sequence number is the sender's ÌSN
incremented by one due to the fact that the SYN itself
consumes a byte of sequence space.
3.
The initiating device
acknowledges the receiver's
SYN segment
The SYN bit is unset in the TCP header.
This exchange is called the three-way handshake.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-9
Three-Way Handshake
Send SYN
(seq=100 ctI=SYN)
SYN Received
Send SYN, ACK
(seq=300 ack=101 ctI=syn,ack)
EstabIished
(seq=101 ack=301 ctI=ack)
Host A Host B
1
2
3
SYN Received
5-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Ensuring Receipt of Segments
TCP provides sequencing oI segments with a Iorward reIerence acknowledgment. This topic
describes how TCP acknowledges receipt oI segments.
Each segment is numbered beIore transmission. At the receiving station, TCP reassembles the
segments into a complete message. II a sequence number is missing in the series, that segment
and all subsequent segments are retransmitted. Segments that are not acknowledged within a
given time period are retransmitted.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-10
TCP SimpIe AcknowIedgment
Sender Receiver
Send 1
Receive 1
Receive ACK 2
Send ACK 2
Send 2
Receive 2
Receive ACK 3
Send ACK 3
Send 3
Receive 3
Receive ACK 4
Send ACK 4
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-41
ControIIing Traffic FIow
The TCP window decreases the transmission rate to a level where congestion and data loss do
not occur. This topic describes the TCP windowing process.
In the most basic Iorm oI reliable, connection-oriented data transIers, the recipient
acknowledges the receipt oI each data segment to ensure the integrity oI the transmission.
However, iI the sender must wait Ior an acknowledgment aIter sending each segment,
throughput is low. ThereIore, most connection-oriented, reliable protocols allow more than one
segment to be outstanding at a time.
The number oI data packets the sender is allowed to have outstanding without having received
an acknowledgment is known as the window. The primary reason Ior the window is congestion
control. The whole network connection, which consists oI the hosts, the routers, and the
connections, will likely have a bottleneck somewhere. Unless the sender sends at the speed oI
the transmitting host, transmission will be too Iast and data will be lost.
TCP uses a 'sliding window¨ technique to speciIy the number oI segments, starting with the
acknowledgment number, that the recipient can accept. 'Sliding¨ reIers to the Iact that the
window size is negotiated dynamically during the TCP session. A sliding window results in a
more eIIicient use oI bandwidth because a larger window size allows more segments to be
transmitted without an acknowledgment.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-11
TCP Windowing
Window size = 3
Send 2
Sender
Window size = 3
Send 1
Window size = 3
Send 3
ACK 3
Window size = 2
Packet 3 is
Dropped
Window size = 3
Send 4
Window size = 3
Send 3
ACK 5
Window size = 2
Receiver
Window size = 3
5-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ExampIe: ControIIing Traffic FIow
This procedure explains the windowing process in a TCP connection.
Windowing Procedure
Step Action Notes
1.
Host A and Host B set up a window size of
three segments before an acknowledgment
must be sent.
This occurs during the connection setup
procedure.
2.
Host A sends Segments 1, 2, and 3 to Host B. Host A will not expect an acknowledgment
from Host B
3.
Host B receives Segment 1 and Segment 2
but now can only handle a window size of two.
Host B processing may slow down for many
reasons, such as when the CPU is searching
a database or downloading a large graphic
file.
4.
Host A sends Segments 3 and 4 but still
specifies its own window size of three.
Host A is still capable of processing three
incoming segments.
5.
Host B acknowledges receipt of the segments
but still maintains a window size of two.
Host B acknowledges the successful receipt
of the previous Segments 3 and 4 by
requesting transmission of Segment 5.
The numbers used in the above example are simpliIied Ior ease oI understanding. These
numbers actually represent octets (bytes) and would be increasing in much larger numbers
representing the contents oI IP packets.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-43
Directing MuItipIe Conversations
TCP and UDP use ports to support multiple conversations between diIIerent networked
devices. This topic describes how ports Iunction.
A single host may have multiple processes running at the same time, connected to one or more
computers. Each process must be distinguished Irom other processes, and that is done with port
numbers. Each oI these processes is multiplexed through the same network interIace and local
network link. In other words, segments Irom each oI these processes are interleaved and sent
through the network interIace. A port can be thought oI as a message queue through which
these segments pass.
Applications soItware developers agree to use well-known port numbers that are controlled by
the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Conversations that do not involve an
application with a well-known port number are assigned port numbers randomly chosen Irom
within a speciIic range instead.
Port numbers have the Iollowing assigned ranges:
Well-known ports are assigned numbers below 1024.
Registered ports are listed by the IANA and have a range Irom 1024-49151.
Dynamically assigned ports are assigned numbers in the range 49152-65535.
End systems use port numbers to select the proper application. Port numbers identiIy the upper
layer protocol that is using the transport.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-12
TCP
Port
Numbers
F
T
P
Transport
Layer
T
E
L
N
E
T
D
N
S
S
N
M
P
T
F
T
P
S
M
T
P
UDP
AppIication
Layer
21 21 23 23 25 25 53 53 69 69 161 161
R
I
P
520 520
Numbers
5-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Terminating a Connection
AIter data is transmitted, the connection is terminated. This topic describes the procedure that
occurs when the connection is terminated.
The process Ior terminating a connection is:
The sending device sends a segment to the receiving device with the control code FIN set
to one.
The receiving device acknowledges the segment and sets the control code in the TCP
header to FIN÷1.
The sending device acknowledges the acknowledgment Irom the receiving device.
The connection is terminated.
II the two devices want to communicate with each other, they must establish a new connection.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-13
Ending a Connection
Send FIN
(seq=100 fin=1)
FIN Received
Send FIN, ACK
(seq=300 ack=101 ctI=fin1)
EstabIished
(seq=101 ack=301 fin=0)
Host A Host B
1
2
3
FIN Received
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-45
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-14
Summary
· A user of the transport Iayer must estabIish a
connection-oriented session with its peer system.
· The data package Iooks different at each Iayer and at
each Iayer the package goes by a different name.
· The TCP header suppIies information specific to the
TCP protocoI.
· The UDP header suppIies information specific to the
UDP protocoI.
· TCP estabIishes a conversation using a three-way
handshake.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-5-15
Summary (Cont.)
· A window is the number of data octets the sender is
aIIowed to have outstanding without having received
an acknowIedgment.
· TCP provides sequencing of segments with a
forward reference.
· TCP and UDP use ports to support muItipIe
conversations between different networked devices.
· TCP terminates the connection when the
conversation ends.
5-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Place the steps Ior establishing a connection with a peer system in the correct order.
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. AIter all synchronization has occurred, a connection is established.
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. One machine initiates a connection that will be accepted by the other.
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. The sending application inIorms the operating system that a
connection is to be initiated.
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. Protocol soItware modules in the two operating systems communicate
by sending messages across the network.
Q2) Which names correctly identiIy the encapsulation term at the transport layer? (Choose
two.)
A) Irame
B) packet
C) segment
D) message
E) datagram
F) bit stream
Q3) Which terms identiIy a component oI the TCP header? (Choose three.)
A) priority
B) Time-To-Live
C) window
D) checksum
E) identiIication
F) type oI service
G) sequence number
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-47
Q4) Which terms identiIy a component oI the UDP header? (Choose two.)
A) priority
B) length
C) window
D) checksum
E) identiIication
F) type oI service
G) sequence number
Q5) Which statement best describes window size?
A) the pixel size oI the monitor that must be set ahead oI time so data can be
viewed
B) the maximum size oI the window that a soItware program can have and still
process data rapidly
C) the size oI the window opening on a monitor which is not always equal to the
monitor size
D) the number oI octets that can be transmitted while awaiting an
acknowledgment
Q6) Select the statement that correctly orders the steps to establish a TCP connection.
A) SYN÷0, SYN÷0 ACK÷1; SYN÷0 ACK÷1
B) SYN÷1, SYN÷1 ACK÷0; SYN÷1 ACK÷0
C) SYN÷1, SYN÷1 ACK÷1, SYN÷0 ACK÷1
D) SYN÷0, SYN÷1 ACK÷1; SYN÷0 ACK÷1
E) SYN÷1, SYN÷1 ACK÷0; SYN÷1 ACK÷1
Q7) Which statement best describes positive acknowledgment?
A) Positive acknowledgment is the retransmission oI guaranteed and reliable data.
B) Positive acknowledgment requires a recipient to send back an acknowledgment
message when the recipient receives data.
C) Positive acknowledgment ensures that iI a sender does not receive a negative
acknowledgment within a certain time, the sender retransmits the data.
D) Positive acknowledge guarantees that iI a recipient does not receive segments,
a positive acknowledgment is sent to the sender indicating the numbers oI the
missing segments.
5-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q8) Which statements correctly identiIy a characteristic oI a port? (Choose two.)
A) Port numbers identiIy the upper-layer protocol.
B) Registered ports are assigned numbers below 1024.
C) Well-known ports are assigned numbers below 1024.
D) Well-known ports are assigned numbers above 1024.
E) Port numbers below 1024 are dynamically assigned.
Q9) Select the statement that correctly orders the steps to terminate a TCP connection.
A) FIN÷1, FIN÷1 ACK÷1, ACK÷1
B) FIN÷0, FIN÷0 ACK÷1, ACK÷1
C) FIN÷1, FIN÷1 ACK÷0, ACK÷0
D) FIN÷1, FIN÷1 ACK÷1, FIN÷0 ACK÷1
E) FIN÷0, FIN÷0 ACK÷1, FIN÷0 ACK÷1
F) FIN÷1, FIN÷1 ACK÷1, FIN÷0 ACK÷1
G) FIN÷1, FIN÷1 ACK÷0, FIN÷0 ACK÷0
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. TCP/ÌP 5-49
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) 3, 2, 4, 1
ReIates to: Establishing a Connection with a Peer System
Q2) C
ReIates to: Encapsulating a Message
Q3) C, D, G
ReIates to: Ìdentifying Components of the TCP Header
Q4) B, D
ReIates to: Ìdentifying Components of the UDP Header
Q5) D
ReIates to: Controlling Traffic Flow
Q6) C
ReIates to: Establishing a TCP Connection
Q7) B
ReIates to: Ensuring Receipt of Segments
Q8) A, C
ReIates to: Directing Multiple Conversations
Q9) C
ReIates to: Terminating a Connection
5-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 5-1: Network Layer Protocol Overview
Quiz 5-2: Transport Layer Overview
Quiz 5-3: Transport Layer Functionality
5-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 5-1: Network Layer ProtocoI Overview
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Name two protocols that operate at the network layer
IdentiIy three Iunctions oI the IP protocol
IdentiIy three Iunctions oI the ICMP protocol
Describe the Iunction oI ARP
Describe the Iunction oI RARP
Describe the Iunction oI DHCP
IdentiIy three Iields in an IP datagram
Describe the Iunction oI the protocol Iield in an IP datagram
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which protocols reside at the network layer? (Choose two.)
A) IP
B) NFS
C) TCP
D) ARP
E) ICMP
F) DCHP
Q2) Which Iunctions are true about IP? (Choose three.)
A) routes
B) Iorwards packets
C) guarantees delivery
D) provides best-eIIort delivery
E) acknowledges receipt
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 5-53
Q3) Which statement best describes a Iunction oI the IP protocol?
A) It adjusts its operation to maximize throughput.
B) It manages data buIIers, and coordinates traIIic.
C) It Iragments and reassembles packets transparently.
D) It automates the conIiguration oI computers that use TCP.
E) It sequences packets to coordinate which data has been transmitted and
received.
Q4) IdentiIy the major Iunction oI the ICMP protocol.
A) edits IP packets
B) provides IP routing
C) discards corrupted IP packets
D) generates IP control messages
E) reviews IP packet headers Ior Iast switching
Q5) What is the primary reason to use the ICMP protocol?
A) to test connectivity
B) to test Iull-duplexing
C) to test VLAN initiation
D) to test collision domains
E) to provide LAN segmentation
Q6) What is the purpose oI an ARP?
A) to start Ilow control
B) to multiplex packets
C) to adjust the window size
D) to associate a MAC address with an IP address
E) to associate an IP address to a MAC address
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing statements best describes the role oI RARP in an IP over
Ethernet network?
A) RARP resolves packet-to-Irame Iragmentation.
B) RARP resolves an IP address to a MAC address.
C) RARP resolves a MAC address to an IP address.
D) RARP resolves physical layer to data-link layer addresses.
E) RARP resolves Ethernet NET numbers to the major IP network number.
5-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q8) Which oI the Iollowing are Iields in an IP packet? (Choose three.)
A) Ilags
B) length
C) protocol
D) source address
E) header checksum
Q9) What is the purpose oI the protocol Iield in an IP header?
A) indicates the type oI transport packet being carried
B) detects processing errors introduced into the packet
C) indicates particular quality oI service needs Irom the network
D) identiIies speciIic packets during reassembly oI Iragmented datagrams
E) identiIies the number oI hops and links over which the packet may be routed
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 5-55
Quiz 5-2: Transport Layer Overview
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
DeIine communication protocol
DeIine TCP/IP
IdentiIy Iour Iunctions oI the TCP protocol
IdentiIy two diIIerences between the TCP and UDP protocols
IdentiIy two TCP/IP applications
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which Iunctions best describe a communication protocol? (Choose two.)
A) quality oI devices
B) the speed oI the media
C) the length oI the media
D) the Iormat a message must take
E) the way in which computers exchange messages
Q2) Which terms correctly correlate TCP/IP layers to OSI model layers? (Choose three.)
A) Internet; Network
B) Transport; Network
C) Transport; Transport
D) Transport; Physical-Data Link
E) Network Access; Physical-Data Link
F) Network Access; Data Link-Transport
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing are primary duties oI Layer 4 TCP? (Choose two.)
A) provides end-to-end control
B) divides segments into packets
C) acknowledges and sequences segments
D) ensures connectionless services to application protocols
E) switches or routes inIormation based on the type oI data packet
F) provides routing inIormation to the connected neighboring hosts
5-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q4) What TCP characteristics are Iound in UDP ? (Choose three.)
A) connections
B) Ilow control
C) data transIer
D) multiplexing
E) Iragment-Iree
F) reliable transIer
G) store-and-Iorward
Q5) Which application is supported by TCP?
A) UDP
B) SAN
C) FTP
D) DHCP
E) ICMP
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 5-57
Quiz 5-3: Transport Layer FunctionaIity
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Name the steps to establish a peer system connection
IdentiIy the capsulation term at the layer oI the TCP/IP stack
DeIine three components oI a TCP header
DeIine two components oI a UDP header
Name the steps to establish a TCP connection
Describe TCP acknowledgment oI segments
DeIine TCP windowing
Name three characteristics oI a TCP port
Name the steps to terminate a TCP connection
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which statement indicates the correct sequence oI events in establishing a TCP
connection?
A) 1) One machine initiates a connection that will be accepted by the other.
2) Data is transmitted.
B) 1) Synchronization has occurred.
2) One machine initiates a connection that will be accepted by the other.
C) 1) A connection is established.
2) The sending application inIorms the operating system that a connection is to
be initiated.
D) 1) The sending application inIorms the operating system that a connection is to
be initiated.
2) One machine initiates a connection that will be accepted by the other.
E) 1) Protocol soItware modules in the two operating systems communicate by
sending messages across the network.
2) One machine initiates a connection that will be accepted by the other.
Q2) In TCP communication, when can a data transIer begin?
A) aIter all synchronization has occurred
B) beIore any synchronization has occurred
C) aIter the hosts have an Internet connection
D) only aIter the connection between two hosts has been determined to be reliable
5-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q3) How is data Iormatted at the transport layer?
A) bits
B) Irames
C) packets
D) segments
E) messages
Q4) Which components are Iound in a TCP header? (Choose three.)
A) length
B) window
C) protocol
D) checksum
E) destination port
Q5) Which components are Iound in a UDP header? (Choose two.)
A) length
B) window
C) protocol
D) checksum
E) destination port
Q6) What Ilow control method does TCP implement?
A) ACKs
B) sockets
C) buIIering
D) windowing
E) acknowledgments
Q7) What does the ACK reIer to in a TCP acknowledgment?
A) TCP does not use acknowledgments.
B) the number oI the byte expected next
C) the number oI the byte expected next, plus 1
D) a number agreed upon at session establishment, which will be used by the
receiver to indicate a successIul exchange oI packets
E) a sequential number beginning with 1, and incremented by 1 with each
exchange, that identiIies this exchange oI packets as being complete
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 5-59
Q8) What ACK will the Iirst segment oI the three-way handshake most likely carry?
A) 1
B) 0
C) there is no ACK
D) a randomly generated number
E) the SEQ number oI the remote host plus 1
Q9) Which description best deIines port numbers?
A) a method to conIigure diskless workstations
B) a numbering system to label the connections
C) a protocol that supports connectionless delivery
D) a 32-bit number that uniquely identiIies a network device
E) a data structure that keeps track oI the two IP addresses
F) a 32-bit number that uniquely identiIies a network device
Q10) Which statements are characteristics oI port numbers? (Choose two.)
A) They represent a Iairly complex coupling between IP and TCP.
B) They keep track oI the two IP addresses in the connection.
C) They allow a workstation to broadcast using its Ethernet address.
D) The well-known ports cover the range oI possible port numbers Irom 0 through
1023.
E) Communicating hosts speciIy an assigned application number in each data
transmission.
Q11) Which statement correctly identiIies a step in the termination process oI a TCP
connection?
A) Both oI the FIN segments have been acknowledged.
B) The user enters the SIGNOFF command at the console.
C) The initiating application has sent a termination segment.
D) The sent connection count is greater than the remembered one.
E) The port enters the STOPPING state; no Iurther service requests are accepted.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
5-60 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 5-1: Network Layer ProtocoI Overview
Q1) A, E
Q2) A, B, D
Q3) C
Q4) D
Q5) A
Q6) E
Q7) C
Q8) A, C, E
Q9) A
Quiz 5-2: Transport Layer Overview
Q1) D, E
Q2) A, C, E
Q3) A, C
Q4) A, B, F
Q5) C
Quiz 5-3: Transport Layer FunctionaIity
Q1) D
Q2) A
Q3) D
Q4) B, D, E
Q5) A, E
Q6) D
Q7) B
Q8) B
Q9) B
Q10) D, E
Q11) A
ModuIe 6
IP Addressing and Routing
Overview
Among the protocols included in the TCP/IP protocol stack are a network layer protocol and a
transport layer protocol. The network layer handles the routing oI packets oI data by using IP
addresses to identiIy each device on the network. Each computer, router, printer, or any other
device attached to a network has its own unique IP address that is used to route packets oI data.
Each IP address has a speciIic structure, and there are various classes oI IP addresses. In
addition, subnetworks and subnet masks play a role in IP addressing schemes, and there are
diIIerent routing Iunctions and protocols involved in transmitting data Irom one network node
to another using IP addresses. This module covers the major Iunctions oI routing and IP
addressing.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the major aspects oI IP addressing
and calculate valid IP subnet addresses and masks, as well as explain the Iunctions oI routing,
including major routing protocols. This includes being able to do the Iollowing:
Describe each oI the Iollowing aspects oI IP addressing: IP address structure (IPv4 and
IPv6), IP address classes, reserved IP addresses, public and private IP addresses, and
classless interdomain routing (CIDR)
Calculate valid IP subnetwork addresses and mask values so that user network
requirements are met when given an IP address scheme
Explain the basic operations oI routing, including path determination, algorithms, and
metrics
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI interior and exterior routing protocols, including
Routing InIormation Protocol Versions 1 and 2 (RIPv1 and RIPv2), Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol (IGRP), Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
6-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
OutIine
The module contains these components:
IP Network Addressing
IP Subnetting
Routing Basics
Routing Protocols
Lesson Assessments
IP Network Addressing
Overview
Just as you use addresses to identiIy the speciIic locations oI homes and businesses so that mail
can reach them eIIiciently, you use IP addresses to identiIy the location oI speciIic devices on a
network so that data can be sent correctly to those locations. There are various aspects to IP
addressing, including the calculations Ior constructing an IP address, the classes oI IP addresses
designated Ior speciIic routing purposes, and public versus private IP addresses.
ReIevance
Learning how IP addresses are structured and how they Iunction in the operation oI a network
provides an understanding oI how data is transmitted over networks using TCP/IP.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe each oI the Iollowing aspects oI IP
addressing: IP address structure (IPv4 and IPv6), IP address classes, reserved IP addresses,
public and private IP addresses, and classless interdomain routing (CIDR). This includes being
able to meet these objectives:
Describe the structure oI an IP address
Describe the classes oI IP addresses
Describe reserved IP addresses
Compare public and private IP addresses
Explain the address allocation issues related to IPv4
Compare IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
Describe the classless interdomain routing (CIDR) address scheme
6-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
IP Addressing
IP Address Structure
IP Address Classes
Reserved IP Addresses
Public and Private IP Addresses
IPv4 Address Allocation
IPv4 vs. IPv6
CIDR
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-5
IP Addressing
To Iacilitate the routing oI packets over a network, the TCP/IP protocol suite uses a 32-bit
logical address known as an IP address. This topic introduces the components oI an IP address.
An IP address is a hierarchical address and consists oI two parts:
the network address component (network ID)
the host address component (host ID)
While many computers may share the same network address, combining the network address
with a host address uniquely identiIies any device connected to the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-4
Network and Host Addresses
3.1 3.1
2.1 2.1
1.2 1.2
1.3 1.3
1.1 1.1
Network Host Network Host
1 1
2 1
3 1
2
3
6-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
IP Address Structure
IP addresses are unique, 32-bit numbers that describe the location oI a network device. This
topic explains how an IP address is constructed.
For simplicity and clarity, these 32-bit numbers are broken up into Iour sets oI numbers called
octets (1 octet ÷ 8 bits). Each octet is then represented as a decimal number between 0 and 255
and separated by a period, or dot. This scheme is known as dotted-decimal notation.
As shown in the Iigure, the IP binary number is 10101100000100001000000000010001. Its IP
address can be written as 172.16.128.17 and spoken as '172 dot 16 dot 128 dot 17.¨
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-5
Dotted-DecimaI Notation
· An IP address is a 32-bit binary number:
10101100000100001000000000010001
· The 32-bit binary number can be divided into four
octets: 10101100 00010000 10000000 00010001
· Each octet (or byte) can be represented in decimaI:
172 16 128 17
· The address can be written in dotted-decimaI
notation: 172.16.128.17
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-7
IP Address CIasses
To accommodate diIIerent sizes oI networks and aid in classiIying them, IP addresses are
divided into categories called classes. This topic describes the types oI IP address classes and
the structure oI the IP addresses within them.
Assigning IP addresses to classes is known as classIul addressing. The classes were determined
during the early days oI the Internet by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
Each IP address is broken down into a network address (or network identiIier, network ID) and
the host address (or host identiIier, host ID). In addition, a bit or bit sequence at the start oI
each address determines the class oI the address. The Iigure shows Iive IP address classes, as
Iollows:
Class A: The Class A address category was designed to support extremely large networks.
A Class A address uses only the Iirst octet to indicate the network address. The remaining
three octets are used Ior host addresses.
The Iirst bit oI a Class A address is always '0.¨ Since the Iirst bit is a 0, the lowest number
that can be represented is 00000000 (decimal 0), and the highest number that can be
represented is 01111111 (decimal 127). However, these two network numbers, 0 and 127,
are reserved and cannot be used as a network address. Any address that starts with a value
between 1 and 126 in the Iirst octet, then, is a Class A address.
Note The 127.0.0.0 network is reserved for loopback testing (routers or local machines can use
this address to send packets to themselves). Therefore, it cannot be assigned to a network.
Class B: The Class B address category was designed to support the needs oI moderate- to
large-sized networks. A Class B address uses two oI the Iour octets to indicate the network
address. The other two octets speciIy host addresses.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-6
IP Address CIasses
*CIass D addresses are used for muIticast groups. There is no need to
aIIocate octets or bits to separate network and host addresses.
**CIass E addresses are reserved for research use onIy.
No. of bits 1 7 24
No. of bits 1 1 14 16
No. of bits 1 1 1 21 8
No. of bits 1 1 1 1 28
No. of bits 1 1 1 1 28
CIass A: 0 Network no. Host no.
CIass B: 1 0 Network no. Host no.
CIass C: 1 1 0 Network no. Host no.
CIass D:* 1 1 1 0 Address
CIass E:** 1 1 1 1 Address
6-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The Iirst two bits oI the Iirst octet oI a Class B address are always binary '10.¨ The
remaining 6 bits may be populated with either 1s or 0s. ThereIore, the lowest number that
can be represented with a Class B address is 10000000 (decimal 128), and the highest
number that can be represented is 10111111 (decimal 191). Any address that starts with a
value in the range oI 128 to 191 in the Iirst octet is a Class B address.
Class C: The Class C address category is the most commonly used oI the original address
classes. This address category was intended to support a lot oI small networks.
A Class C address begins with binary '110.¨ ThereIore, the lowest number that can be
represented is 11000000 (decimal 192), and the highest number that can be represented is
11011111 (decimal 223). II an address contains a number in the range oI 192 to 223 in the
Iirst octet, it is a Class C address.
Class D: The Class D address category was created to enable multicasting in an IP address.
A multicast address is a unique network address that directs packets with that destination
address to predeIined groups oI IP addresses. ThereIore, a single station can simultaneously
transmit a single stream oI datagrams to multiple recipients.
The Class D address category, much like the other address categories, is mathematically
constrained. The Iirst Iour bits oI a Class D address must be '1110.¨ ThereIore, the Iirst
octet range Ior Class D addresses is 11100000 to 11101111, or 224 to 239. An IP address
that starts with a value in the range oI 224 to 239 in the Iirst octet is a Class D address.
Class E: Although a Class E address category has been deIined, the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) reserves the addresses in this class Ior its own research. ThereIore, no
Class E addresses have been released Ior use in the Internet. The Iirst Iour bits oI a Class E
address are always set to '1111.¨ ThereIore, the Iirst octet range Ior Class E addresses is
11110000 to 11111111, or 240 to 255.
CIass A, B, and C Components ExampIe
This Iigure illustrates the octets used as network-address parts and host-address parts Ior Class
A, B, and C addresses.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-7
CIass A:
CIass B:
CIass C: N N
H H
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
H H H H
H H H H
H H N N N N
N N N N
N N
IP Address CIass Components
· N = Network number assigned by ARIN
· H = Host number assigned by administrator
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-9
IP Address Range ExampIe
This Iigure shows the IP address range oI the Iirst octet (in decimal and binary) Ior each IP
address class.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-8
IP Address Range
*127 (011111111) is a CIass A address reserved for Ioopback testing and
cannot be assigned to a network.
IP Address CIass IP Address CIass
CIass A CIass A
CIass B CIass B
CIass C CIass C
CIass D CIass D
CIass E CIass E
IP Address Range
(First octet decimaI vaIue)
IP Address Range
(First octet decimaI vaIue)
1-126 (00000001-01111110) * 1-126 (00000001-01111110) *
128-191 (10000000-10111111) 128-191 (10000000-10111111)
192-223 (11000000-11011111) 192-223 (11000000-11011111)
224-239 (11100000-11101111) 224-239 (11100000-11101111)
240-255 (11110000-11111111) 240-255 (11110000-11111111)
Determine the cIass based on the decimaI
vaIue of the first octet.
Determine the cIass based on the decimaI
vaIue of the first octet.
6-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Reserved IP Addresses
Certain IP addresses are reserved and cannot be assigned to individual devices on a network.
These reserved addresses include a network address, which is used to identiIy the network
itselI, and a broadcast address, which is used Ior broadcasting packets to all the devices on a
network. This topic describes the types oI reserved IP addresses and provides examples oI each.
Network Addresses
An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved Ior the network address.
ThereIore, as a Class A network example, 10.0.0.0 is the IP address oI the network containing
the host 10.1.2.3. A router uses the network IP address when it searches its IP route table Ior
the destination network location. As a Class B network example, the IP address 172.16.0.0 is a
network address, as shown in the Iigure.
The decimal numbers that Iill the Iirst two octets in a Class B network address are assigned.
The last two octets contain 0s because those 16 bits are Ior host numbers and are used Ior
devices that are attached to the network. The IP address in the example (172.16.0.0) is reserved
Ior the network address; it is never used as an address Ior any device that is attached to it. An
example oI an IP address Ior a device on the 172.16.0.0 network would be 172.16.16.1. In this
example, 172.16 is the network-address portion and 16.1 is the host-address portion.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-9
Network Addresses
172 0 0 16
Network Address (host bits = aII zeros)
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
32 Bits
NETWORK HOST
N H N H
· · ·
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-11
Directed Broadcast Address
II you wanted to send data to all the devices on a network, you would need to use a broadcast
address. Broadcast IP addresses end with binary 1s in the entire host part oI the address (the
host Iield).
For the network in the example (172.16.0.0), in which the last 16 bits make up the host Iield (or
host part oI the address), the broadcast that would be sent out to all devices on that network
would include a destination address oI 172.16.255.255.
The directed broadcast is capable oI being routed. This behavior is not the deIault Ior Cisco
routers, however.
LocaI Broadcast Address
II an IP device wants to communicate with all devices on the local network, it sets the
destination address to all 1s (255.255.255.255) and transmits the packet. This address may be
used, Ior example, by hosts that do not know their network number and are asking some server
Ior it. This Iorm oI broadcast is never capable oI being routed.
Network ID
The network portion oI an IP address is also reIerred to as the network ID. It is important
because most hosts on a network can only directly communicate with devices in the same
network. II they need to communicate with devices with interIaces assigned to some other
network ID, there needs to be a network device that can route data between the networks. This
is true even when the devices share the same physical media segment.
A network ID enables a router to put a packet onto the appropriate network segment. The host
ID helps the router deliver the Layer 2 Irame encapsulating the packet to a speciIic host on the
network. As a result, the IP address is mapped to the correct MAC address, which is needed by
the Layer 2 process on the router to address the Irame.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-10
Broadcast Address
172 0 0 16
Network Address (host bits = aII zeros)
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1 Byte
32 Bits
NETWORK HOST
N H N H
Broadcast Address (host bits = aII ones)
N H N H
255 255 172 16
· · ·
· · ·
6-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Host ID
Each class oI a network allows a Iixed number oI hosts. In a Class A network, the Iirst octet is
assigned Ior the network, leaving the last three octets to be assigned to hosts. The Iirst host
address in each network (all 0s) is reserved Ior the actual network address, and the Iinal host
address in each network (all 1s) is reserved Ior broadcasts. The maximum number oI hosts in a
Class A network is 2
24
2 (subtracting the network and broadcast reserved addresses), or
16,777,214.
In a Class B network, the Iirst two octets are assigned Ior the network, leaving the Iinal two
octets to be assigned to hosts. The maximum number oI hosts in a Class B network is 2
16
2, or
65,534.
In a Class C network, the Iirst three octets are assigned Ior the network. This leaves the Iinal
octet to be assigned to hosts, so the maximum number oI hosts is 2
8
2, or 254.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-13
PubIic and Private IP Addresses
Some networks connect to each other through the Internet, while others are private. Public and
private IP addresses are required, thereIore, Ior both oI these network types. This topic
compares the purpose and sources Ior both public and private IP addresses.
PubIic IP Addresses
Internet stability depends directly on the uniqueness oI publicly used network addresses.
ThereIore, some mechanism is needed to ensure that addresses are, in Iact, unique. This
responsibility originally rested within an organization known as the InterNIC (Internet Network
InIormation Center). This organization was succeeded by the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA). IANA careIully manages the remaining supply oI IP addresses to ensure
that duplication oI publicly used addresses does not occur. Such duplication would cause
instability in the Internet and compromise its capability to deliver datagrams to networks using
the duplicated addresses.
To obtain an IP address or block oI addresses, you must contact an Internet service provider
(ISP). The ISP will then contact their upstream registry or their appropriate regional registry at
one oI the Iollowing addresses:
APNIC (Asia-PaciIic Network InIormation Center)
ARIN (American Registry Ior Internet Numbers)
RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européennes Network Coordination Center)
With the rapid growth oI the Internet, public IP addresses began to run out, so new addressing
schemes such as classless interdomain routing (CIDR) and IPv6 were developed to help solve
the problem. CIDR and IPv6 are discussed later in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-11
Private IP Addresses
CIass CIass RFC 1918 InternaI Address Range RFC 1918 InternaI Address Range
A A
B B
C C
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
6-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Private IP Addresses
While Internet hosts require a globally unique IP address, private hosts that are not connected
to the Internet can use any valid address, as long as it is unique within the private network.
Because many private networks exist alongside public networks, grabbing 'just any address¨ is
strongly discouraged. Three blocks oI IP addresses (1 Class A network, 16 Class B networks,
and 256 Class C networks) have been designated Ior private, internal use. Addresses in this
range are not routed on the Internet backbone (see Iigure). Internet routers are conIigured to
discard private addresses.
II you are addressing a nonpublic intranet, these private addresses can be used instead oI
globally unique addresses.
II you want to connect a network using private addresses to the Internet, however, it is
necessary to translate the private addresses to public addresses. This translation process is
reIerred to as Network Address Translation (NAT). A router is oIten the network device that
perIorms NAT.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-15
IPv4 Address AIIocation
The growth oI the Internet has resulted in enormous demands Ior IP addresses. This topic
describes the capabilities oI IP Version 4 in relation to that demand.
When TCP/IP was Iirst introduced in the 1980s, it relied on a two-level addressing scheme,
which at the time oIIered adequate scalability. The architects oI TCP/IP could not have
predicted that their protocol would eventually sustain a global network oI inIormation,
commerce, and entertainment. Twenty years ago, IP Version 4 (IPv4) oIIered an addressing
strategy that, although scalable Ior a time, eventually resulting in an ineIIicient allocation oI
addresses.
The Class A and B addresses make up 75 percent oI the IPv4 address space, but a relative
handIul oI organizations (Iewer than 17,000) can be assigned a Class A or B network number.
Class C network addresses are Iar more numerous than Class A and B addresses, although they
account Ior only 12.5 percent oI the possible 4 billion IP addresses, as shown in the Iigure.
UnIortunately, Class C addresses are limited to 254 hosts, not meeting the needs oI larger
organizations that cannot acquire a Class A or B address.
As early as 1992, the IETF identiIied two speciIic concerns:
The Class B address category was on the verge oI depletion, and the remaining, unassigned
IPv4 network addresses were nearly depleted at the time.
As more Class C networks came online to accommodate the rapid and substantial increase
in the size oI the Internet, the resulting Ilood oI new network inIormation threatened the
capability oI Internet routers to cope eIIectively.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-12
IPv4 Address AIIocation
· With CIass A and B addresses virtuaIIy exhausted, CIass C
addresses (12.5 percent of the totaI space) are Ieft to assign to new
networks.
CIass C
12.5%
CIass B
25%
CIass B
25%
CIass A
50%
CIass A
50%
Other
CIasses
12.5%
6-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
IPv4 vs. IPv6
Over the past two decades, numerous extensions to IPv4 have been developed to improve the
eIIiciency with which the 32-bit address space can be used. This topic describes the
improvements to IP address availability made by IPv6.
Two oI the more important ways to improve address space eIIiciency are subnet masks and
CIDR. In addition, an even more extendable and scalable version oI IP, IPv6, has been deIined
and developed. An IPv6 address is a 128-bit binary value, which can be displayed as 32
hexadecimal digits (see Iigure). It provides 3.4 x 10
38
IP addresses. This version oI IP should
provide suIIicient addresses Ior Iuture Internet growth needs.
