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KARAO TEXTS

compiled by Sherri Brainard CONTENTS


Acknowledgments Abbreviations Introduction Orthography Principles underlying the analysis of morphemes English translation Analysis of verb affixes and semantic roles Texts Edafoan na i-Karao The origin of the Karao people Say edafoan na Karao The origin of Karao Niyana eg kedathen na oleg i i-Karao Why snakes do not bite the Karao people Say istoriya na pahiy The story of unhusked rice Istoriya na kirol tan balat The story of the thunder and the banana tree Kotkot Kotkot Bolengen tan bahoko The monkey and the turtle Insalaknib koy biyag Pagit I protected Pagits life Biyag nontan, nagwariy kalsara Life before, there was no road Pangkep na eg kaysespa na kaybang na timpo na ani About not setting down the kaybang basket during harvest time iii v 1 1 2 2 2 5 7 21 32 42 44 46 47 60 71 78

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures is a joint venture undertaken by the Linguistic Society of the Philippines and the Summer Institute of Linguistics devoted to the timely publication of papers of an empirical or theoretical nature which contribute to the study of language and communicative behavior in the Philippines. A certain proportion of the papers published will be penultimate versions of works of special interest to the Philippine linguistic community destined for further publication in more final form elsewhere. Scholars engaged in the study and description of Philippine languages and cultures are hereby invited to submit contributions for inclusion in this series.

Series Editor: Consulting Editor:

Sherri Brainard Fe T. Otanes

For inquires and submissions, please write to: Academic Publications Manager Summer Institute of Linguistics P.O. Box 2270 CPO 1099 Manila Philippines E-mail: Acad-Pub_Philippines@sil.org

ISBN 971-780-017-0 05032.5C 2003 Linguistic Society of the Philippines and Summer Institute of Linguistics

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

KARAO TEXTS
compiled by Sherri Brainard

STUDIES IN PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES & CULTURES


Volume 13, 2003

LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF THE PHILIPPINES SUMMER INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTICS


Manila Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Acknowledgments
The texts in this volume have been collected over many years. All of them were given as oral texts that were recorded on audio tape and then transcribed. I would like to thank all the Karao speakers who contributed texts and helped transcribe and edit them. For each text included in this volume, I would also like to thank the contributor for granting permission to publish it.

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Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Abbreviations
A ABS ACT AG AG&TH AJR CAUS CMPR CNTR COMP CONT COUNTER D D1 D2 D3 DER DIM DIR EMPH ERG EX EXT GEN HAB IMP IMPFT IN INS Lit. LK LOC, Loc NAG NLOC NM NR NTH the more agentive, syntactically required NP of a transitive clause absolutive action Agent Agent and Theme adjectivizer causative comparative contrast complementizer continuous counter expectation deictic deictic - near speaker deictic - near hearer deictic - far from speaker and hearer derivation diminuitive directional emphatic ergative exclusive existential genitive habitual imperative imperfective inclusive intensive literally linker Location Nonnuclear Agent (Cause or Source) Nonnuclear Loc (Beneficiary) nominal marker nominalizer Nonnuclear Theme (Instrument or Comitative/Associative)

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

vi

Abbreviations

OBJ OBL OPT ORD P PASS PAUS PERF PFT PL POL RQ RS S SG SIMUL ST SUBJNCT SURP TH TI __ __ / . ??

object oblique optative ordinal the less agentive, syntactically required NP of a transitive clause passive pause perfect perfective plural polite form rhetorical question reported speech the single, syntactically required NP of an intransitive clause singular simultaneous stative subjunctive surprise Theme time marker discontinuous morpheme, compound word, or phrase alternate meanings compound gloss undetermined meaning or function

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Introduction
This volume contains a selection of Karao texts representing a variety of genre, including traditional narrative, first-person narrative, procedural, expository, and hortatory.1 Karao is a Southern Cordilleran language of the Northern Philippines and is most closely related to Ibaloi and Kalangoya (McFarland 1980, Himes 1998). The language is spoken by about 1400 speakers who live in several villages located in a small mountain valley about fifty kilometers east of Baguio in Benguet province.2 The Karaos are not indigenous to their present location in Benguet and have an oral history that identifies Eastern Bontoc as their place of origin.3 The main livelihood of the Karao people is farming. They grow rice for their own consumption and vegetables to sell wholesale to the main market in Baguio. Education is highly valued among the Karaos. In Karao itself there is an elementary school but no high school. High school and college students attend schools outside of Karao, and a significant number of students complete college. Those who have a college education often live outside of Karao in cities where employment opportunities are greater.

Orthography
Texts included in this volume are written in the following orthography. The consonants are: b [b], ch [t ], d [d], f [ ], g [ ], gw [ ], h [X], j [d ], k [q][k], l [l], m [m], n [n], ng [ ], r [ ], s [s], t [t], th [ ], w [w], and y [j]. The vowels are: i [i][e], e [ ], o [o][u], a [ ]. The glottal stop is a phoneme that occurs syllable initially but not syllable finally. It is represented by a hyphen within a word when it precedes a consonant, e.g. bo-day [bu d j] yard, or follows a consonant, e.g. inam-ay [ in m j] easy. It is not represented word initially or between vowels. Since all syllables in Karao are CV(C), any

These texts were gathered between 1988 and 2002 while the researcher was living in Karao under the auspices of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. 2 These villages are officially located in the barangays of Karao and Ekip in the municipality of Bokod.
3

Bontoc languages belong to the Central Cordilleran subgroup of Northern Philippine languages. In his investigation of Proto-Southern Cordilleran, Himes (1998:146, 150) notes that Karao shares several lexical innovations with Central Cordilleran languages exclusively, but suggests that these innovations do not provide convincing proof that Karao was associated with Bontoc languages over a long period of time. Instead Himes proposes that Karao, along with Ibaloi and Kalangoya, developed from a single common language, namely Proto-Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, and that it had a long period of independent development.

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Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Sherri Brainard

written word that begins with a vowel has a glottal stop preceding the vowel, e.g. aso [ so] dog, and any written word that contains a sequence of vowels has a glottal stop between the vowels, e.g. too [to o] person.4

Principles underlying the analysis of morphemes


Morphemes have been analyzed on the basis of function. Those morphemes that have more than one function are given different labels according to their function in a particular sentence. Thus the ubiquitous Karao morpheme na is labeled ergative when it marks an ergative NP, oblique when it marks an oblique NP, genitive when it marks the possessor of a genitive NP, time when it marks a temporal, complementizer when it introduces a complement clause, and linker when it joins constituents of a phrase.5

English translation
The English translation given for each sentence is neither an idiomatic translation nor an exact literal translation. In general the English translation follows the basic structure of the Karao sentence, and translations of individual Karao words are fairly literal, unless such a translation was deemed too awkward or obscure. The intent is to provide an English translation that faithfully represents the structure and meaning of the Karao text but avoids the worst pitfalls of an exact literal translation.

Analysis of verb affixes and semantic roles


In Karao one major function of verb affixes is to identify the semantic role of the absolutive NP.6 Verb affixes and semantic roles do not have a one-to-one relationship; the same verb affix may cross-reference different semantic roles, and the same semantic role may be cross-referenced by different verb affixes. In order to identify the semantic role cross-referenced by the verb affix, a restricted model of localist case grammar proposed by DeLancey (1984)(1985)(1991) has been adopted. This model is based on earlier localist

Karao is notable for its complex phonology. A comprehensive study of Karao phonology and morphophonology is found in Brainard (1994a). 5 When na functions as a linker, it appears to be decomposing in that it rarely occurs as the form na; instead, it takes the form a following a consonant and -n following a vowel. 6 The absolutive NP is S (the single, syntactically required NP of an intransitive clause) and P (the less agentive, syntactically required NP of a transitive clause). (Here intransitive clause is a cover term for any single-argument clause, e.g. active intransitive clause, passive clause, antipassive clause.)

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

case models developed by Anderson (1971), Gruber (1976), and Jackendoff (1983, 1990).7 Briefly, DeLanceys model identifies three core semantic roles: a Loc (LOC) which is a physical site or a state, a Theme (TH) which is an element that changes location or state, and an Agent (AG) which is the cause for a change of location or a change of state. Generally speaking, the Loc corresponds to a Location, a Theme to a Patient, and an Agent to an Agent. In DeLanceys model, an Agent need not be animate. Other semantic roles are identified as noncore, or nonnuclear, semantic roles. That is, nonnuclear roles, such as Comitative (or Associative), Instrument, and Beneficiary, are core semantic roles of nonnuclear clauses that have been integrated into the nuclear, or main, clause. Thus Comitatives and Instruments are Nonnuclear Themes (NTH), Beneficiaries are Nonnuclear Locs (NLOC), and Sources are Nonnuclear Locs or Nonnuclear Agents (NAG), depending on the verb.8

The application of DeLanceys model to Karao clause structure has been described in detail in Brainard (1994b). 8 Tables of nominal markers, pronouns, verb affixes, and nominalizing affixes are found in the appendices. For a more detailed analysis of the morphosyntax of Karao, see Brainard (1994b).

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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TEXTS

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Edafoan edafo -an NR.PFT- come.from -__

na

I-Karao

na iKarao GEN person.from- Karao

The Origin of the Karao People Mr. John Beray 1. Sejay i istoriya na edafoan ali na i-Karao.

sejay i istoriya na edafo -an ali na iKarao D1 ABS story GEN NR.PFT- come.from -__ DIR GEN person.from- Karao This is the story about the origin of the Karao people.9 2. Say is-istoriya na iyangka-pos a edafoan na say CVC- istoriya na iyangka- epos na edafo -an na NM PL- story GEN AJR.PL- use.up LK NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN chiwan kono did Bontoc. i-Karao, iKarao cha -man kono ali -cha Bontoc person.from- Karao OBL -D3 RS DIR -OBL Bontoc The stories of those who have died about the origin of the Karao people, they say it was Bontoc. 3. Chegwen kilasin istoriya i nainistoriya chegwa -na kilasi -na istoriya i na- istoriya -iytwo -LK kind -LK story ABS HAB- tell.a.story -PFTThere are two versions of the story that they tell. 4. Say sa-ki, say edafoan say sa-ki say edafo NM one kono na -an kono na RS i-Karao, ichiwan Karao cha -man cha. cha ERG.3PL

NM NR.PFT- come.from -__

GEN person.from- Karao OBL -D3

It is generally agreed that the Karaos are not indigenous to the area where they now live. The Karaos themselves have an oral history stating that they came from Bontoc. Several versions of this oral history exist today, each identifying a different Bontoc location as the original home of the Karaos, each giving a different explanation about how Karao got its name, and each including the story about the Karao hunter who first entered the valley where the Karaos live today. The version told here by Mr. John Beray identifies a Bontoc village called Karao as the original location of the Karaos. He suggests that the current location of the Karaos in Benguet might have been named after the village in Bontoc. Another version, which follows, is told by Mrs. Juanita Padon. This version identifies a Bontoc village called Palingaw as the origin of the Karaos and states that the location where the Karaos now live is named after the Karao hunter who first came to the valley.

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Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Sherri Brainard

ma afit na Eastern Bontoc. kono did kono ali -cha ma afit na Eastern Bontoc RS DIR -OBL D3 direction GEN Eastern Bontoc In one, the origin of the Karao people, they say it was in the direction of Eastern Bontoc. 5. Gwariy engistoriya i igwa konoy dogad cha Bontoc a gwara -i eNistoriya i igwan kono -i dogad cha Bontoc na EXT -ABS PFT.AG- tell.a.story COMP D3 RS -ABS place OBL Bontoc LK ingked niman kono Karao i ngaran to ngo. ingka -cha niman kono Karao i ngaran to ngo until -OBL now RS Karao ABS name GEN.3SG also There are those who tell the story that there is a place in Bontoc that up until now its name is also Karao. 6. Sema kono chen tood man, idi pinsak kono, bintihan sema kono ira -na too -cha man idi pinsak kono betik -iy-an D3 RS PL -LK person -OBL D3 TI once RS run -PFT.LOC- -__ man a dogad. cha cha man na dogad ERG.3PL D3 LK place The people there, one day, they ran away from that place. 7. No ngoy kagol a bintihan cha no nengo -i kagol na betik -iy-an cha NM what -ABS reason COMP leave -PFT.LOC- -__ ERG.3PL The reason why they left there, no one knows.10 8. Nem say nainistoriya cha, istay gwara konoy banay a nem say na- istoriya -iy- cha istay gwara kono -i banay na but NM HAB- tell.a.story -PFT- ERG.3PL about.to EXT RS -ABS big LK But what they usually say is, there was about to be a big epidemic. The morpheme so appears to have been borrowed from Ibaloi. Its exact distribution has yet to be identified, and Karao speakers disagree about whether or not it is obligatory in various constructions. In general, so occurs only in dependent clauses and only when the independent counterpart of the dependent clause would be a transitive clause. The dependent clause may or may not retain its transitive morphosyntax. When so is present, it is coreferential with the object of the independent transitive counterpart of the dependent clause. The NP that is the object in the independent transitive counterpart may cooccur with so in the dependent clause, as in sentence 6 in the text The Origin of Karao and sentence 36 in the text Advice about Going Away to School, both in this volume.
10

so, eg amta. so eg amta OBJ not know

sahit. sahit illness

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

bintihan cha man a dogad. 9. Isonga isonga betik -iy-an cha man na dogad thats.why leave -PFT.LOC- -__ ERG.3PL D3 LK place Thats why they ran away from that place. 10. Et et ingked ingka -cha niman, seman ngo iren niman seman ngo ira -na D3 tood too man a gwared man na gwara -cha LK EXT man na man na TI

-cha

and until -OBL now seman, nainis-istoriya

also PL -LK person -OBL D3 cha kono i to-moy

-OBL D3

seman na- CVC- istoriya -iycha kono i to -emo -i now HAB- CONT- tell.a.story -PFT- ERG.3PL RS ABS where -maybe -ABS kimowanan da iren tan a too i. kowan -im-an da ira -na tan na too i go/come -NR.PFT- -__ DIR PL -GEN D2 LK person LOC Until now, the people who are still there today [in Eastern Bontoc], they tell a story about where those people [the Benguet Karaos] went. 11. Et ingked niman, igwa konoy sama-samat iren ma tofing na et ingka -cha niman igwan kono -i CVCV- samat ira -na ma tofing na and until -OBL now D3 RS -ABS PLremains PL -GEN D3 stone.wall GEN iyanbalijan cha nontan den bayag.

iyanbaliy -an cha nontan da -na bayag NR.PFT- reside -__ GEN.3PL before DIR -LK long.time And until now, there are remains of the stone walls of the place where they lived at that time long ago. 12. Et sejay ira, to-mo kono diy chida-chidan et sejay ira to -emo kono da -i CVCV- chalan -iyand D1 PL where -maybe RS DIR -ABS CONT- follow.a.certain.route -PFTcha cha di ali i. i

ERG.3PL DIR LOC And these [people in Eastern Bontoc], [they have been wondering] where they [the Benguet Karaos] ended up.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

tawen ithan a edagwa-dagwas, 13. Et say istoriya, idi piyen et say istoriya idi piya -na tawen i -tan na eCVCV- dagwas and NM story after how.many -LK year ABS -D2 LK PASS.PFT- CONT- go.ahead simagwi ched ta Diyang kono. sagwi -imira -cha ta Diyang kono reach -PFT.TH- ABS.3PL -OBL D2 Diyang RS And the story is, after a number of years had passed, they came to Diyang. 14. Et chitha Diyang iyan-iya-iyan ired tan. et cha -ta Diyang iyanCVCV- iyan ira -cha tan and OBL -D2 Diyang PFT.AG- CONT- reside ABS.3PL -OBL D2 And there at Diyang, they stayed a while. 15. Gwariy bisak a inpesa-pesaw gwara -i bisak na inCVCV- pesaw EXT -ABS splinter LK PFT.LOC- CONT- go.south/downriver simagwi la ired Vizcaya chiya Kirang. sagwi -imda ira -cha Vizcaya cha -ja Kirang reach -PFT.TH- DIR ABS.3PL -OBL Vizcaya OBL -D1 Kirang There was a group [that separated from the main group] that kept moving south, and they came here to Kirang in Vizcaya. 16. Iyan-iya-iyan kono ched man. iyanCVCV- iyan kono ira -cha man PFT.AG- CONT- reside RS ABS.3PL -OBL D3 They stayed there a while. 17. Isonga chiwa Vizcaya, igwa iriy samat na i-Karao a isonga cha -ma Vizcaya igwan ira -i samat na iKarao na thats.why OBL -D3 Vizcaya D3 PL -ABS remains GEN person.from- Karao LK aikaragwan chiwa Dupax tan Aritao. eiKarao -an cha -ma Dupax tan Aritao ST.PFT.LOC- person.from- Karao -__ OBL -D3 Dupax and Aritao Thats why there in Vizcaya, there are remnants of the Karao people who have Karao blood in them there in Dupax and in Aritao. cha la, et cha da et ERG.3PL DIR and

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

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samat iren tan a iyan-iya-iyan chiwan. 18. Gwara konoy gwara kono -i samat ira -na tan na iyanCVCV- iyan cha -man EXT RS -ABS remains PL -GEN D2 LK PFT.AG- CONT- reside OBL -D3 There are remnants of those who used to live there. 19. Insedong insedong PFT.LOC- go.north/upriver Owak. Owak Owak They [a small group of the Dupax-Aritao group] moved north again, and they are here at Owak. 20. Isonga igwa iriy i-Karao mowan cha Owak. isonga igwan ira -i iKarao mowan cha Owak thats.why D3 PL -ABS person.from- Karao also OBL Owak Thats why there are also Karao people in Owak. 21. Hema iren i-Owak, aikaragwan ira man. sema ira -na iOwak eiKarao -an ira man D3 PL -LK person.from- Owak ST.PFT.LOC- person.from- Karao -__ PL D3 The Owak people, they have Karao blood in them. 22. Insedo-sedong inCVCV- sedong PFT.LOC- CONT- go.north/upriver cha kono mowan ali, et sibi cha kono mowan ali et sagwi -iyERG.3PL RS again DIR and reach -PFTkono na kono na RS ERG cha kono mowan ali, et chiyed ja cha kono mowan ali et cha -ja -cha ja ERG.3PL RS again DIR and OBL -D1 -OBL D1

riy Bokot, et chithed ta Bokot, intoro cha -i Bokot et cha -ta -cha ta Bokot intoro ERG.3PL -ABS Bokod and OBL -D2 -OBL D2 Bokod PFT.TH- point.out i-Bokot ali jay a pan-iyanan cha. iBokot ali jay na paniyan -an cha person.from- Bokod DIR D1 LK NR.IMPFT- reside -__ GEN.3PL

They kept moving northward, and then they reached Bokod, and there at Bokod, the Bokod people showed them this place to stay.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

Diyang, gwara konoy sa-kin 23. Nem nonta gwara kono ched nem nonta gwara kono ira -cha Diyang gwara kono -i sa-ki -na but when EXT RS ABS.3PL -OBL Diyang EXT RS -ABS one -LK ma-nop. ma-nop hunter But while they were still in Diyang, there was a certain hunter. 24. Idi gwara konoy toha osi-osilen olsa idi gwara kono -i to -ka CVCV- osil -a -na olsa when EXT RS -ABS ERG.3SG -CONT CONT- chase -TH -LK deer (kaosi-osila na aso thon anop), tine-tined to kono kaCVCV- osil -a na aso to -na anop CVCV- tened -iyto kono CONT- CONT- chase -TH ERG dog GEN.3SG -LK hunt CONT- follow -PFT- ERG.3SG RS di tan a olsa et ingked insagwi to did jay Karao. ali tan na olsa et ingka -cha insagwi to ali -cha jay Karao DIR D2 LK deer ?? until -OBL NR.PFT- reach GEN.3SG DIR -OBL D1 Karao When he was chasing a deer (his hunting dog was chasing it), he kept following that deer until he came here to Karao. 25. Idi onsagwi konod toktok na chontog, iyoschongan idi onsagwi kono -cha toktok na chontog oschong -iy-an when IMPFT.TH- reach RS -OBL top GEN mountain look.down -PFT.TH- -__ kono jay Ara! to to kono jay ara ERG.3SG RS D1 ara When he got to the top of the mountain, he looked down here, saying Ah! 26. Aman ded man iwa olsa. aman da -cha man i -ma olsa D3 DIR -OBL D3 ABS -D3 deer There is that deer down there. 27. Aman da kebolo-bologwa na ason anop.

