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REPBLICA DEL PER MTC MINISTERIO DE TRANSPORTES Y COMUNICACIONES

Soluciones Bsicas sin Capa de Proteccin

ING.CIV. OSVALDO AGUAYO

SEMINARIO SOLUCIONES BASICAS PARA CAMINOS DE BAJO TRANSITO LIMA, PER, 16 17 DE ABRIL, 2007

TEMARIO Soluciones Bsicas con Capa de Proteccin


Introduccin Gama de Soluciones Construccin Conservacin

TEMARIO Soluciones Bsicas con Capa de Proteccin


Introduccin Gama de Soluciones Construccin Conservacin

Calidad de Vida Rural

Seguridad Vial

Confortabilidad

Cultivos

150 m antes

10 m antes

200 m despus durante

Fotografas : DRV III Regin

Conservacin Tradicional

Recin Terminado

Dos meses de uso

Todo esto..... ...... a pesar de los frecuentes reperfilados con motoniveladora


( a veces cada 2 o 4 semanas)

Bajo grado de satisfaccin por las acciones del Estado

Otros Pases
INTRODUCTION
Out of the 3.8 million miles of road in the continental US, it is estimated that over 47 percent are aggregate and earth surfaced roads (Colorado Transportation Information Center. #5, 1989). Depending on which part of the country one is located the percentage of the road networks that is unpaved could vary between 30 and 70 percent. For example, here in Colorado approximately 65 percent of public roads are unpaved. Most of the unpaved roads are classified as low-volume roads and are located in the rural and forest areas of the country. While unpaved roads carry a small portion of the country's traffic, they provide a vital first link in the county's economy.

Background and Statement of Problem

Caso Norteamrica
EEUU:
6.6 millones de Km 47 % Ripio y Tierra (en Estados:entre 30 y 70%) Problemas Polvo (seguridad vial) y mayores costos de mantenimiento) Trnsitos bajos pero impacto en economas local (condados) Diferentes soluciones (asfaltos, cloruros, polmeros, arcillas (bentonita,....)

Technology Exchange Newsletter


A Newsletter of the Minnesota Technology Transfer (T2) Program, Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP)

JulySeptember 2001

Controlling dust and environmental impacts


With 69,000 miles of aggregate road in Minnesota, controlling dust produced by traffic is a major concern. Besides increased expense for road maintenance and decreased visibility for drivers, one of the potential effects of dust, or particulate matter, is air pollution. Dust is one of the six primary pollutants monitored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is harmful to human respiratory health and coats crops and homes. But are the negative environmental impacts of dust greater than the effects of pouring dust control chemicals onto aggregate roads?

Cloruros de Sodio, Calcio y Magnesio


Many dust control products are currently available: chlorides (calcium, sodium, and magnesium), soybean soapstock, and bentonite are some of the options. Most research focuses on these products'; performance issues, but minimal research exists about environmental issues. Internet research, however, provided some further information about the latest products in the industry. (Ed. note: Minnesota T2 does not endorse particular products.)

Dust Control and Stabilization


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.

Types of Stabilizers Chlorides . Resins Natural Clays . Asphalts Soybean Oil Other Commercial Binders Benefits of Stabilization Reduced Dusting Reduced "Whip Off" of Aggregate Reduced Blade Maintenance . Application Tips Need for Good Surface Gravel . Road Preparation Applying the Product. Optimum Moisture Test Sections All gravel roads will give off dust under traffic. After all, they are unpaved roads that typically serve a low volume of traffic, and dust is usually an inherent problem. The amount of dust that a gravel road produces varies greatly. In areas of the country that receive a high amount of moisture, the problem is greatly reduced. Arid or semi-arid regions such as the desert southwest and much of the great plains region in the USA are prone to long periods of dry weather. Similar regions around the globe can have similar weather patterns. Dust can really bring complaints in these areas if there are residences located near the road and traffic is high. The quality and type of gravel also has some effect on the amount of dust. Some limestone gravels can dust severely while some glacial deposits of gravel with a portion of highly plastic clay can take on a strong binding characteristic that will resist dusting remarkably well. Still, in prolonged dry weather, there will be dust! Whether to provide some type of dust control or not can be a hard decision to make. Virtually all methods of dust control require annual treatment. The cost can be prohibitive if traffic volume is low. On the other hand, if traffic is high, the cost of dust control can more than pay for itself with the benefits of reduced material loss and reduced need for blade maintenance. (28) At this point, many agencies will face pressure to pave the road. It may actually be a good economic decision in the long run, especially if there is good indication that traffic will continue to increase in the future. However, never pave a road before it is ready! There is good information on making this decision in Appendix D.