AIter years oI planning and development, IPv6 is slowly being implemented in select networks.
Eventually, IPv6 may replace IPv4 as the dominant internetwork protocol.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-13
IPv4 and IPv6
Internet ProtocoI Version 4 (IPv4) 4 octets Internet ProtocoI Version 4 (IPv4) 4 octets
11000000.10101000.11001001.01110001 11000000.10101000.11001001.01110001
Internet ProtocoI Version 6 (IPv6) 16 octets Internet ProtocoI Version 6 (IPv6) 16 octets
11010001.11011100.11001001.01110001.11010001.11011100.
110011001.01110001.11010001.11011100.11001001.
01110001.11010001.11011100.11001001.01110001
11010001.11011100.11001001.01110001.11010001.11011100.
110011001.01110001.11010001.11011100.11001001.
01110001.11010001.11011100.11001001.01110001
A524:72D3:2C80:DD02:0029:EC7A:002B:EA73 A524:72D3:2C80:DD02:0029:EC7A:002B:EA73
3.4 x 10
38
IP addresses 3.4 x 10
38
IP addresses
192.168.201.113 192.168.201.113
4,294,467,295 IP addresses 4,294,467,295 IP addresses
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-17
CIDR
Another solution to the shortage oI public IP addresses is a diIIerent kind oI routing. Classless
interdomain routing (CIDR) is a new addressing scheme Ior the Internet that allows Ior more
eIIicient allocation oI IP addresses than the old Class A, B, and C address scheme. This topic
describes CIDR and explains how it provides a solution to the IP address issue.
First introduced in 1993 and later deployed in 1994, CIDR dramatically improved scalability
and eIIiciency oI IPv4, in the Iollowing ways:
It replaced classIul addressing with a more Ilexible and less-wasteIul scheme.
It provided enhanced route aggregation, also known as supernetting. As the Internet grows,
routers on the Internet require huge memory tables to store all the routing inIormation.
Supernetting helps reduce the size oI router memory tables by combining and summarizing
multiple routing inIormation entries into one single entry. This reduces the size oI router
memory tables and also allows Ior Iaster table lookup.
A CIDR network address looks like this:
192.168.54.0/23
The 192.168.54.0 is the network address itselI and the /23 means that the Iirst 23 bits are the
network part oI the address, leaving the last 9 bits Ior speciIic host addresses. The eIIect oI
CIDR is to aggregate, or combine, multiple classIul networks into a single larger network. This
reduces the number oI entries required in the IP routing tables, and allows provisioning a larger
number oI hosts within the network. Both are done without using a network ID Irom the next
larger classIul address group.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-14
Addressing with CIDR
· CIDR aIIows routes to be summarized at key
points in the internetwork.
192.168.54.0/23
192.168.0.0/16
XYZ
ISP
Internet
6-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
CIDR ExampIe
With the CIDR approach, iI you need more than 254 host addresses, you can be assigned a /23
address instead oI wasting a whole Class B address that supports 65,534 hosts.
For example, using CIDR, company XYZ asks Ior an address block Irom its ISP, not a central
authority. The ISP evaluates company XYZ`s needs and allocates address space Irom its own
large 'CIDR block¨ oI addresses. CIDR blocks can be, and are, assigned by the regional
authorities to governments, service providers, enterprises, and organizations.
In this example, the ISP owns the 192.168.0.0/16 address block. The ISP announces only this
single 192.168.0.0/16 address to the Internet (even though this address block actually consists
oI many Class C networks). The ISP assigns the smaller 192.168.54.0/23 address block within
the larger 192.168.0.0/16 address block to the XYZ company. This allows the XYZ company to
have a network that can have up to 510 hosts (2
9
2 ÷ 510), or that network can be subdivided
into multiple smaller subnets by the XYZ company. (Subnetting is discussed in the next
lesson.)
Providers assume the burden oI managing address space in a classless system. With this
system, Internet routers keep only one summary route, or supernet route, to the provider`s
network, and only the individual provider keeps routes that are more speciIic to its own
customer networks. This method drastically reduces the size oI internetwork routing tables.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-19
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-15
Summary
· IP network addresses consist of two parts: the
network portion and the host portion.
· IPv4 addresses have 32 bits that are divided into
octets and are generaIIy shown in dotted decimaI
form: 192.168.54.18.
· IPv4 addresses are divided primariIy into
A, B, and C cIasses. Other cIasses (D and E)
exist, but are reserved for speciaI uses
(muIticasting and research).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-16
Summary (Cont.)
· When written in a binary format, the first bit of a
CIass A address is aIways 0, the first 2 bits of a
CIass B address are aIways 10, and the first 3 bits
of a CIass C address are aIways 110.
· Certain IP addresses (network and broadcast) are
reserved and cannot be assigned to individuaI
network devices.
· Internet hosts require a unique, pubIic IP address,
but private hosts can have any vaIid private
address that is unique within the private network.
6-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-17
Summary (Cont.)
· Addressing space as defined by IPv4 is Iimited and
has been mostIy exhausted.
· The more fIexibIe IPv6 wiII repIace IPv4 in the near
future. IPv6 offers 128 bits of addressing compared
to the 32-bit addressing avaiIabIe in IPv4.
· CIassIess interdomain routing (CIDR) is an
addressing scheme for the Internet that aIIows for
more efficient aIIocation of IP addresses than the
cIassfuI addressing scheme by aggregating
muItipIe cIassfuI networks into a singIe, Iarger
network.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-21
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) The IP address consists oI two parts: ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ and ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
A) network portion and host portion
B) host portion and MAC portion
C) network portion and MAC portion
D) network portion and subnetwork portion
Q2) How many bits are in an IP address?
A) 16
B) 32
C) 48
D) 64
Q3) In a Class B address, which oI the octets are the host-address portion and are assigned
locally?
A) The Iirst octet is assigned locally.
B) The Iirst and second octets are assigned locally.
C) The second and third octets are assigned locally.
D) The third and Iourth octets are assigned locally.
Q4) The Iollowing address is oI which class? 172.16.128.17
A) Class A
B) Class B
C) Class C
D) Class D
Q5) Which oI the Iollowing is true oI a broadcast address?
A) A broadcast address is an address that has all 0s in the host Iield.
B) Any IP address in a network can be used as a broadcast address.
C) A broadcast address is an address that has all 1s in the host Iield.
D) None oI the above are true.
6-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q6) Which are private IP addresses? (Choose two.)
A) 10.215.34.124
B) 127.16.71.43
C) 172.17.10.10
D) 225.200.15.10
Q7) What percentage oI the total IPv4 address allocation is made up oI Class A addresses?
A) 25
B) 50
C) 12.5
D) 75
Q8) How many bits are there in an IPv6 address?
E) 32
F) 48
G) 96
H) 128
Q9) Which oI the Iollowing is a Ieature oI CIDR?
A) classIul addressing
B) no supernetting
C) more entries in the routing table
D) route aggregation
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-23
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A
ReIates to: ÌP Addressing
Q2) B
ReIates to: ÌP Address Structure
Q3) D
ReIates to: ÌP Address Classes
Q4) B
ReIates to: ÌP Address Classes
Q5) C
ReIates to: Reserved ÌP Addresses
Q6) A, C
ReIates to: Public and Private ÌP Addresses
Q7) B
ReIates to: ÌPv4 Address Allocation
Q8) D
ReIates to: ÌPv4 vs. ÌPv6
Q9) D
ReIates to: CÌDR
6-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
IP Subnetting
Overview
Subnetworks are very common in large networks, segmenting the network into smaller
divisions that have their own addresses. To create subnet addresses, some oI the bits used Ior
the host portion oI an IP address are 'borrowed¨ to create the subnet address. Subnet masks are
used to identiIy which bits identiIy the network ID portion oI the address and which portions
identiIy the host portion.
ReIevance
Learning how subnet addresses and masks are created will expand your understanding oI IP
addressing overall, as well as your understanding oI how data is transmitted in a TCP/IP
environment.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to calculate valid IP subnetwork addresses and
mask values so that user network requirements are met when given an IP address scheme. This
includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the purpose and Iunction oI a subnetwork
Describe the use oI a subnet mask
Given an IP address and a subnet, calculate the network ID and host value
Calculate a subnet assignment which supports required distribution oI networks and hosts,
given a classIul IP address and the network requirements
6-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Subnetworks
Subnet Masking
Determining the Subnet Number
ModiIying a DeIault Subnet Mask
Network Address Planning
Subnetting Class C Addresses
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-27
Subnetworks
Network administrators sometimes need to divide networks, especially large ones, into smaller
networks. These smaller divisions are called subnetworks (reIerred to as subnets), and they
provide addressing Ilexibility. This topic describes the purpose and Iunctions oI subnets and
their addressing schemes.
There are several reasons why network administrators might want to subnet a network,
including helping to control network traIIic. For example, on an Ethernet network, every host
on the same physical network sees all the packets oI data sent out on the network. In heavy
traIIic situations this can result in collisions, making the network perIormance painIully slow.
In these situations, routers are used, in addition to their many other Iunctions, to separate
networks by breaking the network into multiple subnets.
In such multiple-network environments, each subnetwork may be connected to the Internet via
a single router (see Iigure). In this example, the Class B address (172.16.0.0) is subdivided into
multiple subnetworks (172.16.1.0, 172.16.2.0, 172.16.3.0, and 172.16.4.0). The actual details oI
the internal network environment and how the network is divided into multiple subnetworks are
inconsequential to other IP networks.
The subnet address is taken Irom the host number portion oI Class A, Class B, and Class C
addresses, and is assigned locally, usually by the network administrator. Also, like IP
addresses, each subnet address must be unique.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-4
Subnetworks
172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0
Network 172.16.0.0
172.16.3.0
172.16.4.0
The Internet
6-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
When you conIigure routers, you can connect each interIace to a diIIerent network or subnet
segment. You must select an available host address Irom each diIIerent network or subnet to
assign to the interIace oI the router that connects to that network or subnet (see Iigure). In this
example, the router has two Ethernet interIaces. The interIace that is connected to the
172.16.2.0 subnetwork is assigned the IP address oI 172.16.2.1 and the other interIace that is
connected to the 172.16.3.0 subnetwork is assigned the IP address oI 172.16.3.1.
Note Multiple ÌP addresses can be configured on a single interface.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-5
Subnet Address Scheme
IP: 172.16.2.1 IP: 172.16.3.1
172.16.3.150
172.16.3.100
172.16.3.5
172.16.2.160
172.16.2.2
172.16.2.200
E0 E1
New routing tabIe
Network Interface
172.16.2.0
172.16.3.0
E0
E1
172.16 2 160
Network Subnet Host
· ·
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-29
Subnet Masking
A subnet mask has a speciIic Iunction in relation to the subnet address: to tell devices
participating on the network which part oI an address is the network number, including the
subnet, and which part is the host. This topic describes how subnet addresses and masks are
constructed.
A subnet address includes the network portion, plus a subnet Iield and a host Iield. The subnet
Iield and the host Iield are created Irom the original host portion Ior the entire network. To
create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits Irom the original host portion and
designates them as the subnet Iield. The ability to decide how to divide the original host portion
into the new subnet and host Iields provides addressing Ilexibility Ior the network
administrator.
Subnets consisting oI all 0s or all 1s are discouraged because oI possible conIusion with the
classIul network address which has all 0s in the host portion or the classIul network broadcast
address which has all 1s in the host portion. A single bit subnet is seldom used because the only
possible values are 0 and 1. The use oI subnet 0 is discouraged.
The maximum number oI bits that can be borrowed can be any number that leaves at least two
bits remaining Ior the host number.
Although subnet masks use the same Iormat as IP addresses, they are not IP addresses
themselves. Each subnet mask is 32 bits long and is divided into Iour octets and is usually
represented in the dotted-decimal notation like IP addresses. Subnet masks have all 1s in the
network and subnetwork portions and all 0s in the host portion (see Iigure). In this Class C
subnetting example, three bits Irom the original host Iield have been borrowed Ior the subnet
Iield, leaving the Iive remaining bits Ior the new host Iield. The subnet mask expressed in
dotted-decimal notation is 255.255.255.224.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-6
Subnet Mask
· A network or subnetwork is defined in the subnets mask by a series of
contiguous 1s.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 · · ·
The subnet mask above in dotted-decimaI notation = 255.255.255.224
CIass C address = 24 bits for network, 8 bit for host.
In this case, we are borrowing 3 bits out of the host part for subnetting.
Network
Octet (8 bits)
Network
Octet (8 bits)
Network
Octet (8 bits)
SM Host
Octet (8 bits)
Subnet FieId New Host FieId
6-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
II no bits are borrowed to represent a subnet, the deIault subnet masks Ior Class A, B, and C
networks are as Iollows:
CIass A DeIault subnet mask ÷ 255.0.0.0 (8 network bits, 24 host bits)
CIass B DeIault subnet mask ÷ 255.255.0.0 (16 network bits, 16 host bits)
CIass C DeIault subnet mask ÷ 255.255.255.0 (24 network bits, 8 host bits)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-7
Using a Subnet Mask
IP address IP address
IP address IP address
Subnet mask Subnet mask
192 192 168 168
Subnetwork Subnetwork
Subnetwork Subnetwork
139 139 34 34
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 10001011 10001011 00100010 00100010
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000 11100000 11111111 11111111
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 100000000 100000000 00100010 00100010
192 192 168 168 128 128 34 34
LogicaI AND LogicaI AND
IP Address 192.168.34.139 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.224
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-31
Determining the Subnet Number
II the IP address and the subnet mask are known, the subnet number can be calculated. This
topic presents the procedure Ior determining the subnet number.
Given an IP address and subnet mask (see Iigure), to determine the subnetwork number, Iollow
the procedure below.
Procedure for Determining the Subnetwork Number
Step Action
1.
Express the ÌP address in binary form.
2.
Express the subnet mask in binary form.
3.
Perform a logical AND operation on the ÌP address and the subnet mask. (The result of the
logical AND operation is the subnet number.)
4.
Express the subnet number as dotted-decimal notation.
As an illustration, given a Class B network address, iI you borrow eight bits to represent a
subnet, the subnet mask Ior the same Class B network would be 255.255.255.0, as shown in the
Iigure.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-8
Determining the Subnet Number
· If a bit is borrowed for a subnet mask, use host bits starting at the
high-order bit position
172 16 0 0
255 255 0 0
255 255 255 0
IP Address
DefauIt Subnet
Mask
8-bit
Subnet Mask
Network Host
Network Host
Network Subnet Host
6-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Note This AND operation is done by combining the binary versions of the ÌP address with the
subnet mask. The calculations are expressed as:
1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 1 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-33
Modifying a DefauIt Subnet Mask
A deIault subnet mask can be modiIied to meet speciIic network requirements. This topic
describes the process Ior modiIying a deIault subnet mask.
The number oI bits to be borrowed Ior subnet addressing depends on both oI these
requirements:
Number oI subnetworks required
Number oI hosts required on each subnetwork
A Class A network has three octets in the host Iield. Up to 22 bits, thereIore, can be borrowed
to create subnetworks. Remember that the Iourth octet must have at least two bits leIt Ior the
host ID portion oI the address. These remaining two bits will provide Ior a possible
combination oI Iour IP addresses (00, 01, 10, and 11). All0s in the host portion oI the address
(00) and all1s in the host portion oI the address (11) are not available Ior valid host IP
addresses. AIter borrowing 22 bits, the subnet mask would be 255.255.255.252.
A Class B network has two octets in the host Iield. ThereIore, up to 14 bits can be borrowed to
create subnetworks. The Iirst and second octets are part oI the Class B network mask
(255.255.0.0). AIter borrowing 14 bits, the subnet mask would be 255.255.255.252.
A Class C network has only one octet in the host Iield. ThereIore, up to only six bits can be
borrowed in Class C networks to create subnetworks. The Iirst, second, and third octets are part
oI the Class C network mask (255.255.255.0). AIter borrowing six bits, the subnet mask would
be 255.255.255.252.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-9
Modifying a DefauIt Subnet Mask
10 16 1 1
255 0 0 0
255 255 255 252
IP Address
DefauIt Subnet
Mask
Modified
Subnet Mask
Network Host
Network Host
Network Subnetwork Host
· If a bit is borrowed for a subnet mask, use host bits starting at the
high-order bit position
6-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
There are only eight valid subnet mask values per octet (see Iigure). The subnet Iield always
immediately Iollows the network number. That is, the borrowed bits must be the Iirst n bits oI
the deIault host Iield, where n is the desired size oI the new subnet Iield (see Iigure). The
subnet mask is the tool used by the router to determine which bits are routing (network or
subnet) bits and which bits are host bits.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-10
Octet VaIues of a Subnet Mask
· The decimaI equivaIent of the binary is typicaIIy used in an IP address.
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 128
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 192
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 224
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 = 240
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 = 248
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 = 252
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 = 254
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 255
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-35
Network Address PIanning
One oI the decisions that you must make whenever you create subnets is to determine the
optimal number oI subnets and hosts. When you create subnets, you lose many potential
addresses. For this reason, network administrators must pay close attention to the percentage oI
addresses that they lose by creating subnets. This topic explains a process Ior computing usable
subnets.
Computing UsabIe Subnetworks
Whenever you borrow bits Irom the host Iield, it is important to note the number oI additional
subnets that are being created each time you borrow one more bit (see Iigure). Borrowing two
bits creates Iour possible subnets (2
2
) (but remember that there are always two discouraged
subnets (all 0s and 1s subnets). Each time you borrow another bit Irom the host Iield, the
number oI subnets created increases by a power oI 2.
For example:
Using three bits Ior the subnet Iield results in eight possible subnets, six oI which are
usable (2
3
÷ 8, 8 2 unusable subnets ÷ 6 usable subnets).
Using Iour bits Ior the subnet Iield results in 16 possible subnets, 14 oI which are usable
(2
4
÷ 16, 16 2 unusable subnets ÷ 14 usable subnets).
In general, you can use the Iollowing Iormula to calculate the number oI usable subnets, given
the number oI subnet bits used:
Number oI subnets ÷ 2
n
2 (where n is the number oI subnet bits).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-11
CIass C Subnetting ExampIe
Number of bits
borrowed
Number of bits
borrowed
Number of
subnets created
Number of
subnets created
Number of hosts
per subnet
Number of hosts
per subnet
TotaI number
of hosts
TotaI number
of hosts
Percent
used
Percent
used
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
2
2
- 2 = 2 2
2
- 2 = 2
2
3
- 2 = 6 2
3
- 2 = 6
2
4
- 2 = 14 2
4
- 2 = 14
2
5
- 2 = 30 2
5
- 2 = 30
2
6
- 2 = 62 2
6
- 2 = 62
2
6
- 2 = 62 2
6
- 2 = 62
2
5
- 2 = 30 2
5
- 2 = 30
2
4
- 2 = 14 2
4
- 2 = 14
2
3
- 2 = 6 2
3
- 2 = 6
2
2
- 2 = 2 2
2
- 2 = 2
124 124
180 180
196 196
180 180
124 124
49% 49%
71% 71%
77% 77%
71% 71%
49% 49%
· Note: The tabIe above does not use the aII zeros and aII ones subnets,
trading safety for address usage efficiency.
· The number of host IP addresses with a CIass C subnetwork depends on
the number of bits borrowed for subnetting.
6-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Computing Hosts per Subnetwork
Each time you borrow one bit Irom a host Iield, there is one less bit remaining in the host Iield
that can be used Ior host numbers and the number oI host addresses that you can assign
decreases by a power oI 2.
To help you understand how this works, consider a Class C network address as an example, in
which all eight bits in the last octet are used Ior the host Iield. ThereIore, there are 256 (2
8
)
possible addresses available to assign to hosts (254 usable addresses, aIter you subtract the two
addresses |the broadcast and the subnet address| which you cannot use).
Now, imagine that this Class C network is divided into subnets. II you borrow two bits Irom the
deIault eight-bit host Iield, the size oI the host Iield decreases to six bits. II you write out all the
possible combinations oI 0s and 1s that could occur in the remaining six bits, you discover that
the total number oI possible hosts that could be assigned in each subnet decreases to 64 (2
6
).
The number oI usable host numbers decreases to 62 (64 2).
In the same Class C network, iI you borrow three bits, the size oI the host Iield decreases to Iive
bits and the total number oI hosts that you could assign to each subnet decreases to 32 (2
5
). The
number oI usable host numbers decreases to 30 (32 2).
The number oI possible host addresses that can be assigned to a subnet is related to the number
oI subnets that have been created. In a Class C network, Ior example, iI you apply a subnet
mask oI 255.255.255.224, you have to borrow three bits (224 ÷ 11100000) Irom the host Iield.
Six usable subnets are created (8 minus 2), each having 30 (32 minus 2) usable host addresses.
In general, the Iollowing Iormula can be used to calculate the number oI usable host addresses,
given the number oI host bits used:
Number oI host addresses ÷ 2
n
2 (where n is the number oI host bits).
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-37
Subnetting CIass C Addresses
To practice creating subnet addresses, suppose that you are a network administrator. Your
company has a Class C network address oI 192.168.57.0. You want to subdivide your network
into three subnets and you need at least 20 hosts per subnet. This topic presents the steps to
Iollow to create subnet and host addresses.
In a Class C network address, there are eight bits available in the Iourth octet Ior a total oI 256
possible hosts. To create a custom subnet mask, you need to borrow three bits Irom the host
part oI the address. The procedure Ior accomplishing this is shown in the Iollowing table.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-12
Determining How Many Bits to Borrow
· Network address: 192.168.57.0
· Subnets needed: Three
· Bits to borrow:
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
· Borrowing three bits for the subnet shouId fit the requirements:
÷ Three subnet bits: 2
3
- 2 = 6 subnets
÷ Five bits remain for the host portion: 2
5
- 2 = 30 hosts per
subnet
· DefauIt CIass C mask 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
· Modified subnet mask 11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000
· Required subnet mask in dotted-decimaI notation =
255.255.255.224
6-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Procedure for Creating a Custom Subnet Mask
Step Action Notes
1.
Determine how many subnets are
needed. Ìn this case you need
three subnets
To see how many bits you should borrow from the host
portion of the network address, add the bit values from
right to left until the total (decimal value) is greater than
the number of subnets you need. Because you need three
subnets, add the one bit through the three bit, which
equals seven. This is more than the number of subnets
you need, so you need to borrow at least three bits from
the host address starting from the left side of the octet that
contains the host address (see figure).
2.
When you know how many bits to
borrow, borrow them from the left
side of the first octet of the host
address.
Remember that every bit you borrow from the host leaves
fewer bits for the hosts. Because you need to borrow three
bits from the left side, you must show that in the new value
in your subnet mask. The default subnet mask for the
Class C network address is 255.255.255.0, and your new
¨custom¨ subnet mask is 255.255.255.224. The 224
comes from the value of the first three bits from the left
(128 + 64 + 32 = 224). These bits now become 1s and are
part of the overall subnet mask. This leaves five bits for
the host ÌP addresses, 5 bits = 32 hosts per subnet.
3.
With this information you can
build the tables shown in the
figure.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-13
Determining the Subnet and Host
Addresses
192. 192. 168. 168. 57. 57. 0 0 IP network IP network
In binary In binary
Subnet mask Subnet mask
First subnet First subnet
Second subnet Second subnet
First host First host
Second host Second host
Last host Last host
Third subnet Third subnet
Last subnet Last subnet
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000 11100000
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 00000000 00000000
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 00100000 00100000
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 00100001 00100001
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 00100010 00100010
and so on ..................... and so on .....................
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 00111110 00111110
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 01000000 01000000
and so on ..................... and so on .....................
11000000 11000000 00001010 00001010 00111001 00111001 11100000 11100000
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-39
Procedure for Creating a Custom Subnet Mask (Cont.)
Step Action Notes
4.
After you have all the subnetwork
addresses, you can determine the
directed broadcast address (see
figure) and the ranges of possible
host ÌP addresses for each subnet.
Again consider the third subnet, 192.168.57.64, as an
example. As you learned earlier, the directed broadcast
address has all the 1s in the host portion. As shown in
the figure, when you place all 1s in the host bits, the
broadcast address for the 192.168.57.64 subnetwork is
192.168.57.95.
5.
Now that you know the directed
broadcast for the 192.168.57.64
subnetwork, determine the host
range of this network.
Because 192.168.57.64 has all the 0s in the host portion,
it is a subnetwork address. The first usable host address
of this subnetwork is 192.168.57.65
(1100000.10101000.00111001.01000001), and the last
host address of this subnetwork is 192.168.57.95
(1100000.10101000.00111001.01011111). However,
because this address is used as the subnet broadcast
address, the last usable host address is 192.168.57.94
(1100000.10101000.00111001.01011110). Therefore,
the host address range for the 192.168.57.64
subnetwork is 192.168.57.65 to 192.168.57.94.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-14
Determining the Subnet and Host
Addresses
192. 192. 168. 168. 57. 57. 64 64 Subnet address Subnet address
In binary In binary
Bits borrowed Bits borrowed
Network and
Host portions:
Network and
Host portions:
Directed broadcast
address:
Directed broadcast
address:
Subnet broadcast
in decimaI:
Subnet broadcast
in decimaI:
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 01000000 01000000
3 3
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001 01000000 01000000
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00111001 00111001
N H N H
192. 192. 168. 168. 57. 57. 95 95
N N N N N N
01011111 01011111
N H N H N N N N N N
6-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The Iirst three bits are the subnet binary value. The last Iive bits are the host bits. By borrowing
three bits Irom the eight bits oI the host address, you can create eight subnets with 32 hosts
each. The eight networks created are the '0,¨ '32,¨ '64,¨ '96,¨ '128,¨ '192,¨ and '224¨ nets.
The '0¨ net and the '224¨ net are considered unusable because the '0¨ net has all zeros
(00000000) in the subnet portion oI the address and the '224¨ net has all ones (11100000) in
the subnet portion oI the address.
Notice that the Iirst subnet always starts at 0 and, in this case, increases by 32, which is the
number oI hosts on each subnet. One way to determine the number oI hosts on each subnet, or
the start oI each subnet, is to take the remaining host bits to the power oI two. Because you
borrowed three oI the eight bits Ior subnets and have Iive bits leIt, the number oI hosts per
subnet is 32.
Another way to Iigure the number oI hosts per subnet, or the 'increment¨ Irom one subnet to
the next, is to subtract the subnet mask value in decimal (224 in the Iourth octet) Irom 256
(which is the maximum number oI possible combinations oI eight bits), which equals 32. This
means you start at 0 Ior the Iirst network and add 32 Ior each additional subnetwork. Consider
the third subnet (the '64¨ subnet) as an example. The IP address oI 192.168.57.64 cannot be
used Ior a host ID because it is the 'subnetwork ID¨ oI the '64¨ subnet. As shown in the Iigure,
the host portion is all zeros.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-15
ActuaI Subnets
Network
Address
Network
Address
Subnet
Mask
Subnet
Mask
Subnetwork
Addresses
Subnetwork
Addresses
Range of
PossibIe Host
IP Addresses
Range of
PossibIe Host
IP Addresses
Subnet
No.
Subnet
No.
Subnet 0 Subnet 0
Subnet 1 Subnet 1
Subnet 2 Subnet 2
Subnet 3 Subnet 3
Subnet 4 Subnet 4
Subnet 5 Subnet 5
Subnet 7 Subnet 7
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.32 192.168.57.32
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.64 192.168.57.64
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.96 192.168.57.96
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.128 192.168.57.128
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.160 192.168.57.160
192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.224 192.168.57.224
Directed
Broadcast
Addresses
Directed
Broadcast
Addresses
Subnet 6 Subnet 6 192.168.57.0 192.168.57.0 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 192.168.57.192 192.168.57.192
192.168.57.1 - 30 192.168.57.1 - 30
192.168.57.33 - 62 192.168.57.33 - 62
192.168.57.65 - 94 192.168.57.65 - 94
192.168.57.97 - 126 192.168.57.97 - 126
192.168.57.129 - 158 192.168.57.129 - 158
192.168.57.161 - 190 192.168.57.161 - 190
192.168.57.225 - 254 192.168.57.225 - 254
192.168.57.193 - 222 192.168.57.193 - 222
192.168.57.31 192.168.57.31
192.168.57.63 192.168.57.63
192.168.57.95 192.168.57.95
192.168.57.127 192.168.57.127
192.168.57.159 192.168.57.159
192.168.57.191 192.168.57.191
192.168.57.255 192.168.57.255
192.168.57.223 192.168.57.223
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-41
ExampIe: CIass C Subnet
This Iigure illustrates a Class C network subnetted to provide six host addresses and 30 subnets.
ExampIe: TabIe for CIass C Subnet PIanning
This Iigure is an example table used Ior Class C subnet planning.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-16
Determining the Subnet and Host
Addresses
Network Network Network Network Network Network Subnet Host Subnet Host
192.168.5.121: 192.168.5.121:
255.255.255.248 255.255.255.248
Subnet: Subnet:
Broadcast: Broadcast:
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00000101 00000101 0111 1 001 0111 1 001
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111 000 11111 000
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00000101 00000101 0111 000 0111 000
11000000 11000000 10101000 10101000 00000101 00000101 01111 111 01111 111
Subnet address = 192.168.5.120
Host address = 192.168.5.121 - 192.168.5.126
Directed broadcast address = 192.168.5.127
Five bits of subnetting
IP host address: 192.168.5.121
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.248
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-17
Subnetting CIass C Addresses
Subnet mask Subnet mask No. of subnets No. of subnets No. of hosts No. of hosts
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
255.255.255.192 255.255.255.192 2 2 62 62
255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 6 6 30 30
255.255.255.240 255.255.255.240
14 14 14 14
255.255.255.248 255.255.255.248 30 30 6 6
Network Network
6 6 255.255.255.525 255.255.255.525 62 62 2 2
6-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-18
Summary
· Networks-particuIarIy Iarge ones-are often
divided into smaIIer networks caIIed subnetworks
or subnets.
· A subnet address incIudes the network portion,
pIus a subnet fieId and a host fieId and is created
by borrowing bits from the originaI host portion
and designating them as the subnet fieId.
· The function of a subnet mask is to teII devices
which part of an address is the network number,
incIuding the subnet, and which part is the host.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-19
Summary (Cont.)
· To determine a subnet address, foIIow these steps:
÷Express the IP address in binary form
÷Express the subnet mask in binary form
÷Perform a IogicaI AND operation on the IP
address and subnet mask
÷The resuIt of the IogicaI AND operation is the
subnetwork number
÷Express the subnetwork number as dotted-
decimaI notation
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-43
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Originally, the Internet used how many levels oI hierarchy addressing?
A) two
B) three
C) Iour
D) Iive
Q2) What is the Iunction oI a subnet mask?
A) to determine which part oI the IP address is the network or subnetwork part
and which part is the host part
B) to conceal outside networks Irom subnetworks
C) to determine the numbers oI subnetworks that can be created
D) to determine the numbers oI hosts within a subnetwork
Q3) What is the practical maximum number oI host bits you can borrow Irom a Class A
address Ior subnetting?
A) 24
B) 22
C) 16
D) 14
Q4) List the steps Ior determining a subnetwork number in order.
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. Express the subnet mask in binary Iorm.
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. PerIorm a logical AND operation on the IP address and the
subnet mask.
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. Express the IP address in binary Iorm.
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. Express the subnet number as dotted-decimal notation.
Q5) How many octets does a Class A network have in the host Iield?
A) 3
B) 2
C) 1
D) 4
6-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q6) What is the practical minimum number oI bits that can be borrowed to Iorm a subnet?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
Q7) Using six subnet bits, how many usable subnets are created?
A) 58
B) 60
C) 62
D) 64
Q8) How many host addresses can be used in a Class C network?
A) 253
B) 254
C) 255
D) 256
Q9) What is the maximum number oI bits that can be borrowed to create a subnet Ior a
Class C network?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-45
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A
ReIates to: Subnetworks
Q2) A
ReIates to: Subnet Masking
Q3) B
ReIates to: Subnet Masking
Q4) 3, 1, 2, 4
ReIates to: Determining the Subnet Number
Q5) A
ReIates to: Modifying a Default Subnet Mask
Q6) B
ReIates to: Network Address Planning
Q7) C
ReIates to: Network Address Planning
Q8) B
ReIates to: Subnetting Class C Addresses
Q9) C
ReIates to: Subnetting Class C Address
6-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Routing Basics
Overview
Routing is the Iunction that transmits data packets between networks or network segments,
using a device called a router. The routing process uses network routing tables and algorithms
to determine the most eIIicient path Ior transmitting a packet oI data Irom one router to another
in the network.
ReIevance
Now that you have an understanding oI how packets oI data are addressed, you will see how
they are transmitted during routing.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to explain the basic operations oI routing,
including path determination, algorithms, and metrics. This includes being able to meet these
objectives:
Describe the Iunctions oI a router
Compare a routing protocol and a routed protocol
Explain how routing determines the best path
Describe the purpose and use oI network routing tables
Describe diIIerent goals oI routing algorithms
Describe the most commonly used routing metrics
6-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Router Functions
Encapsulation
Routed vs. Routing Protocols
Path Determination
Routing Tables
Routing Protocols/Algorithms
Routing Metrics
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-49
Router Functions
Routers connect separate networks or network segments to each other, using IP addresses to
transmit data. This topic describes the Iunctions oI routers.
A router is a network layer device that generally uses routing tables to determine the optimal
path along which network traIIic should be Iorwarded. A router has these two key Iunctions:
It must maintain its routing tables and make sure that other routers know oI changes in the
network. It does this by using a routing protocol to communicate network inIormation Irom
its routing table with other routers.
It must use the routing table to determine where to Iorward packets. It Iorwards them to the
appropriate interIace, adds the necessary Iraming Ior the particular interIace, and then sends
the packet.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-4
Routing ProtocoI Operation
X
Y
B
A
C
6-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
EncapsuIation
In the routing process, data is transIerred through a process oI encapsulation and de-
encapsulation. This topic provides an overview oI this process.
The de-encapsulation and encapsulation process described in the Iigure occurs each time the
packet transIers through a router. At the router connected to the network containing the
destination host, the packet is encapsulated in the destination LAN data-link Irame type Ior
delivery towards the destination host (or next hop).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-5
EncapsuIation
Steps Steps
Step 1 Step 1
Step 2 Step 2
Step 3 Step 3
Description Description
The router de-encapsuIates and examines the frame
to determine what type of network Iayer data is being
carried. The network Iayer data is sent to the
appropriate network Iayer process, and the frame
(data-Iink Iayer) header or traiIer is discarded.
The router de-encapsuIates and examines the frame
to determine what type of network Iayer data is being
carried. The network Iayer data is sent to the
appropriate network Iayer process, and the frame
(data-Iink Iayer) header or traiIer is discarded.
The network Iayer process examines the network
Iayer header to determine the destination
network and then references the routing tabIe
that associates networks to outgoing interfaces.
The network Iayer process examines the network
Iayer header to determine the destination
network and then references the routing tabIe
that associates networks to outgoing interfaces.
The packet is again encapsuIated in the data-Iink
Iayer frame for the seIected interface and sent on.
The packet is again encapsuIated in the data-Iink
Iayer frame for the seIected interface and sent on.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-51
Routed vs. Routing ProtocoIs
Routers use routing protocols to exchange inIormation. This topic describes the Iunction oI
routing protocols and compares routed to routing protocols.
A routed protocol includes enough inIormation in its network layer address to allow a router to
direct user traIIic. The IP protocol and Novell`s IPX are examples oI routed protocols.