aman da kaCVCV- bolow -a na aso -na anop D3 DIR CONT- CONT- bark -TH ERG dog -LK game There was an animal that the dog was barking at.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

13

to kono wa ali. 28. Tine-tined CVCV- tened -iyto kono ma ali CONT- follow -PFT- ERG.3SG RS PERF DIR He kept following it. 29. Et idi metaen et idi matha -en and when see/look -IMPFT.TH to kono wa iyay, mapteng konon to kono ma i -jay mapteng kono -na ERG.3SG RS PERF ABS -D1 good RS -LK

kigwan to kono i Ara! kowan -iyto kono i ara say -PFT- ERG.3SG RS COMP ara And when he saw this place, it was good and so he said, Ah! 30. Sejay et mango, mapteng a panbedijan mi di jay. sejay et mango mapteng na panbaliy -an mi ali jay D1 ?? ?? good LK NR.IMPFT- reside -__ GEN.1PL.EX DIR D1 This place, this is a good place for us to live. 31. Et idi chiwan konod ma banay a boleked ma Boliniy, et idi cha -man kono -cha ma banay na boleka -cha ma Boliniy and when OBL -D3 RS -OBL D3 big LK big.boulder -OBL D3 Boliniy niyemnem to kono i Kay, ispak i sikdop nemnem -iyto kono i kay isepa -ko i sikdop think -PFT- ERG.3SG RS COMP kay IMPFT.TH- leave -ERG.1SG ABS pack.lunch kod jay a bohi. ko -cha jay na bohi GEN.1SG -OBL D1 LK meat So while he was on that big boulder at Boliniy, he thought, Ah, I will leave my meal of meat here [on the boulder]. 32. Inpa-tok to kono wed ma boleka iwa sikdop inpa-tok to kono ma -cha ma boleka i -ma sikdop PFT.TH- put.on.top ERG.3SG RS PERF -OBL D3 big.boulder ABS -D3 pack.lunch ton bohi.

to -na bohi GEN.3SG -LK meat He put his meal of meat down on top of that boulder.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

to kono i No on-ono-onong iyay 33. Inmadmad inmadmad to kono i no onCVCV- onong i -jay PFT.TH- say.madmad.prayer ERG.3SG RS COMP if IMPFT.TH- CONT- remain ABS -D1 a bohi a na bohi na LK meat LK nagwariy nagwara -i EXT -ABS menga-mengan a titit ono animal ono CVCV- meNkan na titit ono animal ono INSIMPFT.AG- eat LK bird or animal or anyaman, anyaman anything

on-oliak ali na mekcheng i sa-kin bolan. onoli -ak ali na mekecheng i sa-ki -na bolan IMPFT.TH- return -ABS.1SG DIR TI PASS.IMPFT- finish ABS one -LK month He prayed saying, If this meat remains untouched and no bird or animal or anything eats any of it, I will return here after one month. 34. Et no on-ono-onong iyay a bohi, mapteng iyay a dogad a et no onCVCV- onong i -jay na bohi mapteng i -jay na dogad na and if IMPFT.TH- CONT- remain ABS -D1 LK meat good ABS -D1 LK place LK panbedijan mi. panbaliy -an mi NR.IMPFT- reside -__ GEN.1PL.EX And if this meat remains untouched, this will be a good place for us to live. 35. Hetan konoy madmad to. setan kono -i madmad to D2 RS -ABS prayer.type GEN.3SG That was his prayer. 36. Kamo wango na maenchi kamo mango na meif panbedijan ?? iyay a bohi, ngaaw iyay a dogad a i -jay na bohi ngaaw i -jay na dogad na ABS -D1 LK place LK

enchi

LK ST.IMPFT- disappear ABS -D1 LK meat bad mi.

panbaliy -an mi NR.IMPFT- reside -__ GEN.1PL.EX If on the other hand this meat disappears, this will be a bad place for us to live. 37. Setan kono ngoy madmad to iy on-oli setan kono ngo -i madmad to iy onoli D2 RS also -ABS prayer.type GEN.3SG SIMUL IMPFT.TH- return wa ded ma da -cha PERF DIR -OBL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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15

Diyang. kawad-an ched kawad-an cha -cha Diyang place GEN.3PL -OBL Diyang That was his prayer as he returned to their place at Diyang. 38. Idi mekcheng idi mekecheng when PASS.IMPFT- finish imoli di. oli -imali return -PFT.TH- DIR After one month, he returned here. 39. Kimowan ali. kowan -imali go/come -PFT.TH- DIR He came here. 40. Idi metaen idi matha -en when see/look -IMPFT.TH to kono tan a bohin insepa to kono tan na bohi -na insepa ERG.3SG RS D2 LK meat -LK PFT.TH- set.down kono wiy sa-kin bolan, kono ma -i sa-ki -na bolan RS PERF -ABS one -LK month

thod ma toktok na boleka, kaonong. to -cha ma toktok na boleka kaonong ERG.3SG -OBL D3 top GEN big.boulder CONT- remain When he saw the meat that he had left on the top of the big boulder, it was still the same. 41. Piyati tho kono wa i A, ngaran ni mapteng. pati -iyto kono ma i a ngaran ni mapteng believe/obey -PFT- ERG.3SG RS PERF COMP a CNTR LK good Then he believed saying, Ah, this is a good place after all. 42. Siya, mapteng iyay a panbedijan mi. siya mapteng i -jay na panbaliy -an mi all.right good ABS -D1 LK NR.IMPFT- reside -__ GEN.1PL.EX All right then, this is a good place for us to live.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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ja bohin insepak. 43. Aja a, nat ekoti-koti aja a nat eCVCV- koti ja bohi -na insepa -ko D1 D not PASS.PFT- INSdisturb D1 meat -LK PFT.TH- leave -ERG.1SG Look here, this meat which I left was not disturbed at all. 44. Imoli kono wa ded Diyang. oli -imkono ma da -cha Diyang return -PFT.TH- RS PERF DIR -OBL Diyang Then he returned to Diyang. 45. Inistoriya to wa ded ma echom to, et istoriya -iyto ma da -cha ma echom to et tell.a.story -PFT- ERG.3SG PERF DIR -OBL D3 companion GEN.3SG and iyodop to kono wa ali cha. olop -iyto kono ma ali ira take/go.along -PFT- ERG.3SG RS PERF DIR ABS.3PL He told this story to his companions, and he brought them here. 46. Seman ma iy mebonal ma ali ched jay. seman ma iy mebonal ma ali ira -cha jay D3 PERF SIMUL PASS.IMPFT- transfer PERF DIR ABS.3PL -OBL D1 That is when they moved here. 47. Et isonga sejay a dogad, say iyanngaranan to emo na et isonga sejay na dogad say iyanngaran -an to emo na and so D1 LK place NM NR.PFT- name -__ GEN.3SG maybe OBL Karao. Karao Karao And so this place, maybe thats why it was named Karao. 48. No agpayson pasiya ma nainistoriya no agpayso -na pasiya ma na- istoriya -iyif true -LK very D3 HAB- tell.a.story -PFTcha cha ERG.3PL i say i say COMP NM

edafoan cha, hema igwa aliy dogad a iyanngaran na edafo -an cha sema igwan ali -i dogad na iyanngaran na NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN.3PL D3 D3 DIR -ABS place LK PFT.TH- name OBL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

17

Karao cha Bontoc. Karao cha Bontoc Karao OBL Bontoc If it is really true what they say about the place where they came from, it is the place named Karao in Bontoc. 49. Isonga impanngaran cha ngo iyay a dogad na Karao. isonga impanngaran cha ngo i -jay na dogad na Karao thats.why CAUS.PFT.TH- name ERG.3PL also ABS -D1 LK place OBL Karao Thats why they also had this place named Karao. 50. Et say kepatian to ira i Bontoc emo nowan et say kepati -an to ira i Bontoc emo nowan and NM NR.IMPFT- believe/obey -__ GEN.3SG PL COMP Bontoc maybe EMPH edafoan na af-afo na i-Karao, ija aliy ali -i edafo -an na CVC- afo na iKarao ijay DIR -ABS- NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN PL- ancestor GEN person.from- Karao D1 ogadi na i-Bontoc nowan i nowan i ogadi na iBontoc EMPH ABS custom GEN person.from- Bontoc inges to ja abo-nan. inges to ja abo-nan same/like ERG.3SG D1 mens.house And the things that make them believe that Bontoc might indeed be the place where the ancestors of the Karao people came from are, there are Bontoc customs which are also Karao customs, like the mens house.11 51. Igwa ngoy abo-nan cha Bontoc. igwan ngo -i abo-nan cha Bontoc D3 also -ABS mens.house OBL Bontoc The mens house also exists in Bontoc. a ogadi ngo na i-Karao a na ogadi ngo na iKarao na LK custom also GEN person.from- Karao LK

11

The abo-nan is a meeting place for men only. Oftentimes it is just a simple shelter. On certain occasions all the men in the village gather together to share a meal or discuss an issue. The custom of the abo-nan still exists in Karao today.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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toy amangan, nem nagwara diy amangan. 52. Inges inges to -i amangan nem nagwara da -i amangan same/like ERG.3SG -ABS sleeping.house but EXT DIR -ABS sleeping.house It is the same for the sleeping house, but now there is no sleeping house here [in Karao].12 53. Iya-tiw da. eathiw da PASS.PFT- lose DIR It [the custom of the sleeping house] has been lost. 54. Igwa ngoy amangan cha Bontoc. igwan ngo -i amangan cha Bontoc D3 also -ABS sleeping.house OBL Bontoc The sleeping house also exists in Bontoc. 55. Chiya Benguet ket nagwara met ira tan. cha -ja Benguet ket nagwara met ira tan OBL -D1 Benguet PAUS EXT also PL D2 Here in Benguet, neither of these customs exists [among the other cultural groups]. 56. Bontoc bengat tan chiyay i kawad-an to. Bontoc bengat tan cha -jay i kawad-an to Bontoc only and OBL -D1 ABS place GEN.3SG It is only in Bontoc and here that they exist. 57. No kasta ngarod, setan i sa-kin memaneknek i say no kasta ngarod setan i sa-ki -na meNpaneknek i say if that EMPH D2 ABS one -LK IMPFT.AG- prove COMP NM edafoan na kaapoan na i-Karao ket chiwan edafo -an na ka- afo -an na iKarao ket cha -man NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN NR- ancestor -__ GEN person.from- Karao PAUS OBL -D3 alid ali -cha Bontoc tep Bontoc tep setan iren karawjan a man-iinges setan ira -na karawjan na manPL -LK custom tan tan

CV- inges

DIR -OBL Bontoc because D2

LK IMPFT.AG&TH- PL- same/like and

12

The amangan was a group sleeping house. Children would leave their parents house and sleep in the group house, the girls in one group house and the boys in another. The custom no longer exists in Karao.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

19

toy chaha pengenop na too nontan. inges inges to -i cha -ka peNanop na too nontan same/like ERG.3SG -ABS GEN.3PL -CONT NR.IMPFT- hunt OBL person before If that is indeed the case, that is one piece of evidence that the place where the ancestors of the Karao people came from, it was Bontoc because there were those same customs and they had the same way of hunting people before. 58. Chaha dengsoiy bokdow na too nonta bayag. cha -ka dengso -i -i bokdow na too nonta bayag ERG.3PL -CONT cut.off.part -TH -ABS neck GEN person TI long.time They used to cut off the heads of people long ago. 59. Gwara ngod jay nontan da, nem nagwara da na seman. gwara ngo -cha jay nontan da nem nagwara da na seman EXT also -OBL D1 before DIR but EXT DIR TI now That [custom] also existed here before, but it no longer exists now. 60. Aamo wiy too. eamo ma -i too PASS.PFT- tame PERF -ABS person Now people are civilized. 61. Et setan a aramid ket aramid ngo na tood Bontoc ithan. et setan na aramid ket aramid ngo na too -cha Bontoc i -tan and D2 LK action PAUS action also GEN person -OBL Bontoc ABS -D2 That practice, that was also the practice of the people in Bontoc. 62. Isonga hetan i sa-kin kepatian to i Bontoc emo isonga setan i sa-ki -na kepati -an to i Bontoc emo so D2 ABS one -LK NR.IMPFT- believe/obey -__ GEN.3SG COMP Bontoc maybe edafoan na afo na i-Karao. nowan i nowan i edafo -an na afo na iKarao EMPH ABS NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN ancestor GEN person.from- Karao So that is one of the reasons for believing that Bontoc might indeed be the place where the ancestors of the Karao people came from. 63. Setan i nainistoriya setan i na- istoriya -iyD2 ABS HAB- tell.a.story -PFTcha cha ERG.3PL a na LK edafoan edafo -an NR.PFT- come.from -__ na na GEN

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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i-Karao. iKarao person.from- Karao That is the story they tell about where the Karao people came from. 64. Ija ijay D1 pay pay still i echom, nem onkosto i echom nem onkosto ABS other but IMPFT.TH- enough nin iyay. nin i -jay for.now ABS -D1

There are still other stories, but this is enough for now. 65. Asan mowan maistoriyiy echom a istoriya na pangkep na asan mowan meistoriya -i echom na istoriya na maypangkep na will again PASS.IMPFT- tell.a.story -ABS other LK story OBL about OBL edafoan na i-Karao. edafo -an na iKarao NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN person.from- Karao Another time another story will be told about where the Karao people came from.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Say say NM

Edafoan edafo -an NR.PFT- come.from -__

na

Karao

na Karao GEN Karao

The Origin of Karao Mrs. Juanita Padon 1. Palingaw i ngaran cha bariyo na Bontoc.

Palingaw i ngaran cha bariyo na Bontoc Palingaw ABS name OBL village GEN Bontoc Palingaw is the name of a village in Bontoc.13 2. Nem idi sa-ki chen ilin gropo, say baliy cha, edibong

nem idi sa-ki cha -na ili -na gropo say baliy cha edibong TI when one ERG.3PL -LK place -LK group NM house GEN.3PL PASS.PFT- encircle na balat. na balat OBL banana.tree When they were one group [of houses], their houses, they were surrounded by banana trees. 3. Nem idi onkirol, inkedis na kirol. nem idi onkirol inkedis na kirol TI when IMPFT.TH- thunder PFT.TH- strike ERG thunder When it thundered, the thunder struck it [the group of houses]. 4. Epoolan i balat, nem say baliy, eg epool -an i balat nem say baliy eg PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ ABS banana.tree but NM house not iy ma-non athep. epoo-poolan eCVCV- pool -an iy ma-non athep PASS.PFT.TH- INSburn -__ CNTR even.though grass.roof The banana trees were burned, but the houses, they were not burned at all even though the roofs were grass.

13

This version of the origin of Karao begins with a traditional story about thunder striking a group of houses. The story is told in more detail in the text The Story of the Thunder and the Banana Tree, also in this volume.

21
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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i kebaliy-baliy. 5. Eg pay laeng epoolan eg pay laeng epool -an i kebaliy-baliy PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ ABS each.and.every.house not still __ Not a single house was burned. 6. Isonga angken ikedis isonga angken iso kawi metiy to to kawi kawi na na kirol, kirol eg eg

kedis

even.if IMPFT.TH- strike ERG.3SG ABS.1PL.EX ERG thunder not tep eg epoolan i baliy cha na

kawi metiy tep eg epool -an i baliy cha na ABS.1PL.EX ST.IMPFT.die because not PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ ABS house GEN.3PL TI so na kirol na balat. inkedis inkedis so na kirol na balat NR.PFT- strike OBJ GEN thunder OBL banana.tree So even if thunder strikes us, we will not die because their houses were not burned when the thunder struck the banana trees. 7. Ma-non ma-non iyaysongjot, iyayeg to eg to piyoolan pool -iyi -an i baliy. baliy

songjot

even.though PASS.PFT.TH- near

not ERG.3SG burn -PFT.TH- -__

ABS house

Even though it was near, it did not burn the houses. 8. Mapteng a eg epoolan. mapteng na eg epool -an good COMP not PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ It was good that they were not burned. 9. Sema aama konon i-Bontoc, sema aama kono -na iBontoc D3 old.man RS -LK person.from- Bontoc si-kathoy iyanbilin. si-katho -i iyanbilin 3SG -ABS PFT.AG- advise

An old man from Bontoc, he is the one who gave some advice. 10. Binidin to ira i Mesepol a onki-nan bilin -iyto ira i mesafol na onki-nan advise -PFT- ERG.3SG ABS.3PL COMP ST.IMPFT- necessary COMP IMPFT.TH- move.over

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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23

kayod kayo -cha ABS.2PL -OBL

tan tan D2

a na LK

ili. ili place

He said to them, You must move away from that place. 11. Palingaw Palingaw Palingaw i i ABS ngaran ngaran name to. to GEN.3SG

Palingaw was its name. 12. Kimi-nan ired Tinek. ki-nan -imira -cha Tinek move.away -PFT.TH- ABS.3PL -OBL Tinoc They moved away to Tinoc. 13. Iyanpana-panad iyanCVCV- panad PFT.AG- CONT- prepare.site They made rice fields at Tinoc. 14. Mangkebenaw i payow cha, et nem no onbalag i mangka- banaw i payow cha et nem no onbalag i AJR.PL- wide ABS rice.field GEN.3PL and TI when IMPFT.TH- mature ABS pahiy, man-eni pahiy manani unhusked.rice IMPFT.AG- harvest.rice cha. ira ABS.3PL ira na payow cha Tinek. ira na payow cha Tinek ABS.3PL OBL rice.field OBL Tinoc

Their rice fields were wide, and when the rice was mature, they harvested it. 15. Mesepol a mengayow mesafol na meNngayow ST.IMPFT- necessary COMP IMPFT.AG- go.head.hunting ira man-eni. ira manani ABS.3PL IMPFT.AG- harvest.rice It was necessary that they go headhunting before they could harvest their rice. ira na too asan ira na too asan ABS.3PL OBL person before

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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cha, ngiyaaw cha ira. 16. Niman sema kaidian niman sema kaidian cha ngaaw -iycha ira now D3 fellow.villager GEN.3PL hate -PFT- ERG.3PL ABS.3PL Now their fellow villagers, they hated them. 17. Inilan cha mowan ira, et kimowan mowan ali anil -iy-an cha mowan ira et kowan -immowan ali drive.away -PFT.TH- -__ ERG.3PL again ABS.3PL and go/come -PFT.TH- again DIR ched Teboy. ira -cha Teboy ABS.3PL -OBL Teboy They drove them away, and they [the Karaos] came to Teboy. 18. Iyanpana-panad iyanCVCV- panad PFT.AG- CONT- prepare.site mowan ira na payow, nem inges to mowan ira na payow nem inges to again ABS.3PL OBL rice.field but same/like ERG.3SG

mowan a no onbalag i echen chen pahiy, mowan na no onbalag i echen cha -na pahiy again LK when IMPFT.TH- mature ABS cultivate.a.field ERG.3PL -LK unhusked.rice mengeda ira na too asan ira man-eni. meNala ira na too asan ira manani IMPFT.AG- get ABS.3PL OBL person before ABS.3PL IMPFT.AG- harvest.rice They planted rice fields again, but it was just the same as before in that when the rice that they had cultivated had matured, they would get some people before they would harvest. 19. Igol cha mowan ira. agol -iycha mowan ira drive.away -PFT- ERG.3PL again ABS.3PL They drove them [the Karaos] away again. 20. Inilan cha di cha et chiyed sa-pat anil -iy-an cha ali ira et cha -ja -cha sa-pat drive.away -PFT.TH- -__ ERG.3PL DIR ABS.3PL ?? OBL -D1 -OBL up/above ngaran to. na Bambang a Alang i na Bambang na Alang i ngaran to GEN Bambang LK Alang ABS name GEN.3SG They drove them [the Karaos] up to a place above Bambang, the name of which was Alang.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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25