Contents stos

son los productos posibles ms comnmente usados a travs del pas. Tres categoras: Cloruro del calcio en forma de la escama o lquido, cloruro del magnesio generalmente en forma lquida, y el cloruro de sodio (roadsalt). El cloruro de sodio raramente se utiliza y es el menos eficaz. El cloruro de calcio y de magnesio pueden ser muy eficaces si se utilizan correctamente. Son productos higroscpicos que, en trminos simples, significa que captan la humedad del aire y la mantienen en la superficie del camino. Son razonablemente simples de utilizar. Types of Stabilizers
Chlorides

These are the most commonly used products across the country. They fall into three categories: Calcium Chloride in flake or liquid form, Magnesium Chloride generally in liquid form, and Sodium Chloride (road salt). Sodium is seldom used and is the least effective. Calcium and Magnesium Chloride can be very effective if used properly. They are hygroscopic products which, in simplest terms, means they draw moisture from the air and keep the road surface constantly damp. They are reasonably simple to use.

Reduced "Whip Off" of Aggregate

This is another economic bonus to dust control when it is working well. As mentioned earlier, when dust control products are working well, the fine material in the gravel cannot loosen and dust away. This also means that the stone portion of the gravel will tend to remain embedded in the surface and will not be lost to the edge of the road or even whipped off onto the inslope from heavy traffic. Studies have shown that as much as one ton of aggregate per mile is lost each year for each vehicle that passes over a road daily. This means that a road carrying 200 vehicles per day will experience the loss of 200 tons of aggregate per mile each year. (7) Obviously this will vary with the amount of rainfall received, the quality of the gravel and other factors. Retaining aggregate is a good added benefit to dust control.

PRDIDA DE AGREGADOS Por cada vehculo que pasa, se pierde 0.6 tonelada de agregado cada ao por Km. TMDA 200 118 tons./ao/Km

Reduced Blade Maintenance

A road surface that remains tightly bound and stable will require much less blade maintenance. The manufacturers of some dust control products highly recommend that the surface should not be bladed at all after their products are applied. While extra blading, shaping and mixing is needed to prepare a road for dust control, the overall need for blade maintenance should be greatly reduced. This can be a great savings in equipment expense and labor. A county highway official once commented: "I dont react to dust complaints. All gravel roads have dust. But I do react to high maintenance costs. When we have to regravel a road frequently and do blade maintenance frequently, then its time to look at stabilizing the surface with Magnesium Chloride. Reduced maintenance is what were after. Dust control is just a bonus!"

Application Tips

The carbide-tipped bits on a cutting edge can be a valuable tool in preparing a road for Chloride treatment. They penetrate the road and give a shallow scarifying effect to loosen and mix the existing gravel. This leaves a nice uniform loose layer of material on the surface.

Soltar la superficie de la carpeta en unos 5 cm.

This road has been prepared well for a liquid Magnesium Chloride treatment. Notice the uniform, loose and nicely crowned surface looking over the hilltop. There is also good shoulder drainage as well. This is an excellent example of road preparation.

Camin con barra regadora presurizada con sistema de aplicacin computarizado que mide el cloruro lquido con extrema precisin

Antiguo esparcidor de fertilizantes. Calibrado con precisin. Corrosin: una vez ligado y compactado con la grava el efecto es muy bajo