A routing protocol supports a routed protocol by providing mechanisms Ior sharing routing
inIormation, and allows the routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain
the routing tables. Examples oI routing protocols that support the IP routed protocol include the
Routing InIormation Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest
Path First (OSPF), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-6
What Is a Routing ProtocoI?
10.120.2.0 172.16.2.0
172.16.3.0
E0
S0
S1
Network
ProtocoI
Destination
Network
Exit
Interface
Connected
RIP
IGRP
10.120.2.0
172.16.2.0
172.16.3.0
E0
S0
S1
Routing protocoIs
are used between
routers to determine paths
and maintain routing tabIes.
After the path is determined
a router can route a routed
protocoI.
Routed protocoI = IP
Routing protocoI = RIP, IGRP
6-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Path Determination
During path determination, routers evaluate the available paths to a destination and establish
the preIerred handling oI a packet. This topic describes how routers determine the path.
Routing services use metrics and administrative distances when evaluating network paths. This
inIormation can be conIigured onto each router by the network administrator statically (static
routing) or it can be learned dynamically (dynamic routing) by the routers using a routing
protocol. In instances where the target network is directly connected, the router uses Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) to Iorward the packet to the destination host.
AIter the router determines which path to use, it can proceed with Iorwarding the packet by
taking the packet it accepted on one interIace and Iorwarding it to another interIace that reIlects
the best path toward the destination.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-7
Path Determination
Which Path? Which Path?
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-53
Routing TabIes
To aid in the process oI path determination, routing protocols dynamically maintain the routing
table, which contains route inIormation. This topic describes the inIormation contained in the
routing table.
Route inIormation varies, depending on the routing protocol used. The Iigure shows how
routers keep this table oI inIormation to aid in the traIIic management and path determination.
Routing TabIe Information
Routing tables include the Iollowing inIormation:
Destination and next-hop associations: These associations tell a router that a particular
destination is either directly connected to the router or that it can be reached via another
router called the 'next-hop¨ router on the way to the Iinal destination. When a router
receives an incoming packet, it checks the destination address and attempts to associate this
address with either a directly connected interIace or the next-hop router.
Routing metric: DiIIerent routing protocols use diIIerent routing metrics. Routing metrics
are used to determine the desirability oI the route. For example, the RIP routing protocol
uses hop count as its routing metric. A hop represents an intermediate router a packet must
go through beIore reaching the destination. ThereIore, a route having a lower total hop
count is more desirable than another route with a higher total hop count because the lower-
hop-count route has to go through Iewer intermediate routers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-8
Routing TabIes
E1 E1 E0 E0
S0 S0
10.1.2.0
10.1.1.0
10.8.3.0
10.1.3.0
DirectIy connected - E0
DirectIy connected - E1
DirectIy connected - S0
Via R2 (10.1.2.2)
Network Interface/Next Hop
Routing TabIe
Network
10.1.1.0
Network
10.8.3.0
Network
10.1.2.0
R2
Network
10.1.3.0
6-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Routing Update Messages
Routers communicate with one another and maintain their routing tables through the
transmission oI routing update messages. Depending on the particular routing protocol, routing
update messages can be sent periodically or only when there is a change in the network
topology. Some oI the inIormation contained in the routing update messages includes the
destination networks that the router can reach along with the routing metric to reach each
destination. By analyzing the routing updates Irom the neighboring routers, a router can build
and maintain its routing table.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-55
Routing ProtocoIs/AIgorithms
Routing protocols and algorithms oIten have one or more design goals. This topic describes
some oI the major design goals Ior routing protocols.
Some oI the design goals Ior routing protocols include (see Iigure):
Optimization: Optimization describes the capability oI the routing protocol or algorithm to
select the best route, depending on metrics and metric weights used in the calculation. For
example, one algorithm may use hop count and delay Ior its metric, but may weigh delay
more heavily in the calculation.
Simplicity and low overhead: Ideally, eIIicient routing algorithm Iunctionality is achieved
iI the routers have minimum CPU and memory overhead so that the network can scale to
large proportions, such as the Internet.
Robustness and stability: A routing algorithm should perIorm correctly in the Iace oI
unusual or unIoreseen circumstances, such as hardware Iailures, high load conditions, and
implementation errors.
Rapid convergence: Convergence occurs when all routers share the identical view or
inIormation oI the network topology. When a network event causes changes in link or
router availability, recalculations are needed to reestablish network connectivity. Routing
algorithms that converge slowly can cause routing loops or long network outages.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-9
GoaIs of Routing ProtocoIs
· Optimization
· SimpIicity and Iow overhead
· Robustness and stabiIity
· Rapid convergence
6-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Routing Metrics
Routing protocols use many diIIerent metrics to determine the best route, each interpreting
what is best in its own way. This topic describes the metrics that are most commonly used by
routing protocols to determine the best path.
When a routing protocol updates a routing table, the primary objective oI the protocol is to
determine the best inIormation to include in the table. The routing algorithm generates a
number, called the metric value, Ior each path through the network. Sophisticated routing
protocols can base route selection on multiple metrics, combining them in a single metric.
Typically, the smaller the metric number is, the better the path.
Metrics can be based on either a single characteristic or several characteristics oI a path. The
metrics that are most commonly used by routing protocols are as Iollows:
Bandwidth: The data capacity oI a link
Delay: The length oI time required to move a packet along each link Irom source to
destination depends on the bandwidth oI intermediate links, port queues at each router,
network congestion, and physical distance
Load: The amount oI activity on a network resource such as a router or a link
Reliability: Usually a reIerence to the error rate oI each network link
Hop count: The number oI routers that a packet must travel through beIore reaching its
destination
Cost: An arbitrary value, usually based on bandwidth, administrator preIerence, or other
measurement, that is assigned by a network administrator
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-10
Routing Metrics
T1 = 1000 56 Kbps = 5000
Hop count
Cost
Bandwidth
DeIay
Load
ReIiabiIity
56 Kbps 56 Kbps
56 Kbps 56 Kbps
T1 T1
T1 T1
A A
B B
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-57
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-11
Summary
· A router is a network Iayer device that generaIIy uses
one or more routing metrics to determine the optimaI
path aIong which network traffic shouId be forwarded.
· A routed protocoI incIudes enough information in its
network Iayer to aIIow a router to direct user traffic.
· A routing protocoI provides mechanisms for sharing
routing information and aIIows the routers to
communicate with other routers to update and maintain
the routing tabIes.
· Routing invoIves two basic activities: determining the
best routing paths and forwarding packets through an
internetwork.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-12
Summary (Cont.)
· Routing services use metrics and administrative
distances to evaIuate network paths.
· Routing aIgorithms process the received updates
and popuIate the routing tabIe with the best routes.
· Routing protocoIs and aIgorithms often have one or
more of these goaIs: optimization, simpIicity and Iow
overhead, robustness and stabiIity, rapid
convergence.
· CommonIy used routing metrics incIude bandwidth,
deIay, Ioad, reIiabiIity, hop count, and cost
6-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which term best describes the operation oI a router in evaluating available routes to a
destination and establishing the preIerred handling oI a packet?
A) data linkage
B) path determination
C) SDLC interIace protocol
D) Frame Relay
Q2) Which best describes a routed protocol?
A) provides enough inIormation in its network layer address to allow a packet to
be Iorwarded Irom host to host
B) provides inIormation necessary to pass data packets up to the next highest
network layer
C) allows routers to communicate with other routers to maintain and update
address tables
D) allows routers to bind MAC and IP addresses together
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing statements about the path determination process is correct?
A) Routers evaluate the available paths to a destination.
B) Routers establish the preIerred handling oI a packet.
C) Dynamic routing occurs when inIormation is conIigured onto each router by
the network administrator.
D) Routing services use metrics and administrative distances when evaluating
network paths.
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing contains routing inIormation that helps a router in determining
the routing path?
A) IP address
B) MAC address
C) routing table
D) routing protocol
Q5) Which oI the Iollowing are goals Ior routing protocols? (Choose three.)
A) optimization
B) Ilexibility
C) simplicity
D) rapid convergence
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-59
Q6) Which oI the Iollowing is not a routing metric?
A) delay
B) bandwidth
C) length
D) load
6-60 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) B
ReIates to: Router Functions
Q2) A
ReIates to: Routed vs. Routing Protocols
Q3) C
ReIates to: Path Determination
Q4) C
ReIates to: Routing Tables
Q5) A, C, D
ReIates to: Routing Protocols/Algorithms
Q6) C
ReIates to: Routing Metrics
Routing Protocols
Overview
In the routing process, protocols package data into a Iorm that can be transmitted. There are
two major types oI routing protocols, internal protocols that route inIormation within an
organization and external protocols that route inIormation between networks. Each type oI
routing protocol Iunctions diIIerently and provides diIIerent advantages Ior network data
transmission requirements.
ReIevance
Learning about the diIIerent types oI routing protocols will provide you with more
understanding oI how data is transmitted over TCP/IP.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Ieatures and operations oI interior
and exterior routing protocols, including Routing InIormation Protocol Versions 1 and 2
(RIPv1 and RIPv2), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP),
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). This includes being
able to meet these objectives:
List the major interior and exterior routing protocols
Describe the primary classes oI routing protocols and provide examples oI each
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI RIPv1 and RIPv2
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI IGRP
Describe the Iour basic components used by EIGRP to enhance its ability
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI OSPF
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI BGP
6-62 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
Knowledge oI routing path determination Iunctions
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
IGPs and EGPs
Routing Protocols
RIPv1 and RIPv2
IGRP
EIGRP
OSPF
BGP
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-63
IGPs and EGPs
An autonomous system is a collection oI networks under a common administrative control,
consisting oI routers that present a consistent view oI routing to the external world. This topic
describes the two Iamilies oI routing protocols that route IP packets either within or between
autonomous systems.
Autonomous system numbers are allocated to the regional registries by the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA). These registries are
ARIN (hostmaster¸arin.net) Ior the Americas, Caribbean, and AIrica
RIPE-NCC (ncc¸ripe.net) Ior Europe
AP-NIC (admin¸apnic.net) Ior the Asia-PaciIic region
Asynchronous system numbers can be obtained Irom the registry in your region. This
autonomous system number is a 16-bit number. A routing protocol such as Border Gateway
Protocol (BGP) requires that you speciIy this unique, assigned autonomous system number in
your conIiguration.
There are two Iamilies oI routing protocols:
Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs)
Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-5
Autonomous Systems: Interior or
Exterior Routing ProtocoIs
· An autonomous system is a coIIection of networks under a common
administrative domain.
· IGPs operate within an autonomous system
· EGPs connect different autonomous systems
Autonomous
System 100
Autonomous
System 200
IGPs: RIP, IGRP EGPs: BGP
6-64 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
IGPs route packets within an autonomous system. Examples oI IGPs include the Iollowing:
RIP
IGRP
EIGRP
OSPF
Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System protocol (IS-IS)
EGPs route packets between autonomous systems. BGP is an example oI an EGP.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-65
Routing ProtocoIs
Routing protocols Iall into three classes: distance-vector, link-state, and hybrid. This topic
describes each oI these classes oI protocols.
Distance-Vector Routing ProtocoIs
The distance-vector routing approach determines the direction (vector) and distance (hop count)
to any network in the internetwork. Distance-vector algorithms periodically (such as every 30
seconds) send all or portions oI their routing table to their adjacent neighbors. Routers running
the distance-vector routing protocol send periodic updates even iI there are no changes in the
network. By receiving a neighbor`s routing table, a router can veriIy all the known routes and
make changes to the local routing table based upon updated inIormation received Irom the
neighboring router. This process is also known as 'routing by rumor¨ because the
understanding that a router has oI the network is based upon the neighbors' perspective oI the
network topology.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-6
Distance-Vector Routing ProtocoIs
· Passes periodic copies of routing tabIe to neighbor
routes and accumuIates distance vectors
C
D
B
A
C B
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Distance-How Far
Vector-In Which Direction
Distance-How Far
Vector-In Which Direction
A D
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Examples oI distance-vector protocols include:
RIP: A commonly used distance-vector routing protocol, RIP uses hop count as its routing
metric.
IGRP: IGP was developed by Cisco to address the issues associated with routing in large,
heterogeneous networks. IGRP uses bandwidth, delay, reliability, load, and maximum
transmission unit (MTU) as metrics to make the overall best path determination.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-7
Distance-Vector Routing ProtocoIs
(Cont.)
Distance-Vector Distance-Vector
RIP
· Distance-vector
· Using hop count
RIP
· Distance-vector
· Using hop count
IGRP
· Distance-vector
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Using bandwidth, deIay,
reIiabiIity, Ioad, and MTU
IGRP
· Distance-vector
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Using bandwidth, deIay,
reIiabiIity, Ioad, and MTU
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-67
Link-State Routing ProtocoIs
Link-state routing protocols respond quickly to network changes, send triggered updates only
when a network change has occurred, and send periodic updates (known as link-state reIreshes)
at long time intervals, such as every 30 minutes.
When a link changes state, the device that detected the change creates a link-state
advertisement (LSA) concerning that link (route), and that LSA is propagated to all OSPF
routers. Each OSPF router takes a copy oI the LSA, updates its link-state (topological)
database, and Iorwards the LSA to all neighboring OSPF routers. This Ilooding oI the LSA is
required to ensure that all OSPF routers update their databases beIore creating an updated
routing table that reIlects the new topology.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-8
Link-State Routing ProtocoIs
· After initiaI fIood, passes smaII event-triggered Iink-state updates to aII
other routers
SPF
AIgorithm
SPF
AIgorithm
Link-State Packets Link-State Packets
Routing
TabIe
Routing
TabIe
Shortest-Path-First Tree Shortest-Path-First Tree
TopoIogicaI
Database
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The link-state database is used to calculate the best paths through the network, by applying the
Dijkstra shortest path Iirst (SPF) algorithm against the link-state database to build the shortest-
path-Iirst tree. The best (shortest) paths are then selected Irom the shortest-path-Iirst tree and
placed in the routing table.
Examples oI link-state routing protocols are OSPF and IS-IS.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-9
Link-State Routing ProtocoIs (Cont.)
Distance-Vector Distance-Vector
Link State Link State
IGRP
· Distance-vector
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Using bandwidth, deIay,
reIiabiIity, Ioad, and MTU
IGRP
· Distance-vector
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Using bandwidth, deIay,
reIiabiIity, Ioad, and MTU
OSPF
· Link-state, hierarchicaI
· Successor to RIP
· Using Ieast-cost routing,
muItipath routing, and
Ioad baIancing
· Derived from IS-IS
RIP
· Distance-vector
· Using hop count
RIP
· Distance-vector
· Using hop count
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-69
Hybrid Routing ProtocoIs
A third class oI routing protocols, called hybrid, combines aspects oI distance-vector and link-
state algorithms.
An example oI a hybrid algorithm is EIGRP. This protocol, developed by Cisco, is an advanced
version oI IGRP. It provides superior convergence properties and operating eIIiciency and
combines the advantages oI link-state protocols with those oI distance-vector protocols.
There is no single best routing protocol Ior all internetworks. Network administrators must
weigh technical and nontechnical aspects oI their networks to determine which is best.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-10
Hybrid Routing ProtocoIs
Distance-Vector Distance-Vector
Link State Link State
IGRP
· Distance-vector
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Using bandwidth, deIay,
reIiabiIity, Ioad, and MTU
IGRP
· Distance-vector
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Using bandwidth, deIay,
reIiabiIity, Ioad, and MTU
OSPF
· Link-state, hierarchicaI
· Successor to RIP
· Using Ieast-cost routing,
muItipath routing, and
Ioad baIancing
· Derived from IS-IS
OSPF
· Link-state, hierarchicaI
· Successor to RIP
· Using Ieast-cost routing,
muItipath routing, and
Ioad baIancing
· Derived from IS-IS
RIP
· Distance-vector
· Using hop count
RIP
· Distance-vector
· Using hop count
Hybrid Hybrid
EIGRP
· Hybrid protocoI
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Superior convergence
and operating efficiency
· Merging benefits of Iink
state and distance-vector
EIGRP
· Hybrid protocoI
· DeveIoped by Cisco
· Superior convergence
and operating efficiency
· Merging benefits of Iink
state and distance-vector
6-70 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
RIPv1 and RIPv2
RIP uses distance-vector algorithms to determine the direction and distance to any link in the
internetwork. This topic describes the Ieatures and operations oI both RIP Version 1 and RIP
Version 2.
II there are multiple paths to a destination, RIP selects the path with the smallest number oI
hops. However, because hop count is the only routing metric used by RIP, it does not
necessarily select the Iastest path to a destination. It counts only hops.
RIP allows routers to update their routing tables at programmable intervals; the deIault interval
is every 30 seconds. Because RIP is constantly sending routing updates to its neighboring
routers, this process can cause network traIIic to build. RIP also sends triggered updates, which
contain only the routing inIormation regarding the speciIic topology change.
To prevent a packet Irom inIinite looping, RIP has a hop-count limitation oI 15 hops. II the
destination network is more than 15 routers away, it is considered unreachable and the packet is
dropped. This limitation creates a scalability issue when routing in large, heterogeneous
networks (see Iigure).
RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) is a classIul routing protocol. This means that all devices in the same
network must use the same subnet mask, because RIPv1 does not include the subnet mask
inIormation with the routing update. RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) provides what is called preIix
routing, and does send subnet mask inIormation with the route updates. This supports the use oI
classless routing. With classless routing protocols, diIIerent subnets within the same network
can have diIIerent subnet masks. The use oI diIIerent subnet masks within the same network is
reIerred to as variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-11
Hop Count
Hop Counter Hop Counter 15 15
RIP
1-16
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-71
IGRP
IGRP is a distance-vector routing protocol developed by Cisco. It was developed speciIically to
address problems associated with routing in large networks that were beyond the scope oI
protocols such as RIP. This topic describes the Ieatures and operations oI IGRP.
While RIP selects the path with the Iewest hops, IGRP can select the Iastest path, based on the
delay, bandwidth, load, MTU, and reliability (see Iigure). Network administrators can
determine the importance given to any one oI these metrics or allow IGRP to automatically
calculate the optimal path. By deIault, IGRP uses bandwidth and delay metrics only. Like RIP,
it supports only classIul routing. IGRP also has a much higher maximum hop-count limit than
RIP, to allow the network to scale.
IGRP sends routing updates at 90-second intervals or when a topology change occurs,
advertising the network Ior a particular autonomous system. IGRP These are key design
characteristics oI IGRP:
Versatility that enables it to automatically handle indeIinite, complex topologies
Flexibility Ior segments that have diIIerent bandwidth and delay characteristics
Scalability Ior Iunctioning in very large networks
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-12
Metric Metric Maximum hop count Maximum hop count Origins Origins
IGRP IGRP
255, successfuIIy run in
Iargest internetworks in the
worId
255, successfuIIy run in
Iargest internetworks in the
worId
RIP RIP Hop count Hop count 15 15
IGRP vs. RIP
Xerox Xerox
Bandwidth
Load
DeIay
ReIiabiIity
MTU
Bandwidth
Load
DeIay
ReIiabiIity
MTU
Cisco Cisco
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EIGRP
EIGRP is an advanced version oI IGRP and is a proprietary Cisco protocol, providing superior
operating eIIiciency such as Iaster convergence and lower overhead bandwidth. This topic
describes the enhancements provided by EIGRP over IGRP.
EIGRP combines the advantages oI link-state protocols with those oI distance-vector protocols.
Thus the term hybrid is used to describe its algorithm.
While EIGRP uses the same deIault and conIigurable metrics as IGRP, there are Iive basic
components that enhance its ability to route data:
Neighbor discovery and recovery: This Ieature allows routers to learn about neighboring
routers dynamically.
Reliable Transport Protocol: This technology guarantees the ordered delivery oI EIGRP
packets to all neighbors.
DUAL finite-state machine: DiIIusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) tracks all routes
advertised by all neighbors so that it can select a loop-Iree path.
Protocol-specific modules: These modules are responsible Ior network layer, protocol-
speciIic requirements needed to make routing decisions. EIGRP supports multiple routed
protocols.
VLSM support: Subnet masks are included in routing tables and updates, and EIGRP is
thereIore capable oI classless routing and the use oI diIIerent subnet masks within the
network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-13
EIGRP Features
· Neighbor discovery and recovery
· ReIiabIe Transport ProtocoI
· DUAL finite-state machine
· ProtocoI-specific moduIes
· VLSM support
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-73
OSPF
The OSPF protocol is a link-state protocol that was written to address the needs oI large,
scalable internetworks beyond the capabilities oI the RIP protocol. This topic describes the
Ieatures and operations oI OSPF.
The IETF developed OSPF in 1988. The most recent version is known as OSPF Version 2 and
is an open standard. OSPF is an IGP, which means that it distributes routing inIormation
between routers belonging to the same autonomous system. The large network issues it
addresses include:
Speed of convergence: In large networks, RIP convergence can take several minutes as the
routing algorithm goes through a hold-down and route-aging period. With OSPF,
convergence is Iaster than with RIP because routing changes are Ilooded immediately and
computed in parallel.
Support for VLSMs: RIPv1 does not support VLSMs. OSPF is a classless routing
protocol, sending subnet mask inIormation along with the routing updates, so it supports
VLSMs. (Note that RIPv2 also supports VLSMs.)
Network reachability: OSPF has virtually no reachability limitations.
Use of bandwidth: RIP broadcasts Iull routing tables to all neighbors every 30 seconds, a
situation that can become especially problematic over slow WAN links. OSPF multicasts
link-state updates and sends the updates only when there is a change in the network. (Note
that OSPF also sends updates every 30 minutes to ensure that all routers are synchronized.)
Method for path selection: RIP has no concept oI network delays and link costs. Routing
decisions are based purely on hop count, a situation that could lead to suboptimal path
selection in cases where a longer path (in terms oI hop count) has a higher aggregate link
bandwidth and shorter delays. OSPF uses a cost value, which Ior Cisco routers is based on
the conIigured bandwidth oI the interIace.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-14
OSPF Features
· Fast convergence
· Support for VLSM
· Network reachabiIity
· Efficient use of bandwidth
· Path seIection based on cost
6-74 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
BGP
BGP is an example oI an EGP. It is the principal route advertising protocol used by major
companies and ISPs on the Internet. This topic describes the Ieatures and operations oI BGP.
BGP exchanges routing inIormation between autonomous systems while guaranteeing loop-Iree
path selection. Version 4 oI BGP is the Iirst version oI BGP that supports classless interdomain
routing (CIDR) and route aggregation. Unlike common IGPs such as RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP,
BGP does not use metrics such as hop count or bandwidth or delay. Instead, BGP makes
routing decisions based on network policies using various BGP path attributes.
BGP updates are carried using TCP on port 179. In contrast, RIP updates use User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) port 520, while OSPF uses neither TCP nor UDP (it has its own network layer
protocol number oI 89). Because BGP requires TCP, IP connectivity must exist between BGP
peers, and TCP connections must be negotiated between them beIore updates can be
exchanged. BGP thereIore inherits the reliable, connection-oriented properties oI TCP.
To guarantee loop-Iree path selection, BGP constructs a graph oI autonomous systems based on
the inIormation exchanged between BGP neighbors. As Iar as BGP is concerned, the whole
internetwork is a graph, or tree, oI autonomous systems. The connection between any two
autonomous systems Iorms a path, and the collection oI path inIormation is expressed as a
sequence oI autonomous-system numbers (called the autonomous-system path). This sequence
Iorms a route to reach a speciIic destination, as shown in the Iigure.
BGP is used extensively in the Internet today to connect ISPs and to connect enterprises to
ISPs.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-15
BGP Features
AS 300 AS 100
AS 400
AS 200
AS 500
AS PATH
500
AS = Autonomous System
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-75
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-16
Summary
· Interior Gateway ProtocoIs (IGPs) route data within
an autonomous system, whiIe Exterior Gateway
ProtocoIs (EGPs) route data between autonomous
systems.
· Distance-vector routing protocoIs send aII or some
portion of their routing tabIe onIy to neighbors. The
distance-vector routing approach determines the
direction (vector) and distance to any network in
the internetwork.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-17
Summary (Cont.)
· Link-state routing protocoIs run the shortest-path-
first (SPF) aIgorithms against the Iink-state
database to determine the best paths and fIood
routing information about their own Iinks to aII the
routers in the network.
· A hybrid routing protocoI combines aspects of
Iink-state and distance-vector protocoIs.
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© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-18
Summary (Cont.)
· Routing Information ProtocoI (RIP) is a distance-
vector protocoI that uses the hop-count metric to
determine best path.
· Interior Gateway Routing ProtocoI (IGRP) is aIso
a distance-vector protocoI. IGRP uses a composite
metric of deIay, bandwidth, Ioad, reIiabiIity,
and MTU.
· Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing ProtocoI
(EIGRP) is a hybrid routing protocoI. EIGRP
supports muItipIe routed protocoIs and provides
faster convergence and Iower overhead bandwidth.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-6-19
Summary (Cont.)
· Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a Iink-state
protocoI and addresses needs of Iarge, scaIabIe
internetworks, incIuding convergence speed,
VLSM support, network reachabiIity, and cost-
reIated path seIection.
· Border Gateway ProtocoI (BGP) is an exterior
routing protocoI that exchanges routing
information between autonomous systems whiIe
guaranteeing Ioop-free path seIection. BGP uses
a variety of routing poIicies as its metric.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-77
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is an example oI an EGP?
A) OSPF
B) RIP
C) BGP
D) EIGRP
Q2) What are IGPs used Ior?
A) to set up a compatibility inIrastructure between networks
B) to communicate between autonomous systems
C) to transmit between nodes on a network
D) to deliver routing inIormation within a single autonomous system
Q3) Which best describes a distance-vector protocol?
A) It determines the direction and distance to any network in the internetwork.
B) Each router maintains a complex database oI internetwork topology
inIormation.
C) It is computationally rather complex.
D) It is a method oI routing that prevents loops and minimizes counting to inIinity.
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing best describes link-state algorithms?
A) They determine distance and direction to any link on the internetwork.
B) They require minimal computation.
C) They recreate the exact topology oI the entire internetwork.
D) They use little network overhead and reduce overall traIIic.
Q5) In the IP RIP routing protocol, how oIten are periodic routing updates sent?
A) every 30 seconds
B) every 60 seconds
C) every 90 seconds
D) only when the administrator directs the router to do so
6-78 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q6) By deIault, which oI the Iollowing is a routing metric used by IGRP?
A) bandwidth and delay
B) MTU size and load
C) hop count and delay
D) reliability and load
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing is a basic component oI EIGRP?
A) protocol-independent modules
B) DUAL Iinite-state machine
C) neighbor discovery and recovery
D) Reliable Transport Protocol
Q8) Which oI the Iollowing is a Ieature oI OSPF?
A) has Iast convergence
B) processes updates eIIiciently
C) selects paths based on hop count
D) supports VLSM
Q9) BGP is an example oI which type oI protocol?
A) Interior Gateway Protocol
B) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
C) routing protocol
D) none oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. ÌP Addressing and Routing 6-79
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) C
ReIates to: ÌGPs and EGPs
Q2) D
ReIates to: ÌGPs and EGPs
Q3) A
ReIates to: Routing Protocols
Q4) C
ReIates to: Routing Protocols
Q5) A
ReIates to: RÌPv1 and RÌPv2
Q6) A
ReIates to: ÌGRP
Q7) A
ReIates to: EÌGRP
Q8) C
ReIates to: OSPF
Q9) C
ReIates to: BGP
6-80 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 6-1: IP Network Addressing
Quiz 6-2: IP Subnetting
Quiz 6-3: Routing Basics
Quiz 6-4: Routing Protocols
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Quiz 6-1: IP Network Addressing
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the structure oI a IP address
Describe the classes oI IP addresses
Describe reserved IP addresses
Compare public and private IP addresses
Explain the address allocation issues related to IPv4
Compare IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
Describe the classless interdomain routing (CIDR) address scheme
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Network addresses can be dynamically assigned.
A) true
B) Ialse
Q2) What network address is reserved Ior loopback testing?
A) 0.0.0.0
B) 191.168.32.0
C) 127.0.0.0
D) 172.16.0.0
E) None oI the above
Q3) Match each class with the Iirst octet oI its IP address range.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 6-83
Q4) What is the translation oI private addresses to public addresses reIerred to as?
A) DHCP
B) DNS
C) WINS
D) NAT
E) None oI the above
Q5) Which is the IP protocol that is being implemented to increase the number oI network
addresses available?
A) IPv2
B) IPv4
C) IPv6
D) IPv8
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
6-84 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 6-2: IP Subnetting
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the purpose and Iunction oI a subnetwork
Describe the use oI a subnet mask
Given an IP address and a subnet, calculate the network ID and host value
Calculate a subnet assignment which supports required distribution oI networks and hosts,
given a classIul IP address and the network requirements
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) How many addresses are available iI the IP address is 206.15.8.0/20?
A) 4088
B) 4098
C) 4094
D) 4096
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is a beneIit Irom subnetting a network? (Choose two.)
A) better traIIic control
B) better perIormance
C) increased security
D) increased collisions
E) increased traIIic
Q3) II you were going to borrow Iour bits to create a subnet mask Ior a Class B address,
what would the subnet mask be?
A) 255.255.224.0
B) 255.255.255.0
C) 255.255.240.0
D) 255.255.0.0
E) None oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 6-85
Q4) How many subnets could be created iI six bits are borrowed?
A) 8
B) 16
C) 32
D) 64
E) 128
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
6-86 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 6-3: Routing Basics
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the Iunctions oI a router
Compare a routing protocol and a routed protocol
Explain how routing determines the best path
Describe the purpose and use oI network routing tables
Describe diIIerent goals oI routing algorithms
Describe the most commonly used routing metrics
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) What are the key Iunctions oI a router?
A) maintain routing tables
B) use routing tables to determine the optimal path Ior network traIIic
C) determine where to Iorward a packet oI data
D) add necessary Iraming Ior an interIace
E) all oI the above
Q2) What happens in the third step oI the encapsulation/de-encapsulation process?
A) The network layer process examines the network layer header to determine the
destination network.
B) The router de-encapsulates and examines the Irame to determine what type oI
network layer data is being carried.
C) The pack is re-encapsulated in the data link layer Irame Ior the selected
interIace and transmitted.
D) None oI the above occur.
Q3) What are some inIormational items contained in a routing table? (Choose two.)
A) destination/next-hop associations
B) routing metric
C) segment length
D) ticks
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 6-87
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
6-88 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 6-4: Routing ProtocoIs
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
List the major interior and exterior routing protocols
Describe the primary classes oI routing protocols and provide examples oI each
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI RIPv1 and RIPv2
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI IGRP
Describe the Iour basic components used by EIGRP to enhance its ability
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI OSPF
Describe the Ieatures and operations oI BGP
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is a routing protocol?
A) RIP
B) BGP
C) IP
D) IGRP
E) OSPF
Q2) A router compares the destination network address to a routing table to select a path.
A) true
B) Ialse
Q3) What metric is a measure oI delay?
A) cost
B) bandwidth
C) hop
D) load
E) none oI the above
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 6-89
Q4) What do routers use to exchange data?
A) advanced conIigurations
B) routing protocols
C) IP addresses
D) signals
E) none oI the above
Q5) What do link-state protocols propagate when a network change occurs?
A) routing tables
B) LSA
C) OSPF
D) metrics
E) none oI the above
Q6) When using RIP, what is the hop count limitation?
A) 6
B) 10
C) 15
D) no hop count limitation
E) none oI the above
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing are beneIits oI IGRP when compared to RIP? (Choose two.)
A) 255 hop count limitation
B) Iewer metrics
C) versatility Ior handling complex networks
D) more updates sent when network changes occur
Q8) Which oI the Iollowing is true about EIGRP?
A) It is a Cisco proprietary protocol.
B) It is based on the DUAL algorithm.
C) It is considered a hybrid protocol.
D) It has more overhead than IGRP.
Q9) Which is true about OSPF?
A) It supports VLSM.
B) It has virtually no hop count limitation.
C) It sends updates to neighbors only when changes occur.
D) OSPF bases its metric on cost.
E) None oI the above are correct.
6-90 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 6-91
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 6-1: IP Network Addressing
Q1) A
Q2) C
Q3)
Q4) D
Q5) C
Quiz 6-2: IP Subnetting
Q1) C
Q2) A, B
Q3) C
Q4) D
Quiz 6-3: Routing Basics
Q1) E
Q2) C
Q3) A, B
Quiz 6-4: Routing ProtocoIs
Q1) C
Q2) A
Q3) E
Q4) B
Q5) B
Q6) C
Q7) A, C
Q8) D
Q9) E
6-92 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ModuIe 7
WAN Technologies
Overview
Wide-area networks (WANs) are connections oI multiple local-area networks (LANs), and they
provide the means Ior users to access resources across a wide geographic area. There are
several WAN connection technologies, including point-to-point, circuit switching, and packet
switching, as well as physical devices to establish the connection, such as analog and cable
modems. There are also several technologies involved in accessing a WAN, such as ISDN,
DSL, Frame Relay, ATM, and SONET, as well as protocols such as PPP and HDLC. This
module describes the Iunctions oI major WAN technologies as well as WAN access
technologies and provides an overview oI analog and cable modems.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to describe the Iunctions oI major WAN
technologies and access technologies, as well as the Iunctions oI analog and cable modems.
This includes being able to do the Iollowing:
Describe the Iunctions oI major WAN technologies, including point-to-point, circuit
switching, packet switching, and multiplexing.
Describe the Iunctions oI WAN access technologies, including ISDN, DSL, Frame Relay,
ATM, and SONET, and the Iunctions oI two protocols, PPP and HDLC.
Describe the Iunctions oI analog and cable modems
OutIine
The module contains these components:
WAN Technology Basics
WAN Access Technologies
Modems
Lesson Assessments
7-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
WAN Technology Basics
Overview
There are several types oI WAN connection technologies, including circuit switching, packet
switching, and point-to-point. Bandwidth and multiplexing aIIect the speed at which data is
transmitted over a WAN connection.
ReIevance
Learning about WAN connections will help you understand how WANs Iunction overall.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions oI major WAN
technologies, including point-to-point, circuit switching, packet switching, and multiplexing.
This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the major WAN connection categories
Describe and provide examples oI circuit switching
Describe and provide examples oI packet switching
Describe point-to-point connections
Explain bandwidth options Ior leased lines
Describe the Iunction and types oI multiplexing
7-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
WAN Technology Basics
Circuit Switching
Packet Switching
Point-to-Point
Bandwidth
Multiplexing
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-5
WAN TechnoIogy Basics
A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and
uses transmission Iacilities provided by a service provider, or carrier, such as a telephone or
cable company. This topic introduces the major categories oI WAN connections.
The connection technologies in WAN environments can be classiIied into three major
categories:
Using switched circuits, data connections are initiated when needed and
terminated when the transmission is completed. A regular telephone line is an example oI a
circuit-switched connection.
In a packet-switched environment, the carrier resources are shared
among many customers, who connect to the carrier's network (oIten reIerred to as a cloud).
Packets oI data are transmitted through the carrier's network Irom one customer site to
another.
This technology, sometimes called a serial connection, is also reIerred to as
a leased line connection because the lines are leased Irom a carrier (usually a telephone
company) and are dedicated Ior use by the company leasing the lines. Companies pay Ior a
continuous connection between two remote sites, and the line is active 24 hours a day, 7
days a week.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-4
WAN Connection
San Jose
Headquarters
Denver
Branch Office
MobiIe Worker
TeIecommuter
Service
Provider
7-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Circuit Switching
Switched circuits allow connections to be initiated when transmission is needed and terminated
when the transmission is completed. This topic describes how circuit switching works.