21. Iyanpanad iyanpanad PFT.AG- prepare.site

ired man. ira -cha man ABS.3PL -OBL D3

They made rice fields there. 22. Inges to mowan a mahibot ira na animal. inges to mowan na ma- kibot ira na animal same/like ERG.3SG again LK AJR- steal ABS.3PL OBL animal It was the same again in that they stole animals. 23. Nem no seman a maakow, onkwan nem no seman na maakow onkowan but when D3 LK daytime IMPFT.TH- go/come kailokoan keiloko -an NR.IMPFT- Ilocano -__ a Bambang. na Bambang LK Bambang ired ma ira -cha ma ABS.3PL -OBL D3

But when it was daytime, they would go to the place of the Ilocanos [i.e. the lowlands] like Bambang. 24. Mengedok ira na banga; i-kanan cha ira. meNalok ira na banga iikan -an cha ira IMPFT.AG- ask.for ABS.3PL OBL clay.pot IMPFT.LOC- give -__ ERG.3PL ABS.3PL They would ask for a clay pot; they [the Ilocanos] would give them one. 25. Mengedok ira na bekas; i-kanan cha cha. meNalok ira na bekas iikan -an cha ira IMPFT.AG- ask.for ABS.3PL OBL pounded.rice IMPFT.LOC- give -__ ERG.3PL ABS.3PL They would ask for pounded rice; they would give them some. 26. Mengedok ira na chakom a panchait cha na baro meNalok ira na chakom na panchait cha na baro IMPFT.AG- ask.for ABS.3PL OBL needle OBL NR.IMPFT- sew GEN.3PL GEN clothing chen tiyo-to. cha -na tiyo-to GEN.3PL -LK clothing.made.from.bark They would ask for a needle so they could sew their clothes which were made from bark.14
14

Clothing made from bark is called tiyo-to, or tebak. (The Karaos say both terms are borrowed.) Traditionally it was the Kalangoya people who made cloth from tree bark. During World War II, there was a shortage of factory-made cloth and clothing and so the Karaos started buying bark cloth from

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

26

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Idoko, iyaptoan cha. 27. Niman sema iren niman sema ira -na Idoko apto -iy-an cha now D3 PL -LK Ilocano fed.up.with -PFT.NAG- -__ ERG.3PL Now the Ilocanos, they got fed up with them. 28. Gwara gayam i gwara gayam i EXT bakchat cha bakchat cha nontan den nontan da -na bayag. bayag

SURP ABS gun

GEN.3PL TI

DIR -LK long.ago

They had guns long ago. 29. In-angad ched inangad cha PFT.TH- pray Afo Chiyos i Afo Chiyos i Si-kam a pimarsowa si-kam na parsowa -imLK create -PFT.AGkawi kawi ABS.1PL.EX

-cha

ERG.3PL -OBL God __

COMP 2SG

so chiya dobong, niya-mona kibo-kibothan cha kawi kawi so cha -ja dobong niya-mona CVCV- kibot -an cha ABS.1PL.EX OBJ OBL -D1 world why CONT- steal -IMPFT.LOC ERG.3PL

na iyanbaliy cha chontog iy no mengedok ira na banga, na iyanbaliy cha chontog iy no meNalok ira na banga ERG PFT.AG- reside OBL mountain CNTR when IMPFT.AG- ask.for ABS.3PL OBL clay.pot i-kanan mi cha; mengedok ira na bekas; iikan -an mi ira meNalok ira na bekas IMPFT.LOC- give -__ ERG.1PL.EX ABS.3PL IMPFT.AG- ask.for ABS.3PL OBL pounded.rice mi cha tan chakom i-kanan iikan -an mi ira tan chakom IMPFT.LOC- give -__ ERG.1PL.EX ABS.3PL and needle na na OBL baro cha? baro cha clothing GEN.3PL a na penait peNcha chait cha sew GEN.3PL

OBL NR.IMPFT-

They [the Ilocanos] prayed to God, You who created us here on earth, why do those who live in the mountains keep stealing from us even though when they ask us for a clay pot, we give them one; (even though when) they ask for rice, we give them some and a needle so they can sew their clothes? 30. Seman ma iy pimetok i bakchat. seman ma iy petok -imi bakchat D3 PERF SIMUL fire -PFT.TH- ABS gun the Kalangoyas. Today bark cloth is not used in Karao.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

27

Then a gun went off. 31. Inpetok na para bakchat. inpetok na para bakchat PFT.TH- fire ERG one.who gun Someone with a gun fired it. 32. Timahot ira.

tahot -imira afraid -PFT.TH- ABS.3PL They [the Karaos] were afraid. 33. Gwariy inepon i-Kabajan. gwara -i inepo -na iKabajan EXT -ABS in-law -LK person.from- Kabayan There was a man from Kabayan who was related by marriage to the Karao people. 34. Si-katho konoy engowan i Igwan et mango ali mapteng a si-katho kono -i eNkowan i igwan et mango ali mapteng na 3SG RS -ABS PFT.AG- say COMP D3 ?? ?? DIR good LK iyanbina-sil i chekdan a sangko-tik. iyanba-sil -in- i chekdan na sangko-tik PFT.AG&TH- side.by.side -__- ABS valley LK little.bit He is the one who said, There is a good place beside a small valley. 35. Sejay i diya-basan ko din dogad. sejay i da-bas -iy-an ko ali -na dogad D1 ABS pass.by -PFT.LOC- -__ ERG.1SG DIR -LK place It is the place that I passed by on my way here. 36. Chakel iwa pao (paon sema nasimimit cha chakel i -ma pao pao -na sema na- simit -imcha many ABS -D3 fern.type fern.type -LK D3 HAB- sprout -PFT.TH- OBL kolos). kolos river There are lots of pao ferns (pao ferns, the ones that usually grow along the edge of the river). kilig na kilig na edge GEN

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

paon menikay para sira. 37. Chakel iwa chakel i -ma pao -na menigay para sira many ABS -D3 fern.type -LK PASS.IMPFT- gather.food for side.dish There are lots of pao ferns that we can gather for a side dish. 38. Onba-sil onba-sil IMPFT.TH- move.to.other.side They will move here. 39. Enadtad ira na chon polon bohi. eNtadtad ira na chowa -na polo -na bohi PFT.AG- chop.meat ABS.3PL OBL two -LK ten -LK meat They cut up twenty pieces of meat. 40. Engapkap eNkapkap PFT.AG- chop.vegetables ira na sandasos a dokto. ira na sandasos na dokto ABS.3PL OBL one.unit- hundred LK kamote ali ched jay. ali ira -cha jay DIR ABS.3PL -OBL D1

They chopped up one hundred pieces of kamote. 41. Gwariy bayengbeng a injanan gwara -i bayengbeng na ejan -iy-an EXT -ABS bamboo LK fill -PFT.TH- -__ cha na chanom. cha na chanom ERG.3PL OBL water

There was a bamboo container that they filled with water. 42. In-angad ched Afo Chiyos i Si-kam a Chiyos a inangad cha -cha Afo Chiyos i si-kam na Chiyos na PFT.TH- pray ERG.3PL -OBL God __ COMP 2SG LK God LK kawi so, nem no piyan mon chiyay i pimarsowa parsowa -imkawi so nem no piyan mo -na cha -jay i create -PFT.AG- ABS.1PL.EX OBJ TI if want/like ERG.2SG-COMP OBL -D1 ABS panbedijan mi na ingked enchokiy a akow, nat panbaliy -an mi na ingka -cha en- chokiy na akow nat NR.IMPFT- reside -__ GEN.1PL.EX TI until -OBL AJR- long LK day not na kawang i bohi. kakanen CV- kan -en na kawang i bohi DER- eat -IMPFT.TH ERG blackbird ABS meat

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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29

They prayed to God, You who are God, who created us, if you want that this will be our dwelling place forever, may the blackbirds not eat the meat. 43. Nat kakanen nat CV- kan -en not DER- eat -IMPFT.TH May the rats not eat the kamote. 44. Nat ma-tian i chanom cha bayengbeng. nat meeti -an i chanom cha bayengbeng not PASS.IMPFT.TH- dry.up -__ ABS water OBL bamboo May the water not dry up in the bamboo container. 45. Idi gwariy mahabolan, onkwan idi gwara -i maha- bolan onkowan after EXT -ABS one- month IMPFT.TH- go/come After one month, they came here; it was good. 46. Eg pay ida na kawang i bohi. eg pay ala -iyna kawang i bohi not still get -PFT- ERG blackbird ABS meat The blackbirds still had not gotten the meat. 47. Eg esila-silak i dokto. eg eCVCV- silak i dokto not PASS.PFT- INSscatter ABS kamote None of the kamote had been scattered. 48. Mas iyakkingan. mas ekeking -an more PASS.PFT.TH- dry.up -__ It was even more dried up. 49. Seman ma seman ma D3 iy iy mebonal meali ali ched ira jay. jay ali cha; mapteng. ali ira mapteng DIR ABS.3PL good na othot i dokto. na othot i dokto ERG rat ABS kamote

bonal

-cha

PERF SIMUL PASS.IMPFT- transfer DIR ABS.3PL -OBL D1

That was when they moved here.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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manbediy ma ali ched jay, gwara diy 50. Idi idi manbaliy ma ali ira -cha jay gwara da -i when IMPFT.AG- reside PERF DIR ABS.3PL -OBL D1 EXT DIR -ABS i-Kadasan a in-anop toy aso tho, ma-nop na olsa. iKadasan na inanop to -i aso to ma-nop na olsa person.from- Kadasan LK PFT.NTH- hunt ERG.3SG -ABS dog GEN.3SG hunter GEN deer When they were staying here, there was a man from Kadasan who went hunting with his dog, a deer hunter [the dog]. 51. Iyono-onod alin ta mahaaso, mahaanop. CVCV- onod -iyali -na ta maha- aso mahaanop CONT- follow -PFT- DIR -ERG D2 owner- dog one.who- hunt The owner of the dog, the hunter, kept following it. 52. Nem ida na i-Karao iwa olsa. nem ala -iyna iKarao i -ma olsa but get -PFT- ERG person.from- Karao ABS -D3 deer But a Karao man got that deer. 53. Ida tho liy toktok, toktok na olsa. ala -iyto da -i toktok toktok na olsa get -PFT- ERG.3SG DIR -ABS head head GEN deer He [the Karao man] got the head, the head of the deer. 54. Inbaga ra kono i Siyay ngaran mo? inbaga cha kono i siya -i ngaran mo PFT.TH- ask ERG.3PL RS COMP who -ABS name GEN.2SG They [the Karaos] asked him, What is your name? 55. Kigwan kowan -iysay to to kono i kono i Konen kowan -en koy ko ngaran ko ngaran ko GEN.1SG

-i

-PFT- ERG.3SG RS

COMP say

-IMPFT.TH ERG.1SG -ABS name

nem i-kan jo di ja toktok niya inop na aso. nem iikan jo ali ja toktok na -ja anop -iyna aso if IMPFT.TH- give ERG.2PL DIR D1 head GEN -D1 hunt -PFT- ERG dog He [the hunter] said, I will tell you my name if you give me the head of what my dog caught.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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31

ngaran ko. 56. Si Karao i si Karao i ngaran ko NM Karao ABS name GEN.1SG My name is Karao. 57. Isonga iyanngaran iyay na Karao. isonga iyanngaran i -jay na Karao thats.why PFT.TH- name ABS -D1 OBL Karao Thats why this place is named Karao.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Niyana Eg niyana eg why not

Kedathen kalat -en bite -IMPFT.TH

na na ERG

Oleg oleg snake

i i ABS

I-Karao iKarao person.from- Karao

Why Snakes Do Not Bite the Karao People Mr. John Beray 1. Istoriya na too na bayag na ngoy kagol na nat

istoriya na too na bayag na nengo -i kagol na nat story GEN person TI long.time OBL what -ABS reason COMP not kedathen kalat -en na na oleg oleg i i i-Karao. i-

Karao

bite -IMPFT.TH ERG snake ABS person.from- Karao It is the story of people long ago about what is the reason that snakes do not bite the Karao people.
15

2. Sejay konoy istoriya tho. sejay kono -i istoriya to D1 RS -ABS story GEN.3SG This is their story. 3. Gwara konoy too na bayag a ma-nop. gwara kono -i too na bayag na ma-nop EXT RS -ABS person TI long.time LK hunter There was a person long ago who was a hunter. 4. Idi onkwan konod chontog a mengenop, idi

idi onkowan when IMPFT.TH- go/come chanchanin sebien chanchani -na sagwi -en nearly

kono -cha chontog na meNanop idi RS -OBL mountain LK IMPFT.AG- hunt when to to kono ma toktok na kono ma toktok na D3 head chontog, chontog gwariy gwara -i -ABS

-LK reach -IMPFT.LOC

ERG.3SG RS

GEN mountain EXT

15

The story about why snakes do not bite the Karaos is one of two classic stories told by the Karaos, the other being the story about the origin of the Karao people. When asked to relate a traditional Karao story, a Karao speaker almost invariably starts with one of these two.

32
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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33

pool. pool fire When he went to hunt on the mountain, when he had nearly reached the top of the mountain, there was a forest fire. 5. Emangkepooli konoy chontog. emangkapool -i kono -i chontog PASS.CONT.TH- burn -__ RS -ABS mountain The mountain was burning. 6. Aga-agag CVCV- agag CONT- hurry.anxiously to kono iy bebtihen to kono iy betik -en ERG.3SG RS SIMUL run -IMPFT.LOC to da iwa to da i -ma ERG.3SG DIR ABS -D3

kawad-an na oma tho tep say sebseban kawad-an na oma to tep say sebseb -an place GEN kamote.field GEN.3SG so.that __ extinguish.with.water -IMPFT.TH pool et say eg da mepoolan da iwa toy to -i pool et say eg da mepool -an da i -ma ERG.3SG -ABS fire so.that __ not DIR PASS.IMPFT.TH- burn -__ DIR ABS -D3 tho. oma oma to kamote.field GEN.3SG He was hurrying anxiously as he ran to his kamote field so that he could put out the fire so that his garden would not be burned. 7. Idi towan betiha, gwara konoy chingel ton esel. idi to -an betik -a gwara kono -i chengel -iyto -na esel when ERG.3SG -CONT run -ACT EXT RS -ABS hear/listen -PFT- ERG.3SG -LK voice As he was running, he heard a voice.16

16

Regarding the verb betiha, the transitive suffix -a, an allomorph of -en, has been added to the root betik to run in order to focus attention on the action. When -en has this function, an overt object cannot be added to the sentence. (Also see sentence 26 in Why the Karaos Do Not Eat the Meat of Dogs, the Meat of Horses, and Hot Peppers.)

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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cha si-katho. 8. Manta-ta-gway manCVC- ta-gway cha si-katho IMPFT.AG- CONT- call OBL 3SG It was calling to him. 9. Idi idi ongwingi, ongwingi mita matha tho to konoy kono -i banay a oleg banay na oleg LK snake

-iy-

when IMPFT.TH- look.back see/look -PFT- ERG.3SG RS a epoolan a mantila-tilay.

-ABS big

na epool -an na manCVCV- tilay LK PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ LK IMPFT.AG- CONT- writhe.in.pain When he looked back, he saw a big snake that had been burned that was writhing in pain. 10. Kigwan kono na oleg i Ibeka moak. kowan -iykono na oleg i ibeka mo -ak say -PFT- RS ERG snake COMP IMPFT.TH- bury ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG The snake said, You bury me. 11. Metijak metiynem nem TI engkay. engkay soon

-ak

ST.IMPFT.die -ABS.1SG I will die soon.

12. Aja, ida thoak na pool. aja ala -iyto -ak na pool D1 get -PFT- ERG.3SG -ABS.1SG ERG fire Look, the fire got me. 13. Setan kono wen too, masdaaw a pasiya.

setan kono ma -na too masdaaw na pasiya D2 RS PERF -LK person ST.IMPFT.surprised LK very That person, he was very surprised. 14. Kigwan konon ma oleg i Manipod na seman, say eg

kowan -iykono -na ma oleg i manipod na seman say eg say -PFT- RS -ERG D3 snake COMP since TI now so.that not

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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35

kayo kedathen na oleg, panbaniy kayo. cha cha kayo kalat -en na oleg panbaniy kayo ERG.3PL ABS.2PL bite -IMPFT.TH ERG snake IMP.AG- wear.leg.band ABS.2PL The snake said, From now on, so that snakes will not bite you, you wear leg bands.17 15. Seta baniy, iiket jod ta sa-kod na poweg jo. seta baniy iiket jo -cha ta sa-kod na poweg jo D2 leg.band IMPFT.TH- tie ERG.2PL -OBL D2 down/below GEN knee GEN.2PL That leg band, you tie it below your knee. 16. Dobid ono danchok i ibaniy dobid ono danchok i ibaniy string or wire ABS IMPFT.NTH- wear.leg.band String or wire is what you will use as a leg band, or rattan. 17. Setan i metaen iren ma oleg, et no metaen jo, ono egwiy. jo ono egwiy ERG.2PL or rattan

setan i matha -en D2 ABS see/look -IMPFT.TH cha cha tan a baniy, tan na baniy

ira -na ma oleg et no matha -en PL -ERG D3 snake and when see/look -IMPFT.TH cha cha kayo. kayo

nat kedathen nat kalat -en

ERG.3PL D2 LK leg.band not bite -IMPFT.TH ERG.3PL ABS.2PL That is what the snakes will see, and when they see that leg band, they will not bite you. 18. Inges to, nem maydaw-an inges to nem maydaw-an same/like ERG.3SG if PASS.IMPFT.TH- do.accidently a kedathen na kalat -en LK bite -IMPFT.TH cha cha ERG.3PL

kayo na oleg, kowan jo i I-Karagwak ngo et say kayo na oleg kowan jo i iKarao -ak ngo et say ABS.2PL ERG snake say ERG.2PL COMP person.from- Karao -ABS.1SG also so.that __ ipathiy i kalat na oleg. eg jo eg jo ipathiy i kalat na oleg not ERG.2PL IMPFT.NAG- die.from ABS bite GEN snake In the same way, if those snakes accidentally bite you, you say, Im a Karao so that you will not die from the snakes bite.