Grava muy seca prehumedecer antes de aplicar cloruro. Gran mejora

Canad

1.3

Usage of Chloride-Based Dust Suppressants in Canada

Total consumption of chloride-based dust suppressants in Canada is estimated at approximately 103 kt in 2000 (on a 100% basis). The majority of this consumption is calcium chloride, which is used across Canada. Smaller amounts of magnesium chloride are used as a dust suppressant, primarily in western Canada (i.e. 3 U.S. manufacturers of magnesium chloride are located in the western U.S.). Historically, liquid solutions of calcium chloride have generally been used as a dust suppressant. These liquid solutions typically contain 38% calcium chloride. Recently, the flaked form of calcium chloride has seen increased usage for dust control. The flaked form generally contains 78% calcium chloride (the rest moisture). Magnesium chloride is applied as a liquid, which contains approximately 28% magnesium chloride (the rest mostly water). Research conducted for this study did not identify the use of potassium chloride or sodium chloride as dust suppressants in Canada

Table 1 Overview of Chloride-based Dust Suppressant Consumption in Canada, Year 2000 (kilotonnes - 100% basis) Dust Suppressant Annual Consumption 98 5 0 0 103

Calcium Chloride Magnesium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Chloride Total

SUIZA

Chlorure de magnsium contre la poussire

Le Chlorure de magnsium est un produit de premire qualit pour lutter contre la poussire. Notre trs longue exprience de son utilisation sur des terrains non-asphalts (chemins, places de sports, places de parc et manges) vous garantit un rsultat impeccable pour lutter contre la poussire. En priode trs sches, il est possible damliorer leffet antipoussire du Chlorure de magnsium en arrosant la surface avec de l

MEXICO
Empleo de Cloruro de Calcio En estado de Coahuila se ha comprobado su buen funcionamiento Existe un Manual de Estabilizacin de Caminos Revestidos con Cloruro de Calcio
(Secretara de Comunicaciones y Transporte)

Objetivo Tcnico
Conservar los caminos mediante la adicin de algn componente que le brinde caractersticas de durabilidad y estabilidad a la carpeta de rodadura Esto se puede medir en trminos de:
Polvo liberado al paso de vehculos Regularidad superficial

Evolucin Soluciones Bsica vs Tradicional


Serviciabilidad

Solucin Bsica

Reperfilados

Tiempo

TEMARIO Soluciones Bsicas sin Capa de Proteccin


Introduccion Gama de Soluciones Construccin Conservacin

Gama de Soluciones
Supresores de polvo
Cloruros Aditivos comerciales

Estabilizadores
Mejoran las caractersticas estructurales del suelo

......grficamente....
Carpeta Granular + Cloruro Expuesta al trnsito

Base o Subbase mejorada con estabilizador qumico mas proteccin asfltica superficial

Cloruros
Son higroscpicos: afines con el agua Captan agua del medio ambiente y mantienen la carpeta hmeda Cloruros:
de Sodio (NaCl) Sal comn de Magnesio hexahidratado (MgCl2.6H2O) Bischofita de Calcio (CaCl2)

Sin Sal

Aditivos comerciales
Son aditivos fabricados especialmente para caminos Se clasifican en:
Qumicos Polimricos Enzimticos

Se los ha aplicado en sectores de prueba Su comportamiento ha sido errtico, sin mostrar an evidencia de buenos resultados

Producto Recin Aplicado

3 y 4 meses

Las fotos corresponden a distintos productos y no a mismos sectores de fotos superiores

IRI INICIAL E IRI A LOS 6 MESES


IRI v/s Producto
24 22 20 18 16
IRI (m/km)

MEDICIN DEL IRI

14
inicial

12 10 8 6 4 2 0
a los 6 meses

Distintos productos probados

OTRA PRUEBA: IRI INICIAL E IRI A LOS 5 MESES


IRI v/s Producto
14 12 10
IRI(K/KM)

8 6 4 2 0

transcurrido 1 mes

transcurridos 5 meses

Distintos productos probados

Conclusin
El tema de ADITIVOS se contina estudiando Algunos productos funcionan bien con algunos tipos de suelos Se debe hacer investigacin de Qumica del suelo Lo ms conveniente sera contratar por nivel de servicio por ej., controlar polvo y regularidad superficial

Estabilizadores
Aditivos Qumicos que mejoran las caractersticas estructurales del suelo Su mayor beneficio: cuando no se cuenta con materiales de buena calidad en una distancia razonable (econmica) Se recomienda hacer balance: Costo de estabilizacin qumica versus transporte de material granular al camino Muy recomendable terminar con una capa de proteccin