With circuit switching, a dedicated physical circuit is established, maintained, and terminated
through a carrier network Ior each communication session. Actually, in circuit switching only
the access path will be a dedicated physical circuit; the network will use some Iorm oI
multiplexing technology within the cloud.
Circuit switching operates much like a normal dial-up telephone call and is used extensively in
telephone company networks. The public switched telephone network (PSTN) and ISDN are
examples oI circuit-switched WAN connection technology.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-5
Circuit Switching
TeIephone
Company
Network
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-7
Packet Switching
Packet switching is a switching method in which users share common carrier resources Ior data
transmission. This topic describes how packet switching works.
Packet switching allows the carrier to make more eIIicient use oI its inIrastructure, so the cost
to the customer is generally lower than with point-to-point leased lines. In a packet-switching
environment, many customer networks connect to the carrier`s network. The carrier can then
create virtual circuits between customer sites by which packets oI data are delivered Irom one
site to another through the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-6
Packet Switching
Synchronous
SeriaI
Synchronous
SeriaI
CSU/DSU
CSU/DSU
CSU/DSU
VC
7-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Point-to-Point
A point-to-point (or serial) communication link provides a single, preestablished WAN
communications path Irom the customer premises through a carrier network, such as a
telephone company, to a remote network. This topic describes the Iunctions oI point-to-point
technology.
Point-to-point lines are usually leased Irom a carrier and are oIten called leased lines. For a
point-to-point line, the carrier dedicates Iixed transport capacity and Iacility hardware to a
customer's line. The carrier will still use multiplexing technologies within the network. These
circuits are generally priced based on bandwidth required as well as the distance between the
two connected points. Point-to-point links are generally more expensive than shared services
such as Frame Relay.
When leased-line connections are made, a router interIace is required Ior each connection. II a
serial interIace is used, then a channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU) is also
required. The purpose oI the CSU/DSU is to provide a clocked signal to the customer
equipment interIace Irom the DSU and terminate the carrier`s channelized transport media on
the CSU. It also provides diagnostic Iunctions such as loopback. Most T1 or E1 time-division
multiplexing (TDM) interIaces on current routers include approved CSU capabilities.
Typically, the two devices are packaged as a single unit. You can think oI it as a high-powered
and expensive modem that connects to a digital line (such as a T1).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-7
Leased Line
CSU/DSU
Service Provider's
CentraI Office
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-9
Bandwidth
Point-to-point connections can be purchased or leased in a variety oI speeds, or bandwidths.
This topic describes the various bandwidths available Ior WAN connections.
Bandwidth reIers to the speed at which data is transIerred over the communication link. It is
usually expressed as a "DS" number (DS0, DS1, and so Iorth) that technically reIers to the rate
and Iormat oI the signal. The most Iundamental line speed is 64 Kbps (DS0), which is the
bandwidth required Ior an uncompressed, digitized phone call.
Serial connection bandwidths can be incrementally increased to accommodate the need Ior
Iaster transmission. For example, 24 DS0s can be bundled to get a DS1 line (also called a T1
line) with a speed oI 1.544 Mbps. Then 28 DS1s can be bundled to get a DS3 (also called a T3
line) with a speed oI 44.736 Mbps.
Note E1 (2.048 Mbps) and E3 (34.368 Mbps) are European standards similar to T1 and T3, but
they possess different bandwidths and frame structures.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-8
WAN Connection Bandwidth
1 DS0
24 DS0s
672 DS0s
DS0 = 64 Kbps
DS1 or T1 = 1.536 Mbps
DS3 or T3 = 43.008 Mbps
7-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
MuItipIexing
Multiplexing is a process oI sharing in which multiple data channels are combined into a single
data or physical channel Ior transmission. This topic describes how multiplexing works and the
diIIerent types oI multiplexing.
Multiplexing can be implemented at any oI the OSI layers. AIter the channels are combined at
the source, at the receiving end oI the transmission the data is "demultiplexed" into its original,
separate Iorms. This process allows multiple transmissions to be handled by only one line.
There are three primary types oI multiplexing that operate at the physical layer:
Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)
Statistical multiplexing
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-9
MuItipIexing TechnoIogies
· Time-Division MuItipIexing (TDM)
· Frequency-Division MuItipIexing (FDM)
· StatisticaI MuItipIexing
MuItipIexer
T1, T3
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-11
With time-division multiplexing (TDM), inIormation Irom each data channel is allocated
bandwidth based on preassigned time slots, regardless oI whether there is data to transmit. As a
result, bandwidth is wasted when a data channel has nothing to transmit during its assigned
time slot. In TDM, the physical layer attribute used Ior sharing is based on time.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-10
TDM
SIow Bit Stream 2
SIow Bit Stream 1
Time
Time
Wide Bit Stream
Time
7-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
With Irequency-division multiplexing (FDM), inIormation Irom each data channel is allocated
bandwidth based on the signal Irequency oI the traIIic. For example, FM radio broadcast uses
FDM. Each FM station is assigned a speciIic Irequency to use Ior broadcasting its radio
programs. In FDM, the physical layer attribute used Ior sharing is based on Irequency.
With wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and dense WDM (DWDM), the physical layer
attribute used Ior sharing is based on wavelength (inverse oI Irequency).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-11
FDM
SignaI 2
SignaI 1
Frequency
ModuIated SignaI
Frequency
Frequency
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-13
With statistical multiplexing, a bandwidth is dynamically allocated to any data channels that
have inIormation to transmit. Packets, Irames, and cells could all be considered a Iorm oI
statistical multiplexing, because they allow many conversations to occur on a link.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-12
StatisticaI MuItipIexing
StatisticaI
MuItipIexer
Ch. 1
Ch. 3
Ch. 2
Ch. n
Ch. 1 = 64 kbps PCM packets
Ch. 2 = 32 kbps ADPCM packets
Ch. 3 = 64 - 32 - 24 kbps fixed-size packets
Ch. N = 64 - 32 - 24 kbps using variabIe-size packets
7-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-13
Summary
· A WAN is a data communications network that
covers a reIativeIy broad geographic area.
· WAN customers pay service providers
(teIephone or cabIe companies) for WAN
connections.
· WANs have a variety of protocoIs that aII operate at
physicaI and data-Iink Iayers of the OSI modeI.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-14
Summary (Cont.)
· There are three major categories of WAN
connection technoIogy: circuit switching, packet
switching, and point-to-point.
· Circuit switching aIIows connections to be initiated
when transmission is needed and terminated when
the transmission is compIeted
· Packet switching is a switching method in which
users share common carrier resources for data
transmission.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-15
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-15
Summary (Cont.)
· Point-to-point connections can be purchased or
Ieased in a variety of speeds, or bandwidths, such
as DS0, DS/T1/E1, and DS/T3/E3.
· MuItipIexing is a process of sharing in which
muItipIe data channeIs are combined into a singIe
data or physicaI channeI for transmission.
· There are severaI types of muItipIexing, incIuding
TDM, FDM, statisticaI muItipIexing.
7-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing best describes a WAN?
A) connects LANs that are separated by a large geographic area
B) connects workstations, terminals, and other devices in a metropolitan area
C) connects a LAN within a large building
D) connects workstations, terminals, and other devices within a building
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is an example oI a circuit-switching protocol?
A) ISDN
B) Frame Relay
C) PPP
D) HDLC
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing phrases describes a packet-switching protocol?
A) a switching method in which users share common carrier resources Ior data
transmission
B) allows connections to be initiated when transmission is needed and terminated
when the transmission is completed
C) operates much like a normal dial-up telephone call and is used extensively in
telephone company networks
D) none oI the above
Q4) A leased line is a ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ link that provides a single, preestablished
WAN communication path Irom the customer to a remote network.
A) point-to-point
B) point-to-multipoint
C) analog
D) digital
Q5) How many DS0s can be bundled to get a DS1/T1 line?
A) 24
B) 28
C) 48
D) 64
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-17
Q6) Which oI the Iollowing is a type oI physical-layer multiplexing?
A) TDM
B) FDM
C) WDM
D) none oI the above
7-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A
ReIates to: WAN Technology Basics
Q2) A
ReIates to: Circuit Switching
Q3) A
ReIates to: Packet Switching
Q4) A
ReIates to: Point-to-Point
Q5) A
ReIates to: Bandwidth
Q6) D
ReIates to: Multiplexing
WAN Access Technologies
Overview
Whether a WAN is connected through a circuit-switching, packet-switching, or point-to-point
technology, there are several access technologies, including ISDN, DSL, Frame Relay, ATM,
and SONET, as well the point-to-point protocols PPP and HDLC, that govern the way in which
data is transmitted over the WAN. Each oI these access technologies serves a diIIerent purpose
and provides a diIIerent type oI data transmission.
ReIevance
Now that you have learned about how WANs Iunction overall, learning about how the diIIerent
kinds oI WAN Iunction will provide you with a deeper understanding oI the various methods oI
transmitting data over WANs.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions oI WAN access
technologies, including ISDN, DSL, Frame Relay, ATM, and SONET, and the Iunctions oI two
protocols, PPP and HDLC. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the Iunction oI PPP
Describe the Iunction oI HDLC
Describe the Iunction and types oI ISDN
Describe the Iunction and types oI DSL, as well as the standards related to DSL
Describe the advantages and disadvantages oI DSL
Describe the Iunction oI Frame Relay
Describe the Iunction oI ATM
Describe the Iunction oI SONET
7-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
PPP
HDLC
ISDN
DSL
DSL Types
DSL Standards
DSL Advantages and Disadvantages
Frame Relay
ATM and Cell Switching
SONET
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-21
PPP
There are several protocols used in transmitting data over point-to-point or switched
communication links. Two oI the most common are the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and high-
level data link control (HDLC). This topic describes how PPP Iunctions.
PPP was created to solve remote Internet connectivity problems. Additionally, PPP was needed
to support the dynamic assignment oI IP addresses and to allow the use oI multiple routed
protocols. PPP provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over both
synchronous and asynchronous circuits. An example oI an asynchronous connection is a dial-up
connection. An example oI a synchronous connection is a leased line.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-4
PPP
PPP
EncapsuIation
WAN
7-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The PPP provides a standard method Ior transporting multiprotocol datagrams over point-to-
point links. PPP comprises these three main components:
A method Ior encapsulating multiprotocol datagrams
A Link Control Protocol (LCP) Ior establishing, conIiguring, and testing the data-link
connection
A Iamily oI Network Control Programs (NCPs) Ior establishing and conIiguring diIIerent
network layer protocols
In order to be suIIiciently versatile and portable to a wide variety oI environments, PPP
provides an LCP. The LCP is used to automatically determine the encapsulation Iormat option,
handle varying limits on sizes oI packets, detect a loopback link and other common
misconIiguration errors, and terminate the link. Other optional Iacilities provided are
authentication oI the identity oI its peer on the link and determination oI when a link is
Iunctioning properly or Iailing.
The authentication phase oI a PPP session is optional. AIter the link has been established and
the authentication protocol chosen, the peer can be authenticated. II it is used, authentication
takes place beIore the network layer protocol conIiguration phase begins.
The authentication options require that the calling side oI the link enter authentication
inIormation to help ensure that the user has the network administrator`s permission to make the
call. Peer routers exchange authentication messages.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-5
PPP EncapsuIation
CSU/DSU CSU/DSU
PPP
PPP
FIag Address ControI ProtocoI Data FCS FIag
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-23
HDLC
HDLC is a standard data-link layer protocol. This topic describes HDLC.
HDLC speciIies an encapsulation method Ior data on synchronous serial data links using Irame
character and checksum. HDLC supports both point-to-point and multipoint conIigurations.
The HDLC protocol includes means Ior authentication. HDLC might not be compatible
between diIIerent vendors because oI the way each vendor has chosen to implement it.
There is a Cisco implementation oI HDLC, which is the deIault encapsulation Ior serial lines.
This implementation is very streamlined; there is no windowing or Ilow control, and only
point-to-point connections are allowed. The Cisco HDLC implementation includes proprietary
extensions in the data Iield (see Iigure). It will not communicate with other HDLC
implementations. HDLC encapsulations vary, however, so PPP should be used when
interoperability is required.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-6
HDLC and Cisco HDLC
CSU/DSU CSU/DSU
HDLC
HDLC
FIag Address ControI Data FCS FIag
Cisco HDLC
FIag Address ControI Proprietary Data FCS FIag
7-24 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a circuit-switched connection technology. It is
an eIIicient alternative to dialup Ior connecting over basic telephone service. This topic
describes the types oI ISDN and explains how ISDN works.
ISDN Functions
ISDN reIers to a set oI communication protocols proposed by telephone companies to permit
telephone networks to carry data, voice, graphics, music, and video (see Iigure). ISDN was
developed to permit Iaster access over existing telephone systems without the additional call
setup time.
Because ISDN uses existing phone lines, it requires that the central oIIice be within a certain
distance, which limits service availability.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-7
ISDN
ISDN ISDN
ISDN
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-25
ISDN oIIers two types oI services: BRI and PRI. The ISDN BRI service, intended Ior the home
and small enterprise, provides two B channels (128 Kbps) and one D channel (16 Kbps). The
BRI B channels carry user data, while the BRI D channel usually carries control and signaling
inIormation.
The ISDN PRI service, intended Ior larger installations, delivers 23 B channels and one D
channel in North America Ior a total bit rate oI up to 1.544 Mbps (T1). In Europe, Australia,
and other parts oI the world, ISDN PRI provides 30 B channels and one D channel, Ior a total
bit rate oI up to 2.048 Mbps (E1) (see Iigure).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-8
BRI and PRI
7-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
DSL
Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is a circuit-switched connection technology that uses
existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data, such as multimedia and
video, to service subscribers. This topic describes the Iunction oI DSL.
DSL uses existing phone lines, so it requires central oIIice access equipment (digital subscriber
line access multiplexer |DSLAM|) to connect the DSL line to the network and has distance
restrictions that may limit service availability.
DSL provides a Iull-time connection. As soon as users turn on their computers connected to the
DSL modem, they are connected. This setup removes the time and eIIort oI dialing in to
establish a connection.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-9
DSL
End User
DSL
Copper Loop
Ethernet
ATM
DSL
Modem
DSL
Modem
VaIue-Added
Packet Network
CentraI Office
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-27
DSL Types
The two primary types oI DSL technologies are asymmetric (ADSL) and symmetric. All Iorms
oI DSL service are categorized as one or the other, and there are numerous varieties oI each
type. This topic describes the various types oI DSL.
The term 'xDSL¨ is sometimes used to reIer generically to any oI the various Iorms oI DSL.
Asymmetric service provides higher download or downstream speeds than upstream speeds.
Symmetric service provides the same speed in both directions.
Downstream inIormation, such as requested web pages, comes Irom the internetwork to the
user (Irom the central oIIice, or CO, to the subscriber). Upstream inIormation is sent Irom the
user to the internetwork (Irom the subscriber to the CO). Asymmetric types oI DSL generally
use analog transmission encoding (modulation) technology, while symmetric Iorms generally
use digital transmission encoding (modulation) techniques.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-10
DSL Service Types Overview
Internet
Corporate
Network
CentraI Office
xDSL
Asymmetric DSL Symmetric DSL
Down Up Down Up
7-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
DSL Standards
There are a number oI standards associated with DSL. This topic provides an overview oI those
standards and related inIormation about DSL.
This Iigure lists each DSL technology and the relevant standards organizations and standard
numbers associated with those technologies. Not all the DSL technologies listed have a
standard associated with them. Also listed is the modulation or encoding standard(s) used by
the DSL modems to place digital data bits onto the wire. The most important standards listed in
the Iigure are asymmetric DSL standards G.992.1 (G.dmt) and G.992.2 (G.lite) as well as
symmetric standard G.991.2 (G.shdsl). All vendors who are currently building DSL support
these international standards.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-11
DSL TechnoIogies Standards Comparison
DSL types DSL types Standards Standards ModuIation
/encoding
technique
ModuIation
/encoding
technique
Speed Speed Distance
Iimit
Distance
Iimit
FuII-rate
ADSL/G.DMT
G.Lite
Very-high-data-
rate DSL(VDSL)
ISDN DSL
(IDSL)
SDSL
High-data-rate
DSL (HDSL)
G.SHDSL
ANSI T1.413
Issue 2
ANSI T1.413
Issue 2
ITU-U G.992.1
ITU-T G 992.2
ITU-U G.992.1
ITU-T G 992.2
ETSI and ANSI
in process
ETSI and ANSI
in process
ETSI ETR 080 ETSI ETR 080
None None
ITU G991.1,
ANSI TR 28
ITU G991.1,
ANSI TR 28
ITU G.991.2 ITU G.991.2
DMT or CAP DMT or CAP
DMT DMT
DMT/QAM DMT/QAM
2B1Q 2B1Q
2B1Q 2B1Q
2B1Q 2B1Q
TC PAM TC PAM
Downstream speeds of 384 Kbps to 8
Mbps; upstream sIower up to 1.024 Mbps
Downstream speeds of 384 Kbps to 8
Mbps; upstream sIower up to 1.024 Mbps
Downstream speed up to 1.5 Mbps;
Upstream speed up to 640 Kbps
Downstream speed up to 1.5 Mbps;
Upstream speed up to 640 Kbps
12.96 Mbps to 52.8 Mbps for both
upstream and downstream
12.96 Mbps to 52.8 Mbps for both
upstream and downstream
144 Kbps for both upstream and
downstream
144 Kbps for both upstream and
downstream
768 Kbps for both upstream and
downstream
768 Kbps for both upstream and
downstream
1.544 or 2.048 Mbps for both upstream
and downstream
1.544 or 2.048 Mbps for both upstream
and downstream
192 Kbps to 2.3 Mbps for both upstream
and downstream
192 Kbps to 2.3 Mbps for both upstream
and downstream
18,000 feet 18,000 feet
18,000 feet 18,000 feet
4500 feet 4500 feet
18,000 feet 18,000 feet
22,000 feet 22,000 feet
12,000 feet 12,000 feet
28,000 feet 28,000 feet
· ADSLs are marked in red; symmetricaI DSLs are marked in bIue.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-29
DSL Advantages and Disadvantages
There are a number oI advantages oI DSL over other circuit-switched technologies, as well as a
Iew disadvantages. This topic describes both the advantages and disadvantages oI DSL.
DSL service can be added incrementally in any area. That means that the service provider can
literally start up with a handIul oI clients and upgrade the bandwidth to coincide with the
growth in numbers oI subscribers. DSL is also backward compatible with analog voice and
makes good use oI the existing local loop. This means that very little needs to be done to use
the DSL service simultaneously with normal phone service.
However, DSL suIIers Irom distance limitations. Most DSL service oIIerings currently require
the customer to be within 18,000 Ieet oI the provider`s central oIIice (CO) location.
Additionally, the older, longer loops present problems. Also, upstream (upload) speed is
usually considerably slower than the downstream (download) speed.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-12
Advantages and Disadvantages of DSL
Advantages of DSL
· DSL offers speeds up to and exceeding those of T1, at just a fraction of the
cost.
· DSL service can be added incrementaIIy as more users subscribe.
· Both voice and data can be transmitted over the same Iine at the same time.
· DSL is an aIways-on technoIogy. This means users do not need to diaI up
each time they wish to connect to the Internet.
· DSL is backward compatibIe with conventionaI anaIog phones.
Disadvantages of DSL
· The avaiIabiIity of DSL is presentIy stiII Iimited, with service for most
"fIavors" or varieties possibIe onIy for areas that faII within a specified
number of feet from the teIephone company centraI office (CO).
· The teIephone company CO that is servicing the Iocation must have DSL
equipment instaIIed.
· The best form of voice over DSL support is stiII being debated.
7-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Frame ReIay
Frame Relay is a Irame-switching connection technology and is implemented using virtual
circuits. This topic introduces the Iunction oI Frame Relay by describing the devices that
operate in a Frame Relay environment.
Frame ReIay Devices
There are two classes oI Frame Relay devices:
Data terminal equipment (DTE): Terminating equipment Ior a speciIic network that is
typically located on a customer premises. An example oI a Frame Relay DTE device is a
router.
Data communications equipment (DCE): Carrier-owned internetworking device that
provides clocking and switching services within a network. An example oI a Frame Relay
DCE device is the Frame Relay switch.
Frame ReIay VirtuaI Circuits
Frame Relay operates over virtual circuits, which are logical connections created to enable
communication between two remote devices across a network. Virtual circuits provide a
bidirectional communications path Irom one DTE device to another. A data-link connection
identiIier (DLCI) within the Frame Relay address header uniquely identiIies a virtual circuit.
The DLCI is speciIic only to the router where it is conIigured. A virtual circuit can pass
through any number oI intermediate DCE devices located within the network. Numerous virtual
circuits can be multiplexed into a single physical circuit Ior access to and transmission across
the network.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-13
Frame ReIay Devices and VirtuaI Circuits
DTE
DTE
DCE
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-31
To illustrate how Frame Relay works, the Iigure shows a hub-and-spoke topology used to
connect a headquarters router to three remote routers. Even though the SJ Headquarters router
has only one physical connection to the service provider, that physical connection is logically
divided into three logical connections (virtual circuits), each virtual circuit connecting to a
diIIerent remote router. The physical connection at the remote routers will contain only one
virtual circuit because the remote routers need to connect only to the router at the SJ
Headquarters.
Frame Relay works at Layer 2 oI the OSI reIerence model. An identiIier, or DLCI, within the
Frame Relay header indicates which virtual circuit a Irame belongs to. The Frame Relay service
provider also makes its switching decision based on the DLCI. In the Iigure, the Frame Relay
connection at SJ Headquarters is provisioned with three virtual circuits. The SJ Headquarters
router uses DLCI 102 in the Frame Relay header Ior sending data to the LA router, DLCI 101
Ior the NY router, and DLCI 100 Ior the Chicago router.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-14
Frame ReIay
LA
NY
Chicago
SJ Headquarters
Hub and Spoke
Frame ReIay Header (DLCI)
DLCI 102
DLCI 101
DLCI 100
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
7-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ATM and CeII Switching
Asynchronous TransIer Mode (ATM) is a type oI cell-switched connection technology that is
capable oI transIerring voice, video, and data through private and public networks. ATM is
used primarily in enterprise LAN backbones or WAN links. This topic describes how ATM
Iunctions.
Like Frame Relay, ATM is implemented using virtual circuits. With ATM, the data is divided
into small 53-byte cells beIore it is transmitted. In the ATM cell header is a Iield called the
virtual path/channel identiIier (VPI/VCI) that is used to indicate which virtual circuit an ATM
cell belongs to. At the physical layer, ATM can run over a variety oI physical media, including
Iiber-optics using SONET Iraming, and coaxial cable using digital signal level 3 (DS3).
ATM cells are always a Iixed length oI 53 bytes, whereas the sizes oI Irames and packets vary.
The 53-byte ATM cell is made up oI a Iive-byte ATM header Iollowed by 48 bytes oI ATM
payload (user data). Small, Iixed-length, 53-byte cells are well suited Ior carrying data, voice,
and video traIIic because voice and video traIIic are intolerant oI delay that can result Irom
having to wait Ior a larger data packet to be transmitted ahead oI a voice or video packet.
An ATM switch is responsible Ior cell transit through an ATM network. It accepts the
incoming cell Irom an ATM endpoint or another ATM switch. It then reads and updates the cell
header inIormation and quickly switches the cell to an output interIace toward its destination.
An ATM virtual circuit is a logical connection created between two ATM endpoints across an
ATM network. ATM virtual circuits Iall into two categories:
Permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
Switched virtual circuit (SVC)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-15
ATM and CeII Switching
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3
Time SIots
1
2
3
4
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-33
Virtual circuits provide a bidirectional communications path Irom one ATM endpoint to
another. The VPI/VCI within the ATM cell header uniquely identiIies the virtual circuits.
A virtual circuit can pass through any number oI intermediate ATM switches in the ATM
network. Numerous virtual circuits can be multiplexed into a single physical circuit Ior
transmission across the network.
7-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
SONET
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a physical-layer protocol that provides Ior high-
speed transmission using Iiber-optic media. For example, ATM can run over SONET to
achieve very high data-transIer rates. This topic introduces SONET standards.
The term Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) reIers to the optical technology outside the
United States. The SONET signal rate is measured by optical carrier (OC) standards. The Iigure
illustrates the available transmission rates (called OC levels).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-16
OC IeveI OC IeveI SignaI Transmission rate SignaI Transmission rate
OC - 3 OC - 3 155.52 Mbps 155.52 Mbps
OC - 24 OC - 24 1.244 gigabits per second (Gbps) 1.244 gigabits per second (Gbps)
OC - 12 OC - 12 622.08 Mbps 622.08 Mbps
OC - 48 OC - 48 2.488 Gbps 2.488 Gbps
OC - 256 OC - 256 13.271 Gbps 13.271 Gbps
OC - 192 OC - 192 10 Gbps 10 Gbps
OC - 1 (base rate) OC - 1 (base rate) 51.84 megabits per second (Mbps) 51.84 megabits per second (Mbps)
SONET OpticaI Carrier Standards
OC - 768 OC - 768 40 Gbps 40 Gbps
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-35
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-17
Summary
· PPP is a protocoI used in transmitting data over
point-to-point or switched communication Iinks.
· HDLC is a standard data-Iink Iayer protocoI and
supports both point-to-point and muItipoint
configurations.
· ISDN refers to a set of communication protocoIs
proposed by teIephone companies to permit
teIephone networks to carry data, voice, graphics,
music, and video.
· There are two ISDN services: BRI (intended for the
home and smaII enterprise) and PRI
(intended for Iarger instaIIations).
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-18
Summary (Cont.)
· ISDN provides an integrated data, voice, and video
capabiIity that uses the pubIic switched network.
· DSL is a circuit-switched connection technoIogy
that uses existing twisted-pair teIephone Iines to
transport high-bandwidth data, such as muItimedia
and video, to service subscribers.
· The two primary types of DSL technoIogies are
asymmetric (ADSL) and symmetric, and aII forms
of DSL service are categorized as one or the other,
aIthough there are numerous varieties of each
type.
7-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-19
Summary (Cont.)
· Frame ReIay is a frame-switching connection
technoIogy and is impIemented using virtuaI
circuits.
· ATM is a ceII-switching connection technoIogy that
is capabIe of transferring voice, video, and data
through private and pubIic networks. It is used
primariIy in enterprise LAN backbones or WAN
Iinks.
· SONET is a physicaI Iayer protocoI that provides
for high-speed transmission using fiber-optic
media.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-37
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which protocol does PPP use Ior establishing and maintaining point-to-point
connections?
A) HDLC
B) LCP
C) LAPD
D) Cisco IETF
Q2) Which is the deIault encapsulation type Ior serial interIaces on a Cisco router?
A) PPP
B) HDLC
C) Frame Relay
D) X.25
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing statements pertaining to ISDN is Ialse?
A) The ISDN BRI oIIers two B channels and one D channel.
B) The D channel, operating at 16 Kbps, is primarily the signaling channel.
C) The ISDN BRI oIIers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America.
D) The total bit rate oI the ISDN BRI is 2.533 Mbps.
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing media is used by DSL to transport data?
A) existing coaxial cable TV lines
B) existing twisted-pair telephone lines
C) existing Ethernet lines
D) wireless transmission
Q5) What are the two basic types oI DSL technology?
A) downstream DSL and upstream DSL
B) xDSL and yDSL
C) asymmetric DSL and symmetric DSL
D) none oI the above
7-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q6) Which oI the Iollowing standards organizations and industries have contributed to the
evolution oI DSL?
A) ANSI
B) ITU-T
C) ETSI
D) all oI the above
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing is one oI the beneIits oI DSL?
A) DSL service can be added incrementally in any area.
B) DSL is backward compatible with conventional analog voice.
C) DSL service has distance limitations.
D) DSL is an always-on technology.
Q8) How does Frame Relay handle multiple conversations on the same physical
connection?
A) Frame Relay multiplexes the circuits.
B) Multiple conversations are not allowed.
C) Frame Relay duplexes the conversation.
D) Frame Relay uses wavelength division multiplexing.
Q9) Which oI the Iollowing is true about ATM technology?
A) It is capable oI transIerring voice, video, and data.
B) ATM is used primarily in enterprise LAN backbones or WAN links.
C) It is based on a cell-based architecture rather than on a Irame-based
architecture.
D) ATM cells are always a Iixed length oI 35 bytes, whereas the sizes oI Irames
and packets vary.
Q10) Name the Iamily oI very high-speed physical layer technologies that oIIers a series oI
data rates with special designations implemented at diIIerent transmission rates ranging
Irom 51.85 Mbps to 40 Gbps.
A) ADSL
B) ATM
C) SONET
D) ISDN
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-39
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A
ReIates to: ÌSDN
Q2) B
ReIates to: PPP
Q3) D
ReIates to: ÌSDN
Q4) B
ReIates to: DSL
Q5) C
ReIates to: DSL Types
Q6) D
ReIates to: DSL Standards
Q7) C
ReIates to: DSL Advantages and Disadvantages
Q8) A
ReIates to: Frame Relay
Q9) D
ReIates to: ATM and Cell Switching
Q10) C
ReIates to: SONET
7-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Modems
Overview
In order to establish a WAN connection over phone lines, you must use a modem in order to
convert digital data Irom a computer to analog Iorm to travel over phone lines. While analog
modems have long been the most commonly used type oI modems, cable modems have become
increasingly popular as WAN users connect through cable service providers.
ReIevance
Now that you know how WANs operate and how data is transmitted over their connections,
learning about the devices that enable those connections will add to your understanding oI
WAN operations.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe the Iunctions oI analog and cable
modems. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Describe the Iunction oI analog modems
Describe commonly used analog modem standards
Describe the Iunction oI cable modems
Describe the advantages and disadvantages oI cable modems
7-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Analog Modems
Analog Modem Standards
Cable Modems
How Cable Modems Work
Cable Modem Advantages and Disadvantages
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-43
AnaIog Modems
An analog modem is a device used Ior transmitting electronic data through telephone lines. The
term modem derives Irom the Iunction oI these devices, converting (or modulating) digital
signals to analog signals at the transmission source and reconverting the signals (demodulating)
at the termination point. This topic describes the Iunction oI analog modems.
Modems may be either internal or external to the communicating devices. External modems are
typically connected to the modem using an EIA/TIA 232 serial line (COM port) or the
Universal Serial Bus (USB). The modem then connects to the telephony network. Internal
modems allow a communicating device to be connected directly to the telephony network. An
internal modem may be built into the system or added with an internal expansion card or
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) device.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-4
Modem Transmission
Modem Modem
EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-232
Host
DigitaI
TeIco
AnaIog AnaIog DigitaI
7-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
AnaIog Modem Standards
There are a number oI standards related to analog modems. This topic describes those
standards.
Modems work at OSI Layer 1. At the data-link layer, PPP is oIten used. The Iigure documents
the history oI the most commonly used International Telecommunication Union
Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) modem recommendations. V.22bis was the
Iirst true international standard, but is now obsolete. Starting beIore 1998, most new modems
have supported 56-kbps rates downstream. This was standardized by V.90. The maximum
upstream rate was increased to 48 kbps in ITU-T recommendation V.92.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-5
Standard Standard Meaning Meaning
V.22bis V.22bis
V.32 V.32
V.34 V.34
V.42 V.42
The first true worIdwide standards for fuII-dupIex modems sending and
receiving data across a teIephone Iine at 2400 bps at 600 baud
The first true worIdwide standards for fuII-dupIex modems sending and
receiving data across a teIephone Iine at 2400 bps at 600 baud
AnaIog Modem Standards
The standard for fuII-dupIex modems aIIows sending and receiving
data across phone Iines at 4800 or 9600 bps at 2400 baud. V.32
modems automaticaIIy adjust their transmission speed based on the
quaIity of the Iines.
The standard for fuII-dupIex modems aIIows sending and receiving
data across phone Iines at 4800 or 9600 bps at 2400 baud. V.32
modems automaticaIIy adjust their transmission speed based on the
quaIity of the Iines.
The standard for fuII-dupIex modems sending and receive data across
phone Iines at up to 28.8 Kbps. V.34 modems automaticaIIy adjust their
transmission speed based on the quaIity of the Iines. It is backward
compatibIe with V.32.
The standard for fuII-dupIex modems sending and receive data across
phone Iines at up to 28.8 Kbps. V.34 modems automaticaIIy adjust their
transmission speed based on the quaIity of the Iines. It is backward
compatibIe with V.32.
It has the same transfer rate as V.32, but with better error correction
and, therefore, is more reIiabIe. V.42 can be used with digitaI teIephone
networks.
It has the same transfer rate as V.32, but with better error correction
and, therefore, is more reIiabIe. V.42 can be used with digitaI teIephone
networks.
V.90 V.90 The standard for fuII-dupIex modems sending and receiving data
across phone Iines at up to 56 kbps downstream.
The standard for fuII-dupIex modems sending and receiving data
across phone Iines at up to 56 kbps downstream.
V.92 V.92
V.92 is the new diaI-up modem specification for the ITU (InternationaI
TeIecommunications Union) that introduces three new features that wiII
add convenience and performance for the modem user. The three
features are quick connect, modem-on-hoId, and PCM Upstream.
V.92 is the new diaI-up modem specification for the ITU (InternationaI
TeIecommunications Union) that introduces three new features that wiII
add convenience and performance for the modem user. The three
features are quick connect, modem-on-hoId, and PCM Upstream.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-45
CabIe Modems
II a WAN is connected through a cable service provider, the connection will be to a cable
system. A diIIerent type oI modem, a cable modem, will be required Ior this connection. This
topic introduces the Iunction oI cable modems.
Cable modems enable two-way, high-speed data transmissions using the same coaxial lines that
transmit cable television. Some cable service providers are promising data speeds up to 6.5
times that oI T1 leased lines. This speed makes cable an attractive medium Ior transIerring
large amounts oI digital inIormation quickly, including video clips, audio Iiles, and large
chunks oI data. InIormation that would take two minutes to download using ISDN BRI can be
downloaded in two seconds through a cable modem connection.
Cable modem access provides speeds superior to leased lines, with lower costs and simpler
installation. When the cable inIrastructure is in place, a Iirm can connect through installation oI
a modem or router. Additionally, because cable modems do not use the telephone system
inIrastructure, there are no local-loop charges.
Cable modems provide a Iull-time connection. As soon as users turn on their computers, they
are connected to the Internet. This setup removes the time and eIIort oI dialing in to establish a
connection.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-6
Cisco uBR 900 UniversaI Broadband
Router CabIe Modem
7-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
How CabIe Modems Work
Like analog modems, cable modems modulate and demodulate data signals. However, cable
modems incorporate more Iunctionality designed Ior today`s high-speed Internet services. This
topic describes how cable modems work.
From a user perspective, a cable modem is a quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) radio
Irequency (RF) receiver capable oI delivering up to 30 to 40 Mbps oI data in one six-MHz
cable channel. This is almost 500 times Iaster than a 56-kbps modem. The headend manages
traIIic Ilow Irom the user to the network.
Note Quadrature amplitude modulation is a method for encoding digital data in an analog signal in
which each combination of phase and amplitude represents one of many digital bit patterns.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-7
How CabIe Modems Work
Coax
Coax
CoaxiaI
CabIe
Fiber
Node
Fiber
Node
Headend
Picasso Einstein Leonard
Rosie
Mom
Grandpa
Junior
Jimmy
Legend
Pad
AmpIifier
SpIitter
Tap
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-47
With a cable modem, a subscriber can continue to receive cable television service while
simultaneously receiving data to be delivered to a personal computer. This is accomplished
with the help oI a simple one-to-two splitter.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-8
How CabIe Modems Work (Cont.)