17

Leg bands were worn only by men. A leg band could be a piece of string, wire, rattan, or cloth. It was tied so that no ends were left hanging.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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iy metiy itha oleg a ari na oleg. 19. Setan kono wa setan kono ma iy metiy i -ta oleg na ari na oleg D2 RS PERF SIMUL ST.IMPFT.die ABS -D2 snake LK king GEN snake After that that snake who was the king of the snakes died. 20. Inbeka wen ta ma-nop. inbeka ma -na ta ma-nop PFT.TH- bury PERF -ERG D2 hunter Then the hunter buried it. 21. Manipod ma nontan kono wa, inistoriya wen ta ma-nop cha manipod ma nontan kono ma istoriya -iyma -na ta ma-nop cha since PERF then RS PERF tell.a.story -PFT- PERF -ERG D2 hunter OBL echom echom ton to daleki. CV- dahi

-na

companion GEN.3SG -LK PL- man/boy After that, the hunter told the story to his companions who were elders. 22. Manipod kono nowan nontan ma, manipod kono nowan nontan ma since tood RS ja EMPH then Karao nontan. naiyanbaniy na- iyanma ma iriy ira -i

baniy

PERF HAB- PFT.AG- wear.leg.band PERF PL -ABS

too -cha ja Karao nontan person -OBL D1 Karao then From that time on, people here in Karao wore leg bands. 23. Setan i kagol na naiyanbanejan na too tep setan i kagol na na- iyanbaniy -an na too tep D2 ABS reason GEN HAB- NR.PFT- wear.leg.band -__ GEN person because say eg kedathen chingjas to chingjas to say eg kalat -en sign GEN.3SG so.that not bite -IMPFT.TH ira na oleg.

ira na oleg ABS.3PL ERG snake

That is the reason why people wore leg bands because it was a sign so that the snakes would not bite them. 24. No metaen no matha -en when see/look -IMPFT.TH na oleg a ebaniyan i na oleg na ebaniy -an i ERG snake COMP PASS.PFT.LOC- wear.leg.band -__ ABS

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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37

ra, eg cha cha kedathen. seki seki cha eg cha ira kalat -en leg/foot GEN.3PL not ERG.3PL ABS.3PL bite -IMPFT.TH When the snakes saw that their legs had bands around them, they would not bite them. 25. Nem angken kedathen na oleg, gwariy nem angken kalat -en na oleg gwara -i but even.if bite -IMPFT.TH ERG snake EXT -ABS maydaw-anan a kedathen maydaw-an -an na kalat -en PASS.IMPFT.LOC- do.accidently -__ LK bite -IMPFT.TH na oleg a i-Karao, na oleg na iKarao ERG snake LK person.from- Karao

nat nainpathiy cha, agdalo nem nat nadimarag; nat na- darag -imnat na- inpathiy cha agdalo nem not HAB- swell -PFT.TH- not HAB- PFT.NAG- die.from ERG.3PL especially if konen cha i Iyaydaw-an kowan -en cha i iyaydaw-an say -IMPFT.TH ERG.3PL COMP PASS.PFT.TH- do.accidently moak. mo -ak ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG But even if a snake bites them, even if there is a Karao person who is accidentally bitten by a snake, it [the wound] does not swell; they do not die from it, especially if they say, You have accidentally bitten me. 26. I-Karagwak ngo. iKarao -ak ngo person.from- Karao -ABS.1SG also I am a Karao. 27. Nat nainpathiy chiy kalat na oleg. nat na- inpathiy cha -i kalat na oleg not HAB- PFT.NAG- die.from ERG.3PL -ABS bite GEN snake They do not die from the snakes bite. 28. Say nat i-Karao pay, no gwariy kedathen na oleg a echom say nat iKarao pay no gwara -i kalat -en na oleg na echom NM not person.from- Karao also if EXT -ABS bite -IMPFT.TH ERG snake LK other a kidat na kalat -iyLK bite -PFT-

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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nat i-Karao chiyay, no imadmaran a toon na too -na nat iKarao cha -jay no imadmad -an LK person -LK not person.from- Karao OBL -D1 if IMPFT.NLOC- say.madmad.prayer -__ cha i I-Karao iya kidat mo; kidat jo,

cha i iKarao i -ja kalat -iymo kalat -iyjo ERG.3PL COMP person.from- Karao ABS -D1 bite -PFT- ERG.2SG bite -PFT- ERG.2PL naiya-kal na- ei i darag darag to. to

ekal

HAB- PASS.PFT- remove ABS swelling GEN.3SG Someone too who is not a Karao, if a snake bites a person here who is not a Karao, if they [the Karaos] pray for him saying, This one that youve bitten is a Karao; you bit him, the swelling goes down. 29. Nakimepes, et nat nainpathiy cha. na- kepes -imet nat na- inpathiy cha HAB- decrease.swelling -PFT.TH- and not HAB- PFT.NAG- die.from ERG.3PL The swelling goes down, and they do not die from it. 30. Chakel i i-Karao a kide-kidat na oleg chiwa chakel i iKarao na CVCV- kalat -iyna oleg cha -ma many ABS person.from- Karao LK CONT- bite -PFT- ERG snake OBL -D3 echom a dogad, nem kaasi tho. echom na dogad nem kaasi to other LK place but pity/compassion ERG.3SG There are many Karao people who have been bitten by snakes in other places, but they have been fortunate. 31. Nagwariy engipathe-pathiy na kalat na oleg tep seman emo nagwara -i engiCVCV- pathiy na kalat na oleg tep seman emo EXT -ABS PFT.TH- INSdie.from OBL bite GEN snake because D3 maybe nowan i tolakan na apo na oleg tan sa-kin i-Karao den

nowan i tolakan na apo na oleg tan sa-ki -na iKarao da -na EMPH ABS agreement GEN leader GEN snake and one -LK person.from- Karao DIR -LK

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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39

ma-nop. ma-nop hunter No one has ever died from a snake bite because perhaps that was the agreement between the leader of the snakes and that Karao hunter. 32. Tolakan cha i eg cha ipathiy i kalat na oleg la

tolakan cha i eg cha ipathiy i kalat na oleg da agreement GEN.3PL ABS not ERG.3PL IMPFT.NAG- die.from ABS bite GEN snake DIR kitdi kitdi no manbaniy no manbaniy ira ira tep tep say eg say eg ira ira kedathen kalat -en

as.long.as if na oleg. na oleg ERG snake

IMPFT.AG- wear.leg.band ABS.3PL so.that __ not ABS.3PL bite -IMPFT.TH

Their agreement was that they [Karaos] would not die from a snake bite as long as they wore leg bands so that the snakes would not bite them. 33. Isonga say i-Karao nontan, naiyanbaniy ira. isonga say iKarao nontan na- iyanbaniy ira thats.why NM person.from- Karao before HAB- PFT.AG- wear.leg.band ABS.3PL Thats why the Karaos before, they used to wear leg bands. 34. Nem nagwara da na seman. nem nagwara da na seman but EXT DIR TI now But that is not done now. 35. Nagwara diy nagwara da -i EXT naiyanbaniy. na- iyan-

baniy

DIR -ABS HAB- PFT.AG- wear.leg.band

No one wears leg bands now. 36. Iya-kal eda. da

ekal

PASS.PFT- remove DIR It has been done away with.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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istoriya no niyana eg kedathen 37. Setan i setan i istoriya no niyana eg kalat -en D2 ABS story NM why not bite -IMPFT.TH

na oleg i i-Karao. na oleg i iKarao ERG snake ABS person.from- Karao

That is the story about why the snakes do not bite the Karao people. 38. Isonga seja iren i-Karao, nat ontahot chiy oleg. isonga seja ira -na iKarao nat en- tahot cha -i oleg thats.why D1 PL -LK person.from- Karao not AJR- afraid ERG.3PL -ABS snake Thats why these Karao people, they are not afraid of snakes. 39. Eg cha tekothan i oleg. eg cha tahot -an i oleg not ERG.3PL afraid -IMPFT.NAG ABS snake They are not afraid of snakes. 40. Tep angken kedathen ira na oleg, nat ipathiy cha

tep angken kalat -en ira na oleg nat ipathiy cha because even.if bite -IMPFT.TH ABS.3PL ERG snake not IMPFT.NAG- die.from ERG.3PL kono. kono RS Because even if a snake bites them, they will not die from it. 41. Setan i istoriyen man-elba-elbat a setan i istoriya -na manCVCCV- elbat na D2 ABS story -LK IMPFT.TH- CONT- pass LK nainis-istoriya na iyangkaama na ingked niman, pati na- CVC- istoriya -iyna iyangka- awa na ingka -cha niman pati HAB- CONT- tell.a.story -PFT- ERG AJR.PL- old.man TI until -OBL now including aanak. CV- anak PL- offspring That is the story that the old men have been telling which has been passed down from generation to generation until today, including to our children.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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tan a istoriya. 42. Amta re amta cha tan na istoriya know ERG.3PL D2 LK story They [the grandchildren] know that story. 43. Setan konoy setan kono -i D2 RS kagol kagol na na naiyanbanejan na- iyanbaniy na -an na i-Karao. i-

Karao

-ABS reason GEN HAB- NR.PFT- wear.leg.band -__

GEN person.from- Karao

That is the reason why the Karao people wore leg bands. 44. Nem nagwara da na seman i naiyanbaniy. nem nagwara da na seman i na- iyanbaniy but EXT DIR TI now ABS HAB- PFT.AG- wear.leg.band But no one wears leg bands now. 45. Setan bengat. setan bengat D2 only Thats all.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Say

Istoriya na

Pahiy

say istoriya na pahiy NM story GEN unhusked.rice The Story of Unhusked Rice Mrs. Mary Quedy 1. Gwariy sambaliy a gwared chontog a gwariy payow

gwara -i san-imbaliy na gwara -cha chontog na gwara -i payow EXT -ABS married.couple LK EXT -OBL mountain LK EXT -ABS rice.field cha. cha GEN.3PL There was a married couple who were in the mountains who had a rice field. 2. Say pahiy nonta bayag, iyangkamolimol a babenay. say pahiy nonta bayag iyangka- molimol na CV- banay NM unhusked.rice TI long.time AJR.PL- round LK PL- big Unhusked rice long ago, they were round and big. 3. Et no medom, si-kara ngon onkwan et no meedom si-kara ngo -na onkowan and when ST.IMPFT- ripe 3PL self -LK IMPFT.TH- go/come chiwa alang, nem cha -ma alang nem OBL -D3 granary but

ngaaw tep otik i imag niwa mahaalangen. ngaaw tep otik i amag -iyna -ma maha- alang -en bad because small ABS do/make -PFT- ERG -D3 owner- granary -__ And when they [the unhusked rice] were ripe, they would go to the granary by themselves, but there was a problem because the owner of the granary had made it too small. 4. Iyaskot ira, et sema echom, gwared bo-day. esekot ira et sema echom gwara -cha bo-day ST.PFT- crowded ABS.3PL and D3 some EXT -OBL yard They were crowded, and some, they were outside in the yard. 5. Idi gwara di ta dahi, bimonget, piyegpeg-as to idi gwara ali ta dahi bonget -imCVC- peg-as -iyto when EXT DIR D2 man/boy get.angry -PFT.TH- CONT- hit -PFT- ERG.3SG

42
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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43

et ebola-bolak. ira ma pahiy, ira ma pahiy et eCVCV- bolak PL D3 unhusked.rice and ST.PFT- CONT- scatter When the man arrived, he got angry, he whipped and whipped the rice, and then they were scattered. 6. Isonga niman say pahiy tayo, babechis. isonga niman say pahiy tayo babechis thats.why now NM unhusked.rice GEN.1PL.IN small.pieces Thats why now our unhusked rice, they come in small pieces. 7. Seman i istoriya na pahiy. seman i istoriya na pahiy D3 ABS story GEN unhusked.rice That is the story of unhusked rice.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Istoriya na istoriya story na OBL

Kirol kirol thunder

tan tan and

Balat balat banana.tree

The Story about the Thunder and the Banana Tree Mrs. Petra Catores

1. Idi

nonta kaotikel

ko,

sejay i

istoriyen

idi nonta keotikel ko sejay i istoriya -na when TI NR.IMPFT- little GEN.1SG D1 ABS story -GEN afok afo den da -na bii. bii

-ko

grandparent -GEN.1SG DIR -LK woman/girl When I was little, this was a story of my grandmothers. 2. Inistoriya to i nonta bayag kono gwariy baliy a kidat istoriya -iyto i nonta bayag kono gwara -i baliy na kalat -iytell.a.story -PFT- ERG.3SG COMP TI long.ago RS EXT -ABS house LK bite -PFTna kirol. na kirol ERG thunder She told a story that long ago there was a house that the thunder nearly bit. 3. Nem salamat seman a baliy, gwariy intanem cha konon nem salamat seman na baliy gwara -i intanem cha kono -na but fortunately D3 LK house EXT -ABS PFT.TH- plant ERG.3PL RS -LK balat balat cha askang na cha askang na baliy. baliy

banana.tree OBL beside GEN house But fortunately for the house, there were some banana trees that they had planted beside the house. 4. Et et imbis imbis komen sema baliy i koma -na sema baliy i kedathen kalat -en na na kirol, kirol sema balat sema balat banana.tree

and instead OPT -LK D3

house ABS bite -IMPFT.TH

ERG thunder D3

44
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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45

kidat to. i i kalat -iyto ABS bite -PFT- ERG.3SG And instead of the house being what the thunder bit, the banana trees are what it bit. 5. Et sema baliy, nat epoolan. et sema baliy nat epool -an and D3 house not PASS.PFT.TH- burn -__ And the house, it was not burned. 6. Idi idi metaen matha -en cha cha kono ma balat kono ma balat na ingkakcheng na ingka- kecheng

when see/look -IMPFT.TH

ERG.3PL RS

D3 banana.tree TI NR.PFT- finish

na kirol, gwara konoy sangi na kirol a mita red ma na kirol gwara kono -i sangi na kirol na matha -iycha -cha ma GEN thunder EXT RS -ABS teeth GEN thunder LK see/look -PFT- ERG.3PL -OBL D3 pohel na balat a ekalo-kalotan na dowit. pohel na balat na eCVCV- kalot -an na dowit trunk GEN banana.tree LK PASS.PFT.TH- CONT- tie -__ OBL banana.fiber When they looked at the banana trees after the thunder was over, there were the teeth of the thunder which they saw in the trunk of the banana tree, which were tied with banana fibers. 7. Sema balat konoy engisalakan na baliy. sema balat kono -i engisalakan na baliy D3 banana.tree RS -ABS PFT.AG- save OBL house The banana trees are what saved the house. 8. Isonga ontahot kono na kirol i balat.

isonga en- tahot kono na kirol i balat thats.why AJR- afraid RS ERG thunder ABS banana.tree Thats why the thunder is afraid of the banana tree. 9. Setan i istoriya tho.

setan i istoriya to D2 ABS story GEN.3SG That was her story.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Kotkot kotkot dig.a.hole Kotkot Mrs. Mary Quedy 1. Nonta bayag, sema chontog a Kotkot, nagwariy chanom.

nonta bayag sema chontog TI long.time D3 mountain

na kotkot LK dig.a.hole

nagwara -i chanom EXT -ABS water

Long ago, the mountain Kotkot, there was no water there. 2. Idi iyangjow ira, gwariy ason intahin cha.

idi eNkejow when PFT.AG- gather.firewood

ira gwara -i aso -na intahin cha ABS.3PL EXT -ABS dog -LK PFT.TH- take.along ERG.3PL

When they went to get firewood, they took a dog with them. 3. Et sema aso, engotkot et sema aso eNkotkot and D3 dog PFT.AG- dig.a.hole And the dog, he dug a hole in a yard. 4. Idi kiyotkothan idi kotkot -iy-an when dig.a.hole -PFT.LOC- -__ to, to bimo-day bo-day -imi i chanom. chanom na bo-day. na bo-day OBL yard

ERG.3SG go.out -PFT.TH- ABS water

When he had dug a hole in it, water came out. 5. Isonga seman a chontog, iyanngaran na Kotkot. isonga seman na chontog iyanngaran na kotkot thats.why D3 LK mountain PFT.TH- name OBL dig.a.hole Thats why that mountain, it is named Kotkot.

46
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Bolengen tan Bahoko bolengen tan bahoko monkey and turtle The Monkey and the Turtle Mr. John Beray 1. Gwariy istoriya na bolengen tan bahoko.

gwara -i istoriya na bolengen tan bahoko EXT -ABS story OBL monkey and turtle There is a story about the monkey and the turtle.18 2. Sankajem ira.

sankajem ira related- friend ABS.3PL They were friends. 3. Idi enafol i bahoko na balat, kigwan na bolengen i idi eNsafol i bahoko na balat kowan -iyna bolengen i when PFT.AG- find ABS turtle OBL banana.tree say -PFT- ERG monkey COMP Mankagachowa kiya. mankagachowa kiya IMPFT.AG- divide ABS.1PL.IN When the turtle found a banana tree, the monkey said, Lets divide it. 4. Et et kigwan kowan -iyna na bahoko i bahoko i Tiwa ngarod, ahow, mankagachowa tiwa ngarod ahow mankagachowa yes IMPFT.AG- divide

and say kiya. kiya ABS.1PL.IN

-PFT- ERG turtle

COMP okay EMPH

And the turtle said, All right, yes, lets divide it. 5. Engala ira na etak, biyetbet cha, et

eNala ira na etak betbet -iycha et PFT.AG- get ABS.3PL OBL bush.knife cut.with.bush.knife -PFT- ERG.3PL and
18

This narrative is not a traditional Karao story, but it is well-told and so it has been included here.

47
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

48

Sherri Brainard

impanchegwa impan- chegwa PFT.TH- divide.in.two

ra ma balat. cha ma balat ERG.3PL D3 banana.tree

They got a bush knife, they cut it [the banana tree], and they divided the banana tree in two. 6. Kigwan na bahokod bolengen i Sejay engken gwariy bolong kowan -iyna bahoko -cha bolengen i sejay engka -na gwara -i bolong say -PFT- ERG turtle -OBL monkey COMP D1 yours -LK EXT -ABS leaf toy itanem mo. to -i itanem mo GEN.3SG -ABS IMPFT.TH- plant ERG.2SG The turtle said to the monkey, This is yours, the part that has leaves is what you will plant. 7. Sejay enak a sengeg toy sejay enak na sengeg to D1 mine LK base itanem iko. tanem ko ERG.1SG

-i

GEN.3SG -ABS IMPFT.TH- plant

This is mine, the part with the base is what I will plant. 8. Iyansi-jan iyanma ma ira, et ira et intanem chiy intanem cha balat. balat

si-jan

-i

PFT.AG&TH- separate PERF PL and PFT.TH- plant Then they parted, and they planted the banana trees. 9. Idi meba-ba-jag, idi meCVC- bayag when ST.IMPFT- DIM- long.time bahoko. bahoko turtle sema sema D3

ERG.3PL -ABS banana.tree

bolengen, bolengen monkey

kimowan cha kowan -imcha go/come -PFT.TH- OBL

After a little while, the monkey, he went to the turtle. 10. Kigwan to i Ngoaman iwa ini-kan mon kowan -iyto i ngoaman i -ma inikan mo -na say -PFT- ERG.3SG COMP wrong ABS -D3 PFT.TH- give ERG.2SG -LK

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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49

cha si-kak; nat ebiyag met. balat balat cha si-kak nat ebiyag met banana.tree OBL 1SG not ST.PFT- alive CNTR He said, Somethings wrong with that banana tree that you gave to me; it did not live. 11. Etiy. etiy ST.PFT.die It died. 12. Et et aja engka, iyandawes. aja engka iyandawes PFT.AG- bear.fruit

and D1 yours

And here is yours, it has produced fruit. 13. Idi aman, kigwan na bahoko i Eg mo emo siningpet idi aman kowan -iyna bahoko i eg mo emo singpet -iyafter D3 say -PFT- ERG turtle COMP not ERG.2SG maybe do.well -PFTna kajo. na kajo LK care After that, the turtle said, Maybe you didnt take good care of it. 14. Isonga etiy. isonga etiy thats.why ST.PFT.die Thats why it died. 15. Eg mo emo sinibo-sibog.

eg mo emo CVCV- sibog -iynot ERG.2SG maybe CONT- water -PFTMaybe you didnt keep watering it. 16. Enchi wango, nem aman met enchi no ma la etiy.

mango nem aman met ma da etiy ?? but D3 CNTR PERF DIR ST.PFT.die

No, it was already dead.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

50

Sherri Brainard

moak ngo na dawes niya balat 17. Isonga i-kani isonga iikan -i mo -ak ngo na dawes na -ja balat so IMP.LOC- give -__ ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG CNTR OBL fruit GEN -D1 banana.tree mo. mo GEN.2SG So you give me some of the fruit of your banana tree. 18. Et kigwan na bahoko i Ahow, tep ekak met laeng

et kowan -iyna bahoko i Ahow and say -PFT- ERG turtle COMP yes mahakalab. mahakalab IMPFT.AG- climb

tep eg -ak met laeng because not -ABS.1SG CNTR __

And then the turtle said, Yes, because anyway I cant climb. 19. Ta ta go to. to GEN.3SG Go ahead and climb up, and you drop lots of fruit to me. 20. Kimalab miy bolengen. kalab -imma -i bolengen climb -PFT.TH- PERF -ABS monkey Then the monkey climbed up. 21. Idi onkwan chiwa ngoro na balat, inkafo di kalab, et ali kalab et DIR climb and pan-i-kasi pan- iekas -i PL- IMP.LOC- drop -__ moak ali na dawes mo -ak ali na dawes ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG DIR OBL fruit

idi onkowan when IMPFT.TH- go/come thoy to kakakan kaCV-

cha -ma ngoro na balat inkafo OBL -D3 tip GEN banana.tree PFT.TH- start iy iy eg eg to to

-i

niwa edom a balat kan na -ma edom na balat OBL -D3 ripe

ERG.3SG -ABS CONT- DER- eat

LK banana CNTR not ERG.3SG

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

51

iwa bahoko. i-kanan iikan -an i -ma bahoko IMPFT.LOC- give -__ ABS -D3 turtle When he had gone to the top of the banana tree, he started to eat some of the ripe bananas, but he did not give the turtle any. 22. Kigwan niwa bahoko i Ale ka ngo ali.

kowan -iyna -ma bahoko i ala ka ngo ali say -PFT- ERG -D3 turtle COMP get ABS.2SG also DIR The turtle said, Give me some too. 23. I-kasi moak ali na balat.