TEMARIO Soluciones Bsicas sin Capa de Proteccin


Aspectos especiales Gama de Soluciones Construccin Conservacin

Cloruro de Sodio

Cloruro de Sodio
Es higroscpico absorbe agua desde el aire y la mantiene en la carpeta Lo hace desde una H.R. de 79 % y reduce la evaporacin del agua en 1,3 veces Moderadamente corrosiva al acero en solucin diluida

Aplicacin
La sal se puede aplicar a granel o disuelta Ideal DISUELTA (se podra emplear de la
cantidad a colocar a granel)

Problemas:
Solubilidad en laboratorio: 320 g/l Solubilidad en terreno: + - 200 g/l (agitacin + tiempo) Cantidad a agregar a veces es > agua para Humedad ptima

Se ha optado por ponerla a granel

Bischofita
(Cloruro de Magnesio Hexahidratado)

Cloruro de Magnesio
Es higroscpica absorbe agua desde el aire y la mantiene en la carpeta Lo hace desde una H.R. de 32 % Es posible disolver 150 Kg de bischofita (cloruro de magnesio hexahidratado) en 100 Kg de agua

Aplicacin
La Bischofita se aplica como salmuera Se disuelve muy fcil en agua Se aplica en el agua de amasado (Hptima) Se carga (con cargador) en estanque con agua Se carga salmuera en camin regador Resto de operaciones igual que una base

Tambin se puede aplicar empleando una recuperadora de caminos (recicladora) que va incorporando inmediatamente la salmuera

Salmuera (MgCl2)

Salmuera (MgCl2)

Punto de carguo camin regador Bischofita a estanque

Disolucin

Estanque hechizo entre las rocas

Estanque recibe agua y bischofita

Agua

Control de la concentracin de MgCl2

Punto de carguo camin regador

Vehculos a unos 90 Km / hr

Controles
Adems de los convencionales para la carpeta:
Medicin de los Cloruros
Conductividad Titulacin Qumica

Medicin de Polvo Regularidad Superficial (IRI)

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE


Escuela de Ingeniera
Departamento de Ingeniera y Gestin de la Construccin

Cuantificacin del Polvo Generado por los Vehculos en Caminos No Pavimentados, con Supresores de Polvo y Estabilizados

Desarrollo Equipo MPC-1


Componentes

Felipe Halles A.

Toma de Aire

h/2 h/2
Distancia Mnima

27 Septiembre de 2004

Medicin de conductividad

cuantificacin de cloruros

(desarrollado en Laboratorio Nacional de Vialidad, Chile)

Kilmetro 70.06 70.5 70.72 70.9 70.1

r 563 275 395 365 398

D 40 110 80 80 80

[ohm*cm] Kg/m3

Dsis de Bischofita v/s Resistividad


Dsis de Bischofita [Kg/m3]

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 100

1,000 Resistividad [ohm*cm]

10,000

Camino Forestal - Cloruro de Calcio

Riego Superficial

Se emplea en perodo estival En la regin se produce CaCl2

ESTABILIZACION

PROES TECNOLOGA DE ESTABILIZACIN QUMICA DE SUELOS

TEMARIO Soluciones Bsicas con Capa de Proteccin


Introduccin Gama de Soluciones Construccin Conservacin

Conservacin
Si bien es cierto se debe hacer con menor frecuencia, NO DEJAR DE HACERLA! En algunos casos los baches se hacen ms duros que cuando no se aplica aditivos Umbral de intervencin: segn Polvo y/o rugosidad Consiste en Reperfilados, Reperfilados con adicin del compuesto original en menor cantidad, ya sea en riego de salmueras o a granel Usualmente despus de ltimas lluvias (carpeta hmeda)

Para evitar acumulacin de agua se debe tener cuidado en la construccin de dejar un buen Bombeo (pendiente transversal) y ojala compactacin con rodillo neumtico

CONSERVACION PERIDICA

REPARACION DE BACHES CON BISCHOFITA


Bacheo Granular con Bischofita

Osvaldo Aguayo Osvaldo Aguayo Ingeniero Civil Ingeniero Civil Santiago, Chile Santiago, Chile tel: (56-2) 449 -5646 tel: (56-2) 449 -5646 osvaldo.aguayo@gmail.com osvaldo.aguayo@gmail.com