One-to-Two
SpIitter
Set-Top
Box
RF
Tuner
QAM
DemoduIator
MAC
QPSK/QAM
ModuIator
D
a
t
a

a
n
d
C
o
n
t
r
o
I

L
o
g
i
c
CabIe Modem
7-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
CabIe Modem Advantages and Disadvantages
There are both advantages and disadvantages to cable modems. This topic describes both the
advantages and disadvantages.
The advantage oI using the high-speed access oI cable modems is that coaxial cable wiring
oIIers greater bandwidth using broadband Ior more applications to the home network LAN.
Additionally, cable lines are already in place in most oI the country because oI the wide
deployment oI cable television in the last Iew decades. ThereIore, cable modem high-speed
Internet access is more readily available in most areas than DSL.
UnIortunately, upgrading oI the cabling inIrastructure that is needed to support cable modem
technology has been slow; so many homes cannot use this technology. Upgrading is a big
investment, particularly Ior small providers.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-9
Advantages and Disadvantages of CabIe
Modems
Advantages of CabIe Modems
· Existing cabIe TV systems offer pIenty of avaiIabIe
bandwidth for both upstream and downstream traffic.
· A cabIe TV infrastructure upgrade with hybrid fiber-coaxiaI
(HFC) has addressed many of the existing service
bottIenecks.
Disadvantages of CabIe Modems
· CabIe modems aImost aIways require an overhauI of the
existing cabIe infrastructure, an expensive undertaking for
smaIIer providers.
· CabIe modems exist in a shared-media structure, so the
more users that come on the network the Iess bandwidth is
avaiIabIe for users.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-49
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-10
Summary
· An anaIog modem is a device used for transmitting
eIectronic data through teIephone Iines.
· Modems may be either internaI or externaI to the
communicating devices.
· Modems work at OSI Layer 1.
· There are a number of commonIy used
InternationaI TeIecommunication Union
TeIecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
modem standards.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-7-11
Summary (Cont.)
· CabIe modems put data signaIs on the same cabIe
as teIevision signaIs.
· CabIe modems provide speed superior to Ieased
Iines, and cabIe modems provide a fuII-time
connection.
· The advantage of using cabIe-modem access is
that coaxiaI cabIe is aIready in pIace in most of the
US and many other countries. The disadvantage is
that the cabIe modem shares the media, so the
more users that come on the network the Iess
bandwidth that is avaiIabIe per user.
7-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which oI the Iollowing is true oI analog modems?
A) They allow data transIer between one computer and another over the PSTN.
B) They convert analog signals to digital bit streams.
C) They convert digital data to analog signals.
D) All oI the above are true.
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing cable standards allows a 56-kbps downstream data transmission
rate?
A) V.32
B) V.34
C) V.42
D) V.90
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing media are used by a cable modem to transport data?
A) existing coaxial cable TV lines
B) existing twisted-pair telephone lines
C) existing Ethernet lines
D) none oI the above
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing best describes upstream?
A) data Ilowing Irom the user to the network
B) data Ilowing Irom the network to the user
C) data Ilowing between networks
D) data Ilowing between routers
Q5) Which oI the Iollowing is an advantage oI cable modem?
A) The cabling inIrastructure can be upgraded.
B) Because cable modems exist in a shared-media structure, the more users who
come on the network, the less bandwidth is available Ior each user.
C) Coaxial cable wiring oIIers greater bandwidth using broadband Ior more
applications to the home network.
D) None oI the above are correct.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. WAN Technologies 7-51
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Analog Modems
Q2) D
ReIates to: Analog Modem Standards
Q3) A
ReIates to: Cable Modems
Q4) A
ReIates to: How Cable Modems Work
Q5) C
ReIates to: Cable Modem Advantages and Disadvantages
7-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessments
Overview
Use the lesson assessments here to test what you learned in this module. The correct answers
and solutions are Iound in the Lesson Assessment Answer Key.
OutIine
This section includes these assessments:
Quiz 7-1: WAN Technology Basics
Quiz 7-2: WAN Access Technologies
Quiz 7-3: Modems
7-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 7-1: WAN TechnoIogy Basics
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the major WAN connection categories
Describe and provide examples oI circuit switching
Describe and provide examples oI packet switching
Describe point-to-point connections
Explain bandwidth options Ior leased lines
Describe the Iunction and types oI multiplexing
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) ISDN is an example oI a circuit-switched WAN technology.
A) true
B) Ialse
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is true about a point-to-point link?
A) It is a single, preestablished WAN communications path Irom the customer
premises through a carrier network.
B) It is usually leased Irom a carrier and thus is oIten called a leased line.
C) It is generally priced based on bandwidth required and distance between the
two connected points.
D) The cost oI leased-line solutions can become signiIicant when they are used to
connect many sites.
E) None oI the above are correct.
Q3) Which oI the Iollowing statements are true about bandwidth? (Choose three.)
A) Bandwidth reIers to the speed at which data is transIerred over the
communication link.
B) 12 DS0s can be bundled to get a DS1 line.
C) A T1 line is the same as a DS1 line.
D) 28 DS1s can be bundled to get a DS3 line.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 7-55
Q4) Which oI the Iollowing is a type oI multiplexing?
A) TDM
B) ATM
C) STM
D) FDM
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
7-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz 7-2: WAN Access TechnoIogies
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the Iunction oI PPP
Describe the Iunction oI HDLC
Describe the Iunction and types oI ISDN
Describe the Iunction and types oI DSL, as well as the standards related to DSL
Describe the advantages and disadvantages oI DSL
Describe the Iunction oI Frame Relay
Describe the Iunction oI ATM
Describe the Iunction oI SONET
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Match the WAN technology to its description.
WAN TechnoIogy Description
ATM Frame ReIay
ISDN Leased Line
A set of digitaI services that transmits voice and data over
existing phone Iines.
AIso known as point-to-point connection. With this type of
service, companies pay for a continuous connection between
two remote sites.
A switched data-Iink Iayer technoIogy that handIes muItipIe
virtuaI circuits.
Comprises specifications at both the physicaI and data-Iink Iayers.
This service is impIemented using virtuaI circuits. Data packets
divided into smaII 53-byte ceIIs before they are transmitted.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 7-57
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing is true regarding permanent virtual circuits (PVCs)?
A) PVCs use permanently established connections.
B) Data communication across a PVC requires call setup and termination states.
C) In PVCs, the DTE devices can begin transIerring data whenever they are ready.
D) A PVC works like a virtual leased-line connection.
E) None oI the above are correct.
Q3) What is the size oI the ATM payload?
A) 48 bytes
B) 53 bytes
C) 32 bytes
D) 64 bytes
E) none oI the above
Q4) What is the aggregate speed oI the B Channels Ior ISDN BRI?
A) 16 kbps
B) 64 kbps
C) 128 kbps
D) 144 kbps
E) none oI the above
Q5) Which oI the Iollowing is data-link encapsulation Ior a WAN?
A) high-level data link control (HDLC)
B) Frame Relay
C) Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
D) all oI the above
Q6) Which oI the Iollowing is a symmetrical standard Ior DSL?
A) high-data-rate DSL (HDSL)
B) ISDN DSL (IDSL)
C) G.shdsl
D) ADSL
E) SDSL
Q7) Which oI the Iollowing protocols do operate at Layer 2?
A) PPP
B) Ethernet
C) ATM
D) IP
E) none oI the above
7-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q8) DSL service can be added incrementally as more users subscribe.
A) true
B) Ialse
Q9) Match the OC level to the signal transmission rate.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 7-59
Quiz 7-3: Modems
Complete this quiz to assess what you learned in the lesson.
Objectives
This quiz tests your knowledge oI how to:
Describe the Iunction oI analog modems
Describe commonly used analog modem standards
Describe the Iunction oI cable modems
Describe the advantages and disadvantages oI cable modems
Quiz
Answer these questions:
Q1) Which was the Iirst true worldwide standard Ior modems that allowed 2400 bits per
second (bps) at 600 baud?
A) V.12
B) V.42
C) V.32
D) V.90
E) V.22bis
Q2) Which oI the Iollowing statements about cable modems are true? (Choose three.)
A) Cable modems use the same coaxial lines that transmit cable television.
B) Cable modem access provides speeds that are superior to leased lines.
C) Cable modems provide a Iull-time connection.
D) Cable modem installation is more complicated than installation oI analog
modems.
Scoring
You have successIully completed the quiz Ior this lesson when you earn a score oI 80 percent
or better.
7-60 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lesson Assessment Answer Key
Quiz 7-1: WAN TechnoIogy Basics
Q1) A
Q2) E
Q3) A, C, D
Q4) B
Quiz 7-2: WAN Access TechnoIogies
Q1)
Q2) B
Q3) A
Q4) C
Q5) D
Q6) D
Q7) D
Q8) A
Q9)
WAN TechnoIogy Description
A set of digitaI services that transmits voice and data over
existing phone Iines.
AIso known as point-to-point connection. With this type of
service, companies pay for a continuous connection between
two remote sites.
A switched data-Iink Iayer technoIogy that handIes muItipIe
virtuaI circuits.
Comprises specifications at both the physicaI and data-Iink Iayers.
This service is impIemented using virtuaI circuits. Data packets
divided into smaII 53-byte ceIIs before they are transmitted.
ISDN
Leased Iine
Frame ReIay
ATM
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Lesson Assessments 7-61
Quiz 7-3: Modems
Q1) E
Q2) A, B, C
7-62 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ModuIe 8
Operating and ConIiguring
Cisco IOS Devices
Overview
Cisco IOS soItware is Ieature-rich network system soItware that operates on most Cisco
network devices. This module describes how to use the Cisco IOS soItware to conIigure and
operate switches and routers on the internetwork.
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will be able to complete and veriIy the initial IOS soItware
device conIiguration. This includes being able to do the Iollowing:
Use the available conIiguration tools to establish connectivity to the appropriate network
device in order to complete the initial device conIiguration
VeriIy the deIault conIiguration oI each device, given a Iunctioning access-layer switch and
router
OutIine
The module contains these components:
Operating Cisco IOS SoItware
Starting a Switch
Starting a Router
ConIiguring a Router
Lesson Assessments
8-2 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Operating Cisco IOS SoItware
Overview
Cisco IOS soItware is Ieature-rich network system soItware, providing network intelligence Ior
the business-critical solutions necessary to succeed in the Internet economy. This lesson
introduces you to the Cisco IOS soItware operation.
ReIevance
To begin conIiguring Cisco switches and routers, you need to be Iamiliar with the Ieatures oI
the Cisco IOS soItware.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to set up console connections between Cisco
network devices and a terminal. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Set up console connections between Cisco network devices and a terminal, given a need to
conIigure and monitor network equipment
Describe the Ieatures oI the Cisco IOS command-line interIace
IdentiIy the diIIerences between the user EXEC and privileged EXEC modes
8-4 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Cisco IOS SoItware Features
ConIiguring Network Devices
External ConIiguration Sources
Cisco IOS Command-Line InterIace Functions
Entering the EXEC Modes
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-5
Cisco IOS Software Features
The Cisco IOS soItware platIorm is implemented on most Cisco hardware platIorms, including
switches and routers. It is the embedded soItware architecture in all oI the Cisco routers and is
also the operating system oI the Catalyst switches. This topic introduces you to the Ieatures that
the Cisco IOS soItware oIIers.
Cisco IOS soItware enables network services in Cisco products, including the Iollowing:
Features to carry the chosen network protocols and Iunctions
Connectivity Ior high-speed traIIic between devices
Security to control access and prohibit unauthorized network use
Scalability to add interIaces and capability as needed Ior network growth
Reliability to ensure dependable access to networked resources
You can access the Cisco IOS soItware command-line interIace (CLI) through a console
connection, a modem connection, or a Telnet session. Regardless oI which connection method
you use, access to the Cisco IOS soItware CLI is generally reIerred to as an EXEC session.
INTRO v1.0a-8-4 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Cisco IOS software deIivers network
services and enabIes networked
appIications.
Cisco IOS Software Features
8-6 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Configuring Network Devices
You will use the Cisco IOS CLI to communicate the conIiguration details that implement the
network requirements oI this course and its learning objectives. Back on the job, the
conIiguration will reIlect the policy oI Iunctions and authorizations that your organization
requires. This topic introduces the initial steps to start and conIigure a Cisco network device.
When you start a Catalyst switch Ior the Iirst time, the switch uses an initial conIiguration with
deIault settings.
When you start a Cisco router Ior the Iirst time, the router does not have an initial
conIiguration. The router soItware will prompt you Ior inIormation using a dialog called setup.
The conIiguration sets up the device with the Iollowing inIormation:
Network policy oI the Iunctions required, such as enabling the required routing protocol to
support the network requirements
Protocol addressing and parameter settings, such as conIiguring the IP address and subnet
mask on an interIace
Options Ior administration and management, such as setting up the auxiliary port Ior
remote modem access, setting up passwords, and so on
In this module, you will set up a minimal device conIiguration Ior a router and a switch.
Changes to these minimal or deIault conIigurations to meet your particular network
requirements constitute much oI the tasks oI your network administrator.
INTRO v1.0a-8-5 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Configuring Network Devices
· Configuration sets up the device with the
foIIowing:
÷ Network poIicy of the functions required
÷ ProtocoI addressing and parameter settings
÷ Options for administration and management
· CataIyst switch memory has initiaI configuration
with defauIt settings
· Cisco router wiII prompt for initiaI configuration
if there is no configuration in memory
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-7
When a Catalyst switch or Cisco router starts up, three main operations are perIormed on the
networking device, as Iollows:
1. The device perIorms hardware checking routines. A term oIten used to describe this initial
set oI routines is power-on selI test (POST).
2. Once the hardware has been shown to be in good working order, the device perIorms
system startup routines. These initiate the switch or router operating soItware.
3. Once the operating system is loaded, the device tries to Iind and apply soItware
conIiguration settings that establish the details needed Ior network operation.
Typically, there is a sequence oI Iallback routines that provides soItware startup alternatives, iI
needed.
INTRO v1.0a-8-6 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
An Overview of Cisco Device Startup
1. Find and check device hardware.
2. Find and Ioad Cisco IOS software image.
3. Find and appIy device configurations.
8-8 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
ExternaI Configuration Sources
You can conIigure a switch or router Irom sources that are external to the device. This topic
describes the external conIiguration sources available to conIigure Cisco network devices.
You can access a router Irom a remote location without a router being connected to a network
by dialing directly to the console or auxiliary port on a router. In general, the console port is
recommended because it displays router startup messages, whereas the auxiliary port does not
provide this inIormation. You can conIigure a switch and a router Irom the Iollowing locations:
Console terminal: Upon initial installation, you can conIigure networking devices Irom
the console terminal, which is connected via the console port. You will need the Iollowing
items to conIigure a Cisco device Irom the console port:
RJ-45-to-RJ-45 rollover cable
PC or equivalent with communications soItware conIigured with the Iollowing settings:
Speed: 9600 bits per second
Data bits: 8
Parity: none
Stop bit: 1
Flow control: none
INTRO v1.0a-8-7 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
· Configurations can come
from many sources.
· Configurations wiII act in
device memory.
ExternaI Configuration Sources
ConsoIe Port
AuxiIIiary Port
Interfaces
VirtuaI TerminaI
PC or UNIX Server
Web or Network
Management
Server
TeInet
TFTP
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-9
Remote terminal: II you are supporting a remote device, a modem connection to the
device`s auxiliary port permits you to conIigure it Irom a remote terminal. However, you
must Iirst conIigure the device`s auxiliary port Ior communication with the external
modem.
To connect remotely to the auxiliary port on a Cisco device, you need the Iollowing items:
Straight-through serial cable
14.4-kbps modem
PC or equivalent with suitable communications soItware
For selected routers and switches, a CD-ROM, such as Cisco Fast Step, can make conIiguration
tasks easier to accomplish. Cisco Fast Step soItware is an easy-to-use MicrosoIt Windows 95,
98, and NT 4.0-based soItware tool that simpliIies the setup, monitoring, and troubleshooting oI
Cisco small- and home-oIIice routers.
AIter initial startup, there are additional ways to access and conIigure the device. All oI these
require that TCP/IP be conIigured on the device. The methods are as Iollows:
Establish a terminal session using Telnet
Download a conIiguration Iile Irom a Trivial File TransIer Protocol (TFTP) server on the
network
Download a conIiguration Iile using a network management soItware application like
CiscoWorks2000
Note Not all network devices have all the ports shown in the figure. For example, some Cisco
small-office and home-office routers do not have an auxiliary port.
8-10 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface Functions
Cisco IOS soItware uses a CLI as its traditional console environment. While Cisco IOS
soItware is a core technology that extends across many products, its operation details vary on
diIIerent internetworking devices. This topic describes the console command modes used in the
Cisco IOS soItware.
To enter commands into the CLI, you type or paste your entries within one oI the several
console command modes. Each command mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt.
Cisco IOS soItware uses a hierarchy oI commands in its command-mode structure. Each
command mode supports speciIic Cisco IOS commands related to a type oI operation on the
device.
As a security Ieature, Cisco IOS soItware separates the EXEC sessions into the Iollowing two
access levels:
User EXEC level: Allows a person to access only a limited number oI basic monitoring
commands.
Privileged EXEC level: Allows a person to access all router commands, such as those
used Ior conIiguration and management, and can be password protected to allow only
authorized users to access the router.
The Enter key instructs the device to parse and execute the command.
INTRO v1.0a-8-8 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
· A CLI is used to enter commands.
· Operations vary on different
internetworking devices.
· Users type or paste entries in the
consoIe command modes.
· Enter key instructs device to parse
and execute the command.
· Two primary EXEC modes are user
mode and priviIeged mode.
· Command modes have distinctive
prompts.
Cisco IOS User Interface Functions
Cisco
IOS
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-11
Entering the EXEC Modes
The Cisco IOS soItware supports two EXEC command modes: user and privileged. This topic
describes how to start an EXEC session and change EXEC modes.
The procedure outlined in the table describes how to enable the EXEC modes on a Cisco switch
or router.
Step Action ResuIts and Notes
1.
Log in to the device initially with a
username and password (if login
is configured). This brings the
device to a user EXEC mode
prompt.
A prompt appears to signify the user EXEC mode. The
right arrow (>) in the prompt indicates that the router or
switch is at the user EXEC level.
hostname>
Type exit to close the session from the user EXEC mode.
2.
Type a question mark (?) at the
user EXEC level prompt to display
command options available in the
user EXEC mode.
The question mark (?) in the privileged EXEC mode
reveals many more command options than it does at the
user EXEC level. This feature is referred to as context-
sensitive help.
The user EXEC level does not contain any commands that might control the operation oI the
router or switch. For example, the user EXEC mode does not let you reload or conIigure the
router or switch.
INTRO v1.0a-8-9 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
There are two main EXEC modes for entering
commands.
Cisco IOS Software EXEC Mode
First Mode:
User Mode
· Limited examination of switch or router
· Command prompt: hostname>
8-12 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Critical commands, such as conIiguration and management, require that the network
administrator be at the privileged EXEC level.
To change to the privileged EXEC level Irom the user EXEC level, enter the enable command
at the hostname> prompt. II an enable password or an enable secret password is conIigured, the
switch or router will then prompt Ior that password.
When you enter the correct enable password, the switch or router prompt changes to
hostname=, indicating that the user is now at the privileged EXEC level. Entering a question
mark (?) at the privileged EXEC level will reveal many more command options than those
available at the user EXEC level.
To return to the user EXEC level, enter disable at the hostname= prompt.
Note For security reasons, a Cisco network device will not echo the password that you enter.
However, if you configure a network device over a modem link, or use Telnet, the password
is sent in clear text. Telnet does not offer a method to secure packets.
Note The Secure Shell (SSH) program, which runs on most Cisco devices, lets you communicate
securely over insecure channels and provides strong authentication. Refer to your Cisco
ÌOS documentation to learn how to use SSH, as SSH is not covered in this course.
INTRO v1.0a-8-10 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Cisco IOS Software EXEC Mode (Cont.)
PriviIeged (or EnabIed) Mode
· DetaiIed examination of switch and router
· EnabIes configuration and debugging
· Prerequisite for other configuration modes
· Command prompt: hostname#
Second Mode (and Most CommonIy Used):
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-13
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
INTRO v1.0a-8-11 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Summary
· The Cisco IOS software pIatform is impIemented on aII
Cisco hardware pIatforms.
· You wiII use Cisco IOS software to communicate the
configuration detaiIs that impIement the Iearning
objectives of this course.
· You can configure a switch or router from sources that
are externaI to the device.
· Cisco IOS software uses a CLI as its traditionaI
consoIe environment. WhiIe Cisco IOS software is a
core technoIogy, Cisco IOS software operation detaiIs
vary on different internetworking devices.
· The Cisco IOS software supports two EXEC command
modes: user and priviIeged.
8-14 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which connection methods can you use to access the Cisco IOS command-line
interIace? (Choose three.)
A) TFTP session
B) Telnet session
C) modem connection
D) console connection
E) web-enabled session
Q2) Which Ieatures does the Cisco IOS soItware oIIer? (Choose two.)
A) Internet applications to support web browsing
B) database services including structured query language
C) connectivity Ior high-speed network traIIic between devices
D) security to control network access and prohibit unauthorized network use
Q3) What happens when you start a Cisco router that has no conIiguration in memory?
A) The router will use its deIault conIiguration.
B) The router will prompt you to enter a minimum conIiguration.
C) The router will obtain the conIiguration Irom its Ilash memory.
D) The router will use a dialog called enable to prompt Ior the conIiguration.
Q4) What happens when you start a Catalyst switch Ior the Iirst time?
A) The switch will use its deIault initial conIiguration.
B) The switch will get its conIiguration Irom Ilash memory.
C) The switch will prompt you to enter a minimum conIiguration.
D) The switch will use a dialog called enable to prompt Ior the conIiguration.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-15
Q5) Match each Cisco device startup action to its description.
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. POST routine
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. System startup routine
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. Application oI soItware conIiguration settings
A) The device perIorms hardware checking routines.
B) The device initiates the switch or router operating soItware.
C) The device establishes the details needed Ior network operation.
Q6) BeIore you can conIigure a Cisco network device using Telnet, what Ieature must you
conIigure on a Cisco network device?
A) TFTP
B) TCP/IP
C) Internet access
D) Cisco Fast Step
Q7) II a network administrator is supporting a remote device, what is the preIerred type oI
connection or conIiguration to permit the administrator to conIigure the device
remotely?
A) modem connection via the console port
B) console connection via the console port
C) modem connection via the auxiliary port
D) CD-ROM conIiguration with Cisco Fast Step
Q8) What are the two primary Cisco IOS EXEC modes?
A) user and root
B) user and enable
C) user and privileged
D) normal and privileged
Q9) How do you enter commands into the Cisco IOS CLI?
A) Use a web interIace to select commands Irom a list.
B) Type or paste entries within a console command mode.
C) Use the management Ieature to indicate the next command to enter.
D) Select commands Irom a menu provided by the Cisco IOS soItware.
8-16 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q10) How do you know which command mode you are using on a Cisco device?
A) The command mode is indicated with a distinctive prompt.
B) The context-sensitive help Ieature indicates the command mode.
C) The command mode is displayed aIter you enter each command.
D) You will see an error message iI you are operating in the wrong command
mode.
Q11) Which Cisco IOS command lists the commands that are available in the privileged
EXEC mode?
A) ?
B) dir
C) list
D) help
Q12) Which EXEC mode allows you to conIigure and debug a Cisco router?
A) user
B) enable
C) normal
D) privileged
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-17
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) B, C, D
ReIates to: Cisco ÌOS Software Features
Q2) C, D
ReIates to: Cisco ÌOS Software Features
Q3) B
ReIates to: Configuring Network Devices
Q4) A
ReIates to: Configuring Network Devices
Q5) A, B, C
ReIates to: Configuring Network Devices
Q6) B
ReIates to: External Configuration Sources
Q7) C
ReIates to: External Configuration Sources
Q8) C
ReIates to: Cisco ÌOS Command-Line Ìnterface Functions
Q9) B
ReIates to: Cisco ÌOS Command-Line Ìnterface Functions
Q10) A
ReIates to: Entering the EXEC Modes
Q11) A
ReIates to: Entering the EXEC Modes
Q12) D
ReIates to: Entering the EXEC Modes
8-18 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Starting a Switch
Overview
A Catalyst switch goes through its startup when you turn the switch on. When the startup is
complete, you can conIigure the initial soItware settings. This lesson explains how the switch
starts up and shows you how to veriIy its initial operation.
ReIevance
Recognizing the correct switch startup is the Iirst step in deploying a Catalyst switch. The
switch must start successIully and have a deIault conIiguration to operate on the network.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to start an access-layer switch and use the CLI.
This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Start an access-layer switch and recognize the normal boot sequence
Use the CLI to interact with the Cisco IOS soItware, given an operational access-layer
switch
Use the online help Iacilities associated with the CLIs, given an operational access-layer
switch
8-20 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Physical Startup oI the Catalyst Switch
Switch LED Indicators
VeriIying Port LEDs During Switch POST
Viewing Initial Bootup Output Irom the Switch
Logging In to the Switch
Examining the Help Facility in the Switch CLI
ConIiguring a Switch Irom the Command Line
Showing the Switch Initial Startup Status
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-21
PhysicaI Startup of the CataIyst Switch
The startup oI a Catalyst switch requires that you veriIy the physical installation, power up the
switch, and view the Cisco IOS soItware output on the console. This topic describes the
physical startup oI a Catalyst switch.
The initial startup oI a Catalyst switch requires that you complete the Iollowing steps:
Step Action
1.
Before you start the switch, verify the following:
All network cable connections are secure.
Your terminal is connected to the console port.
Your console terminal application, such as HyperTerminal, is selected.
2.
Attach the power cable plug to the switch power supply socket.
The switch starts. There is no on/off switch on some Catalyst switches, including the Catalyst
1900.
3.
Observe the boot sequence:
Look at the LEDs on the switch chassis.
Observe the Cisco ÌOS software output text on the console.
Note This course describes the Catalyst 1900 and 2950 series switches only. Switch information
and configuration commands presented are specific to the Catalyst 1900 and 2950 series.
Your switch may differ.
INTRO v1.0a-8-4 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
· System startup routines initiate switch software.
· InitiaI startup uses defauIt configuration
parameters.
InitiaI Startup of the CataIyst Switch
1. Before you start the switch,
verify the cabIing and consoIe
connection.
2. Attach the power cabIe pIug to
the switch power suppIy socket.
3. Observe the boot sequence:
· LEDs on the swtich chassis
· Cisco IOS software output text
8-22 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Switch LED Indicators
The Catalyst switches have several status LEDs that are generally lit in green when the switch
is Iunctioning normally but turn amber when there is a malIunction. This topic describes the
states oI the LEDs on Catalyst 1900 and 2950 switches.
The LED locations on the Catalyst 1900 are shown in the Iigure and their Iunctions are
explained in the table.
Switch LED Description
System LED Off: System not powered up
Green: System powered and operational
Amber: System malfunction; one or more POST errors occurred
Redundant power supply Off: Redundant power supply is off or is not installed
Green: Redundant power supply is operational
Amber: Redundant power supply is installed, not operational
Catalyst switch port LEDs have several modes oI operation. The initial startup routines use
LEDs to display POST status.
II the switch is up and running, press the Mode button, as shown in the Iigure, to toggle
through other LED display modes. The three modes indicate the Iollowing:
Port status
Bandwidth utilization Ior the switch
Full-duplex support
INTRO v1.0a-8-5 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
CataIyst 1900
Switch LED Indicators
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-23
The port LED display modes are indicated in the table, with descriptions oI the various LED
colors or lighting on a 24-port switch.
Port LED DispIay Mode Description
Port status (STAT LED on) Off: No link present
Green: Link present, no activity
Flashing green: Link present with traffic activity
Alternating green and amber: Link fault. Error frames can affect
connectivity. Excessive collisions and cyclic redundancy check
(CRC), alignment, and jabber errors are monitored for a link-fault
indication
Amber: Port not forwarding because the port was disabled by
management, suspended because of an address violation, or
suspended by Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) because of
network loops
Bandwidth utilization (UTL LED on) 1 to 8 LEDs on: 0.1 to 6 MBps
9 to 16 LEDs on: 6 to 120 MBps
17 to 24 LEDs on: 120 to 280 MBps
Note: The values shown are for a 24-port switch. For a 12-port
switch, the values are 1 to 4 = 0.1 to 1.5 MBps; 5 to 8 = 1.5 to 20
MBps; 9 to 12 = 20 to 140 MBps.
Full duplex (FDUP LED on) Green: Ports configured in full-duplex mode
Off: Ports half-duplex
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The LED locations on the Catalyst 2950-12 and 2950-24 are shown in the Iigure and their
Iunctions are explained in the table.
Switch LED Description
System LED Off: System not powered up
Green: System powered and operational
Amber: System malfunction; one or more POST errors occurred
Redundant power supply Off: Redundant power supply is off or is not installed
Green: Redundant power supply is operational
Flashing green: Redundant power supply is connected but unavailable
because it is providing power to another device
Amber: Redundant power supply is installed, not operational
Flashing amber: Ìnternal power supply failed and redundant power supply
is providing power to the switch
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CataIyst 2950
Switch LED Indicators
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-25
The port LED display modes are indicated in the table, with inIormation about the various LED
colors or lighting.
Port LED DispIay Mode Description
Port status (STAT LED on) Off: No link present
Green: Link present, no activity
Flashing green: Link present with traffic activity
Alternating green and amber: Link fault. Error frames can affect
connectivity. Excessive collisions and cyclic redundancy check
(CRC), alignment, and jabber errors are monitored for a link-fault
indication
Amber: Port not forwarding because the port was disabled by
management, suspended because of an address violation, or
suspended by Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) because of network
loops
Bandwidth utilization (UTL LED on) Green: Current bandwidth utilization displayed over the amber
LED background on a logarithmic scale
Amber: Maximum backplane utilization since the switch was
powered on
Green and amber: Depends on model as follows:
Ìf all LEDs on Catalyst 2950-12, 2950-24, 2950C-24, and
2950T-24 switches are green, the switch is using 50 percent or
more of the total bandwidth. Ìf the far-right LED is off, the
switch is using more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the
total bandwidth, and so on. Ìf only the far-left LED is green, the
switch is using less than 0.0488 percent of the total bandwidth.
Ìf all LEDs on Catalyst 2950G-12-EÌ switches are green, the
switch is using 50 percent or more of the total bandwidth. Ìf the
LED for GBÌC module slot 2 is off, the switch is using more
than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth. Ìf LEDs
for both GBÌC module slots are off, the switch is using less
than 25 percent of the total bandwidth, and so on.
Ìf all LEDs on Catalyst 2950G-24-EÌ and 2950G-24-EÌ-DC
switches are green, the switch is using 50 percent or more of
the total bandwidth.
Ìf the LED for GBÌC module slot 2 is off, the switch is using
more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth. Ìf
LEDs for both GBÌC module slots are off, the switch is using
less than 25 percent of the total bandwidth, and so on.
Ìf all LEDs on Catalyst 2950G-48-EÌ switches are green, the
switch is using 50 percent or more of the total bandwidth. Ìf the
LED for the upper GBÌC module slot is off, the switch is using
more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth. Ìf
LEDs for both GBÌC module slots are off, the switch is using
less than 25 percent of the total bandwidth, and so on.
Full duplex (FDUP LED on) Green: Ports configured in full-duplex mode
Off: Ports half-duplex
8-26 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Verifying Port LEDs During Switch POST
The Catalyst POST is executed when the switch is powered up. The POST uses the switch port
LEDs to indicate test progress and status. This topic explains how to veriIy the Catalyst switch
port LEDs during the switch POST.
Initially, all port LEDs are green. This condition indicates the start oI the POST and that the
LEDs are Iunctioning properly. Each oI the Iirst 16 port LEDs (1x through 16x) is associated
with one oI the POST tests, as described in the table.
LED Component Tested: FaiIure Type
LED 16x Embedded control unit (ECU) dynamic random-access memory (DRAM): Fatal.
LED 15x Not used.
LED 14x Not used.
LED 13x Not used.
LED 12x Forwarding engine: Fatal.
LED 11x Forwarding engine static random-access memory (SRAM): Fatal.
LED 10x Packet DRAM: Fatal.
LED 9x ÌSLT ASÌC: Fatal.
LED 8x Port control/status: Fatal.
LED 7x System timer interrupt: Fatal.
LED 6x Content-addressable memory (CAM) SRAM: Fatal.
LED 5x Real-time clock: Nonfatal. Ìf this test fails, the switch forwards packets. However, if the
switch unexpectedly shuts down, it cannot restart itself automatically.
LED 4x Console port: Nonfatal. Ìf this test fails, you cannot access the management console
through the console port. You can still use Telnet to access the management console.
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Port LEDs During Switch POST
1. At the start, aII port LEDs are green.
2. Each LED turns off after its test compIetes.
3. If a test faiIs, its LED turns amber.
4. System LED turns amber if any test faiIs.
5. If no test faiIs, POST compIetes.
6. On POST compIetion, LEDs bIink,
then turn off.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-27
LED Component Tested: FaiIure Type
LED 3x CAM: Fatal.
LED 2x Burned-in address: Nonfatal. Ìf this test fails, the switch uses the default Ethernet address
of the switch and begins forwarding packets.
LED 1x Port loopback: Nonfatal. Ìf this test fails, some functionality to one or more ports is lost.
The switch disables any ports that failed this test, and the failure message on the Menu
Console Logon screen indicates which ports did not pass this test. Connect only to ports
that passed this test.
Note On the Catalyst 1912 switch, the Aux LED is used instead of the port 16x LED.
AIter each POST test, the LED Ior that test indicates the test results in the Iollowing manner:
II the test completes without Iailure, the LED Ior that test turns oII.
II the test turns up a Iailure, the LED Ior that test turns amber and the system LED also
turns amber.
On successIul POST completion, the port LEDs blink, then turn oII.
II there are Iatal Iailures, as indicated in the table, the switch is not operational. The switch is
still operational with nonIatal Iailures, but may have limited Iunctionality.
8-28 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Viewing InitiaI Bootup Output from the Switch
During initial startup, iI POST test Iailures are detected, they are reported to the console. II
POST completes successIully, you can conIigure the switch. This topic explains how to view
the initial bootup output Irom a Catalyst switch.
II POST completes successIully on a Catalyst 1900 switch, the Iirst display on the console is
the Management Console Logon screen, shown in the Iigure.
From the logon screen you initially have three choices, as Iollows:
Enter M to enter menu mode.
Enter K to enter command-line mode.
Enter I to enter IP conIiguration mode.
INTRO v1.0a-8-8 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
InitiaI Bootup Output from the
CataIyst 1900 Switch
ConsoIe
Connection
Catalyst 1900 Management Console
Copyright (c) Cisco Systems, Inc. 1993~2001
All rights reserved.
Fnterprise Fdition Software
Fthernet Address: 00~50~BD~73~F2~C0
PCA Number: 73~3121~01
PCA Serial Number: FAA0252A0QX
Model Number: WS~C1924~FN
System Serial Number: FAA0304S0U3
Power Supply S/N: PHI025101F3
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1 user(s) now active on Management Console.
User Interface Menu
(M) Menus
(K) Command Line
(I) IP Configuration
Fnter Selection:
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-29
II POST completes successIully on a Catalyst 2950 switch, you are prompted to enter the initial
conIiguration Ior the switch. You can use an automatic setup program to assign switch IP
inIormation, host and cluster names, and passwords, and to create a deIault conIiguration Ior
continued operation. Later, you can use CLI to customize your conIiguration. To run the setup
program, access the switch Irom the PC terminal that you connected to the console port.