iekas -i mo -ak ali na balat IMP.LOC- drop -__ ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG DIR OBL banana Drop some bananas to me. 24. Saan ta kengi-ngi-ngi ngo iwa bolengen i Tekel saan ta keCVC- ngi-ngi ngo i -ma bolengen i tekel not LK CONT- CONT- laugh CNTR ABS -D3 monkey COMP whats.deserved mo. mo ERG.2SG Instead the monkey laughed and laughed, Thats what you get. 25. Niyana echan sema ngoro na balat i ini-kan mod si-kak? niyana echan sema ngoro na balat i inikan mo -cha si-kak why indeed D3 tip GEN banana.tree ABS PFT.TH- give ERG.2SG -OBL 1SG Why was it the shoot of the banana tree that you gave to me? 26. Etiy da et nagwa enak. etiy da et nagwara enak ST.PFT.die DIR and EXT mine It died and I have nothing. 27. Niman kakanen niman CV- kan -en now DER- eat -IMPFT.TH ko ko wa ma iya i -ja dawes na dawes na balat. balat

ERG.1SG PERF ABS -D1 fruit

GEN banana.tree

Now I will eat this fruit of the banana tree.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

moak. 28. Iyolbod olbod -iymo -ak trick -PFT- ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG You tricked me. 29. Niyemnem men Bahoko i Ay apaw nowan nemnem -iy- ma -na Bahoko i ay apaw nowan think -PFT- PERF -ERG Turtle COMP ay damn EMPH Then Turtle thought, Damn this monkey! 30. Idi aman, engala wa alis Bahoko na sebit na kawajan. idi aman eNala ma ali -si Bahoko na sebit na kawajan after D3 PFT.AG- get PERF DIR -ABS Turtle OBL thorn GEN bamboo After that, Turtle got some thorns of the bamboo plant. 31. Inpa-pa-chek tod ma sengeg na balat. iyay a! i -jay a ABS -D1 D

inCVC- pa-chek to -cha ma sengeg na balat PFT.TH- CONT- insert ERG.3SG -OBL D3 base GEN banana.tree He inserted them around the base of the banana tree. 32. Et iyan-emot; iyansa-keb cha kawil.

et iyanemot iyansa-keb cha kawil and PFT.AG&TH- hide PFT.AG&TH- cover OBL coconut.shell And then he hid himself; he covered himself with a coconut shell. 33. Idi aman, iyapsel idi aman epesel after D3 ST.PFT- full.from.eating After that, the monkey was full. 34. Imepas ali. epas -imali get.down -PFT.TH- DIR He came down. 35. Idi onkathin chiwa pithek, iyatbek. idi onkathin cha -ma pithek etebek when IMPFT.TH- step OBL -D3 soil PASS.PFT- pierce When he stepped on the ground, he was pierced. ma iwa bolengen. ma i -ma bolengen PERF ABS -D3 monkey

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Karao Texts

53

niwa sebit na kawajan a inpa-pa-chek Bahoko. 36. Timbek tebek -iyna -ma sebit na kawajan na inCVC- pa-chek Bahoko pierce -PFT- ERG -D3 thorn GEN bamboo LK PFT.TH- CONT- insert Turtle The thorns of the bamboo plant that Turtle had inserted pierced him. 37. Esahi-sahitan mes Bolengen. eCVCV- sahit -an ma -si Bolengen hurt -__ PERF -ABS Monkey PASS.PFT.LOC- INSThen Monkey was in great pain. 38. To to la da ithan den bahoko? i -tan da -na bahoko DIR -LK turtle

where DIR ABS -D2 Where is that turtle?

39. Bonoen ko. bono -en ko kill -IMPFT.TH ERG.1SG Ill kill him. 40. Toha ana-anapa iy eg to sepolen. to -ka CVCV- anap -a iy eg to safol -en ERG.3SG -CONT CONT- look.for -TH CNTR not ERG.3SG find -IMPFT.TH He searched and searched, but he didnt find him. 41. Et idi aman, timokkong chiwa kawil a iyan-emothan et idi aman tokkong -imcha -ma kawil na iyanemot -an and after D3 sit -PFT.TH- OBL -D3 coconut.shell LK NR.PFT- hide -__ bahoko, et toha eka-ekaliy sebit a niwa na -ma bahoko et to -ka CVCV- ekal -a -i sebit na GEN -D3 turtle and ERG.3SG -CONT CONT- remove -TH -ABS thorn LK iyaytebek cha bakdang to. iyaytebek cha bakdang to PASS.PFT.NTH- pierce OBL body GEN.3SG And then after that, he sat down on the coconut shell where the turtle was hiding, and he removed the thorns that had been used to pierce his body.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

mes Bolengen. 42. Idi aman, imakgwat idi aman akgwat -imma -si Bolengen after D3 stand.up -PFT.TH- PERF -ABS Monkey After that, Monkey stood up. 43. Kigwan to i Ajay i kowan -iyto i ajay i say -PFT- ERG.3SG COMP D1 ABS He said, Heres a beautiful coconut shell. 44. Edaen ko. ala -en ko get -IMPFT.TH ERG.1SG Ill take it. 45. Idi a-daen toy kawil, gwares Bahoko. mapteng mapteng good a kawil. na kawil LK coconut.shell

idi ala -en when get -IMPFT.TH

to -i kawil gwara -si Bahoko ERG.3SG -ABS coconut.shell EXT -ABS Turtle

When he took the coconut shell, there was Turtle. 46. Aja ka aja D1 gayam.

ka gayam ABS.2SG SURP

So here you are. 47. Bonoen taha. bono -en ko -ka kill -IMPFT.TH ERG.1SG -ABS.2SG Im going to kill you. 48. Apay nga diyochok moak? apay nga dorok -iymo -ak why LK pierce -PFT- ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG Why did you pierce me? 49. Ajay ma esoga-sogat i sekik. ajay ma eCVCV- sogat i seki -ko D1 PERF PASS.PFT- INShurt ABS leg/foot -GEN.1SG My feet were really hurt.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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55

50. Ida ala -iyget -PFT-

tho wes Bahoko, et kigwan to ma -si Bahoko et kowan -iyERG.3SG PERF -ABS Turtle and say -PFTtaha. ko -ka ERG.1SG -ABS.2SG

to i to i ERG.3SG COMP

Niman bejoen niman bayo -en now pound -IMPFT.TH

Then he took Turtle, and he said, Now I will pound you. 51. Kigwan Bahoko i Salamat nem bejoen kowan -iyBahoko i Salamat nem bayo -en say -PFT- Turtle COMP thank if pound -IMPFT.TH Turtle said, "Thank you if you will pound me. 52. No bejoen no bayo -en if pound -IMPFT.TH moak mo ket ket manbedinak manbalin na na moak. mo -ak ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG

-ak

-ak

ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG PAUS IMPFT.AG- become -ABS.1SG OBL

chakel. chakel many If you pound me, I will become lots. 53. Enchi ngarod, poolan enchi no ngarod pool -an EMPH burn -IMPFT.TH taha. ko -ka ERG.1SG -ABS.2SG

No then, I will burn you. 54. Engales Bolengen na afoy. eNala -si Bolengen na afoy PFT.AG- get -ABS Monkey OBL fire Monkey got some fire. 55. A, ipool taha. a ipool ko -ka a IMPFT.TH- burn ERG.1SG -ABS.2SG Ah, I will burn you.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Bahoko i Salamat nem ipool moak 56. Kigwan kowan -iyBahoko i Salamat nem ipool mo -ak say -PFT- Turtle COMP thank if IMPFT.TH- burn ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG tep say manbedinak na depang et onmaptengak. tep say manbalin -ak na depang et onmapteng -ak so.that __ IMPFT.AG- become -ABS.1SG OBL red and IMPFT.TH- good -ABS.1SG Turtle said, Thank you if you will burn me so that I will become red and beautiful. 57. Kigwan men Bolengen i Apaw, ngo emo nowan i kowan -iyma -na Bolengen i Apaw nengo emo nowan i say -PFT- PERF -ERG Monkey COMP damn what maybe EMPH ABS pesing chiyay a? pesing cha -jay a do OBL -D1 D Then Monkey said, Damn, what shall I do with this turtle? 58. Ah, ita-boy ah ah tahed chanom.

ita-boy ko -ka -cha chanom IMPFT.TH- throw ERG.1SG -ABS.2SG -OBL water

Ah, Ill throw you in the water. 59. Kigwan Bahoko i Pangaasim, enogak i

kowan -iyBahoko i pangaasi -mo enog -ak i say -PFT- Turtle COMP please -ERG.2SG dont -ABS.1SG ABS inta-boy cha chanom. inta-boy cha chanom PFT.TH- throw OBL water Turtle said, Please, please, dont throw me in the water. 60. Ma-norak. meanod -ak PASS.IMPFT- sweep.away -ABS.1SG Ill be swept away. 61. Nem towan inemnem i salamat nem ita-boy nem to -an inemnem i salamat nem ita-boy but ERG.3SG -CONT IMPFT.TH- think COMP thank if IMPFT.TH- throw

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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chanom tep baliy toy chanom. ched cha -cha chanom tep baliy to -i chanom ERG.3PL -OBL water because house GEN.3SG -ABS water But he was thinking it would be fortunate if he were thrown in the water because the water was his home. 62. Kigwan men Bolengen i Hala, ita-boy kowan -iyma -na Bolengen i hala ita-boy say -PFT- PERF -ERG Monkey COMP hala IMPFT.TH- throw tahed chanom chiwed kolos say ma-nod ko -ka -cha chanom cha -ma -cha kolos say meanod ERG.1SG -ABS.2SG -OBL water OBL -D3 -OBL river so.that PASS.IMPFT- sweep.away ka. ka ABS.2SG Then Monkey said, Too bad for you, Im going to throw you in the water in the river so that you will be swept away. 63. Ida wen Bolengen si Bahoko.

ala -iyma -na Bolengen si Bahoko get -PFT- PERF -ERG Monkey ABS Turtle Then Monkey got Turtle. 64. Inta-boy tod kolos. inta-boy to -cha kolos PFT.TH- throw ERG.3SG -OBL river He threw him in the river. 65. Idi gwara wed ma chanom, si Bahoko, ngimi-ngi idi gwara ma -cha ma chanom si Bahoko ngi-ngi -imwhen EXT PERF -OBL D3 water NM Turtle laugh -PFT.THHa, ha, ha, ha. ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha Then when he was in the water, Turtle, he laughed, Ha, ha, ha, ha.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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amta i baliy ko ja chanom? 66. Bolengen, eg mo Bolengen eg mo amta i baliy ko ja chanom Monkey not ERG.2SG know COMP house GEN.1SG D1 water Monkey, dont you know that this water is my home? 67. Osil moak alid jay. osil mo -ak ali -cha jay chase ERG.2SG -ABS.1SG DIR -OBL D1 You come after me. 68. Bimonget si Bolengen, jimaptok chiwa chanom, et kin bonget -imsi Bolengen japtok -imcha -ma chanom et kowan -iyget.angry -PFT.TH- ABS Monkey jump -PFT.TH- OBL -D3 water and say -PFTto to i i osilen osil -en tos to Bahoko, nem nat amta thon Bahoko nem nat amta to but

-si

-na

ERG.3SG COMP chase -IMPFT.TH ERG.3SG -ABS Turtle mannangoy, et aanod.

not know ERG.3SG -LK

mannangoy et eanod IMPFT.AG- swim and PASS.PFT- sweep.away Monkey got mad, he jumped into the water, and he thought that he could go after Turtle, but he didnt know how to swim, and so he was swept away. 69. Kengi-ngi-ngi wes Bahoko. kaCVC- ngi-ngi ma -si Bahoko CONT- CONT- laugh PERF -ABS Turtle Then Turtle laughed and laughed. 70. Imoli wed ma kad-an na balat to, et si-katho oli -imma -cha ma kawad-an na balat to et si-katho return -PFT.TH- PERF -OBL D3 place GEN banana.tree GEN.3SG and 3SG ngoy enga-engan niwa balat. ngo -i CVCV- eNkan na -ma balat self -ABS CONT- PFT.AG- eat OBL -D3 banana Then he went back to where his banana tree was, and he himself was the one who eat and eat those bananas.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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istoriya na bahoko tan bolengen. 71. Hetan i setan i istoriya na bahoko tan bolengen D2 ABS story OBL turtle and monkey That is the story about the turtle and the monkey.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Insalaknib insalaknib PFT.TH- protect

Koy

Biyag

Pagit Pagit Pagit

ko -i biyag ERG.1SG -ABS life

I Protected Pagits Life Mr. John Beray 1. Si Pagit, baknang a tood Trinidad.

si Pagit baknang na too -cha Trinidad NM Pagit rich LK person -OBL Trinidad Pagit, he was a rich person in Trinidad. 2. Say imbaliy to, biin edafod Bokot.

say imbaliy to bii -na edafo -cha Bokot NM spouse GEN.3SG woman/girl -LK ST.PFT- come.from -OBL Bokod His wife, she was a woman who came from Bokod. 3. Ebasig ira. ebasig ira ST.PFT- childless ABS.3PL They were childless. 4. Nagwiy anak cha. nagwara -i anak cha EXT -ABS offspring GEN.3PL They had no children. 5. Nonta timpo na impantoray na Hapon chiya Pilipinas,

nonta timpo na impan- toray TI time GEN NR.PFT- govern iyan-iyan iyaniyan ired ira Bokot tep Bokot tep

na Hapon cha -ja Pilipinas GEN Japanese OBL -D1 Philippines edigat ei i biyag cha Trinidad biyag cha Trinidad OBL Trinidad

-cha

digat

PFT.AG- reside ABS.3PL -OBL Bokod because ST.PFT- difficult ABS life

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Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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nontan. nontan then During the time when the Japanese controlled the Philippines, they lived in Bokod because life in Trinidad was hard then. 6. Nem idi tawen na 1945, mimothok i solcharo na Merikanon

nem idi tawen na 1945 mothok -imi solcharo na Merikano -na but when year GEN 1945 arrive -PFT.TH- ABS soldier GEN American -LK manlibirit manlibirit na na Pilipinas. Pilipinas

IMPFT.AG- liberate OBL Philippines But in the year 1945, the American soldiers arrived to liberate the Philippines. 7. Et nontan idi kegtechen et nontan idi keted -en and then when realize -IMPFT.TH echangkas echangkas PASS.PFT- kill.without.cause ira. ira ABS.3PL na Hapon i ma-bak ira, na Hapon i meagwak ira ERG Japanese COMP PASS.IMPFT- defeat ABS.3PL

And then when the Japanese realized that they would be defeated, they killed without cause. 8. Nabiyono riy angken sibilyan a sa-meken na- bono -iycha -i angken sibilyan na samek -en HAB- kill -PFT- ERG.3PL -ABS any civilian LK meet.unexpectedly -IMPFT.TH cha. cha ERG.3PL They killed any civilians that they happened to meet. 9. Isonga emiin a sibilyan, iyanpanbakwit isonga emiin na sibilyan iyanpan- bakwit so all LK civilian PFT.AG- PLira. ira

flee.for.safety ABS.3PL

So all the civilians, they fled.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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a Pagit ni Marina, iyanbakwit 10. Et seja sambaliy et seja san-imbaliy na Pagit ni Marina iyanbakwit and D1 married.couple LK Pagit and Marina PFT.AG- flee.for.safety ired Kadasan. ira -cha Kadasan ABS.3PL -OBL Kadasan And this married couple, Pagit and Marina, they fled to Kadasan. 11. Iyan-iya-iyan ired man na tedon bolan. iyanCVCV- iyan ira -cha man na tedo -na bolan PFT.AG- CONT- reside ABS.3PL -OBL D3 TI three -LK month They stayed there three months. 12. Idi idi pinsak a akow a kimowan pinsak na akow na kowan -imLK day cha, a mengenap na meNanap na na

then once kakanen

LK go/come -PFT.TH- LK IMPFT.AG- look.for OBL kiyapchor na solcharo na Hapon.

CV- kan -en cha kapchor -iyna solcharo na Hapon DER- eat -IMPFT.TH ERG.3PL capture -PFT- ERG soldier GEN Japanese Then one day when he had gone to look for something that they would eat, the Japanese soldiers captured him. 13. Ida ra, et inkowan ala -iycha et inkowan get -PFT- ERG.3PL and PFT.TH- take/bring They got him, and they took him to their camp. 14. Binisbistigal cha, tan miyalmaltrit cha tep piyan CVC- bistigal -iycha tan CVC- maltrit -iycha tep piyan CONT- interrogate -PFT- ERG.3PL and CONT- maltreat -PFT- ERG.3PL because want/like chen igwanggwang cha -na igwanggwang ERG.3PL -COMP IMPFT.TH- tell toy kawad-an ira na girilya. to -i kawad-an ira na girilya ERG.3SG -ABS place PL GEN guerrilla ched ma kampo ra. cha -cha ma kampo cha ERG.3PL -OBL D3 camp GEN.3PL

They kept interrogating him and mistreating him because they wanted him to tell where the guerrillas were.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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pika-pikan, et aofa-ofa. 15. Eg cha eg cha CVCV- pahan -iyet eCVCV- ofa not ERG.3PL INS- feed -PFT- and ST.PFT- INShungry They never fed him, and he was very hungry. 16. Idi pinsak a dagwi a kejino-gwek iriy Hapon, biyasbas idi pinsak na dagwi na kajo-kow -in- ira -i Hapon basbas -iythen one LK night LK CONT.PL- sleep -__- PL -ABS Japanese untie -PFTPagit i balod na seki tho, et iyamtik. Pagit i balod na seki to et eNbetik Pagit ABS bond GEN leg/foot GEN.3SG and PFT.AG- run Then one night when the Japanese were sleeping, Pagit untied the bonds on his legs, and he ran away. 17. Iyan-aha-ahad cha chontog tep eg to amtiy kawad-an to. iyanCVCV- ahad cha chontog tep eg to amta -i kawad-an to PFT.AG- CONT- walk OBL mountain because not ERG.3SG know -ABS place GEN.3SG He walked and walked in the mountains because he did not know where he was. 18. Idi maykatdon akow, siya-mekan idi mayka- tedo -na akow samek -iy-an then ORD- three -LK day meet.unexpectedly -PFT.LOC -__ a si Salawad i ngaran to. i-Kadasan iKadasan na si Salawad i ngaran to person.from- Kadasan LK NM Salawad ABS name GEN.3SG On the third day, a person from Kadasan whose name was Salawad happened to come upon him. 19. Bidod to, et inkowan balod -iyto et inkowan bind -PFT- ERG.3SG and PFT.TH- take/bring tod ma bakwitan cha. to -cha ma bakwitan cha ERG.3SG -OBL D3 evacuation.site GEN.3PL na na ERG

He tied him up, and he took him to their evacuation site. 20. Kigwan iren na echom ton i-Kadasan i Ispay kowan -iyira -na na echom to -na iKadasan i ispay say -PFT- PL -ERG ERG companion GEN.3SG -LK person.from- Kadasan COMP spy

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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ithan. na Hapon na Hapon i -tan GEN Japanese ABS -D2 His companions who were from Kadasan said, He is a spy for the Japanese. 21. Mesepol a bonoen tayo. mesafol na bono -en tayo ST.IMPFT- necessary COMP kill -IMPFT.TH ERG.1PL.IN We will have to kill him. 22. Inpangaw inpangaw PFT.TH- tie.against cha wed sengeg na kadasan. cha ma -cha sengeg na kadasan ERG.3PL PERF -OBL trunk GEN tree

Then they tied him tightly against the trunk of a tree. 23. Ekikaasi ekikaasi PFT.AG- pity/compassion wes Pagit.

ma -si Pagit PERF -ABS Pagit

Then Pagit pleaded with them for mercy. 24. Kigwan to i Pangaasi yo!

kowan -iyto i pangaasi jo say -PFT- ERG.3SG COMP please ERG.2PL He said, Please have pity! 25. Enogak i biyono. enog -ak i bono -iydont -ABS.1SG ABS kill -PFTDont kill me. 26. Nat ispayak. nat ispay -ak not spy -ABS.1SG Im not a spy. 27. Kiyapchor toak na Hapon, et dimebsihak ali. kapchor -iyto -ak na Hapon et debsik -im-ak ali capture -PFT- ERG.3SG -ABS.1SG ERG Japanese and escape -PFT.TH- -ABS.1SG DIR The Japanese captured me, and I escaped to here.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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si Beray a i-Karao. 28. Am-amtak CVC- amta -ko si Beray na iKarao INS- know -ERG.1SG ABS Beray LK person.from- Karao I know Beray who is from Karao very well. 29. Am-amta thoak ngo. CVC- amta to -ak ngo INS- know ERG.3SG -ABS.1SG also He knows me very well too. 30. Isonga pangaasi yo. isonga pangaasi jo so please ERG.2PL So please have pity. 31. Enogak i biyono.

enog -ak i bono -iydont -ABS.1SG ABS kill -PFTDont kill me. 32. Idi chedngeden na i-Kadasan iwan a

idi chengel -en when hear/listen -IMPFT.TH

na iKadasan i -man na ERG person.from- Kadasan ABS -D3 LK

kigwan to, kigwan cha i Gwara diy anak Beray a kowan -iyto kowan -iycha i gwara da -i anak Beray na say -PFT- ERG.3SG say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP EXT DIR -ABS offspring Beray LK si John a iyanpasiyal. si John na iyanpasiyal NM John LK PFT.AG- visit When the people from Kadasan heard what he had said, they said, Berays son, John, was here visiting. 33. Mengito-no kiya na menned et say on-oli di. mengito-no kiya na meNtened et say onoli ali IMPFT.AG- send ABS.1PL.IN LK IMPFT.AG- follow so.that __ IMPFT.TH- return DIR We will send someone to follow him so that he will return here.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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no to-to-gwen am-amta re jay a too. 34. Maybekaan maybaga -an no to-to-gwa -na CVC- amta cha jay na too -COMP INS- know ERG.3PL D1 LK person PASS.IMPFT.LOC- ask -__ if true We will ask him if they really know this person. 35. Into-no res into-no cha PFT.TH- send Socti a iyannechak. Socti na iyaNtened -ak

-si

ERG.3PL -ABS Socti LK PFT.AG- follow -ABS.1SG

They sent Socti to follow me. 36. Siya-kop sa-kop toak to cha kawa cha kawa na na chalan. chalan

-iy-

-ak

catch.up.with -PFT- ERG.3SG -ABS.1SG OBL middle GEN path He caught up with me halfway along the way [to where I was going]. 37. Kigwan to i Igwan i toon kiyapchor mi. kowan -iyto i igwan i too -na kapchor -iymi say -PFT- ERG.3SG COMP D3 ABS person -LK capture -PFT- ERG.1PL.EX He said, There is a person that we have captured. 38. Ispay emo na Hapon. ispay emo na Hapon spy maybe GEN Japanese He might be a spy for the Japanese. 39. Et bonoen et bono -en and kill -IMPFT.TH thos Beray. to -si Beray ERG.3SG -ABS Beray And we intend to kill him, but he said that he knows Beray well. 40. Et emoy, pango. mi koma, nem kigwan to i am-amta mi koma nem kowan -iyto i CVC- amta ERG.1PL.EX OPT but say -PFT- ERG.3SG COMP INS- know

et emoy pango and lets.go POL So lets go, please.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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mo no to-to-gwen am-amta yo. 41. Metaen matha -en mo no to-to-gwa -na CVC- amta jo see/look -IMPFT.TH ERG.2SG if true -COMP INS- know ERG.2PL You will see if you really know him. 42. Inpangaw inpangaw PFT.TH- tie.against mid sengeg na kadasan. mi -cha sengeg na kadasan ERG.1PL.EX -OBL trunk GEN tree

We tied him to the trunk of a tree. 43. Imoliak ma. oli -im-ak ma return -PFT.TH- -ABS.1SG PERF Then I returned. 44. Idi onmothok kawi, mitak a si Pagit

idi onmothok kawi matha -iy-ko na si Pagit when IMPFT.TH- arrive ABS.1PL.EX see/look -PFT- -ERG.1SG COMP ABS Pagit a to-to-gwa. na to-to-gwa LK true When we arrived, I saw that it was really Pagit. 45. Kigwan kod Salawad i Si Pagit iyay. kowan -iyko -cha Salawad i si Pagit i -jay say -PFT- ERG.1SG -OBL Salawad COMP NM Pagit ABS -D1 I said to Salawad, This is Pagit. 46. Ekibakbakwit cha si-kawi. ekiCVC- bakwit cha si-kawi PFT.AG- CONT- flee.for.safety OBL 1PL.EX He fled with us. 47. Nat ispay na Hapon. nat ispay na Hapon not spy GEN Japanese He is not a spy for the Japanese.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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ta balod to. 48. Basbas jo basbas jo ta balod to untie ERG.2PL D2 bond GEN.3SG You untie his bonds. 49. Imimdeng men pasiyes Pagit. imdeng -imma -na pasiya -si Pagit happy -PFT.TH- PERF -LK very -ABS Pagit Then Pagit became very happy. 50. Iyaysaya-sayaan na imdeng to. iyayCVCV- saya -an na imdeng to ST.PFT.LOC- CONT- shed.tears -__ OBL happiness GEN.3SG He shed lots of tears because he was so happy. 51. Iyodop ko wa ded bakwitan mi. olop -iyko ma da -cha bakwitan mi take/go.along -PFT- ERG.1SG PERF DIR -OBL evacuation.site GEN.1PL.EX Then I took him with me to our evacuation site. 52. Nem eg onposin man-ekad. nem eg onposi -na manahad but not IMPFT.TH- able -LK IMPFT.AG- walk But he was not able to walk. 53. Pika-pikan ko na sabsabong na kadasan tan CVCV- pahan -iyko na sabsabong na kadasan tan CONT- feed -PFT- ERG.1SG OBL flower GEN tree and eboo-boothan a chaschas na dokton sipol eCVCV- boot -an na chaschas na dokto -na safol -iyPASS.PFT.LOC- INSmoldy -__ LK peeling GEN kamote -LK find -PFTmid mi sohong na sohong na baliy na baliy na i-Kadasan ia Kadasan na

-cha

ERG.1PL.EX -OBL corner GEN house GEN person.from- Kadasan LK

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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bintihan betik -iy-an leave -PFT.LOC- -__

cha. cha ERG.3PL

I kept feeding him flowers of the trees and moldy peelings of a kamote that we had found in the corner of a house of the Kadasan people who had fled from it. 54. Idi mekcheng miy kobat, kimowan ires

idi mekecheng when PASS.IMPFT- finish

ma -i kobat kowan -imira -si PERF -ABS war go/come -PFT.TH- PL -ABS manbediy manbaliy chiwan. cha -man

Pagit cha San Fabian, Nueva Biscayen Pagit cha San Fabian Nueva Biscaya -na

Pagit OBL San Fabian Nueva Vizcaya -LK IMPFT.AG- reside OBL -D3 When the war had finished, Pagit and his companions went to San Fabian, Nueva Vizcaya, to live there. 55. Naimpata-ta-gway toak i na- impaCVC- ta-gway to -ak i HAB- CAUS.PFT.TH- CONT- call ERG.3SG -ABS.1SG COMP onkowanak et i-kanan toak na payow, onkowan -ak et iikan -an to -ak na payow IMPFT.TH- go/come -ABS.1SG and IMPFT.LOC- give -__ ERG.3SG -ABS.1SG OBL rice.field nowan kimowa-kowan. nem ekak nem eg -ak nowan CVCV- kowan -imbut not -ABS.1SG EMPH INS- go/come -PFT.THHe kept having me called to come so that he could give me a rice field, but I never went. 56. Etiy ma les Pagit, pati si imbaliy to. etiy ma da -si Pagit pati si imbaliy to ST.PFT.die PERF DIR -ABS Pagit including NM spouse GEN.3SG Then Pagit died, and his wife too. 57. Ekak dingdingdingen iyay a epasamak cha si-kak na eg -ko CVC- dingding -en i -jay na epasamak cha si-kak na not -ERG.1SG INS- forget -IMPFT.TH ABS -D1 LK ST.PFT- happen OBL 1SG TI

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kaotik keotik NR.IMPFT- little na too. na too GEN person

kon impangisalaknib ko -na impangi- salaknib GEN.1SG -LK NR.PFT- protect

ko na biyag ko na biyag GEN.1SG GEN biyag

I will never forget this that happened to me when I was little when I protected a persons life.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Biyag biyag life

Nontan, nontan before

Nagwariy nagwara -i EXT -ABS

Kalsara kalsara road

Life Before, There was No Road Mrs. Petra Catores 1. Idi nonta kaotikel ko, siya-kofan koy ko -i ERG.1SG -ABS

idi nonta keotikel when TI NR.IMPFT- little

ko sa-kop -iy-an GEN.1SG experience -PFT.TH- -__

panbiyag itsora na itsora na panbiyag way GEN NR.IMPFT- live

a edigat tep nontan nagwariy kalsara, na edigat tep nontan nagwara -i kalsara LK ST.PFT- difficult because before EXT -ABS road ali na ali na DIR TI olay na mesepol na olay na mesafol na always GEN ST.IMPFT- necessary GEN

et say naedafoan et say naedafo -an and NM HAB- NR.PFT- come.from -__

chiwa alid Bagiw. panbiyag, panbiyag cha -ma ali -cha Bagiw NR.IMPFT- live OBL -D3 DIR -OBL Baguio When I was a little girl, I experienced a hard life because before there was no road, and so the place where the necessities for living always came from, it was Baguio. 2. Nem naiyan-aha-ahad ired jay ingkathod Bagiw, et nem na- iyanCVCV- ahad ira -cha jay ingkatho -cha Bagiw et but HAB- PFT.AG- CONT- walk ABS.3PL -OBL D1 until -OBL Baguio and mejo-kow mejo-kow ST.IMPFT- stay.overnight ired kawa na chalan. ira -cha kawa na chalan ABS.3PL -OBL middle GEN path

But they used to walk from here to Baguio, and they would sleep at the halfway point on the trail. 3. No ngoy tongkalen cha did man, otikel a asin ono sema no nengo -i tongkal -en cha ali -cha man otikel na asin ono sema NM what -ABS buy -IMPFT.TH ERG.3PL DIR -OBL D3 little LK salt or D3

71
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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mekomboy ali. mesepol, mesepol mekomboy ali ST.IMPFT- necessary PASS.IMPFT- carry DIR Whatever they would buy there, a little salt or a necessity, it would be carried here [by a person]. 4. Et man-eka-ekad kiya, et mejo-kow et manCVCV- ahad kiya et mejo-kow and IMPFT.AG- CONT- walk ABS.1PL.IN and ST.IMPFT- stay.overnight cha kawa na chalan. cha kawa na chalan OBL middle GEN path And then we would continue walking, and we would sleep again at the halfway point on the trail. 5. No megwa-gwa man-ekad kiya no megwa-gwa manahad kiya TI next.day mowan ali. mowan ali DIR kiya mowan kiya mowan ABS.1PL.IN again

IMPFT.AG- walk ABS.1PL.IN again

The next day we would walk to here. 6. Chegwen akow i chegwa -na akow i two -LK day ahad alid ahad ali -cha Bagiw tan chiyay. Bagiw tan cha -jay

ABS walk DIR -OBL Baguio and OBL -D1

It would take two days to walk from Baguio to here. 7. Et isonga edigat i biyag nontan tep nagwariy et isonga edigat i biyag nontan tep nagwara -i and so ST.PFT- difficult ABS life before because EXT -ABS pandokanan. pandogan -an NR.IMPFT- vehicle -__ And so life was hard before because there was no transportation. 8. Et et say naesikdop say na- engo nontan no ngo nontan no also before when

sikdop

and NM HAB- PASS.PFT- take.a.pack.lunch

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kiyed Bagiw, dokto. onkowan onkowan kiya -cha Bagiw dokto IMPFT.TH- go/come ABS.1PL.IN -OBL Baguio kamote And what was taken as a pack lunch before when we went to Baguio, it was kamote. 9. May-ejan mayngod ejan ngo -cha pasiking. pasiking

PASS.IMPFT.TH- put It was put in a backpack. 10. Et et no no gwariy gwara -i

also -OBL backpack

sebien sagwi -en

mon mo

-na

pa-dok, mengan pa-dok meN-

kan

and when EXT

-ABS reach -IMPFT.LOC

ERG.2SG -LK stream IMPFT.AG- eat ngoy chanom et ngo -i chanom et also -ABS water and

kiya wed man, et mesejang kiya ma -cha man et mesayang ABS.1PL.IN PERF -OBL D3 and PASS.IMPFT- scoop.with.hand mainom. meinom PASS.IMPFT- drink

And when we reached a stream, we would eat there, and we would scoop the water with our hands and drink it. 11. Maysayang maysayang PASS.IMPFT.NTH- scoop.with.hand ngoy diwa et mainom. ngo -i diwa et meinom also -ABS hand/arm and PASS.IMPFT- drink

We would use our hands to scoop the water and drink it. 12. Et no iyan-inana kiya mowan na otikel, man-eka-ekad

et no iyaninana kiya mowan na otikel manCVCV- ahad and when PFT.AG- rest ABS.1PL.IN again TI little IMPFT.AG- CONT- walk kiya kiya mowan ali mowan ali ingkathod ingkatho -cha imothok imid mothok mi jay. jay

-cha

ABS.1PL.IN again

DIR until

-OBL NR.IMPFT- arrive

GEN.1PL.EX -OBL D1

And when we had rested again a little while, we would continue walking until we arrived here.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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iskwidaan chiya Karao. 13. Nontan pay, nagwariy nontan pay nagwara -i iskwidaan cha -ja Karao before too EXT -ABS school OBL -D1 Karao Before too, there was no school here in Karao. 14. Say iskwidaan, Bokot. say iskwidaan Bokot NM school Bokod The school, it was in Bokod. 15. Et say iskwida, eka-ekaren et say iskwida CVCV- ahad -en and NM student CONT- walk -IMPFT.LOC na gwiya-gwa. na gwiya-gwa TI every.day And the students, they would walk from Karao to Bokod every day. 16. Manmanoy manmano -i aanos ea man-odi-odin na manoli-oli man-ekad -na manahad chiy Karao ingkathod Bokot cha -i Karao ingkatho -cha Bokot ERG.3PL -ABS Karao until -OBL Bokod

anos

not.many -ABS ST.PFT- patient LK IMPFT.AG- go.back.and.forth -LK IMPFT.AG- walk cha Bokot. cha Bokot OBL Bokod Only a few had the patience to walk back and forth to Bokod. 17. Isonga manmanoy iyan-achal tep nagwariy iskwidaan nontan. isonga manmano -i iyanachal tep nagwara -i iskwidaan nontan so not.many -ABS PFT.TH- educated because EXT -ABS school before So only a few were educated because there was no school before. 18. Ingkathod Grade 6 bengat. ingkatho -cha grade 6 bengat until -OBL grade 6 only It [Bokod] only went up to Grade 6.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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75

jay i Grade 1 ingkathod Grade 2, nem Grade 3 ingkathod 19. Gwared gwara -cha jay i grade 1 ingkatho -cha grade 2 nem grade 3 ingkatho -cha EXT -OBL D1 ABS grade 1 until -OBL grade 2 but grade 3 until -OBL Grade 6, Bokot da. grade 6 Bokot da grade 6 Bokod DIR Grades 1 and 2 were here, but Grades 3 through 6, they were in Bokod. 20. No high school, nagwared jay. no high school nagwara -cha jay as.for high school EXT -OBL D1 As for high school, there is none here. 21. Bokot. Bokot Bokod It [the high school] is only in Bokod [today]. 22. Bagiw bengat da. Bagiw bengat da Baguio only DIR

Before it was only in Baguio. 23. Si-kawi ngon aanak nontan a nat iskwida, odofen si-kawi ngo -na CV- anak nontan na nat iskwida olop -en 1PL.EX self -LK PL- offspring before LK not student take/go.along -IMPFT.TH cha kawi na ina win mandabdab cha kawi na ina mi -na mandabdab ERG.3PL ABS.1PL.EX ERG mother GEN.1PL.EX -LK IMPFT.AG- make.a.kamote.garden chontog na dokto. chontog na dokto mountain OBL kamote Before we children who were not students, our parents would take us along with them to make kamote gardens in the mountains. 24. Natiyochoan cha kawi na oyon na na- toro -iy-an cha kawi na oyon na HAB- teach -PFT.LOC- -__ ERG.3PL ABS.1PL.EX LK carry.kaybang.basket OBL cha cha OBL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kaybang. kaybang womens.basket They would teach us how to carry a kaybang basket.19 25. Et emiin a kilasi na obda na etaengan a di pamilja, naiyobda na et emiin na kilasi na obda na etaengan na ali pamilja na- obda -iyna and all LK kind GEN work GEN adult LK DIR family HAB- work -PFT- ERG aanak nontan tep nagwariy konan na aanak a iskwidaan CV- anak nontan tep nagwara -i kowan -an na CV- anak na iskwidaan PL- offspring before because EXT -ABS go/come -NR GEN PL- offspring LK school isonga naintoro ched si-kawiy obda. isonga na- intoro cha -cha si-kawi -i obda so HAB- PFT.TH- teach ERG.3PL -OBL 1PL.EX -ABS work And all the kinds of work done by the adults in the family, the children used to do it before because there was no school for the children to go to so they [the parents] taught us the work. 26. Nagwariy nagwara -i EXT dagboan dagbo nontan. nontan

-an

-ABS employment -NR before

There were no jobs before. 27. Nagwiy pandagboan a ibiyag ched nagwara -i pandagbo -an na ibiyag cha -cha EXT -ABS NR.IMPFT- employment -__ LK IMPFT.NTH- live ERG.3PL -OBL cha. anak anak cha offspring GEN.3PL There was no employment to provide for the needs of their children. 28. Say panbiyag bengat nontan, seja payow a otik tan dokto, dabdab. say panbiyag bengat nontan seja payow na otik tan dokto dabdab NM NR.IMPFT- live only before D1 rice.field LK little and kamote kamote.garden The only means of making a living before, it was a little rice field and kamote, the kamote garden.