Complete the initial conIiguration by answering each question as it appears, as shown in the
Iigure.
AIter you enter the required settings, the setup program displays the conIiguration Ior you to
conIirm, as Iollows:
The following configuration command script was created.
ip subnet-zero
interface VLANI
ip address II?.?0.IS·.·8 ?SS.?SS.?SS.0
ip default-gateway II?.?0.IS·.I
hostname host_name
enable secret S SISM·pSScXtAlkyR·/8Cn8/
line vty 0 IS
password telnet_password
snmp community private rw
snmp community public ro
cluster enable cls_name
End
Use this configuration? ]yes/no¦. y
Enter y to complete the initial conIiguration.
INTRO v1.0a-8-9 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
InitiaI Bootup Output
from the CataIyst 2950 Switch
~~~ System Configuration Dialog ~~~
At any point you may enter a question mark '?' for help.
Use ctrl~c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets '( )'.
Continue with configuration dialog? (yes/no): yes
Fnter IP address: ip_address
Fnter IP netmask: ip_netmask
Would you like to enter a default gateway address? (yes): yes
IP address of the default gateway: ip_address
Fnter a host name: host_name
Fnter enable secret: secret_password
Would you like to configure a Telnet password? (yes) yes
Fnter Telnet password: telnet_password
Would you like to enable as a cluster command switch? no
Fnter cluster name: cls_name
8-30 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Logging In to the Switch
When you conIigure Catalyst switches Irom the CLI that runs on the console or a remote
terminal, the Cisco IOS soItware provides a CLI called the EXEC. The EXEC interprets the
commands you enter and carries out the corresponding operations. This topic shows you how to
log in to a Catalyst switch to begin the initial conIiguration.
For security purposes, the EXEC has the Iollowing two levels oI access to commands:
User mode: Typical tasks include those that check the status oI the switch.
Privileged mode: Typical tasks include those that change the conIiguration oI the switch.
To change Irom user EXEC mode to privileged EXEC mode, enter enable. The switch then
prompts Ior the enable password iI one is conIigured. Enter the correct enable password. The
deIault is no enable password conIigured.
Note For security reasons, the network device will not echo the password that you enter.
However, if you are configuring a network device over a modem link or using Telnet, the
password is sent in clear text. Telnet does not offer a method to secure packets.
INTRO v1.0a-8-10 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Logging In to the Switch and
Entering the EnabIe Password
>
> enable
Fnter password:
#
# disable
User-Mode Prompt
PriviIeged-Mode Prompt
ConsoIe
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-31
Examining the HeIp FaciIity in the Switch CLI
The Catalyst switch uses Cisco IOS soItware with several command-line input help Iacilities,
including context-sensitive help. This topic explains how to use the keyboard help in the
Catalyst switch CLI.
At any time during an EXEC session, you can enter a question mark (?) to get help. The
Iollowing two types oI context-sensitive help are available:
Word help: Enter '?¨ to get word help Ior a list oI commands that begin with a particular
character sequence. Enter the character sequence Iollowed immediately by the question
mark. Do not include a space beIore the question mark. The router will display a list oI
commands that start with the characters that you entered.
Command syntax help: Enter '?¨ to get command syntax help so that you can see how to
complete a command. Enter a question mark in place oI a keyword or argument. Include a
space beIore the question mark. The network device will then display a list oI available
command options, with '·cr~¨ standing Ior a carriage return.
Note The CLÌ help facilities on the Catalyst switches are very similar to the help facilities on the
routers.
INTRO v1.0a-8-11 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Context-Sensitive HeIp ConsoIe Error Messages
Identifies probIems with any
switch commands that are
incorrectIy entered so that
you can aIter or correct them
AIIows recaII of Iong or
compIex commands or
entries for reentry, review, or
correction
Command History Buffer
Provides a Iist of
commands and the
arguments associated
with a specific command
Switch Command-Line HeIp FaciIities
8-32 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Configuring a Switch from the Command Line
The Catalyst switch IOS soItware has diIIerent conIiguration modes, including the global
conIiguration mode and the interIace conIiguration mode. This topic explains how to complete
the initial switch conIiguration using both modes.
To conIigure global switch parameters like the switch host name or the switch IP address used
Ior switch management purposes, use the global conIiguration mode. To conIigure a particular
port (interIace), use the interIace conIiguration mode.
Note More switch configuration details are provided throughout this course. This section provides
an overview of switch configuration so that you can perform an initial configuration on your
switch.
INTRO v1.0a-8-12 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Configuration Modes:
· GIobaI configuration mode
÷ wg_sw_a#configure terminal
÷ wg_sw_a(config)#
· Interface configuration mode
÷ wg_sw_a(config)#interface e0/1
÷ wg_sw_a(config~if)#
Configuring the Switch
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-33
One oI the Iirst tasks in conIiguring your switch is to name it. Naming your switch helps you to
better manage your network by being able to uniquely identiIy each switch within the network.
The name oI the switch is considered to be the host name and is the name displayed at the
system prompt. You assign the switch name in global conIiguration mode. In the example
shown in the Iigure, the switch name is set to wg_sw_c.
INTRO v1.0a-8-13 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
· Sets the IocaI identity for the switch
Configuring Switch Identification
Switch Name
(config) #hostname wg_sw_c
wg_sw_c(config)#
8-34 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
To conIigure an IP address and subnet mask on the switch, use the ip address global
conIiguration command. An IP address is required on the switch Ior management purposes.
For example, an IP address must be assigned iI you plan to use a Telnet connection, or iI you
plan to use the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to manage the switch.
Note The Catalyst 2950 uses the VLAN1 interface ÌP address as the switch ÌP address.
INTRO v1.0a-8-14 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
wg_sw_a(config)#ip address ¦ip address}
¦mask}
ExampIe:
wg_sw_a(config)#ip address 10.5.5.11 255.255.255.0
Configuring the Switch IP Address
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-35
To conIigure a deIault gateway Ior your switch, use the ip default-gateway command. Enter
the IP address oI the next-hop router interIace that is directly connected to the switch where a
deIault gateway is being conIigured. The deIault gateway receives IP packets with unresolved
destination IP addresses Irom the switch.
Once the deIault gateway is conIigured, the switch has connectivity to the remote networks
with which a host needs to communicate.
Note When your switch is configured to route with ÌP, it does not need to have a default gateway
set.
INTRO v1.0a-8-15 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
wg_sw_a(config)#ip default~gateway
¦ip address}
ExampIe:
wg_sw_a(config)#ip default~gateway 172.20.137.1
Configuring the
Switch DefauIt Gateway
8-36 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Showing the Switch InitiaI Startup Status
AIter logging in to a Catalyst switch, you can veriIy the switch initial startup status using the
switch status commands: show version, show running-configuration, show interfaces, and
show ip. This topic describes the switch status commands that you can use to veriIy the initial
switch operation.
Switch status commands are as Iollows:
show version: Displays the conIiguration oI the system hardware and the soItware version
inIormation.
show running-configuration: Displays the switch`s current active (running) conIiguration
Iile. This command requires privileged EXEC mode access.
show interfaces: Displays statistics and status inIormation oI all the interIaces on the
switch. Both the switch trunks and the switch line ports are considered interIaces. The
resulting output varies, depending on the network Ior which an interIace has been
conIigured. Usually, you enter this command with the options and where
allows values such as Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, and indicates slot 0 and
the port number on the selected interIace (Ior example, e0/1).
show ip: Displays the IP address, subnet mask, and deIault-gateway settings on the switch.
INTRO v1.0a-8-16 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Showing Switch InitiaI Startup Status
wg_sw_a#show version
· DispIays the configuration of the system hardware, software
version, names and sources of configuration fiIes, and boot
images
wg_sw_a#show running~configuration
· DispIays the switch's current active configuration fiIe
wg_sw_a#show interfaces
· DispIays statistics for aII interfaces configured on the switch
wg_sw_a#show ip
· DispIays the IP address, subnet mask, and defauIt gateway
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-37
Use the show version EXEC command to display the conIiguration oI the system hardware and
the soItware version inIormation. The table describes the key output Iields Irom the show
version command.
Output Description
Cisco Catalyst 1900 The example shows the hardware configuration information and configuration
file upload or download status.
Version Ìnformation identifying the software by name and version number. Always
specify the complete version number when reporting a possible software
problem. Ìn the example, the switch is running ÌOS version V8.01.01.
Switch uptime Current days and time since the system was last booted.
Ìn the example, the switch uptime is 15 days, 21 hours, 53 minutes, and 11
seconds.
The display in the Iigure is Irom a Catalyst 1924 switch with 27 Ethernet ports (24 10BASE-T
ports, one attachment unit interIace |AUI| port, and two Fast Ethernet ports). The display Irom
a Catalyst 1912 switch would show 15 Ethernet ports (12 10BASE-T ports, one AUI port, and
two Fast Ethernet ports).
INTRO v1.0a-8-17 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Switch show version Command
wg_sw_a#show version
Cisco Catalyst 1900/2820 Fnterprise Fdition Software
Version V8.01.01 written from 171.068.229.225
Copyright (c) Cisco Systems, Inc. 1993~2001
wg_sw_c uptime is 15day(s) 21hour(s) 53minute(s) 11second(s)
cisco Catalyst 1900 (486sxl) processor with 2048K/1024K bytes of memory
Hardware board revision is 5
Upgrade Status: No upgrade currently in progress.
Config File Status: No configuration upload/download is in progress
27 Fixed Fthernet/IFFF 802.3 interface(s)
Base Fthernet Address: 00~50~BD~73~F2~C0
8-38 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
To display the conIiguration inIormation currently running, use the show running-
configuration privileged EXEC command on the switch.
The output displays the host name, IP address, deIault gateway, and interIaces installed on the
switch.
The Iigure compares the displays Irom two models oI Catalyst 1900 series switches.
INTRO v1.0a-8-18 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
wg_sw_a#show running~configuration
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
hostname "wg_sw_c"
!
ip address 10.1.1.33 255.255.255.0
ip default~gateway 10.3.3.3
!
interface Fthernet 0/1
<text omitted>
interface Fthernet 0/24
!
Interface Fthernet 0/25
!
interface FastFthernet 0/26
!
interface FastFthernet 0/27
wg_sw_a#show running~configuration
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
hostname "wg_sw_c"
!
ip address 10.1.1.33 255.255.255.0
ip default~gateway 10.3.3.3
!
interface Fthernet 0/1
<text omitted>
interface Fthernet 0/24
!
Interface Fthernet 0/25
!
interface FastFthernet 0/26
!
interface FastFthernet 0/27
wg_sw_a#show running~configuration
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
hostname "wg_sw_c"
!
ip address 10.1.1.33 255.255.255.0
ip default~gateway 10.3.3.3
!
interface Fthernet 0/1
<text omitted>
interface Fthernet 0/12
!
Interface Fthernet 0/25
!
interface FastFthernet 0/26
!
interface FastFthernet 0/27
wg_sw_a#show running~configuration
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
hostname "wg_sw_c"
!
ip address 10.1.1.33 255.255.255.0
ip default~gateway 10.3.3.3
!
interface Fthernet 0/1
<text omitted>
interface Fthernet 0/12
!
Interface Fthernet 0/25
!
interface FastFthernet 0/26
!
interface FastFthernet 0/27
CataIyst 1924 Switch
CataIyst 1912 Switch
Switch show running-configuration
Command
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-39
The show interfaces command displays status and statistics inIormation on the network
interIaces oI the switch. The table shows some signiIicant Iields shown in the display that are
useIul Ior checking on Iundamental switch details.
Output Description
Ethernet . is enabled Ìndicates the current status of the interface
Hardware is ... 10BaseT Shows the type of hardware interface
Address is . Shows the Media Access Control (MAC) address that identifies the
interface hardware
MTU 1500 bytes Shows the size of the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for this interface
802.1d STP State:
Forwarding
Ìndicates the Spanning-Tree Protocol status. Ìn this case, frames are
being forwarded through this interface
Additional display Irom this command includes counters oI the number and type oI Irames
passing through the interIace, and any errors that have occurred.
You will use the show interfaces command Irequently while conIiguring and monitoring
network devices.
INTRO v1.0a-8-19 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
wg_sw_a#show interfaces ethernet 0/1
Fthernet 0/1 is Fnabled
Hardware is Built~in 10Base~T
Address is 0050.BD73.F2C1
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbits
802.1d STP State: Forwarding Forward Transitions: 1
Port monitoring: Disabled
Unknown unicast flooding: Fnabled
Unregistered multicast flooding: Fnabled
Description:
Duplex setting: Half duplex
Back pressure: Disabled
~~More~~
Switch show interfaces Command
8-40 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Use the show ip command to veriIy the IP address, subnet mask, and the deIault-gateway
settings on the switch. The show ip command also lists the management VLAN number, name
servers (iI any are conIigured), HTTP inIormation, and routing protocol settings.
INTRO v1.0a-8-20 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
wg_sw_c#show ip
IP Address: 10.5.5.11
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway: 10.5.5.3
Management VLAN: 1
Domain name:
Name server 1: 0.0.0.0
Name server 2: 0.0.0.0
HTTP server : Fnabled
HTTP port : 80
RIP : Fnabled
wg_sw_a#
Showing the Switch IP Address
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-41
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
INTRO v1.0a-8-21 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Summary
· The startup of a CataIyst switch requires that you
verify the physicaI instaIIation, power up the switch,
and view the Cisco IOS software output on the
consoIe.
· The CataIyst switches have severaI status LEDs that
are generaIIy Iit in green when the switch is
functioning normaIIy but turn amber when there is a
maIfunction.
· The CataIyst POST is executed onIy when the switch
is powered up. The POST uses the switch port LEDs
to indicate test progress and status.
· During initiaI startup, if POST test faiIures are
detected, they are reported to the consoIe. If POST
compIetes successfuIIy, you can configure the
switch.
INTRO v1.0a-8-22 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Summary (Cont.)
· When you start any mode on a CataIyst switch, begin in
user EXEC mode. To change modes, you must enter a
password.
· The CataIyst switch uses Cisco IOS software with severaI
command-Iine input heIp faciIities, incIuding context-
sensitive heIp.
· The CataIyst switch IOS software has the gIobaI
configuration mode and the interface configuration mode.
· After Iogging in to a CataIyst switch, you can verify the
switch initiaI startup status using the switch status
commands: show version, show running~
configuration, and show interfaces.
8-42 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) How should you power up a Catalyst 1900 switch?
A) Press the Reset button.
B) Turn the power switch to on.
C) Connect a Category 5 cable to another operating switch.
D) Attach the power cable plug to the switch power supply socket.
Q2) When you start the switch, what should you see on the console output?
A) Cisco IOS debug messages
B) the Diagnostic Console Menu
C) Cisco IOS soItware output text
D) a graphical picture showing the real-time LED`s status
Q3) When the System LED is amber on a Catalyst 1900 switch, what does this indicate?
A) The switch is operational.
B) The redundant power supply is operational.
C) The redundant power supply is malIunctioning.
D) System malIunction. One or more POST errors occurred.
Q4) Which LED display modes oI operation are used on a Catalyst switch?
(Choose three.)
A) port status
B) CPU utilization
C) switch throughput
D) Iull-duplex support
E) bandwidth utilization
Q5) AIter a successIul completion oI the initial hardware testing, what do the port LEDs on
a Catalyst switch do?
A) The LEDs remain green aIter the tests are complete.
B) The LEDs remain amber aIter the tests are complete.
C) The LEDs blink aIter the tests are complete, and then turn oII.
D) The LEDs blink aIter the tests are complete, and then turn green.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-43
Q6) Match each stage oI a Catalyst switch LED POST to its description.
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. Stage 1
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. Stage 2
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. Stage 3
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. Stage 4
¸¸¸¸¸ 5. Stage 5
¸¸¸¸¸ 6. Stage 6
A) All port LEDs are green.
B) II no test Iails, POST completes.
C) II a test Iails, its LED turns amber.
D) System LED turns amber iI any test Iails.
E) Each LED turns oII aIter its test completes.
F) On POST completion, LEDs blink, then turn oII.
Q7) At the Menu Console Logon screen on a Catalyst 1900 switch, how do you start menu
mode?
A) Enter I.
B) Enter K.
C) Enter M.
D) Enter Z.
Q8) AIter successIul completion oI the initial hardware testing on a Catalyst 1900 switch,
what is the Iirst display shown on the console display?
A) the = prompt
B) the > prompt
C) the Management Console Logon screen
D) a list oI all commands available on the switch
Q9) II POST completes successIully on the Catalyst 2950 switch, what happens next?
A) The switch shuts down.
B) The switch starts automatically.
C) The Menu Console Logon screen appears.
D) You are prompted to enter the initial conIiguration Ior the switch.
8-44 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q10) When you conIigure Catalyst switches Irom the user interIace that runs on the console
or a remote terminal, the Cisco IOS soItware provides a CLI called the ¸¸¸¸¸.
A) EXEC
B) LOGIN
C) ENABLE
D) CONSOLE
Q11) What purpose does the Cisco IOS EXEC serve?
A) determines the switch IP address and deIault gateway
B) oIIers password security by encrypting Telnet passwords
C) provides a graphical user interIace used to conIigure your switch
D) interprets the commands you enter and carries out the corresponding operations
Q12) What should you type to display a list oI commands that begin with the letter 'a¨ on a
Catalyst switch?
A) a?
B) a ?
C) help a
D) help a*
Q13) What should you type to display the command syntax help so that you can see how to
complete a command that begins with 'show¨?
A) show?
B) show ?
C) help show
D) help show*
Q14) Which conIiguration mode will you use to conIigure the switch host name or IP
address?
A) user mode
B) global conIiguration mode
C) interIace conIiguration mode
D) controller conIiguration mode
Q15) What is the primary purpose oI assigning a host name to a switch?
A) to provide a system prompt
B) to provide a unique IP address
C) to identiIy the switch by its subnet mask
D) to uniquely identiIy the switch on the network
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-45
Q16) Which Cisco IOS command displays the system hardware conIiguration and the IOS
soItware version inIormation?
A) show image
B) show version
C) show hardware
D) show running-configuration
Q17) Which Cisco IOS command displays the current active conIiguration settings on a
Catalyst switch?
A) show version
B) show interfaces
C) show startup-configuration
D) show running-configuration
8-46 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Physical Startup of the Catalyst Switch
Q2) C
ReIates to: Physical Startup of the Catalyst Switch
Q3) D
ReIates to: Switch LED Ìndicators
Q4) A, D, E
ReIates to: Switch LED Ìndicators
Q5) C
ReIates to: Verifying Port LEDs During Switch POST
Q6) A, E, C, D, B, F
ReIates to: Verifying Port LEDs During Switch POST
Q7) C
ReIates to: Viewing Ìnitial Bootup Output from the Switch
Q8) C
ReIates to: Viewing Ìnitial Bootup Output from the Switch
Q9) D
ReIates to: Viewing Ìnitial Bootup Output from the Switch
Q10) A
ReIates to: Logging Ìn to the Switch
Q11) D
ReIates to: Logging Ìn to the Switch
Q12) A
ReIates to: Examining the Help Facility in the Switch CLÌ
Q13) B
ReIates to: Examining the Help Facility in the Switch CLÌ
Q14) B
ReIates to: Configuring a Switch from the Command Line
Q15) D
ReIates to: Configuring a Switch from the Command Line
Q16) B
ReIates to: Showing the Switch Ìnitial Startup Status
Q17) D
ReIates to: Showing the Switch Ìnitial Startup Status
Starting a Router
Overview
A Cisco router goes through its startup when you turn the router on. When the startup is
completed, you can conIigure the initial soItware conIigurations. This lesson explains how the
router starts up and shows you how to veriIy its initial operation.
ReIevance
Recognizing the correct router startup is the Iirst step in deploying a Cisco router. The router
must start successIully and have a valid conIiguration to operate on the network.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to start a router and use the CLI. This includes
being able to meet these objectives:
Start a router and recognize the normal boot sequence
Use the command-line interIace to interact with the Cisco IOS soItware, given an
operational router
Use the online help Iacilities associated with the command-line interIaces, given an
operational router
8-48 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Initial Startup oI Cisco Routers
Initial Setup oI the Router
Logging In to the Router
Keyboard Help in the Router CLI
Enhanced Editing Commands
Router Command History
Showing the Router Initial Startup Status
Summary
Quiz
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-49
InitiaI Startup of Cisco Routers
The startup oI a Cisco router requires that you veriIy the physical installation, power up the
router, and view the Cisco IOS soItware output on the console. This topic describes the initial
startup oI Cisco routers.
To start router operations, the router completes the Iollowing tasks:
Runs the POST to test the hardware
Finds and loads the Cisco IOS soItware that the router uses Ior its operating system
Finds and applies the conIiguration statements about router-speciIic attributes, protocol
Iunctions, and interIace addresses
When a Cisco router powers up, it perIorms a POST. During the POST, the router executes
diagnostics to veriIy the basic operation oI the CPU, memory, and interIace circuitry.
AIter veriIying the hardware Iunctions, the router proceeds with soItware initialization, where it
Iinds and loads the IOS image, and then Iinds and loads the conIiguration Iile, iI one exists.
INTRO v1.0a-8-4 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
· System startup routines initiate router software
· Router faIIs back to startup aIternatives if needed
InitiaI Startup of the Cisco Router
1. Before you start the router,
verify the power, cabIing, and
consoIe connection.
2. Push the power switch to "on."
3. Observe the boot sequence:
· Cisco IOS software output
text appears on the consoIe
8-50 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The initial startup oI a Cisco router requires that you complete the Iollowing steps:
Step Action
1.
Before you start the router, verify the following:
All network cable connections are secure.
Your terminal is connected to the console port.
Your console terminal application, such as HyperTerminal, is selected.
2.
Push the power switch to on.
3.
Observe the boot sequence and the Cisco ÌOS software output on the console.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-51
InitiaI Setup of the Router
When the router starts up, it looks Ior a device conIiguration Iile. II it does not Iind one, the
router executes a question-driven initial conIiguration routine, called  This topic describes
the initial command-line output and explains how to complete the setup dialog.
AIter a router completes the POST and loads a Cisco IOS image, it looks Ior a device
conIiguration Iile in its nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). The router`s NVRAM is a type oI
memory that retains its contents even when power is turned oII. II the router has a conIiguration
Iile in NVRAM, the user-mode prompt appears. The Iigure shows the wg_ro_c> prompt.
II you are starting a new router, there will be no conIiguration Iile. II no valid conIiguration Iile
exists in NVRAM, the operating system executes a question-driven initial conIiguration
routine, reIerred to as the system conIiguration dialog. This special mode, shown in the Iigure,
is also called the  mode or dialog.
Setup mode is not intended Ior entering complex protocol Ieatures in the router. Use setup
mode to bring up a minimal conIiguration. Rather than using the setup mode, network
administrators can also use various conIiguration modes to conIigure the router.
INTRO v1.0a-8-5 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Unconfigured Versus Configured Router
Bootup Output from the Router
~~~ System Configuration Dialog ~~~
Continue with configuration dialog? (yes/no):yes
At any point you may enter a question mark '?· for help.
Use ctrl~c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets '( )·.
wg_ro_c con0 is now available
Press RFTURN to get started.
wg_ro_c>
Setup Mode Setup Mode
User-Mode
Prompt
User-Mode
Prompt
ConsoIe
8-52 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The primary purpose oI the setup mode is to rapidly bring up a minimal-Ieature conIiguration
Ior any router that cannot Iind its conIiguration Irom some other source. You can enter setup
mode when the router boots up without a conIiguration, or you can enter it at any time once the
router is booted and operational by entering the setup privileged EXEC mode command.
For many oI the prompts in the dialog oI the setup command Iacility, deIault answers appear in
square brackets (| |) Iollowing the question. Pressing the Return key allows you to use the
deIaults.
When prompted with 'Would you like to enter basic management setup?,¨ you can choose to
discontinue the system conIiguration dialog by entering no at the prompt. To begin the initial
conIiguration process, enter yes.
You can press Ctrl-C to terminate the process and start over at any time. When you are using
the command Iorm oI setup (Router#setup), Ctrl-C returns you to the privileged EXEC prompt
(Router=).
Normally, you will answer no to the 'basic management setup¨ prompt so that you can enter
extended setup and be able to conIigure more speciIic system parameters.
INTRO v1.0a-8-6 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Router#setup
~~~ System Configuration Dialog ~~~
Continue with configuration dialog? (yes/no): yes
At any point you may enter a question mark '?' for help.
Use ctrl~c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets '()'.
Basic management setup configures only enough connectivity
for management of the system, extended setup will ask you
to configure each interface on the system
Would you like to enter basic management setup? (yes/no): no
Setup: The InitiaI
Configuration DiaIog
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-53
II you answer yes to the ¯Would you like to enter basic management setup?º prompt,
you are prompted with ¯First, would you like to see the current interface
summary?º Enter yes to view the router interIaces. The Iigure shows the output indicating the
current status oI each router interIace. The inIormation includes the interIace IP address and
current conIiguration.
INTRO v1.0a-8-7 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Setup Interface Summary
First, would you like to see the current interface summary? (yes):
Interface IP~Address oK? Method Status Protocol
BRI0 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
BRI0:1 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
BRI0:2 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
Fthernet0 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
Serial0 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
First, would you like to see the current interface summary? (yes):
Interface IP~Address oK? Method Status Protocol
BRI0 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
BRI0:1 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
BRI0:2 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
Fthernet0 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
Serial0 unassigned YFS unset administratively down down
Interfaces Found During Startup
8-54 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
As you continue through the setup dialog, you are prompted Ior global parameters. You enter
the global parameters at the prompts, using the conIiguration values that you have determined
Ior your router.
The Iirst global parameter allows you to set the router host name. This host name will precede
the Cisco IOS prompts Ior all conIiguration modes. The deIault router name is shown between
the square brackets as ]Router¦.
Use the next global parameters shown to set the various passwords used on the router.
INTRO v1.0a-8-8 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Setup InitiaI
GIobaI Parameters
Configuring global parameters:
Fnter host name (Router):wg_ro_c
The enable secret is a password used to protect access to
privileged FXFC and configuration modes. This password, after
entered, becomes encrypted in the configuration.
Fnter enable secret: cisco
The enable password is used when you do not specify an
enable secret password, with some older software versions, and
some boot images.
Fnter enable password: sanfran
The virtual terminal password is used to protect
access to the router over a network interface.
Fnter virtual terminal password: san¸ose
Configure SNMP Network Management? (no):
Configuring global parameters:
Fnter host name (Router):wg_ro_c
The enable secret is a password used to protect access to
privileged FXFC and configuration modes. This password, after
entered, becomes encrypted in the configuration.
Fnter enable secret: cisco
The enable password is used when you do not specify an
enable secret password, with some older software versions, and
some boot images.
Fnter enable password: sanfran
The virtual terminal password is used to protect
access to the router over a network interface.
Fnter virtual terminal password: san¸ose
Configure SNMP Network Management? (no):
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-55
As you continue through the setup dialog, you are prompted Ior additional global parameters.
Enter the global parameters at the prompts, using the conIiguration values that you have
determined Ior your router. The example shows the prompts Ior routing protocols as they
appear during setup.
When you answer yes to a prompt to indicate that you want to conIigure a protocol, additional
subordinate prompts may appear about that protocol.
INTRO v1.0a-8-9 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Setup InitiaI
ProtocoI Configurations
Configure LAT? (yes): no
Configure AppleTalk? (no):
Configure DFCnet? (no):
Configure IP? (yes):
Configure IGRP routing? (yes): no
Configure RIP routing? (no):
Configure CLNS? (no):
Configure IPX? (no):
Configure Vines? (no):
Configure XNS? (no):
Configure Apollo? (no):
8-56 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
As you continue through the setup dialog, you are prompted Ior parameters Ior each installed
interIace. Use the conIiguration values that you have determined Ior your interIace to enter the
proper parameters at the prompts.
Note The setup dialog prompts for the ÌSDN switch type only when an ÌSDN interface is present.
INTRO v1.0a-8-10 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Setup Interface
Parameters
BRI interface needs isdn switch~type to be configured
Valid switch types are :
(0) none..........only if you don't want to configure BRI.
(1) basic~1tr6....1TR6 switch type for Germany
(2) basic~5ess....AT&T 5FSS switch type for the US/Canada
(3) basic~dms100..Northern DMS~100 switch type for US/Canada
(4) basic~net3....NFT3 switch type for UK and Furope
(5) basic~ni......National ISDN switch type
(6) basic~ts013...TS013 switch type for Australia
(7) ntt...........NTT switch type for Japan
(8) vn3...........VN3 and VN4 switch types for France
Choose ISDN BRI Switch Type (2):
Configuring interface parameters:
Do you want to configure BRI0 (BRI d~channel) interface? (no):
Do you want to configure Fthernet0 interface? (no): yes
Configure IP on this interface? (no): yes
IP address for this interface: 10.1.1.33
Subnet mask for this interface (255.0.0.0) : 255.255.255.0
Class A network is 10.0.0.0, 24 subnet bits; mask is /24
Do you want to configure Serial0 interface? (no):
BRI interface needs isdn switch~type to be configured
Valid switch types are :
(0) none..........only if you don't want to configure BRI.
(1) basic~1tr6....1TR6 switch type for Germany
(2) basic~5ess....AT&T 5FSS switch type for the US/Canada
(3) basic~dms100..Northern DMS~100 switch type for US/Canada
(4) basic~net3....NFT3 switch type for UK and Furope
(5) basic~ni......National ISDN switch type
(6) basic~ts013...TS013 switch type for Australia
(7) ntt...........NTT switch type for Japan
(8) vn3...........VN3 and VN4 switch types for France
Choose ISDN BRI Switch Type (2):
Configuring interface parameters:
Do you want to configure BRI0 (BRI d~channel) interface? (no):
Do you want to configure Fthernet0 interface? (no): yes
Configure IP on this interface? (no): yes
IP address for this interface: 10.1.1.33
Subnet mask for this interface (255.0.0.0) : 255.255.255.0
Class A network is 10.0.0.0, 24 subnet bits; mask is /24
Do you want to configure Serial0 interface? (no):
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-57
When you have completed the conIiguration process Ior all installed interIaces on your router,
the setup command presents the conIiguration command script that was created.
The setup command gives you the Iollowing three choices:
¡0]: Go to the EXEC prompt without saving the created conIiguration.
¡1]: Go back to the beginning oI setup without saving the created conIiguration.
¡2]: Accept the created conIiguration, save it to NVRAM, and exit to the EXEC mode.
II you select |2|, the conIiguration is executed and saved to NVRAM. When you have made
this last choice, your system is ready to use. II you want to modiIy the conIiguration that you
have just established, you must reconIigure it manually.
The script Iile generated by the setup command is additive. You can turn on Ieatures with
setup, but you cannot turn them oII. In addition, setup does not support many oI the advanced
Ieatures oI the router or those Ieatures that require a more complex conIiguration.
INTRO v1.0a-8-11 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Setup Script
Review and Use
The following configuration command script was created:
hostname Router
enable secret 5 $1$/CCk$4r7zDwDNeqkxFo.kJxC3G0
enable password sanfran
line vty 0 4
password san¸ose
no snmp~server
!
no appletalk routing
no decnet routing
ip routing
no clns routing
no ipx routing
no vines routing
no xns routing
no apollo routing
isdn switch~type basic~5ess
interface BRI0
shutdown
no ip address
!
interface Fthernet0
no shutdown
ip address 10.1.1.31 255.255.255.0
no mop enabled
!
interface Serial0
shutdown
no ip address
<text omitted>
end
(0) Go to the IoS command prompt without saving this config.
(1) Return back to the setup without saving this config.
(2) Save this configuration to nvram and exit.
Fnter your selection (2):
8-58 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Logging In to the Router
When you conIigure Cisco routers Irom the command-line interIace that runs on the console or
a remote terminal, the Cisco IOS soItware provides a CLI called the EXEC. The EXEC
interprets the commands you enter and carries out the corresponding operations. This topic
shows you how to log in to a Cisco router to begin the initial conIiguration.
AIter you have conIigured a router Irom the setup utility, you can reconIigure or add to the
conIiguration Irom the user interIace that runs on the router console or auxiliary port. You can
also conIigure Cisco routers using remote access applications, such as Telnet.
Cisco IOS soItware provides a command interpreter called the EXEC. The EXEC interprets the
commands that you enter and carries out the corresponding operations. You must log in to the
router beIore you can enter an EXEC command.
For security purposes, the EXEC has the Iollowing two levels oI access to commands:
User mode: Typical tasks include those that check the router status.
Privileged mode: Typical tasks include those that change the router conIiguration.
When you Iirst log in to the router, you will see a user-mode prompt. EXEC commands
available in user mode are a subset oI the EXEC commands available in privileged mode. For
the most part, these commands allow you to display inIormation without changing router
conIiguration settings.
To access the Iull set oI commands, you must Iirst enable privileged mode with the enable
command and supply the enable password, iI it is conIigured.
INTRO v1.0a-8-12 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Logging In to the Router
wg_ro_c con0 is now available
Press RFTURN to get started.
wg_ro_c>
wg_ro_c>enable
wg_ro_c#
wg_ro_c#disable
wg_ro_c>
wg_ro_c>logout
User-Mode Prompt User-Mode Prompt
ConsoIe
PriviIeged-Mode Prompt PriviIeged-Mode Prompt
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-59
Note The enable password is displayed in clear text using the show run command. The secret
password is encrypted so it is not displayed in clear text. Ìf both the enable and secret
passwords are configured, the secret password will override the enable password.
The EXEC prompt then displays as a pound sign (=) while you are in this mode. From the
privileged level, you can also access global conIiguration mode and the other speciIic
conIiguration modes. These modes include interIace, subinterIace, line, router, route-map, and
several others.
Use the disable command to return to the user EXEC mode Irom the privileged EXEC mode.
Use the exit or logout command to end the current session.
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Enter a question mark (?) at the user-mode prompt or the privileged-mode prompt to display a
list oI commands available at the current mode.
Note The available commands will vary with different Cisco ÌOS software versions.
Notice the -- More -- at the bottom oI the sample display. It indicates that multiple screens are
available as output. Additional commands Iollow.
In the Cisco IOS soItware where the -- More -- prompt appears, you can perIorm any oI the
Iollowing tasks:
Press the Space Bar to display the next available screen.
Press the Return key (or, on some keyboards, the Enter key) to display the next line.
Press any other key to return to the prompt.
INTRO v1.0a-8-13 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
· You can abbreviate a command to the fewest characters that
make a unique character string.
Router User-Mode
Command List
wg_ro_c>?
Fxec commands:
access~enable Create a temporary Access~List entry
atmsig Fxecute Atm Signalling Commands
cd Change current device
clear Reset functions
connect open a terminal connection
dir List files on given device
disable Turn off privileged commands
disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
enable Turn on privileged commands
exit Fxit from the FXFC
help Description of the interactive help system
lat open a lat connection
lock Lock the terminal
login Log in as a particular user
logout Fxit from the FXFC
~~ More ~~
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-61
Enter enable to access the privileged EXEC mode. Normally, you must enter a password iI a
password has been conIigured.
Enter a question mark (?) at the privileged-mode prompt to display a much longer list oI EXEC
commands, as shown in the Iigure.
Note The available commands vary with different Cisco ÌOS software versions.
INTRO v1.0a-8-14 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
wg_ro_c#?