19

The kaybang basket is the womens carrying basket. It is conical in shape and is carried on the back using a tumpline placed across the forehead.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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mimothok aliy kalsara, edofat 29. Isonga idi isonga idi mothok -imali -i kalsara edofat so when arrive -PFT.TH- DIR -ABS road PASS.PFT- change i itsora na panbiyag. i itsora na panbiyag ABS way GEN NR.IMPFT- live So when the road came, our way of life changed a bit. 30. Singen iyan-inam-ay na otik. singen iyaninam-ay na otik as.if PFT.TH- easy OBL little It is as though it became a little bit easier.20

na otik na otik OBL little

20

The road finally reached Karao in 1977. Today a public jeepney makes a daily round trip from Karao to Baguio.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Pangkep maypangkep about na Ani

na na OBL

Eg eg not

Kaysespa kaysepa NR.IMPFT- set.down

na

Kaybang

na Timpo

na kaybang na timpo GEN womens.basket TI time

na ani GEN harvest.rice About Not Setting Down the Kaybang Basket During Harvest Time Mrs. Virginia Epi 1. Nontan da bayag, no man-ani nontan da bayag no manani TI DIR long.ago when IMPFT.AG- harvest.rice mesepol a mengan kiya kiya, kiya ABS.1PL.IN otikel a kigwan

kono na

mesafol na meNkan kiya kono na otikel na kowan -iyST.IMPFT- necessary COMP IMPFT.AG- eat ABS.1PL.IN RS OBL little LK say -PFTcha cha i i malmal. malmal

ERG.3PL COMP snack Long ago, when we harvested rice, it was necessary that we eat just a little meal which they called malmal.21 22 2. Et no mekcheng i malmal, onkowan i para bedbed

et no mekecheng i malmal onkowan and when PASS.IMPFT- finish ABS snack IMPFT.TH- go/come

i para bedbed ABS one.who bundle

niwa pahiy a aweton kigwan cha. na -ma pahiy na aweto -na kowan -iycha OBL -D3 unhusked.rice LK owners.share.of.rice -LK say -PFT- ERG.3PL And when the little meal was finished, the one who bundles the owners share of the rice which they call aweto would start [to harvest].23
21

The planting and harvesting of rice fields is done only by women. Those who plant a field will also harvest the field. 22 The purpose of eating only a small meal, or malmal, is to leave some food for the spirits to eat, thereby gaining their favor and ensuring a plentiful harvest. 23 The aweto (literally its father), or chikel, are bundles of rice stalks having the largest grains. These bundles belong to the owner of the field. Bundles of rice stalks having smaller grains are called anakto (literally its child), or sool, and belong to those who are harvesting as their payment for both

78
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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3. Et maoyon et meoyon and PASS.IMPFT- carry.kaybang.basket And we would all carry our kaybang baskets.

a emiin i kaybang. na emiin i kaybang LK all ABS womens.basket

4. Et no chanchani mowan a alas dosi, asan mo wa et no chanchani mowan na alas dosi asan mo ma and when nearly again LK oclock twelve.oclock will ERG.2SG PERF isepay kaybang mo no isepa isepa -i kaybang mo no isepa IMPFT.TH- set.down -ABS womens.basket GEN.2SG after IMPFT.TH- set.down nin niwa nin na -ma first ERG -D3

para bedbed na aweto tep say eg kono meksayan para bedbed na aweto tep say eg kono mekesay -an one.who bundle OBL owners.share.of.rice so.that __ not RS PASS.IMPFT.TH- reduce -__ afit. i i afit ABS harvested.produce And when it was almost noon, you would set down your basket only after the one who is bundling the owners share of the rice first set down her basket so that the harvest would not be reduced.24

planting and harvesting the rice. 24 Again the purpose of the custom of carrying the kaybang basket while harvesting is to gain the favor of the spirits so that the harvest will be abundant.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Niyana Eg niyana eg why not Bohi na

Kakanen CV- kan -en DER- eat -IMPFT.TH

na na ERG

I-Karao iKarao person.from- Karao

i i ABS

Bohi bohi meat

na

Aso,

na aso GEN dog

Kabajo, tan Sili

bohi na kabajo tan sili meat GEN horse and hot.peppers Why the Karaos Do Not Eat the Meat of Dogs, the Meat of Horses, and Hot Peppers Mr. John Beray 1. Sejay iriy istoriya na eg so kakanan sejay ira -i istoriya na eg so CV- kan -an D1 PL -ABS story OBL not OBJ DER- eat -NR i-Karao na bohi na aso, bohi na na na GEN

kabajo, tan sili.

iKarao na bohi na aso bohi na kabajo tan sili person.from- Karao OBL meat GEN dog meat GEN horse and hot.peppers These are the stories about the Karaos not eating the meat of dogs, the meat of horses, and hot peppers. 2. Iyan-inafil iyani i istoriya, nem sejay i istoriya nem sejay i but D1 gwagwa-cha. gwagwa-cha

afil

-in-

PFT.AG&TH- differ -__- ABS story

ABS common

The stories differ from each other, but these are the common ones. 3. Say aso, nakiyadkadgwa na too. say aso na- CVC- kadgwa -iyna too NM dog HAB- CONT- make.a.companion -PFT- ERG person The dog, people always keep it as a companion. 4. Naiyanbantay na baliy. na- iyanbantay na baliy HAB- PFT.AG- guard OBL house It guards the house. 5. Naiyay-olo-olop cha afo to angken toy na- iyayCVCV- olop cha afo to angken to -i HAB- PASS.PFT.TH- CONT- take/go.along OBL master GEN.3SG no.matter where -ABS

80
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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to i. kona-konan CVCV- kowan -an to i PLgo/come -NR GEN.3SG LOC It goes with its master wherever he goes. 6. No mejo-gwek no mejo-kow if ST.IMPFT- stay.overnight mekijo-gwek ngo. mekijo-kow ngo IMPFT.AG- sleep also If its master stays overnight somewhere, it will sleep with him. 7. Eg to eg to bebtihan. betik -an i afo tod ma konan to, i afo to -cha ma kowan -an to ABS master GEN.3SG -OBL D3 go/come -NR GEN.3SG

not ERG.3SG leave -IMPFT.LOC It will not leave him. 8. No ma-tan no meif iriy ira -i afo afo to, to ontahi-tahin onCVCV- tahin

etan

ST.IMPFT- go.to.work.outside

PL -ABS master GEN.3SG IMPFT.TH- CONT- go.along

cha si-kara. cha si-kara OBL 3PL If its masters go to work in the fields, it will always go along with them. 9. Banbantayan tocha. CVC- bantay -an to -ira INS- guard -IMPFT.TH ERG.3SG -ABS.3PL It will always guard them. 10. Naiyodop na ma-nop nem onkowan a mengenop. na- olop -iyna ma-nop nem onkowan na meNanop HAB- take/go.along -PFT- ERG hunter when IMPFT.TH- go/come LK IMPFT.AG- hunt A hunter takes it along when he goes hunting.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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11. Nat malingding nat ma- dingding not AJR- forget

i aso na afo to. i aso na afo to ABS dog OBL master GEN.3SG

The dog never forgets its master. 12. Angken mebejag angken mebayag even.if ST.IMPFT- a.long.time ken ka -na ABS.2SG -LK pasiyed pasiya -cha very -OBL ma ma D3 konan mo, kowan -an mo go/come -NR GEN.2SG

eg toka dingdingdingen. eg to -ka CVC- dingding -en not ERG.3SG -ABS.2SG INS- forget -IMPFT.TH Even if you are away somewhere a long, long time, it will never forget you. 13. Naiyaytoroan na- iyayi -an i aso, tan naiyay-i-kanan aso tan na- iyayna ikan -an na OBL

toro

HAB- PASS.PFT.LOC- teach -__ ngaran a singen too. ngaran na singen too name LK as.if person

ABS dog and HAB- PASS.PFT.LOC- give -__

A dog is trained, and it is given a name like a person. 14. Banchaanan toka nem gwariy kathaktahot a banchaan -an to -ka nem gwara -i ka- CVC- tahot na warn -IMPFT.TH ERG.3SG -ABS.2SG when EXT -ABS NR- INS- afraid LK mepesamak. mepasamak ST.IMPFT- happen It will warn you when something really frightening is going to happen. 15. Isonga say too, nainpohok chiy asod baliy, agdalo isonga say too na- inpohok cha -i aso -cha baliy agdalo thats.why NM person HAB- PFT.TH- shut.up ERG.3PL -ABS dog -OBL house especially nem nem timpo na timpo na mahedsang a powek. ma- kedsang na powek LK storm

when time

GEN AJR- strong

Thats why people, they shut the dog up in the house, especially when it is the time of a strong storm.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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83

i aso na ngepos iy piyan ton 16. No mengitengal no mengitangal i aso na ngepos iy piyan to -na if IMPFT.AG- put.in.mouth ABS dog OBL burnt.firewood SIMUL want/like ERG.3SG-COMP on-awas, onawas IMPFT.TH- go.outside igwa igwan D3 mesepol a on-awas mesafol na onawas ST.IMPFT- necessary COMP IMPFT.TH- go.outside kiya tep kiya tep ABS.1PL.IN because

aliy danas ono kechay a mena-po na baliy. ali -i danas ono kechay na meNta-po na baliy DIR -ABS flood or landslide LK IMPFT.AG- cover OBL house

If the dog takes a piece of partially burnt firewood in its mouth and wants to go out, we have to go outside because a flood is coming or a landslide that will cover the house. 17. No gwariy no gwara -i if nain-olofan na- inHAB- CAUS.PFT.THEXT metiy metiy a aama na aama ono eba-kol, ono eba-kol old.woman tep say

-ABS ST.IMPFT.die LK old.man or cha na

aso tho

olop -an cha na aso to tep say take/go.along -__ ERG.3PL OBL dog GEN.3SG so.that __

to kono ngod ma konan to. odo-odofen CVCV- olop -en to kono ngo -cha ma kowan -an to INS- take/go.along -IMPFT.TH ERG.3SG RS also -OBL D3 go/come -NR GEN.3SG If an old man or an old woman dies, they have him accompanied by his dog so that he [the person] will always take it along where he is going.25 18. Nem nat kiyakan nem nat CV- kan -iybut na na mahabaliy maha- baliy iwa aso, pati i -ma aso pati iyangka-tengan. iyangka- etengan

not DER- eat -PFT- ERG owner- house ABS -D3

dog including AJR.PL- adult

But the owner of the house will not eat the dog, even the old people.

25

The traditional belief of the Karaos is that when a person dies his spirit continues to exist in a supernatural world. In order to provide for the persons spirit, a dog might be killed so that the spirit would have the dogs spirit for a companion, or a horse might be killed so that it would have the horses spirit to ride.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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bedoleki, nem manmano pay. 19. Seman bengat iren seman bengat ira -na bedoleki nem manmano pay D3 only PL -LK young.men but not.many still It is only the young men, but just a few still do it. 20. Say kabajo, sa-ki mowan a kajem na say kabajo sa-ki mowan na kajem na NM horse one again too. too

LK friend GEN person

The horse, it is another friend of people. 21. Naiyansahayan na- iyansahay cha. -an cha ERG.3PL

HAB- PFT.TH- ride.astride -__ They ride it.

22. No manbiyahi ched ma aragwi, naiyansahay no manbiyahi ira -cha ma aragwi na- iyansahay when IMPFT.AG- travel ABS.3PL -OBL D3 far HAB- PFT.AG- ride.astride ired kabajo. ira -cha kabajo ABS.3PL -OBL horse When they travel to a far place, they ride on a horse. 23. Angken meboteng angken mebotheng even.if PASS.IMPFT- drunk ira, angken onbolinget a pasiya, ira angken en- bolinget na pasiya ABS.3PL even.if AJR- dark LK very

itolod ira na kabajod baliy cha. itolod ira na kabajo -cha baliy cha IMPFT.TH- take ABS.3PL ERG horse -OBL house GEN.3PL Even if they are drunk, even if it is very dark, the horse will take them to their house. 24. Naimpangalka na- impaNHAB- CAUS.PFT.THriy kabajo na onbel-at a kalka. kalka cha -i kabajo na en- bel-at na kalka carry.cargo ERG.3PL -ABS horse OBL AJR- heavy LK cargo

They have the horse carry heavy cargo.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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a inges toy aso. 25. Say kabajo, naiyaytoroan say kabajo na- iyaytoro -an na inges to -i aso NM horse HAB- PASS.PFT.LOC- teach -__ LK same/like ERG.3SG -ABS dog The horse, it is trained like a dog. 26. No konen no kowan -en if say -IMPFT.TH mo mo i i bebtihen betik -en to, to bebtihen betik -en to. to

ERG.2SG COMP run

-ACT ERG.3SG run

-ACT ERG.3SG

If you tell it to run, it will run.26 27. No konen no kowan -en if say -IMPFT.TH mo mo i i onsalcheng, onsalcheng. onsalcheng onsalcheng IMPFT.TH- stop

ERG.2SG COMP IMPFT.TH- stop

If you tell it to stop, it will stop. 28. Kajem na tooy kabajo. kajem na too -i kabajo friend GEN person -ABS horse The horse is the friend of people. 29. Inges toy aso. inges to -i aso same/like ERG.3SG -ABS dog It is like a dog. 30. Chakel i osal na kabajo: para sakayan, para koyod na kariton, chakel i osal na kabajo para sahay -an para koyod na kariton many ABS use GEN horse for ride.astride -NR for pull GEN cart para domba, tan para sakbat na onbel-at a kalka. para domba tan para sakbat na en- bel-at na kalka for race and for carry GEN AJR- heavy LK cargo The horse has many uses: for riding, for pulling a cart, for racing, and for carrying heavy cargo.

26

Regarding the verb bebtihen, the transitive suffix -en has been added to the root betik to run in order to focus attention on the action. When -en has this function, an overt object cannot be added to the sentence. (Also see sentence 7 in the text Why Snakes Do Not Bite the Karao People.)

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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say tood Karao, nat nakiyakan chiy bohi na 31. Isonga isonga say too -cha Karao nat na- CV- kan -iycha -i bohi na thats.why NM person -OBL Karao not HAB- DER- eat -PFT- ERG.3PL -ABS meat GEN kabajo. kabajo horse Thats why the people in Karao, they do not eat the meat of horses. 32. Inges toy aso. inges to -i aso same/like ERG.3SG -ABS dog It is like the dog. 33. No gwariy no gwara -i if nain-olofan na- inHAB- CAUS.PFT.THEXT metiy metiy a aama, na aama

-ABS ST.IMPFT.die LK old.man cha na kabajon

olop -an cha na kabajo -na take/go.along -__ ERG.3PL OBL horse -OBL

to led ma kona-konan to. pansekayan pansahay -an to da -cha ma CVCV- kowan -an to NR.IMPFT- ride.astride -__ GEN.3SG DIR -OBL D3 PLgo/come -NR GEN.3SG If an old man dies, they have him accompanied by a horse as something for him to ride wherever he goes. 34. Maypangkep niyay a dason, chakel i i-Karao a nat maypangkep na -jay na dason chakel i iKarao na nat about OBL -D1 LK reason many ABS person.from- Karao LK not naengan na bohi na kabajo, agdaloy iyangkaama tan na- eNkan na bohi na kabajo agdalo -i iyangka- awa tan HAB- PFT.AG- eat OBL meat GEN horse especially -ABS AJR.PL- old.man and iyangkeba-kol. iyangka- ba-kol AJR.PL- old.woman For this reason, there are many Karaos who do not eat the meat of horses, especially the old men and women.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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iyaypagel 35. Say sili, say sili iyaypagel NM hot.peppers PASS.PFT.TH- forbidden

a maosal cha chilos na meosal cha chilos LK PASS.IMPFT- use OBL ritual.type

a indothoan, sindad, tan echom pay a chilos a kechel i maosal. na indothoan sindad tan echom pay na chilos na kechel i meosal LK ritual.type ritual.type and other also LK ritual.type LK pig ABS PASS.IMPFT- use Hot peppers, it is forbidden to use them in the indothoan ritual, the sindad ritual, and other chilos rituals in which a pig is used.27 36. Onbonget konoy aninit nem mesidian ono onbonget kono -i aninit nem mesili -an ono IMPFT.TH- get.angry RS -ABS spirit if PASS.IMPFT.LOC- add.hot.peppers -__ or maysiwsiw maysiwsiw PASS.IMPFT.TH- dip.in.sauce cha siliy bohi na kechel ono manok. cha sili -i bohi na kechel ono manok OBL hot.peppers -ABS meat GEN pig or chicken

They say that the spirits will get angry if the meat of the pig or the chicken has hot peppers added to it or it is dipped in a sauce made of hot peppers. 37. No bohi na nowang, mebedin a maysidi, no bohi na nowang mebalin na maysili if meat GEN water.buffalo ST.IMPFT- possible COMP PASS.IMPFT.TH- add.hot.peppers nem ampet nem ampet but necessary chiwa awas na baliy, nat cha sekep. cha -ma awas na baliy nat cha sekep OBL -D3 outside GEN house not OBL inside

If it is the meat of a water buffalo, we can add hot peppers to it, but it must be outside the house, not inside. 38. Nem niman ma la, emangkesa-dathiy ogadi. nem niman ma da emangkasa-dat -i -i ogadi but now PERF DIR PASS.CONT.TH- change -__ -ABS custom But now, the custom is changing.

Chilos rituals are a general category of rituals all of which require the butchering of a pig or a water buffalo for a feast. The indothoan ritual and the sindad ritual are specific types of chilos rituals. The indothoan ritual is usually performed on the eighth day following the burial of a person who has died. It lasts two days; one pig is butchered. It is usually attended just by the family of the deceased, not the whole village. The sindad ritual may be performed for a variety of reasons, e.g. to celebrate ones wealth or to appeal to the spirits to heal a sick person or to remove misfortune of some type. The ritual lasts one day; one pig is butchered.

27

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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ma len maysidiy bohid 39. Mebedin mebalin ma da -na maysili -i bohi -cha ST.IMPFT- possible PERF DIR -COMP PASS.IMPFT.TH- add.hot.peppers -ABS meat -OBL sekep na baliy, basta eg mayngechan i sili. sekep na baliy basta eg mayngaran i sili inside GEN house as.long.as not PASS.IMPFT.TH- name ABS hot.peppers Now we can add hot peppers to the meat inside the house, as long as we do not call it sili. 40. Mayngechan i bithoka say eg kono amtaen mayngaran i bithoka say eg kono amta -en PASS.IMPFT.TH- name ABS bithoka so.that not RS know -IMPFT.TH We call it bithoka so that the spirits will not know. 41. Mebedin mea na maolbod megayam olbod gayam iriy ira -i aninit. aninit na aninit. na aninit ERG spirit

balin

ST.IMPFT- possible COMP PASS.IMPFT- trick The spirits can be tricked. 42. Isonga isonga naengan na- eNmiy kan ma -i

COUNTER PL -ABS spirit

i-Karao i-

niman na Karao niman na

sili. sili

thats.why HAB- PFT.AG- eat

PERF -ABS person.from- Karao now

OBL hot.peppers

Thats why now the Karaos eat hot peppers.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Sengeg sengeg foundation

na

Baliy

na baliy GEN house

The Foundation House Mr. John Beray 1. Hejay a sodsod, maypangkep na sengeg na baliy.

sejay na sodsod maypangkep na sengeg na baliy D1 LK explanation about OBL foundation GEN house This explanation, it is about the foundation house. 2. Chiya Karao bengat i kigwan cha i gwariy sengeg na

cha -ja Karao bengat i kowan -iycha i gwara -i sengeg na OBL -D1 Karao only ABS say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP EXT -ABS foundation GEN baliy. baliy house They say that it is only here in Karao that the foundation house exists. 3. Chiwa echom a tribo, nagwara emo. cha -ma echom na tribo nagwara emo OBL -D3 other LK cultural.group EXT maybe There in other cultural groups, maybe it [the foundation house] does not exist. 4. Chiya cha -ja Karao, gwara. Karao gwara

OBL -D1 Karao EXT Here in Karao, it exists. 5. Sema sengeg sema sengeg D3 na na baliy a nekigwan baliy na na- kowan -iycha, cha si-katho ma baliy si-katho ma baliy D3 house

foundation GEN house LK HAB- say

-PFT- ERG.3PL 3SG

89
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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a kawad-an na emiin a bonong. na kawad-an na emiin na bonong LK place GEN all LK prayer.type What they call the foundation house, it is the house where all the bonong prayers are said.28 6. Chiwan a baliy i cha -man na baliy i OBL -D3 chilos. chilos ritual.type That house is where the daga rituals and the chilos rituals are performed.29 30 7. Sema poon na baliy, chiwan i naesa-nofan na sema poon na baliy cha -man i na- esa-nop -an na D3 foundation GEN house OBL -D3 ABS HAB- NR.PFT- gather.together -__ GEN no gwariy chilos cha. emiin a sanbobonat emiin na sanCV- bonat no gwara -i chilos cha all LK related- PL- relative when EXT -ABS ritual.type GEN.3PL The foundation house, that is where all the relatives gather together when they have a chilos ritual. 8. Sema iren anak na iyan-iyan cha baliy, angken sema ira -na anak na iyaniyan cha baliy angken D3 PL -LK offspring GEN PFT.AG- reside OBL house even.if iyansigib iyansigib PFT.AG- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house bale-baliy CVCV- baliy PLcha, cha nem no gwariy nem no gwara -i if EXT da ira, angken afil diy naaamagan na- eiren -an ira -na na na daga daga ono ono

amag

LK house ABS HAB- NR.PFT- do/make -__

PL -GEN GEN ritual.type or

da ira angken afil da -i DIR ABS.3PL even.if different DIR -ABS cha, cha nat nat

onmothok a chilos onmothok na chilos

house GEN.3PL TI

-ABS IMPFT.TH- arrive

LK ritual.type GEN.3PL not

28

Bonong prayers are a general category of prayers addressed to the spirits. The daga ritual is performed to seek the help of the spirits for the healing of a sick person. 30 Chilos rituals are a general category of rituals in which a pig or a water buffalo is butchered.
29