Fxec commands:
access~enable Create a temporary Access~List entry
access~profile Apply user~profile to interface
access~template Create a temporary Access~List entry
bfe For manual emergency modes setting
cd Change current directory
clear Reset functions
clock Manage the system clock
configure Fnter configuration mode
connect open a terminal connection
copy Copy from one file to another
debug Debugging functions (see also 'undebug')
delete Delete a file
dir List files on a filesystem
disable Turn off privileged commands
disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
enable Turn on privileged commands
erase Frase a filesystem
exit Fxit from the FXFC
help Description of the interactive help system
~~ More ~~
· You can compIete a command string by entering the
unique character string, then pressing the Tab key.
Router PriviIeged-Mode
Command List
8-62 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Keyboard HeIp in the Router CLI
The Cisco router uses Cisco IOS soItware with extensive command-line input help Iacilities,
including context-sensitive help. This topic describes the CLI keyboard help that is available on
Cisco routers.
The Cisco IOS CLI on Cisco routers oIIers the Iollowing types oI help:
Word help: Enter ? to get word help Ior a list oI commands that begin with a particular
character sequence. Enter the character sequence Iollowed immediately by the question
mark. Do not include a space beIore the question mark. The router will display a list oI
commands that start with the characters that you entered.
Command syntax help: Enter ? to get command syntax help so that you can see how to
complete a command. Enter a question mark in place oI a keyword or argument. Include a
space beIore the question mark. The network device will then display a list oI available
command options, with '·cr~¨ standing Ior a carriage return.
Note Cisco routers and Catalyst switches have similar command-line help facilities. All of the help
facilities mentioned in this section for routers also apply to the Catalyst switches, unless
otherwise stated.
Special Ctrl and Escape key sequences reduce the need to reenter entire command strings. The
Cisco IOS soItware provides several commands and characters to recall or complete command
entries Irom a history buIIer that keeps the last several commands that you entered. You can
reuse rather than reenter these commands, iI appropriate.
Console error messages help you identiIy problems with an incorrect command entry. Error
messages that you might encounter while using the CLI are shown in the table.
INTRO v1.0a-8-15 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Context-Sensitive HeIp ConsoIe Error Messages
Identifies probIems with
router commands that are
incorrectIy entered so you
can aIter or correct them
AIIows recaII of Iong or
compIex commands or
entries for reentry, review, or
correction
Command History Buffer
Provides a Iist of
commands and the
arguments associated
with a specific command
Router Command-Line HeIp FaciIities
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-63
Error Message Meaning How to Get HeIp
% Ambiguous
command.
¯show conº
You did not enter enough
characters for your device to
recognize the command.
Reenter the command followed by a question
mark (?), with no space between the command
and the question mark.
The possible keywords that you can enter with the
command are displayed.
% Incomplete
command
You did not enter all the
keywords or values required
by this command.
Reenter the command followed by a question
mark (?), with a space between the command and
the question mark.
% Invalid
input
detected at
´¹ marker
You entered the command
incorrectly. The caret (^)
marks the point of the error.
Enter a question mark (?) to display all the
commands or parameters that are available.
The command history buIIer stores the commands that you have most recently entered. To see
these commands, enter the Cisco IOS show history command.
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Context-sensitive help can be used to determine the syntax oI a particular command. For
example, iI you need to set the router clock but you do not know the clock command syntax,
you can use the context-sensitive help to check the syntax Ior setting the clock.
II you intend to enter the word clock, but misspell it, the system perIorms a symbolic
translation oI the misspelled command as parsed by Cisco IOS soItware. II no command or
computer name matches the string input, an error message is returned. Alternatively, iI there is
no Cisco IOS command that begins with the misspelled letters, the router will interpret the
word as a Telnet host and attempt to connect to that host. In that case, you will exit Telnet and
reenter the command.
You can use context-sensitive help to give you the whole command by entering just the Iirst
part, cl, and then ?.
II you enter the command clock but get an error message indicating that the command is
incomplete, enter ? (preceded by a space) to determine what arguments are required Ior the
command. In the 'clock ?¨ example, the help output shows that the keyword 'set¨ is required
aIter clock.
II you now enter the command clock set but still get an error message indicating that the
command is incomplete, press the Ctrl-P (or Up Arrow) key to repeat the command entry.
Then, add a space and enter the question mark (?) to display a list oI command arguments that
are available at that point Ior the given command.
The example shows that aIter the last command recall, the administrator used the ? character to
reveal the additional arguments, which involve entering the current time using hours, minutes,
and seconds.
INTRO v1.0a-8-16 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Router Context-Sensitive HeIp
Router# clok
Translating "CLoK"
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router# cl?
clear clock
Router# clock
% Incomplete command.
Router# clock ?
set Set the time and date
Router# clock set
% Incomplete command.
Router# <Ctrl~P>clock set ?
hh:mm:ss Current Time
· SymboIic TransIation
· Command Prompting
· Last Command RecaII
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-65
The Iigure continues to illustrate how to set the router clock.
II, aIter entering the current time, you still see the Cisco IOS soItware error message that
indicates that the command entered is incomplete, recall the command, add a space, and enter
the question mark (?) to display a list oI command arguments that are available at that point Ior
the given command. In the example, you need to next enter the day, month, and year using the
correct syntax, then press the Return key to execute the command.
Syntax checking uses the caret symbol (`) as an error location indicator. The caret symbol
appears at the point in the command string where you have entered an incorrect command,
keyword, or argument. The error location indicator and interactive help system allow you to
Iind and correct syntax errors easily. In the clock example, the ` indicates that you entered the
month incorrectly. The parser is expecting the month to be spelled out.
INTRO v1.0a-8-17 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Router Context-Sensitive HeIp (Cont.)
Router# clok
Translating "CLoK"
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address
Router#
clear clock
Router#
% Incomplete command.
Router#
set Set the time and date
Router#
% Incomplete command.
Router#
hh:mm:ss Current Time
Router# clock set 19:56:00
% Incomplete command.
Router# clock set 19:56:00 ?
<1~31> Day of the month
MoNTH Month of the year
Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 8
´
% Invalid input detected at the '´' marker
Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 August
% Incomplete command.
Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 August ?
<1993~2035> Year
· Command
Prompting
· Syntax Checking
· Command
Prompting
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Enhanced Editing Commands
The Cisco IOS CLI includes an enhanced editing mode that provides a set oI editing key
Iunctions. This topic describes the enhanced editing key Iunctions.
Although enhanced editing mode is automatically enabled, you can disable it. You may want to
disable enhanced editing iI you have scripts that do not interact well when enhanced editing is
enabled. Use the terminal editing command to turn on advanced editing Ieatures and the no
terminal editing command to disable advanced editing Ieatures.
Note The terminaI editing command is not available on the Catalyst 1900 switches.
The editing command set provides a horizontal scrolling Ieature Ior commands that extend
beyond a single line on the screen. When the cursor reaches the right margin, the command line
shiIts ten spaces to the leIt. You can no longer see the Iirst ten characters oI the line, but you
can scroll back and check the syntax at the beginning oI the command.
INTRO v1.0a-8-18 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Router>Shape the future of internetworking by creating unpreced
Shape the future of internetworking by creating
unprecedented vaIue for customers, empIoyees,
and partners.
Enhanced Editing Commands
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-67
In the example shown in the Iigure, the command entry extends beyond one line. The dollar
sign ($) indicates that the line has been scrolled to the leIt. To scroll back, press Ctrl-B or the
Left Arrow key repeatedly until you are at the beginning oI the command entry, or press Ctrl-
A to return directly to the beginning oI the line.
The key sequences indicated in the Iigure are shortcuts or hot keys provided by the CLI. Use
these key sequences to move the cursor around on the command line Ior corrections or changes.
The table describes each oI the shortcuts shown in the Iigure and some additional shortcuts Ior
command-line editing and controlling command entry.
Command-Line Editing
Key Sequence
Description
Ctrl-A Moves the cursor to the beginning of the command line
Ctrl-E Moves the cursor to the end of the command line
Esc-B Moves the cursor back one word
Esc-F Moves the cursor forward one word
Ctrl-B Moves the cursor back one character
Ctrl-F Moves the cursor forward one character
Ctrl-D Deletes a single character to the left of the cursor
Backspace Removes one character to the left of the cursor
Ctrl-R Redisplays the current command line
Ctrl-U Erases a line
INTRO v1.0a-8-19 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Router>$ value for customers, employees, and partners.
(Automatic scroIIing of Iong Iines.)
CtrI-A Move to the beginning of the command Iine.
CtrI-E Move to the end of the command Iine.
Esc-B Move back one word.
Esc-F Move forward one word.
CtrI-B Move back one character.
CtrI-F Move forward one character.
CtrI-D DeIete a singIe character.
Enhanced Editing Commands (Cont.)
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Command-Line Editing
Key Sequence
Description
Ctrl-W Erases a word to the left of the cursor
Ctrl-Z Ends configuration mode and returns to the EXEC prompt
Tab Completes a partially entered command if enough characters have been
entered to make it unambiguous
Note The Escape key is not functional on all terminals.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-69
Router Command History
The Cisco router CLI provides a history or record oI commands that you have entered. This
Ieature, called the command history, is particularly useIul in helping you recall long or complex
commands or entries. This topic describes the router command history Ieature.
With the command history Ieature, you can complete the Iollowing tasks:
Display the contents oI the command buIIer.
Set the command history buIIer size.
Recall previously entered commands stored in the history buIIer. There is a buIIer Ior the
EXEC mode and another buIIer Ior the conIiguration mode.
By deIault, command history is enabled and the system records the last ten command lines in
its history buIIer.
To change the buIIer size permanently, use the history size line conIiguration command. The
maximum history size is 256.
To change the number oI command lines the system will record during the current terminal
session only, use the terminal history user EXEC mode command.
To recall commands in the history buIIer beginning with the most recent command, press
Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands.
To return to more recent commands in the history buIIer aIter recalling older commands with
Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow, press Ctrl-N or the Down Arrow. Repeat the key sequence to recall
successively more recent commands.
INTRO v1.0a-8-20 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
CtrI-P or Up Arrow RecaIIs Iast (previous) commands
CtrI-N or Down Arrow RecaIIs more recent commands
show history Shows command buffer contents
history size line Sets the buffer size permanentIy
Router Command History
terminal history size lines Sets session command buffer size
8-70 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
On most computers you may also have additional select and copy Iacilities available. Copy a
previous command string, and then paste or insert it as your current command entry and press
Return.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-71
Showing the Router InitiaI Startup Status
AIter logging in to a Cisco router, you can veriIy the router initial startup status using the router
status commands: show version, show running-config, and show startup-config. This topic
describes the router status commands.
Use the show version EXEC command to display the conIiguration oI the system hardware, the
soItware version, the memory size, and the conIiguration register setting.
Always speciIy the complete version number when reporting a possible soItware problem. In
the Iigure, the version number is 12.0(3).
In the Iigure, the amount oI time the system has been up and running is indicated by the line
'wg¸ro¸a uptime is 20 minutes.¨
II the soItware was booted over the network, the Internet address oI the boot host is shown in
the line that begins 'System image Iile is.¨ II the soItware was loaded Irom onboard ROM, this
line reads 'running deIault soItware.¨
INTRO v1.0a-8-21 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
show version Command
wg_ro_a#show version
Cisco Internetwork operating System Software
IoS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500~JS~L), Version 12.0(3), RFLFASF SoFTWARF (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986~1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 08~Feb~99 18:18 by phanguye
Image text~base: 0x03050C84, data~base: 0x00001000
RoM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.0(10c), SoFTWARF
BooTFLASH: 3000 Bootstrap Software (IGS~BooT~R), Version 11.0(10c), RFLFASF SoFTWARF(fc1)
wg_ro_a uptime is 20 minutes
System restarted by reload
System image file is "flash:c2500~¸s~l_120~3.bin"
(output omitted)
~~More~~
Configuration register is 0x2102
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A Cisco router has three primary types oI memory:
RAM: Stores routing tables, Iast switching cache, running conIiguration, and so on
NVRAM: Used Ior writable permanent storage oI the startup conIiguration
Flash: Memory cards that provide permanent storage oI the Cisco IOS soItware image,
backup conIigurations, and any other Iiles.
The show startup-config command displays the saved conIiguration in NVRAM. The show
running-config command displays the conIiguration in RAM.
INTRO v1.0a-8-22 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Viewing the Configuration
Configuration
IOS
RAM
Configuration
NVRAM
show
startup-config
show
running-config
ConsoIe
Setup UtiIity
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-73
The show running-config command displays the current (running) conIiguration in RAM.
The 'Building conIiguration..¨ output indicates that the running conIiguration is being built
Irom the active conIigurations stored in RAM.
Once the running conIiguration is built Irom RAM, the 'Current conIiguration:¨ message
appears to indicate that this is the current conIiguration running in RAM.
The Iirst line oI the show startup-config command output indicates the amount oI NVRAM
used to store the conIiguration; Ior example, 'Using 1359 out oI 32762 bytes¨ indicates that the
total size oI the NVRAM is 32762 bytes and the current conIiguration stored in NVRAM takes
up 1359 bytes.
INTRO v1.0a-8-23 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
show running-config and
show startup-config Commands
wg_ro_c#show startup~config
Using 1359 out of 32762 bytes
!
version 12.0
!
~~ More ~~
wg_ro_c#show running~config
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
version 12.0
!
~~ More ~~
In NVRAM In RAM
· DispIays the current and saved configuration
8-74 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
INTRO v1.0a-8-24 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Summary
· The startup of a Cisco router requires that you verify
the physicaI instaIIation, power up the router, and
view the Cisco IOS software output on the consoIe.
· The router startup sequence is simiIar to the startup
sequence of the CataIyst switch. The router first
performs POST, then it finds and Ioads the IOS
image. FinaIIy, it finds and Ioads the device
configuration fiIe.
· Use the enable command to access the priviIeged
EXEC mode from the user EXEC mode.
INTRO v1.0a-8-25 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved.
Summary (Cont.)
· The Cisco router uses Cisco IOS software with
extensive command-Iine input heIp faciIities,
incIuding context-sensitive heIp.
· The Cisco IOS CLI incIudes an enhanced editing
mode that provides a set of editing key functions.
· The Cisco router CLI provides a history or record of
commands you have entered. This feature, caIIed the
command history, is particuIarIy usefuI to heIp you
recaII Iong or compIex commands or entries.
· After Iogging in to a Cisco router, you can verify the
router initiaI startup status using the router status
commands: show version, show running~
configuration, and show startup~
configuration.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-75
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) When the router starts up, which actions do the startup routines perIorm? (Choose
three.)
A) Run POST.
B) Execute setup mode.
C) Make sure that the router can reach other routers on the same network.
D) Enter privileged EXEC mode so the network administrator can conIigure it.
E) Find and load the Cisco IOS soItware that the router uses Ior its operating
system.
F) Find and apply the conIiguration statements about router-speciIic attributes,
protocol Iunctions, and interIace addresses.
Q2) When a Cisco router powers up, it perIorms a ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
A) system conIiguration
B) login and setup script
C) soItware diagnostic test
D) power-on selI test (POST)
Q3) Why would you use the  dialog on a Cisco router?
A) to bring up privileged EXEC mode
B) to complete the initial conIiguration
C) to enter complex protocol Ieatures in the router
D) to create a test conIiguration Iile without saving it to NVRAM
Q4) What should you do iI you make an error during the system conIiguration dialog on a
Cisco router?
A) Type Ctrl-C to abort the process and start over.
B) Use the Page Up key to go back and correct the error.
C) Type Ctrl-Q to abort the process and return to the beginning.
D) Use Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow to repeat the last command and make any
corrections.
8-76 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q5) Which Cisco IOS command takes you Irom the Router> prompt to the Router= prompt
on a Cisco router?
A) user
B) config
C) enable
D) privilege
Q6) When the inIormation displayed on a Cisco router is more than one page in length,
what should you do to display the next page?
A) Type more.
B) Press any key.
C) Press the Space Bar.
D) Press the Down Arrow key.
Q7) What does the '° Incomplete command¨ message mean on a Cisco router?
A) You entered an invalid command parameter.
B) You did not enter all oI the keywords or values required by the command.
C) You are running the Cisco IOS soItware Irom Ilash memory, not Irom RAM.
D) You did not enter enough characters Ior the router to recognize the command.
Q8) What should you do iI you receive a '° Ambiguous command¨ message on your Cisco
router?
A) Enter help and Iollow the instructions that appear on your screen.
B) Enter a question mark (?) to display all oI the commands or parameters that are
available in this mode.
C) Reenter the command Iollowed by a question mark (?) with no space between
the command and the question mark.
D) Reenter the command Iollowed by a question mark (?) with a space between
the command and the question mark.
Q9) What does the Cisco IOS CLI do when you enter a command that is more than one line
long?
A) The router truncates the command because commands longer than one line are
not allowed.
B) The router automatically scrolls the line to the leIt and uses a dollar sign ($) to
indicate that the beginning oI the line is elsewhere.
C) The router automatically moves the cursor to the next line and uses a caret (`)
symbol to indicate that the beginning oI the line is elsewhere.
D) The router automatically shortens the command to the smallest number oI
characters that will still make the character string unique yet allow it to Iit on
one line.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-77
Q10) What happens when you press the Tab key when working in the CLI?
A) The current line will be redisplayed.
B) The cursor will move Iorward one word.
C) The cursor will move to the end oI the command line.
D) The parser will complete a partially entered command iI you entered enough
characters to make the command unambiguous.
Q11) Which tasks can you complete using the Cisco IOS command history Ieature? (Choose
three.)
A) recall commands
B) set the history buIIer size to 356
C) set the command history buIIer size
D) delete the contents oI the command buIIer
E) display the contents oI the command buIIer
Q12) Which commands recall commands in the history buIIer beginning with the most
recent command? (Choose two.)
A) Ctrl-N
B) Ctrl-P
C) Up Arrow
D) show history
E) Down Arrow
Q13) Which Cisco IOS command displays the conIiguration oI the system hardware and
soItware version inIormation on a Cisco router?
A) show version
B) show interfaces
C) show startup-config
D) show running-config
Q14) What inIormation does the show startup-config command display?
A) saved conIiguration in RAM
B) running conIiguration in RAM
C) saved conIiguration in NVRAM
D) running conIiguration in NVRAM
8-78 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) A, E, F
ReIates to: Ìnitial Startup of Cisco Routers
Q2) D
ReIates to: Ìnitial Startup of Cisco Routers
Q3) B
ReIates to: Ìnitial Setup of the Router
Q4) A
ReIates to: Ìnitial Setup of the Router
Q5) C
ReIates to: Logging Ìn to the Router
Q6) C
ReIates to: Logging Ìn to the Router
Q7) B
ReIates to: Keyboard Help in the Router CLÌ
Q8) C
ReIates to: Keyboard Help in the Router CLÌ
Q9) B
ReIates to: Enhanced Editing Commands
Q10) D
ReIates to: Enhanced Editing Commands
Q11) A, C, E
ReIates to: Router Command History
Q12) B, C
ReIates to: Router Command History
Q13) A
ReIates to: Showing the Router Ìnitial Startup Status
Q14) C
ReIates to: Showing the Router Ìnitial Startup Status
ConIiguring a Router
Overview
When the hardware installation is complete and you are sure that your Cisco router has the
initial conIiguration, you are ready to begin conIiguring the equipment Ior your speciIic
internetwork. This lesson explains how to implement a basic conIiguration Ior a Cisco router.
ReIevance
You need to be Iamiliar with the Cisco IOS command-line interIace, its modes and operation,
beIore conIiguring more advanced Ieatures, such as IP routing.
Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to implement a basic conIiguration Ior a Cisco
router. This includes being able to meet these objectives:
Use the CLI to interact with the Cisco IOS soItware, given an operational router
VeriIy the deIault conIiguration oI the device, given a Iunctioning router
Complete the initial device conIiguration, given a Iunctioning router
ConIigure IP addresses and IP subnet masks on router interIaces, given a Iunctioning router
8-80 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Learner SkiIIs and KnowIedge
To beneIit Iully Irom this lesson, you must have these prerequisite skills and knowledge:
Basic PC usage skills, including use oI general oIIice soItware such as MicrosoIt Word and
MicrosoIt Excel
Basic Internet usage skills
Basic e-mail usage skills
Knowledge oI computer components and terminology
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking components
Knowledge oI Iundamental networking terminology
Knowledge oI OSI reIerence model
Knowledge oI LAN and WAN Iunctions and operations
Knowledge oI network media types, including twisted-pair, coaxial, and Iiber-optic cables,
as well as wireless communication
Knowledge oI IP address structures and classes
OutIine
The lesson includes these topics:
Overview
Router ConIiguration Modes
ConIiguring a Router Irom the Command Line
ConIiguring Router InterIaces
ConIiguring the Router IP Address
VeriIying the InterIace ConIiguration
Summary
Quiz
Lab Exercises
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-81
Router Configuration Modes
From privileged EXEC mode, you can enter global conIiguration mode, giving you access to
the speciIic router conIiguration modes. This topic describes the router conIiguration modes
and shows you how to save a conIiguration.
The Iirst method oI conIiguration on a Cisco router is the setup utility. Setup allows a basic
initial conIiguration to be created. For more complex and speciIic conIigurations, we can use
the command-line interIace to enter terminal conIiguration mode.
From the privileged EXEC mode, you can enter global conIiguration mode with the configure
terminal command. From the global conIiguration mode, you have access to the speciIic
conIiguration modes, which include:
Interface: Supports commands that conIigure operations on a per-interIace basis
Subinterface: Supports commands that conIigure multiple virtual interIaces on a single
physical interIace
Controller: Supports commands that conIigure controllers (Ior example, E1 and T1
controllers)
Line: Supports commands that conIigure the operation oI a terminal line; Ior example, the
console or the virtual terminal (vty) ports
Router: Supports commands that conIigure an IP routing protocol
II you enter exit, the router will back out one level, eventually allowing you to log out. In
general, enter exit Irom one oI the speciIic conIiguration modes to return to global
conIiguration mode. Press Ctrl-Z to leave conIiguration mode completely and return the router
to the privileged EXEC mode.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-4
Overview of Router Modes
User EXEC Mode
PriviIeged EXEC Mode
GIobaI Configuration Mode
Ctrl~Z (end)
Fxit
Router>enable Router>enable
Router#configure terminal Router#configure terminal
Router>(config)# Router>(config)#
Configuration
Mode
Prompt
Interface
Subinterface
Controller
Line
Router
Router(config~if)#
Router(config~subif)#
Router(config~controller)#
Router(config~line)#
Router(config~router)#
8-82 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
In terminal conIiguration mode, you invoke an incremental compiler. Each conIiguration
command entered is parsed as soon as you press the Enter key.
II there are no syntax errors, the command is executed and stored in the running conIiguration,
and is eIIective immediately.
Commands that aIIect the entire router are called global commands. The hostname and enable
password commands are examples oI global commands.
Commands that point to or indicate a process or interIace that will be conIigured are called
major commands. When entered, major commands cause the CLI to enter a speciIic
conIiguration mode. Major commands have no eIIect unless you immediately enter a
subcommand that supplies the conIiguration entry. For example, the major command interface
serial 0 has no eIIect unless it is Iollowed by a subcommand that tells what you want to do to
that interIace.
The Iollowing are examples oI some major commands and subcommands that go with them:
Router(config)=interface serial 0 (major command)
Router(config-if)=shutdown (subcommand)
Router(config-if)=line console 0 (major command)
Router(config-line)=password cisco (subcommand)
Router(config-line)=router rip (major command)
Router(config-router)=network 10.0.0.0 (subcommand)
Notice that entering a major command will switch you Irom one conIiguration mode to another.
You do not have to return to the global conIiguration mode Iirst beIore starting another
conIiguration mode.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-83
AIter you have entered the commands to conIigure the router, you must save your running
conIiguration to NVRAM with the copy running-config startup-config command. II you Iail
to save your conIiguration to NVRAM and you reload the router, your conIiguration will be
lost and the router will revert to the last conIiguration saved in NVRAM.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-5
Saving Configurations
wg_ro_c#
wg_ro_c#copy running~config startup~config
Destination filename (startup~config)?
Building configuration.
wg_ro_c#
wg_ro_c#
wg_ro_c#copy running~config startup~config
Destination filename (startup~config)?
Building configuration.
wg_ro_c#
· Copies the current configuration to NVRAM
8-84 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Configuring a Router from the Command Line
Using the CLI, you will conIigure the router name, password, and other console commands.
This topic provides an overview oI some essential conIiguration tasks, including host name and
password conIiguration.
One oI the Iirst tasks in conIiguring your router is to name it. Naming your router helps you to
better manage your network by being able to uniquely identiIy each router within the network.
The name oI the router is considered to be the host name and is the name displayed at the
system prompt. II no name is conIigured, the deIault router name is Router. You assign the
router name in global conIiguration mode. In the example shown, the router name is set to
wg_ro_c.
You can conIigure a Message-oI-the-Day (MOTD) banner to be displayed on all connected
terminals. This banner is displayed at login and is useIul Ior conveying messages, such as
impending system shutdowns that might aIIect network users. When you enter the banner
motd command, Iollow the command with one or more blank spaces and a delimiting character
oI your choice. In the example, the delimiting character is a pound sign (#). AIter you add the
banner text, terminate the message with the same delimiting character.
You can add a description to an interIace to help you remember speciIic inIormation about that
interIace, such as the network serviced by that interIace. This description is meant solely as a
comment to help identiIy how the interIace is being used. The description will appear in the
output when you display the conIiguration inIormation that exists in router memory and in a
show interfaces command display.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-6
· Sets the IocaI identity or message for the accessed router or
interface
Configuring Router Identification
Router(config)#hostname wg_ro_c
wg_ro_c(config)#
Router(config)#hostname wg_ro_c
wg_ro_c(config)#
wg_ro_c(config)#banner motd #
Fnter TFXT message. Fnd with
the character #. You have
entered a secured system.
Authorized access only! #
wg_ro_c(config)#banner motd #
Fnter TFXT message. Fnd with
the character #. You have
entered a secured system.
Authorized access only! #
wg_ro_c(config)#interface ethernet 0
wg_ro_c(config~if)#description Fngineering LAN, Bldg. 18
wg_ro_c(config)#interface ethernet 0
wg_ro_c(config~if)#description Fngineering LAN, Bldg. 18
Interface Description
Message-of-the-Day Banner
Router Name
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-85
You can secure your router by using passwords to restrict access. Using passwords and
assigning privilege levels is a simple way oI providing terminal access control in your network.
You can establish passwords on individual lines, such as the console, and to the privileged
EXEC mode. Passwords are case sensitive.
Each Telnet port on the router is known as a virtual terminal. There are a maximum oI Iive
virtual terminal (vty) ports on the router, allowing Iive concurrent Telnet sessions. On the
router, the virtual terminal ports are numbered Irom 0 through 4.
Use the line console 0 command Iollowed by the login and password subcommands to require
login and establish a login password on the console terminal or on a vty port. By deIault, login
is not enabled on the console or on vty ports.
The line vty 0 4 command Iollowed by the login and password subcommands require login
and establish a login password on incoming Telnet sessions.
You can use the login local command to enable password checking on a per-user basis using
the username and password speciIied with the username global conIiguration command. The
username command establishes username authentication with encrypted passwords.
The enable password global command restricts access to the privileged EXEC mode. You
assign an encrypted Iorm oI the enable password, called the enable secret password, by entering
the enable secret command with the desired password at the global conIiguration mode
prompt. II you conIigure the enable secret password, it is used instead oI the enable password,
not in addition to it.
You can also add a Iurther layer oI security, which is particularly useIul Ior passwords that
cross the network or are stored on a TFTP server. Cisco provides a Ieature that allows you to
use encrypted passwords. Passwords can be encrypted using the service password-encryption
command. To set password encryption, enter the Iollowing commands in the global
conIiguration mode. The router encrypts only passwords entered between the two commands.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-7
Configuring a Router Password
Router(config)#line console 0
Router(config~line)#login
Router(config~line)#password cisco
Router(config)#line console 0
Router(config~line)#login
Router(config~line)#password cisco
Router(config)#line vty 0 4
Router(config~line)#login
Router(config~line)#password san¸ose
Router(config)#line vty 0 4
Router(config~line)#login
Router(config~line)#password san¸ose
Router(config)#enable password cisco Router(config)#enable password cisco
Router(config)#enable secret sanfran Router(config)#enable secret sanfran
Router(config)#no login
Router(config)#no enable password
Router(config)#no login
Router(config)#no enable password
ConsoIe Password
VirtuaI TerminaI Password
EnabIe Password
Secret Password
DisabIe Commands
8-86 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Router(config)=service password~encryption
Router(config)=no service password~encryption
Passwords that are displayed or set aIter you conIigure the service password-encryption
command will be encrypted.
To disable a command, enter no beIore the command. For example, to disable login on the
console port, enter no login under the line console 0 conIiguration mode, or to disable the
enable password, enter no enable password.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-87
Other useIul console commands include the exec-timeout 0 0 command. This command sets
the timeout Ior the console EXEC session to zero. This prevents the session Irom timing out
and disconnecting your session. The deIault timeout is ten minutes.
The logging synchronous console-line command is useIul whenever console messages are
being displayed while you are attempting to input EXEC or conIiguration commands. Instead
oI the console messages being interspersed with your input, your input is redisplayed on a
single line at the end oI each console message that 'interrupts¨ your input. This makes reading
your input and the messages much easier.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-8
Other ConsoIe-Line Commands
Router(config)#line console 0
Router(config~line)#exec~timeout 0 0
Router(config)#line console 0
Router(config~line)#logging synchronous
· Prevents consoIe session timeout
· RedispIays interrupted consoIe input
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Configuring Router Interfaces
A router`s main Iunction is to relay packets Irom one network device to another. To do that,
you must deIine the characteristics oI the interIaces through which the packets are received and
sent. This topic describes the commands used to conIigure interIaces on Cisco routers.
The router interIace characteristics include, but are not limited to, the IP address oI the
interIace, the data-link encapsulation method, media type, bandwidth, and clock rate.
Many Ieatures are enabled on a per-interIace basis. InterIace conIiguration mode commands
modiIy the operation oI Ethernet, serial, and many other interIace types. When you issue the
interface command, you must deIine the interIace type and number. The number is assigned to
each interIace based on the physical location oI the interIace hardware in the router and is used
to identiIy each interIace. This identiIication is critical when you have multiple interIaces oI the
same type in a single router. Examples oI an interIace type and number would be:
Router(config)=interface serial 0
Router(config)=interface ethernet 1
You speciIy an interIace in Cisco 2600, 3600, and 4000 series or other modular routers by the
physical slot in the router and port number on the module in that slot, as Iollows:
Router(config)=interface ethernet 1/0
You deIine an interIace in the Cisco 7000 and 7500 series routers with Versatile InterIace
Processor (VIP) cards by slot, port adapter (a module on the VIP card), and port number on the
port adapter, as Iollows:
Router(config)=interface ethernet 1/0/0
To quit the interIace conIiguration mode, enter exit at the prompt.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-9
Router(config)#interface type number
Router(config~if)#
· type incIudes seriaI, ethernet, token ring, fddi, hssi,
Ioopback, diaIer, nuII, async, atm, bri, tunneI, and so on
· number is used to identify individuaI interfaces
Router(config~if)#exit
· Quits from current interface configuration mode
Router(config)#interface type slot/port
Router(config~if)#
· For moduIar routers, seIects an interface
Configuring an Interface
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-89
The example shows you how to conIigure a serial interIace, as Iollows:
Step 1 Enter global conIiguration mode. In this example, you are conIiguring the interIace
Irom the console terminal.
Step 2 When in global conIiguration mode, you must identiIy the speciIic interIace against
which you will be issuing commands by entering the appropriate major command. In
this example, the interIace is serial 0.
Step 3 II a data communications equipment (DCE) cable is attached, issue the clock rate
bps command with the desired speed. Use the clock rate interIace conIiguration
command to conIigure the clock rate Ior the hardware connections on serial
interIaces such as network interIace modules (NIMs) and interIace processors to an
acceptable bit rate.
Be sure to enter the complete clock speed. For example, a clock rate oI 64000 cannot
be abbreviated to 64.
On serial links, one side oI the link acts as the DCE and the other side oI the link
acts as the data terminal equipment (DTE). By deIault, Cisco routers are DTE
devices, but can be conIigured as DCE devices. In a 'back-to-back¨ router
conIiguration where a modem is not used, one oI the interIaces must be conIigured
as the DCE to provide a clocking signal. You must speciIy the clock rate Ior each
DCE interIace you conIigure in this type oI environment. Clock rates in bits per
second are 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 56000, 64000, 72000, 125000,
148000, 500000, 800000, 1000000, 1300000, 2000000, and 4000000.
Note The attached serial cable determines the DTE or DCE mode of the Cisco router. Choose the
cable to match the network requirement.
Step 4 Enter the speciIied bandwidth Ior the interIace. The bandwidth command provides
a minimum bandwidth guarantee during congestion. The bandwidth command
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-10
Enter GIobaI
Configuration Mode
Router(config~if)#clock rate 64000
Router(config~if)#
Router(config)#interface serial 0
Router(config~if)#
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#
Router(config~if)#bandwidth 64
Router(config~if)#exit
Router(config)#exit
Router#
Specify Interface
Set CIock Rate
(on DCE interfaces onIy)
Set Bandwidth
(recommended)
Configuring a SeriaI Interface
8-90 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
overrides the deIault bandwidth that is displayed in the show interfaces command
and is used by some routing protocols, such as the Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (IGRP), Ior routing metric calculations.
The router also uses the bandwidth Ior other types oI calculations, such as those
required Ior the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). The deIault bandwidth Ior
serial lines is T1 speed (1.544 Mbps). The bandwidth entered has no eIIect on the
actual speed oI the line.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-91
The media-type interIace command speciIies the Ethernet interIace physical connection. The
options Ior this command are as Iollows:
media~type ¦aui | 10baset | 100baset | mii}
For example, the Ethernet interIace physical connection Ior a Cisco 4000 series router could be
an attachment unit interIace (AUI) option and a 10BASE-T connector. This router series houses
two connectors on a network interIace module: an AUI connector and a 10BASE-T connector.
The deIault is AUI. Most routers will autosense the interIace connector type.
A Fast Ethernet InterIace Processor (FEIP) on the Cisco 7000, 7200, and 7500 series routers
can support 100BASE-T4 (Iour pair oI Category 3, 4, or 5 unshielded twisted-pair |UTP|)
connectivity through the media independent interIace (MII) and customer-provided transceiver.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-11
Router(config)#interface ethernet 2
Router(config~if)#media~type 10baset
Router(config)#interface ethernet 2
Router(config~if)#media~type 10baset
· SeIects the media-type connector for the
Ethernet interface
Ethernet media-type Command
8-92 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
There may be a reason Ior you to disable an interIace. This Iunction is useIul when you want to
perIorm hardware maintenance on a speciIic interIace or segment oI a network. You might also
want to disable an interIace iI a problem exists on a speciIic segment oI the network and you
need to isolate that segment Irom the rest oI the network.
The shutdown subcommand administratively turns oII an interIace. To reinstate the interIace,
use the no shutdown command.
Whenever you Iirst conIigure an interIace, unless in setup mode, you must administratively
enable the interIace beIore it can be used to transmit and receive packets. Use the no shutdown
command to allow the Cisco IOS soItware to use the interIace.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-12
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface serial 0
Router(config~if)#no shutdown
%LINK~3~UPDoWN: Interface Seria0, changed state to up
%LINFPRoTo~5~UPDoWN: Line Protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up
· EnabIes an interface that is administrativeIy shut down
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface serial 0
Router(config~if)#shutdown
%LINK~5~CHANGFD: Interface Serial0, changed state to administratively down
%LINFPRoTo~5~UPDoWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to down
· AdministrativeIy turns off an interface
DisabIing or EnabIing an Interface
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-93
Configuring the Router IP Address
Each interIace on a Cisco router must have its own IP address to uniquely identiIy it on the
network. This topic shows you how to conIigure the IP address Ior each interIace on a Cisco
router.
To conIigure an interIace on a Cisco router, complete the Iollowing steps:
Step Action ResuIts and Notes
1.
Enter global configuration mode using the
configure terminaI command.
Router=configure terminal
This command brings up a new prompt:
Router(config)=
2.
Ìdentify the specific interface that requires an
ÌP address by using the interface type
slot/port command.
Router(config)=interface ethernet
0
This command brings up a new prompt, for
example:
Router(config-if)=
3.
Set the ÌP address and subnet mask for the
interface by using the ip address ip-address
mask command.
Router(config-if)=ip address
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
This command configures the ÌP address and
subnet mask for the selected interface.
4.
Enable the interface to change the state from
administratively down to up by using the no
shutdown command.
Router(config-if)=no shutdown
This command enables the current interface.
5.
Exit configuration mode for the interface by
using the exit command.
Router(config-if)=exit
This command brings up the global
configuration mode prompt.
Router(config)=
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-13
· Unique addressing aIIows communication
between end stations.
· Path choice is based on destination address.
Introducing IP Addresses
172.18.0.1 172.16.0.1
172.18.0.2 172.16.0.2
10.13.0.0 192.168.1.0
192.168.1.1 10.13.0.1 172.17.0.1 172.17.0.2
HDR SA DA DATA HDR SA DA DATA
8-94 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Verifying the Interface Configuration
When you complete the router interIace conIiguration, you can veriIy it using show interfaces
commands. This topic describes the show commands and the output you will see, so you can
veriIy the conIiguration.
The show interfaces command displays status and statistics oI all network interIaces on the
router. Alternatively, you can display the status Ior a speciIic interIace by using the show
interfaces type slot command. Output Iields Ior an Ethernet interIace and their meanings are
shown in the table.
Output Description
Ethernet...is ¡up |
down |
administratively
down¦
Ìndicates whether the interface hardware is currently active, down, or if
an administrator has taken it down.
line protocol is
¡up | down¦
Ìndicates whether the software processes that handle the line protocol
consider the interface usable (that is, whether keepalives are
successful). Ìf the interface misses three consecutive keepalives, the
line protocol is marked as down.
Hardware Hardware type (for example, MCÌ Ethernet, SCÌ, cBus Ethernet) and
address.
Internet address ÌP address followed by the prefix length (subnet mask).
MTU Maximum transmission unit of the interface.
BW Bandwidth of the interface, in kilobits per second. The bandwidth
parameter is used to compute routing protocol metrics as well as other
calculations.
DLY Delay of the interface, in microseconds.
rely Reliability of the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is 100 percent
reliability), calculated as an exponential average over five minutes.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-14
Router show interfaces Command
Router#show interfaces
Fthernet0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Lance, address is 00e0.1e5d.ae2f (bia 00e0.1e5d.ae2f)
Internet address is 10.1.1.11/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Fncapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input 00:00:07, output 00:00:08, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Queueing strategy: fifo
output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
81833 packets input, 27556491 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 42308 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
1 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 1 ignored, 0 abort
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
55794 packets output, 3929696 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 4 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-95
Output Description
load Load on the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is completely
saturated), calculated as an exponential average over five minutes.
Encapsulation Encapsulation method assigned to interface.
keepalive Ìndicates whether keepalives are set.
ARP type. Type of Address Resolution Protocol assigned.
loopback Ìndicates whether loopback is set or not.
Last input Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was
successfully received by an interface. Useful for knowing when a dead
interface failed.
output Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was
successfully transmitted by an interface. Useful for knowing when a
dead interface failed.
output hang Number of hours, minutes, and seconds (or never) since the interface
was last reset because of a transmission that took too long. When the
number of hours in any of the ¨last¨ fields exceeds 24 hours, the
number of days and hours is printed. Ìf that field overflows, asterisks
are printed.
Last clearing Time at which the counters that measure cumulative statistics shown in
this report (such as number of bytes transmitted and received) were last
reset to zero. Note that variables that might affect routing (for example,
load and reliability) are not cleared when the counters are cleared.
Asterisks indicate elapsed time too large to be displayed.
Output queue, input
queue, drops
Number of packets in output and input queues. Each number is
followed by a slash, the maximum size of the queue, and the number of
packets dropped due to a full queue.
Five minute input
rate,
Five minute output
rate
Average number of bits and packets transmitted per second in the last
five minutes. Ìf the interface is not in promiscuous mode, it senses
network traffic it sends and receives (rather than all network traffic).
The five-minute input and output rates should be used only as an
approximation of traffic per second during a given five-minute period.
These rates are exponentially weighted averages with a time constant
of five minutes. A period of four time constants must pass before the
average will be within two percent of the instantaneous rate of a uniform
stream of traffic over that period.
packets input Total number of error-free packets received by the system.
bytes input Total number of bytes, including data and Media Access Control (MAC)
encapsulation, in the error-free packets received by the system.
no buffers Number of received packets discarded because there was no buffer
space in the main system. Compare with ¨ignored¨ count. Broadcast
storms on Ethernet are often responsible for no input buffer events.
Received...broadcasts Total number of broadcast or multicast packets received by the
interface. The number of broadcasts should be kept as low as
practicable. An approximate threshold is less than 20 percent of the
total number of input packets.
runts Number of Ethernet frames that are discarded because they are smaller
than the minimum Ethernet frame size. Any Ethernet frame that is less
than 64 bytes is considered a runt. Runts are usually caused by
collisions. More than one runt per million bytes received should be
investigated.
giants Number of Ethernet frames that are discarded because they exceed the
maximum Ethernet frame size. Any Ethernet frame that is greater than
1518 bytes is considered a giant.
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Output Description
input error Ìncludes runts, giants, no buffer, cyclic redundancy check (CRC),
frame, overrun, and ignored counts. Other input-related errors can also
cause the input errors count to be increased, and some datagrams may
have more than one error; therefore, this sum may not balance with the
sum of enumerated input error counts.
CRC Cyclic redundancy checksum generated by the originating LAN station
or far-end device does not match the checksum calculated from the
data received. On a LAN, this usually indicates noise or transmission
problems on the LAN interface or the LAN bus itself. A high number of
CRCs is usually the result of collisions or a station transmitting bad
data.
frame Number of packets received incorrectly having a CRC error and a
noninteger number of octets. On a LAN, this is usually the result of
collisions or a malfunctioning Ethernet device.
overrun Number of times the receiver hardware was unable to hand-receive
data to a hardware buffer because the input rate exceeded the
receiver's ability to handle the data.
ignored Number of received packets ignored by the interface because the
interface hardware ran low on internal buffers. These buffers are
different from the system buffers mentioned previously in the buffer
description. Broadcast storms and bursts of noise can cause the
ignored count to be increased.
input packets with
dribble condition
detected
Dribble bit error indicates that a frame is slightly too long. This frame
error counter is incremented just for informational purposes; the router
accepts the frame.
packets output Total number of messages transmitted by the system.
bytes Total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation,
transmitted by the system.
underruns Number of times that the transmitter has been running faster than the
router can handle. This may never be reported on some interfaces.
output errors Sum of all errors that prevented the final transmission of datagrams out
of the interface being examined. Note that this may not balance with the
sum of the enumerated output errors, as some datagrams may have
more than one error, and others may have errors that do not fall into
any of the specifically tabulated categories.
collisions Number of messages retransmitted due to an Ethernet collision. This is
usually the result of an overextended LAN (Ethernet or transceiver
cable too long, more than two repeaters between stations, or too many
cascaded multiport transceivers). A packet that collides is counted only
once in output packets.
interface resets Number of times an interface has been completely reset. This can
happen if packets queued for transmission were not sent within several
seconds. On a serial line, this can be caused by a malfunctioning
modem that is not supplying the transmit clock signal, or by a cable
problem. Ìf the system notices that the carrier detect line of a serial
interface is up, but the line protocol is down, it periodically resets the
interface in an effort to restart it. Ìnterface resets can also occur when
an interface is looped back or shut down.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-97
One oI the most important elements oI the show interfaces command output is display oI the
line and data-link protocol status. The Iigure indicates the key summary line to check and the
status meanings Ior a serial interIace. For other types oI interIaces, the meanings oI the status
line may be slightly diIIerent.
The Iirst parameter reIers to the hardware layer and essentially reIlects whether the interIace is
receiving the Carrier Detect signal Irom the other end (the DCE). The second parameter reIers
to the data-link layer. This parameter reIlects whether the data-link layer protocol keepalives
are being received.
Based on the output oI the show interfaces command, you can Iix the problem as Iollows:
II the interIace is up and the line protocol is down, a problem exists. Some possible causes
include the Iollowing:
No keepalives
No clock rate set
Mismatch in encapsulation type
II both the line protocol and the interIace are down, a cable might never have been attached
when the router was powered up, or some other interIace problem must exist. For example,
in a back-to-back connection, the other end oI the connection may be 'administratively
down.¨
II the interIace is 'administratively down,¨ it has been manually disabled in the active
conIiguration.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-15
Interpreting the Interface Status
Router#show interfaces serial 1
Serial1 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is HD64570
Description: 64Kb line to San Jose
:: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: ::
Carrier Detect KeepaIives
OperationaI........Serial1 is up, line protocol is up
Connection probIem...Serial1 is up, line protocol is down
Interface probIem .......Serial1 is down, line protocol is down
DisabIed..........Serial1 is administratively down, line protocol is down
OperationaI........Serial1 is up, line protocol is up
Connection probIem...Serial1 is up, line protocol is down
Interface probIem .......Serial1 is down, line protocol is down
DisabIed..........Serial1 is administratively down, line protocol is down
8-98 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
AIter you conIigure a serial interIace, use the show interfaces serial command to veriIy the
changes. Notice in this example that the line is now up and the bandwidth has changed to 64
kbps.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-16
Verifying a SeriaI Interface Configuration
Router#show interface serial 0
Serial0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is HD64570
Internet address is 10.140.4.2/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Fncapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
Last input 00:00:09, output 00:00:04, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: weighted fair
output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops)
Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total)
Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
(output omitted)
BW 64 Kbit,
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-99
The show controller command displays inIormation about the physical interIace itselI. This
command is useIul with serial interIaces to determine the type oI cable connected without the
need to physically inspect the cable itselI.
The Iigure shows a serial interIace with a DTE cable attached.
The inIormation displayed is determined when the router initially starts and represents only the
type oI cable that was attached when the router was started. II you change the cable type aIter
startup, the show controller command display will not show the cable type oI the new cable.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-17
SeriaI Interface show controIIer Command
· Shows the cabIe type of seriaI cabIes
Router#show controller serial 0
HD unit 0, idb = 0x121C04, driver structure at 0x127078
buffer size 1524 HD unit 0, V.35 DTF cable
.
.
.
8-100 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-18
Summary
· From the priviIeged EXEC mode, you can enter
gIobaI configuration mode, giving you access to
the specific router configuration modes.
· Using the CLI, you wiII configure the router
name, password, and other consoIe commands.
· A router's main function is to reIay packets from
one network device to another. To do that, you
must define the characteristics of the interfaces
through which the packets are received
and sent.
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-19
Summary (Cont.)
· In a TCP/IP environment, end stations
communicate seamIessIy with servers or other
end stations. This communication occurs
because each node using the TCP/IP protocoI
suite has a unique 32-bit IogicaI IP address.
· When you compIete the router interface
configuration, you can verify it using show
commands.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-101
References
For additional inIormation, reIer to these resources:
Cisco IOS ConIiguration Guides
Cisco IOS Command ReIerence Guides
'Understanding the User InterIace¨ on your Cisco Documentation CD-ROM
Next Steps
AIter completing this lesson, go to:
Lab Exercise 8-1: Cisco Remote Lab Connection
Lab Exercise 8-2: Switch Startup and Initial ConIiguration
Lab Exercise 8-3: Cisco Router Startup and Initial ConIiguration
Lab Exercise 8-4: Using the Router Command-Line InterIace
Lab Exercise 8-5: Operating and ConIiguring a Cisco IOS Device
8-102 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz
Use the practice items here to review what you learned in this lesson. The correct answers are
Iound in the Quiz Answer Key.
Q1) Which Cisco IOS command saves the current conIiguration to be the starting
conIiguration oI the router?
A) configure memory
B) configure terminal
C) copy startup-config running-config
D) copy running-config startup-config
Q2) Which Cisco IOS command enters the router global conIiguration mode?
A) configure memory
B) configure terminal
C) copy startup-config running-config
D) copy running-config startup-config
Q3) Which Cisco IOS command assigns the router name?
A) hostname hostname
B) banner motd message
C) hostname interface description
D) description interface description
Q4) What must you conIigure to ensure that anyone accessing your router Irom the console
port will be prompted Ior a password?
A) the password command
B) the enable password command
C) the login command and the password command
D) the login required command and the password command
Q5) Which Cisco IOS command conIigures Ethernet port 1 on a Iixed port router?
A) Ethernet interface 1
B) interface Ethernet 1
C) Ethernet interface 0/1
D) interface Ethernet 0/1
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-103
Q6) Which Cisco IOS command do you use to bring up an interIace on a Cisco router that
is 'administratively down?¨
A) admin up
B) shutdown
C) no shutdown
D) no admin shutdown
Q7) Which statements best describe hosts in an IP environment? (Choose two.)
A) The hosts on a network have unique network bits.
B) The hosts on a network have unique host addresses.
C) The hosts on a network share the same network bits.
D) The hosts on a network have the same host addresses.
Q8) What are the parts oI an IP address?
A) IP number and host number
B) network number and IP number
C) host number and device number
D) network number and host number
Q9) Subnets are an extension oI the ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
A) host number
B) routing table
C) subnet number
D) network number
Q10) What does a bit that is set to 1 in an IP subnet mask speciIy?
A) the corresponding bit in the IP address is a host bit
B) the corresponding bit in the IP address is a network bit
C) the corresponding bit in the IP address is a network or host bit
D) the corresponding bit in the IP address is a network or subnet bit
Q11) How many bits are in an IP subnet mask?
A) 8
B) 16
C) 24
D) 32
8-104 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Q12) What is the range oI network numbers Ior a Class C IP address?
A) 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0
B) 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.0.0
C) 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.0
D) 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
Q13) Which Cisco IOS commands correctly conIigure the IP address and subnet mask Ior
serial interIace 0?
A) interIace serial 0
ip address 192.168.1.1/24
B) interIace serial 0
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
C) interIace serial 0
ip address 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
D) interIace serial 0
ip address 192.168.1.1 mask 255.255.255.0
Q14) AIter you conIigure the IP address on an interIace, how do you change the state Irom
administratively down to up?
A) Enter exit.
B) Enter shutdown.
C) Enter no shutdown.
D) Enter configure terminal.
Q15) Which Cisco IOS command displays the interIace bandwidth conIigured on a Cisco
router?
A) show interfaces
B) show bandwidth
C) show interfaces bandwidth
D) show bandwidth interfaces
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-105
Q16) Match each data-link protocol status to the message that appears with the show
interfaces command.
¸¸¸¸¸ 1. operational
¸¸¸¸¸ 2. manually disabled
¸¸¸¸¸ 3. interIace problem
¸¸¸¸¸ 4. connection problem
A) Serial1 is up, line protocol is up
B) Serial1 is up, line protocol is down
C) Serial1 is down, line protocol is down
D) Serial1 is administratively down, line protocol is down
8-106 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Quiz Answer Key
Q1) D
ReIates to: Router Configuration Modes
Q2) B
ReIates to: Router Configuration Modes
Q3) A
ReIates to: Configuring a Router from the Command Line
Q4) C
ReIates to: Configuring a Router from the Command Line
Q5) B
ReIates to: Configuring Router Ìnterfaces
Q6) C
ReIates to: Configuring Router Ìnterfaces
Q7) B, C
ReIates to: ÌP Addressing
Q8) D
ReIates to: ÌP Addressing
Q9) D
ReIates to: Subnet Addressing
Q10) D
ReIates to: Subnet Masks
Q11) D
ReIates to: Subnet Masks
Q12) C
ReIates to: Configuring the Router ÌP Address
Q13) B
ReIates to: Configuring the Router ÌP Address
Q14) C
ReIates to: Configuring the Router ÌP Address
Q15) A
ReIates to: Verifying the Ìnterface Configuration
Q16) A, D, C, B
ReIates to: Verifying the Ìnterface Configuration
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-107
Lab Exercise 8-1: Cisco Remote Lab
Connection
Complete this lab exercise to practice what you learned in this module.
Exercise Objectives
The Cisco router Ior your pod has all oI the cables preconnected and ready Ior use. Your task in
this lab exercise is to establish a Telnet connection to the terminal server to access the devices
in your pod. AIter completing this exercise, you will be able to meet these objecives:
Run Telnet to connect to the ICND remote lab
VeriIy connectivity to the ICND remote lab terminal server
VisuaI Objective
The Iigure shows the topology you will work with in this lab exercise.
Required Resources
These are the resources and equipment required to complete this exercise:
PC connected to an onsite lab, or PC with an Internet connection to access the remote lab
Terminal server connected to a console port oI each lab device, iI using a remote lab
ICND pod assigned by your instructor
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-20
VisuaI Objective 8-1:
Cisco Remote Lab Connection
8-108 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Command List
In this lab exercise, you will use the command listed in the table. ReIer to this list iI you need
conIiguration command assistance during the lab exercise.
Command Description
telnet ipaddress Starts a terminal emulation program from a PC, router, or switch
that permits you to access network devices remotely over the
network
Job Aids
There are no job aids Ior this lab exercise.
Exercise Preparation
Your instructor will provide setup inIormation that you need to complete this and the
subsequent lab exercises. Your instructor will also assign you to a pod, identiIied by the letters
A through L. Complete the Iollowing inIormation as provided by your instructor.
VaIue Information Provided by Your Instructor
Your workgroup
ÌP address of your terminal
ÌP address of the default gateway
Subnet mask
ÌP address of the terminal server
Username to access the terminal server
Password to access the terminal server
ÌP address of the TFTP server
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-109
Task 1: Run TeInet to Connect to the ICND Remote Lab
To begin the lab exercises, you will use the Telnet utility to establish a connection to the remote
lab equipment Ior this course.
Complete the Iollowing steps Irom your PC:
Step 1 From the MicrosoIt Windows Start menu, choose Run. The Run window appears.
Step 2 In the Open: Iield, type the telnet command Iollowed by the IP address Ior your
terminal server, provided by your instructor. For example, iI the terminal server
address your instructor provided is 10.1.1.254, you would type:
telnet 10.1.1.254
II your Telnet session successIully connects to the terminal server, you should see an
opening menu similar to the Iollowing:
**************************************************************
*******
CISCO ICND STUDENT MENU
CONNECT TO YOUR POD LETTER
**************************************************************
*******
ITEM= DEVICE NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------
-------
I Connect to pod A
? Connect to pod B
· Connect to pod C
4 Connect to pod D
S Connect to pod E
8 Connect to pod F
I Connect to pod G
8 Connect to pod H
9 Connect to pod I
I0 Connect to pod J
II Connect to pod K
I? Connect to pod L
I· EXIT
Please enter selection.
Step 3 At the ¯Please enter selection.º prompt, enter your workgroup number and
press Return. Your output should look similar to the Iollowing:
***********************************************************
POD L
To exit back out to the menu press "CTRL+SHIFT+8" then "X".
You must clear the line before re-connecting to a device.
***********************************************************
I Connect to workgroup switch L
? Connect to workgroup router L
· Clear connection to w/g switch L
4 Clear connection to w/g router L
S Return to main menu
Please enter selection.
8-110 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
The menu, called the Pod Menu, lists your pod letter at the top. In the example, the
current pod is Pod L.
From the menu, you can connect to either your workgroup switch or your
workgroup router. Once you connect to a network device Irom the terminal server,
you will need to use a special keystroke sequence, Ctrl-Shift-6, then x, to return to
the menu. (To do this, hold down the Shift key, press the Ctrl key and the 6, then
press the x key.)
Step 4 Enter 1 to connect to your workgroup switch. You should see the Iollowing (or
something similar) in your Telnet session:
Please enter selection. 1
Trying h?8 (I0.I0.I0.I0, ?0S8)... Open
Step 5 Press Return to access the device prompt.
Note Your output will vary depending on the switch type to which you are connected. On an
unconfigured Catalyst 1900, a menu appears. On an unconfigured Catalyst 2950, setup
mode appears.
Step 6 To return to the menu, enter Ctrl-Shift-6, then x. The Pod Menu appears again.
When you return to the Pod Menu, your session to your workgroup switch is still
open. You should clear all open connections on a terminal server beIore exiting. II
you do not close your open sessions, the Cisco IOS soItware will prompt you to
close your open connections. To close a session, you must select the appropriate
option Irom the menu.
Step 7 Enter option 3 to clear the connection to your workgroup switch. When the
¯]confirm¦º prompt appears, press Return.
What does the prompt say now?
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Step 8 Enter option 2 to connect to your workgroup router.
What does the prompt say now? As with the switch, you may need to press Return
one time to see the prompt on your terminal screen.
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Step 9 Enter Ctrl-Shift-6, then x, to return to the Pod Menu.
Step 10 Enter option 4 to clear the connection to your workgroup router. When the
¯]confirm¦º prompt appears, press Return.
Step 11 Enter option 5 to return to the Main Menu Irom the Pod Menu.
Step 12 Exit the terminal server by entering the option Irom the Pod Menu to exit. II there is
no option to exit on the menu, contact your instructor Ior instructions.
Step 13 II you see the ¯You have open connections ]confirm¦º prompt, enter yes and
press Return.
Depending on which operating system is running on your PC, you may need to press
Return aIter terminating your Telnet session.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-111
Step 14 NotiIy your instructor that you have completed the exercise.
Exercise Verification
You have completed this exercise when you attain these results:
You can successIully log in to the terminal server and navigate the menus to access your
workgroup switch and workgroup router.
You can clear the connections to your workgroup switch and workgroup router.
8-112 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Lab Exercise 8-2: Switch Startup and InitiaI
Configuration
Complete this lab exercise to practice what you learned in this module.
Exercise Objectives
In this lab exercise, you will connect to your workgroup switch and complete the initial device
setup, and you will explore the help Iacility. AIter completing this exercise, you will be able to
meet these objective:
Restart the switch and veriIy the initial conIiguration messages
Complete the initial device setup on the Catalyst 1900
OR
Complete the initial device setup on the Catalyst 2950
VisuaI Objective
The Iigure shows the topology you will work with in this exercise.
Required Resources
These are the resources and equipment required to complete this exercise:
PC connected to an onsite lab, or PC with an Internet connection to access the remote lab
Terminal server connected to a console port oI each lab device, iI using a remote lab
ICND pod assigned by your instructor
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. AII rights reserved. INTRO v1.0a-8-21
VisuaI Objective 8-2: Switch Startup
and InitiaI Configuration
Pod Switch Router Ethernet
A 10.1.1.10 10.1.1.11
B 10.1.1.20 10.1.1.21
C 10.1.1.30 10.1.1.31
D 10.1.1.40 10.1.1.41
E 10.1.1.50 10.1.1.51
F 10.1.1.60 10.1.1.61
G 10.1.1.70 10.1.1.71
H 10.1.1.80 10.1.1.81
I 10.1.1.90 10.1.1.91
J 10.1.1.100 10.1.1.101
K 10.1.1.110 10.1.1.111
L 10.1.1.120 10.1.1.121
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-113
Command List
In this lab exercise, you will use the commands listed in the table. The commands are listed in
alphabetical order so you can easily locate the inIormation you need. ReIer to this list iI you
need conIiguration command assistance during the lab exercise.
Command Description
configure terminal Activates the configuration mode from the terminal.
copy running~config
startup~config
Copies the switch's running configuration file to another destination.
delete nvram Erases the startup configuration in memory (Catalyst 1900).
enable Activates the privileged EXEC mode. Ìn privileged EXEC mode, more
commands are available. This command requires you to enter the
enable password if an enable password is configured.
erase startup~config Erases the startup configuration in memory (Catalyst 2950).
hostname Sets the system name.
interface vlan 1 Enters the interface configuration mode for VLAN1 to set the switch
management ÌP address (Catalyst 2950).
ip address Sets the ÌP address and mask of the switch.
ip default~gateway Sets the default gateway of the switch.
login Sets login identifier on the console or virtual terminal ports
(Catalyst 2950).
password Assigns a password to the console or virtual terminal ports
(Catalyst 2950).
show interface vlan 1 Displays the switch ÌP address information (Catalyst 2950).
show ip Displays the switch ÌP address information (Catalyst 1900).
Job Aids
There are no job aids Ior this lab exercise.
8-114 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Exercise Preparation
Your instructor will assign you to a pod, identiIied by the letters A through L. The table
identiIies the switch IP address, host name, and subnet mask Ior each pod. You will need this
inIormation to complete the lab exercise.
Pod Switch
Host Name
Workgroup Switch
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Pod A wg_sw_a 10.1.1.10 255.255.255.0
Pod B wg_sw_b 10.1.1.20 255.255.255.0
Pod C wg_sw_c 10.1.1.30 255.255.255.0
Pod D wg_sw_d 10.1.1.40 255.255.255.0
Pod E wg_sw_e 10.1.1.50 255.255.255.0
Pod F wg_sw_f 10.1.1.60 255.255.255.0
Pod G wg_sw_g 10.1.1.70 255.255.255.0
Pod H wg_sw_h 10.1.1.80 255.255.255.0
Pod Ì wg_sw_i 10.1.1.90 255.255.255.0
Pod J wg_sw_j 10.1.1.100 255.255.255.0
Pod K wg_sw_k 10.1.1.110 255.255.255.0
Pod L wg_sw_l 10.1.1.120 255.255.255.0
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-115
Task 1: Restart the Switch and Check the InitiaI Configuration
Messages
In this task, you use Telnet to connect to your workgroup switch so you can veriIy the initial
conIiguration messages. AIter that, you will complete the setup Ior your switch, either a
Catalyst 1900 or Catalyst 2950.
Complete the Iollowing steps on your workgroup switch:
Step 1 Use Telnet to access the terminal server Ior the lab exercises.
You should see a menu, similar to the Iollowing:
**************************************************************
*******
CISCO ICND STUDENT MENU
CONNECT TO YOUR POD LETTER
**************************************************************
*******
ITEM= DEVICE NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------
-------
I Connect to pod A
? Connect to pod B
· Connect to pod C
4 Connect to pod D
S Connect to pod E
8 Connect to pod F
I Connect to pod G
8 Connect to pod H
9 Connect to pod I
I0 Connect to pod J
II Connect to pod K
I? Connect to pod L
I· EXIT
Please enter selection.
Step 2 At the 'Please enter selection.¨ prompt, enter your workgroup number and
press Return. Your output should look similar to the Iollowing:
***********************************************************
POD L
To exit back out to the menu press "CTRL+SHIFT+8" then "X".
You must clear the line before re-connecting to a device.
***********************************************************
I Connect to workgroup switch L
? Connect to workgroup router L
· Clear connection to w/g switch L
4 Clear connection to w/g router L
S Return to main menu
Please enter selection.
The menu, called the Pod Menu, lists your pod letter at the top. In the example, the
current pod is Pod L.
8-116 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Step 3 Enter option 1 and press Return to connect to your workgroup switch. Your output
should look similar to the Iollowing:
Please enter selection. I
Trying h?8 (I0.I0.I0.I0, ?0S8)... Open
Step 4 Proceed to Task 2 iI you are using a Catalyst 1900 switch.
Step 5 Proceed to Task 3 iI you are using a Catalyst 2950 switch.
Task 2: CompIete Setup on the CataIyst 1900 Switch
In this task, you will complete the setup dialog on the Catalyst 1900 switch and veriIy the
conIiguration. You should have an open connection to the switch.
Complete the Iollowing steps on the workgroup switch:
Step 1 Enter K to access the switch command-line interIace (CLI). Your output should look
similar to the Iollowing display:
CLI session with the switch is open.
To end the CLI session, enter ]Exit¦.
>
Step 2 Enter the enable command to access privileged EXEC mode.
Step 3 To ensure that you start with a Iresh conIiguration, erase the startup conIiguration by
entering the delete nvram command. Your output should look similar to the
Iollowing display:
wg_sw_z=delete nvram
This command resets the switch with factory defaults. All
system
parameters will revert to their default factory settings. All
static
and dynamic addresses will be removed.
Reset system with factory defaults, ]Y¦es or ]N¦o?
Step 4 At the ¯Reset system with factory defaultsº prompt, choose yes to conIirm
that you want to erase the current conIiguration.
Step 5 Press Return to enter the switch console session. You will see a display similar to
the Iollowing when you enter the switch console session:
Please enter selection. I
]Resuming connection I to h?8 ... ¦
Catalyst I900 Management Console
Copyright (c) Cisco Systems, Inc. I99·-I998
All rights reserved.
Enterprise Edition Software
Ethernet Address. 00-D0-BA-98-·4-80
PCA Number. I·-·I?I-04
PCA Serial Number. FAB0·?I·44K
Model Number. WS-CI9?4-A
System Serial Number. FAB0·?9T0NS
Power Supply S/N. APQ0·??0·9U
PCB Serial Number. FAB0·?I·44K,I·-·I?I-04
-------------------------------------------------
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-117
I user(s) now active on Management Console.
User Interface Menu
]M¦ Menus
]K¦ Command Line
]I¦ IP Configuration
Enter Selection.
Step 6 From the console menu, enter K to select command-line mode. When you are in CLI
mode, you will see the ¯>ºprompt.
Step 7 At the ¯>º prompt, enter the enable command. The prompt changes to ¯=.º
Step 8 At the ¯#º prompt, enter the configure terminal command. The prompt changes to
¯(config)=.º
Step 9 At the ¯(config)=º prompt, enter the ip address 10.1.1. 255.255.255.0 command.
See the table in the Exercise Preparation section oI this lab exercise to determine the
IP address oI the switch Ior your assigned pod.
Step 10 Enter the ip default-gateway 10.1.1.3 command to assign the deIault gateway Ior
the switch.
Step 11 To set the switch host name, enter the hostname wg_sw_ command (where
identiIies the letter Ior your pod).
AIter you entered the hostname command, what did your prompt change to?
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Step 12 At the ¯wg_sw_x(config)=º prompt (where 'x` identiIies the letter Ior your pod),
enter the exit command.
What is the prompt now? What mode are you working in now?
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
Step 13 To view the Help system, type only the question mark '?¨ and you should see a
display similar to the Iollowing:
wg_sw_z=?
Exec commands.
clear Reset functions
configure Enter configuration mode
copy Copy configuration or firmware
delete Reset configuration
disable Turn off privileged commands
enable Turn on privileged commands
exit Exit from the EXEC
help Description of the interactive help system
menu Enter menu interface
ping Send echo messages
reload Halt and perform warm start
session Tunnel to module
show Show running system information
terminal Set terminal line parameters
vlan-membership VLAN membership configuration
wg_sw_z=
8-118 Ìntroduction to Cisco Networking Technologies (ÌNTRO) v1.0a Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc.
Step 14 Enter the show ip command to veriIy your switch IP address.
Step 15 To conIigure the enable password to access privileged EXEC mode, enter the global
conIiguration mode by typing configure terminal.
Step 16 At the ¯wg_sw_z=º prompt, type enable password level 15 cisco.
Note The Catalyst 1900 does not support virtual terminal configuration mode. You can Telnet into
a Catalyst 1900, but you cannot enter the teInet command from within a session on the
Catalyst 1900. Ìn addition, the Catalyst 1900 does not support the password command on
the line console interface.
Step 17 Display your current conIiguration with the show running-config command. Your
output should look similar to the Iollowing display:
wg_sw_z=show running~config
Building configuration...
Current configuration.
!
hostname "wg_sw_z"
ip address I0.I.I.I·0 ?SS.?SS.?SS.0
ip default-gateway I0.I.I.·
enable password level IS "CISCO"
!
interface Ethernet 0/I
interface Ethernet 0/?
interface Ethernet 0/·
interface Ethernet 0/4
interface Ethernet 0/S
interface Ethernet 0/8
interface Ethernet 0/I
interface Ethernet 0/8
interface Ethernet 0/9
interface Ethernet 0/I0
interface Ethernet 0/II
interface Ethernet 0/I?
interface Ethernet 0/I·
interface Ethernet 0/I4
interface Ethernet 0/IS
interface Ethernet 0/I8
interface Ethernet 0/II
interface Ethernet 0/I8
interface Ethernet 0/I9
interface Ethernet 0/?0
interface Ethernet 0/?I
interface Ethernet 0/??
interface Ethernet 0/?·
interface Ethernet 0/?4
interface Ethernet 0/?S
interface FastEthernet 0/?8
interface FastEthernet 0/?I
line console
end
wg_sw_z=
Step 18 NotiIy your instructor that you have completed the exercise.
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Ìnc. Operating and Configuring Cisco ÌOS Devices 8-119
Task 3: CompIete the InitiaI Setup on the CataIyst 2950
In this task, you will complete the setup on the Catalyst 2950 switch and veriIy the
conIiguration. You should have an open connection to the switch.
Complete the Iollowing steps on the workgroup switch:
Step 1 Press Return until the Iollowing prompt appears:
Continue with configuration dialog? ]yes/no¦.
Step 2 II you do not see the 'Continue with conIiguration dialog?¨ prompt, complete steps
3 through 7. II you do see the prompt, enter yes and go to step 8.
Step 3 Press Return to enter the switch console session. You will see a display similar to
the Iollowing when you enter the switch console session:
Switch>
Step 4 Enter the enable command to access privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5 To ensure that you start with a Iresh conIiguration, you will erase the startup
conIiguration. To do this, enter the erase startup-config command Irom the
privileged EXEC mode. You will see a display similar to the Iollowing:
Switch=erase startup~config
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue?
]confirm¦y]OK¦
Erase of nvram. complete
Step 6 Enter the reload command. You will be prompted to conIirm the reload.
Proceed with reload? ]confirm¦
Step 7 At the ¯Proceed with reload?º prompt, press Return to conIirm erasure and to
conIirm reloading. You will see a display similar to the Iollowing:
00.0I.·I. %SYS-S-RELOAD. Reload requested
C?9S0 Boot Loader (CALHOUN-HBOOT-M) Version I?.0(S.·)WC(I),
MAINTENANCE INTERIM SOFTWARE
Compiled Mon ·0-Apr-0I 0I.S8 by devgoyal
WS-C?9S0-?4 starting...
Base ethernet MAC Address. 00.08.?0.Sc.88.80
Xmodem file system is available.
Initializing Flash...
flashfs]0¦. I8S files, ? directories
flashfs]0¦. 0 orphaned files, 0 orphaned directories
flashfs]0¦. Total bytes. II4I440
flashfs]0¦. Bytes used. ?9I08?4
flashfs]0¦. Bytes available. 4II08I8
flashfs]0¦. flashfs fsck took 8 seconds.
...done initializing flash.
Boot Sector Filesystem (bs.) installed, fsid. ·
Parameter Block Filesystem (pb.) installed, fsid. 4
Loading "flash.c?9S0-c·h?s-mz.I?0-
S.WC?b.bin"...================================
File "flash.c?9S0-c·h?s-mz.I?0-S.WC?b.bin" uncompressed and
installed, entry point. 0x800I0000 executing...
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