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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nainchilos na- inchilos HAB- PFT.TH- perform.a.chilos.ritual

ched ma baliy a cha -cha ma baliy na ERG.3PL -OBL D3 house LK

sigib cha. sigib cha house.other.than.foundation.house GEN.3PL The children of those who live in the foundation house, even if they [the children] live in another house, even if they have different houses, if they have a chilos ritual, they do not perform it at the house where they are staying. 9. Nainkowan cha led ma poonan, ono sema sengeg, na- inkowan cha da -cha ma poon -an ono sema sengeg HAB- PFT.TH- take/bring ERG.3PL DIR -OBL D3 foundation -NR or D3 foundation na baliy.

na baliy GEN house They take it to that foundation house. 10. Seman i nakigwanan cha so i poonan, ono sengeg,

seman i na- kowan -iy-an cha so i poon -an ono sengeg D3 ABS HAB- say -PFT- -NR ERG.3PL OBJ COMP foundation -NR or foundation na baliy. na baliy GEN house That is why they say it is the foundation house. 11. No kaspangarigan i gwariy metiy no kaspangarigan i gwara -i metiy if example COMP EXT -ABS ST.IMPFT.die pamiljen ma iyansigib pamilja -na ma iyansigib family -GEN D3 PFT.AG- reside.in.house.other.than.source.house chiwa cha -ma OBL -D3 kompormin kompormi -na any -LK

a pamilja, nat chiwa na pamilja nat cha -ma LK family not OBL -D3

baliy ton kad-an na sigib toy baliy to -na kawad-an na sigib to -i house GEN.3SG -LK place GEN house.other.than.foundation.house GEN.3SG -ABS

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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iaremagan iaremag -an NR.IMPFT- ritual.type -__

to to ERG.3SG

so. so OBJ

If for example someone dies in any family that is not living in the foundation house, the house where he was staying is not where they will perform the aremag ritual for him.31 12. Ikowan ikowan IMPFT.TH- take/bring tod ma sengeg na baliy cha.

to -cha ma sengeg na baliy cha ERG.3SG -OBL D3 foundation GEN house GEN.3PL

They will take him to their foundation house. 13. Sema baliy a edafoan cha, chiwan i

sema baliy na edafo -an cha cha -man i D3 house LK NR.PFT- come.from -__ GEN.3PL OBL -D3 ABS to. kaaremagan kearemag -an to NR.IMPFT- ritual.type -__ GEN.3SG The house where they came from [the foundation house], that is the place where the aremag ritual will be held. 14. Chiwan i kaybekaan niwa toon etiy. cha -man i kaybeka -an na -ma too -na etiy OBL -D3 ABS NR.IMPFT- bury -__ GEN -D3 person -LK ST.PFT.die That is the place where that dead person will be buried. 15. Seja sengeg na baliy, si-kathoy naengipakedsang na timpoyog seja sengeg na baliy si-katho -i na- engipakedsang na timpoyog D1 foundation GEN house 3SG -ABS HAB- CAUS.PFT.AG- strong OBL relations iren na emiin a sanbobonat a edafod man a baliy. ira -na na emiin na sanCV- bonat na edafo -cha man na baliy PL -GEN GEN all LK related- PL- relative LK ST.PFT- come.from -OBL D3 LK house This foundation house, it is what strengthens the relationships between all the relatives who have come from that house. 16. Nem na sejay a timpo, singen emangka-kal da iwan a nem na sejay na timpo singen emangkaekal da i -man na but TI today LK time as.if PASS.CONT- remove DIR ABS -D3 LK
31

The aremag ritual is a vigil held for someone who has died.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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cha i sengeg na baliy. kigwan kowan -iycha i sengeg na baliy say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP foundation GEN house But today, they say that it is as though the foundation house is being removed. 17. Niyandomana niya badon mangkaachal. niyan- doman -a na -ja bado -na emangkaachal CONT- change -TH ERG -D1 new -LK PASS.CONT- learn The new things that are being learned are changing it. 18. Niyandomana na sejay ira na religion a kigwan cha. niyan- doman -a na sejay ira na religion na kowan -iycha CONT- change -TH TI now PL ERG religious.group LK say -PFT- ERG.3PL What they call religious groups are changing it now. 19. Isonga chakel diy emangkaomas a sengeg na baliy.

isonga chakel da -i emangka- omas na sengeg na baliy thats.why many DIR -ABS ST.CONT- disappear LK foundation GEN house Thats why many of the foundation houses are disappearing. 20. Sema iren anak chen iyanpamiljen aohat

sema ira -na anak cha -na iyanpamilja -na eohat D3 PL -LK offspring GEN.3PL -LK PFT.AG- have.a.family -LK PASS.PFT- bring.out chiwan a baliy, nain-amag cha ngoy chilos cha -man na baliy na- inamag cha ngo -i chilos OBL -D3 LK house HAB- PFT.TH- do/make ERG.3PL CNTR -ABS ritual.type ched ma baliy cha. cha -cha ma baliy cha GEN.3PL -OBL D3 house GEN.3PL Their children who have a family who came from that house [the foundation house], they perform their chilos rituals at their own houses.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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21. Nat nainkowan nat na- inkowan not HAB- PFT.TH- take/bring

cha led ma sengeg na baliy. cha da -cha ma sengeg na baliy ERG.3PL DIR -OBL D3 foundation GEN house

They do not take it [the chilos ritual] to the foundation house. 22. Igwan igwan D3 i i echom a pamiljen echom na pamilja -na naengipasing na- enginithan, nem chakel pay pesing na -tan nem chakel pay OBL -D2 but many still

ABS some

LK family -LK HAB- PFT.AG- do

naengonod niya sengeg na baliy. laeng iya laeng i -ja na- eNonod na -ja sengeg na baliy __ ABS -D1 HAB- PFT.AG- follow OBL -D1 foundation GEN house There are some families that do that, but many still follow this [custom of the] foundation house. 23. Say sa-ki nowan a kamaptengan niya sengeg na baliy, nat say sa-ki nowan na ka- mapteng -an na -ja sengeg na baliy nat NM one EMPH LK NR- good -__ OBL -D1 foundation GEN house not kiyen pasiya nem gwariy chilos a mekastosan mekastos -an kiya -na pasiya nem gwara -i chilos na PASS.IMPFT.LOC- cost -__ ABS.1PL.IN -LK very when EXT -ABS ritual.type LK tep cha-chaan cha kiya chen man a mepesamak mepasamak tep cha-cha -an cha kiya ira -na man na ST.IMPFT- happen because help -IMPFT.TH ERG.3PL ABS.1PL.IN PL -ERG D3 LK bonat a gwared man a sengeg na baliy, ono sema iren bonat mo bonat na gwara -cha man na sengeg na baliy ono sema ira -na bonat mo relative LK EXT -OBL D3 LK foundation GEN house or D3 PL -LK relative GEN.2SG a angken iyanpansigib da ira.

na angken iyanpan- sigib LK even PFT.AG- PL- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house

da ira DIR ABS.3PL

The one really good thing about the foundation house is, it will not cost us much when a chilos ritual takes place because the relatives who live at the foundation house will help us, or even your relatives who live in other houses.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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di cha na kastos mo. 24. Oncha-cha oncha-cha ali ira na kastos mo IMPFT.AG- help DIR ABS.3PL OBL expenses GEN.2SG They will help with your expenses. 25. Isonga isonga nat naebel-athan nat na- eiwa pamiljen -an i -ma pamilja -na ABS -D3 family -LK

bel-at

thats.why not HAB- PASS.PFT.LOC- burdened -__

na pangkep na chilos. naiyankastos na- iyankastos na maypangkep na chilos HAB- PFT.AG- pay.expenses OBL purpose OBL ritual.type Thats why that family will not be burdened with paying expenses for chilos rituals. 26. Seman ngoy sa-kin kamaptengan niya sengeg na baliy, seman ngo -i sa-ki -na ka- mapteng -an na -ja sengeg na baliy D3 also -ABS one -LK NR- good -__ OBL -D1 foundation GEN house tan sa-ki pay, igwan tan sa-ki pay igwan and one more D3 iwa naengikeneg i -ma naengikeneg ABS -D3 HAB- PFT.AG- firm na na OBL pandekna pandekna NR.IMPFT- feeling na na GEN

kinasan-aaki na sanbobonat. kinasan-aaki na sanCV- bonat kinship GEN related- PL- relative That too is one good thing about the foundation house, and another thing is, it strengthens the feelings of kinship between those who are related to each other. 27. Eg ira eg ira mandiningding mandingding -insay say no gwariy no gwara -i EXT digat digat na na sa-ki sa-ki

not ABS.3PL IMPFT.AG&TH- forget

-__- so.that if

-ABS difficult GEN one

si-kara, naiyanchina-cha cha. tan sa-kid tan sa-ki -cha si-kara na- iyancha-cha -in- ira and one -OBL 3PL HAB- PFT.AG&TH- help -__- ABS.3PL They do not forget each other so that if any one of them has difficulties, they help each other. 28. Chiyay Karao a kawad-an na sengeg na baliy, chakel pay laeng cha -jay Karao na kawad-an na sengeg na baliy chakel pay laeng OBL -D1 Karao LK place GEN foundation GEN house many still __

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kaonong. iya i -ja kaonong ABS -D1 CONT- remain Here in Karao which is the place of the foundation house, there are still many here. 29. Sansa-ki ja, nat menintil a pasiya na itsora na sengeg na sansa-ki ja nat meNsintil na pasiya na itsora na sengeg na a.few D1 not IMPFT.AG- do.carefully LK very OBL custom GEN foundation GEN baliy. baliy house A few here, they do not observe this custom [of the foundation house] faithfully. 30. Nem angken setan, ija nem angken setan ijay but even.if D2 D1 pay laeng iriy pay laeng ira -i still __ echom a naenintil echom na na- eN-

sintil

PL -ABS other

LK HAB- PFT.AG- do.carefully

a ogadi na sengeg na baliy. nithan na -tan na ogadi na sengeg na baliy OBL -D2 LK custom GEN foundation GEN house But even if that is the case, there are still others who faithfully observe that custom of the foundation house. 31. Chiya Karao i naaamagan nithan a itsora na cha -ja Karao i na- eamag -an na -tan na itsora na OBL -D1 Karao ABS HAB- NR.PFT- do/make -__ GEN -D2 LK custom GEN na baliy tep chakel i toha panmaptengi, nem sengeg sengeg na baliy tep chakel i to -ka panmapteng -i nem foundation GEN house because many ABS GEN.3SG -CONT NR.CONT- good -__ but igwa igwan D3 ngoy echom a kangaawan to, agdalo niman tin ngo -i echom a ka- ngaaw -an to agdalo niman ti -na also -ABS some LK NR- bad -__ GEN.3SG especially now indeed -LK

i ogadi na too. mangkedoman emangkadoman i ogadi na too PASS.CONT- change ABS custom GEN person Here in Karao is where the custom of the foundation house is observed because it does many good things, but there are also some bad things, especially now that peoples customs are changing.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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maypangkep ti na achal, tan mangkesamdok 32. Mangkebadoi emangkabado -i maypangkep ti na achal tan emangka- samdok PASS.CONT.TH- replace -__ on.account.of indeed OBL education and ST.CONT- mix miy too na pangkep ira na pan-im-imbaliy.

ma -i too na maypangkep ira na panCVC- imbaliy PERF -ABS person OBL on.account.of PL OBL NR.IMPFT- PL- marriage They are being replaced because of education, and people now are becoming mixed because of marriages [with non-Karaos]. 33. Mangkesamdok ma emangka- samdok ma ST.CONT- mix kinakristiyano. kinakristiyano Christianity The customs are becoming mixed, and this is because of Christianity. 34. Chakel i towan baliwi. chakel i to -an baliw -i many ABS ERG.3SG -CONT change -TH They [all of these causes] are changing many things. 35. Chakel i mangkedoman, chakel i emangkadoman many ABS PASS.CONT- change et namnamak i et namnama -ko i and expectation -GEN.1SG ABS no no when aliy ali -i ogadi, ogadi tan sejay i tan sejay i maypangkep maypangkep na na

PERF DIR -ABS custom and D1

ABS on.account.of OBL

maysa-dat alin piyen tawen a mepedabas, nagwara maysa-dat ali -na piya -na tawen na mepalabas nagwara PASS.IMPFT.TH- change DIR -TI how.many -LK year LK ST.IMPFT- past EXT emo wa. emo ma maybe PERF Many things are being changed, and my expectation is that when it [the custom of the foundation house] changes after a number of years have passed, it might not exist any more. 36. Mepokaw emo wiy nekigwan cha i sengeg mepokaw emo ma -i na- kowan -iycha i sengeg ST.IMPFT- disappear maybe PERF -ABS HAB- say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP foundation

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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na baliy. na baliy GEN house What they call the foundation house might disappear. 37. Singen sema wen kigwan cha i baliy to ngo, i singen sema ma -na kowan -iycha i baliy to ngo i as.if D3 PERF -LK say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP house GEN.3SG own COMP si-katho ngoy mahaamta na maypangkep na panchidos si-katho ngo -i mahaamta na maypangkep na panchilos 3SG self -ABS responsible.for- know OBL concerning OBL NR.IMPFT- ritual.type to. to GEN.3SG They say that now it will be his own house, that he will be the one who is responsible for these chilos rituals. 38. Tep tep koy koy seja chilos seja chilos i i kagol kagol na na heja nekigwan seja nakowan -iyHAB- say cha cha

because EMPH D1 i i COMP ampet

ritual.type ABS reason COMP D1 sengeg na baliy.

-PFT- ERG.3PL

gwariy

ampet gwara -i necessary EXT -ABS

sengeg na baliy foundation GEN house

For they say that the chilos rituals are the reason for the existence of the foundation house. 39. Nem no sin isi-isik ti wiy too i nem no singen isi-isik ti ma -i too i but if as.if do.without.regard indeed PERF -ABS person ABS pan-ichilos pan- ichilos PL- IMPFT.TH- perform.a.chilos.ritual to ngod ma baliy to, to ngo -cha ma baliy to ERG.3SG self -OBL D3 house GEN.3SG

mepokaw miy kigwan cha i sengeg na baliy. mepokaw ma -i kowan -iycha i sengeg na baliy ST.IMPFT- disappear PERF -ABS say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP foundation GEN house But if people perform the chilos rituals at their own houses without regard for the custom of the foundation house, they say that the foundation house will disappear.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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nontan da say sa-kin itsora na sengeg na baliy ket 40. Tep tep nontan da say sa-ki -na itsora na sengeg na baliy ket because before DIR NM one -LK custom GEN foundation GEN house PAUS emiin a payow, emiin a tawid, egchian emiin na payow emiin na tawid egchi -an all LK rice.field all LK inheritance hold -IMPFT.TH sengeg na baliy. sengeg na baliy foundation GEN house Because before one of the customs of the foundation house, all the rice fields, all the inheritance, the person living in the foundation house held them.32 41. Seman ma seman ma D3 iyansigib iyansigib PFT.AG- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house ira, ira nem niman mangkesa-dathi. nem niman emangkasa-dat iren ira -na ahi ahi ren cha iyanpamiljen iyanpamilja niwa man-iyan cha na -ma maniyan cha ERG -D3 IMPFT.AG- reside OBL

-na

-na

PERF PL -LK relative GEN.3PL -LK PFT.AG- have.a.family -LK da ket nat naekitawid

da ket nat na- ekitawid DIR PAUS not HAB- PFT.AG- inherit

-i

ABS.3PL but

today PASS.CONT.TH- change -__

The relatives who had families, who lived in other houses, they did not share in the inheritance, but now it is changing. 42. Nontan da eg cha igwatgwat i tawid. nontan da eg cha igwatgwat i tawid before DIR not ERG.3PL IMPFT.TH- distribute ABS inheritance Before they did not distribute the inheritance. 43. Egchian egchi -an niwa man-iyan na -ma mancha sengeg cha sengeg na na baliy. baliy

iyan

hold -IMPFT.TH ERG -D3

IMPFT.AG- reside OBL foundation GEN house

The person living in the foundation house held it.

32

Traditionally it was the oldest child who inherited the familys wealth.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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ton emiin i tawid. 44. Egchian egchi -an to -na emiin i tawid hold -IMPFT.TH ERG.3SG -LK all ABS inheritance He [or she] held all the inheritance. 45. Nagwiy naiden ma nagwara -i na- ala -iy-na ma EXT -ABS HAB- get -PFT- -ERG D3 naiyansigib. na- iyansigib HAB- PFT.AG- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house The ones who lived in another house did not get anything. 46. Isonga isonga chiwan ngon cha -man ngo -na emiin i emiin i kawad-an na kawad-an na chilos, chilos chilos chilos na na

thats.why OBL -D3 angken siyen ahi

also -LK all ra a

ABS place iyansigib.

GEN ritual.type ritual.type GEN

angken siya -na ahi cha na iyansigib no.matter who -LK relative GEN.3PL LK PFT.AG- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house That too is why that is the place of all the chilos rituals, the chilos ritual of any relative who lives in another house. 47. Nem niman ma emangka-kali da iwan. nem niman ma emangkaekal -i da i -man but now PERF PASS.CONT.TH- remove -__ DIR ABS -D3 But now that custom is being removed a bit. 48. Sin emiin men too na seman ket nainbaga riy singen emiin ma -na too na seman ket na- inbaga cha -i as.if all PERF -LK person TI now PAUS HAB- PFT.TH- ask ERG.3PL -ABS tawid cha, et naida ra ngoy tawid cha. tawid cha et na- ala -iycha ngo -i tawid cha inheritance GEN.3PL and HAB- get -PFT- ERG.3PL own -ABS inheritance GEN.3PL It seems that all the people now, they ask for their inheritance, and they get their own inheritance. 49. Isonga no seman men itsora ket onbaing ngo iriy isonga no seman ma -na itsora ket onbaing ngo ira -i thats.why if D3 PERF -LK custom PAUS IMPFT.TH- ashamed self PL -ABS

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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101

mengikowan mengikowan IMPFT.AG- take/bring

na chilos ched ma sengeg na baliy. na chilos cha -cha ma sengeg na baliy OBL ritual.type GEN.3PL -OBL D3 foundation GEN house

Thats why if that is the custom, they will become ashamed to take their chilos rituals to the foundation house. 50. Pan-ichilos pan- ichilos PL- IMPFT.TH- perform.a.chilos.ritual cha ngod ma baliy cha tep cha ngo -cha ma baliy cha tep ERG.3PL self -OBL D3 house GEN.3PL because

iyakcheng a bininga-bingay chiy tawid. ekecheng na CVCV- bingay -iycha -i tawid PASS.PFT- finish LK CONT- divide -PFT- ERG.3PL -ABS inheritance They will perform the chilos rituals at their own house because they have already divided up the inheritance. 51. Say kaonong say kaonong pay laeng a naimag pay laeng na na- amag cha, cha no gwariy no gwara -i EXT -ABS

-iy-

NM CONT- remain still __

LK HAB- do/make -PFT- ERG.3PL if

angkena impanbibingay cha wa diy tawid, no metiy metiy angkena impan- CV- bingay cha ma da -i tawid no ST.IMPFT.die even.if PFT.TH- PL- divide ERG.3PL PERF DIR -ABS inheritance if gwariy metiy chiwa pamiljen ma gwara -i metiy cha -ma pamilja -na ma EXT -ABS ST.IMPFT.die OBL -D3 family -GEN D3 iyansigib, iyansigib PFT.AG- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house baliy i nain-aremagan baliy i na- inhouse ABS HAB- NR.PFTchiwed ma sengeg na cha -ma -cha ma sengeg na OBL -D3 -OBL D3 foundation GEN

cha so ngorechan. aremag -an cha so ngorechan ritual.type -__ ERG.3PL OBJ anyway

The thing that still exists that they do, if someone dies even if they have already divided the inheritance, if someone dies in the family that lives in another house, the foundation house is where they hold the vigil for him regardless. 52. Hetan bengat pangkep na setan bengat maypangkep na D2 only concerning minatay minatay i i sin kaonong singen kaonong pay pay

OBL customs.for.the.dead ABS as.if

CONT- remain still

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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laeng. laeng __ It is only in respect to the customs for the dead that it seems to be remaining the same. 53. Nem no echom men chilos ket ija nem no echom ma -na chilos ket ijay but as.for other PERF -LK ritual.type PAUS D1 iyanpansigib iyanpan- sigib PFT.AG- PL- reside.in.house.other.than.foundation.house i panchidosan i panchilos ABS NR.IMPFT- perform.a.chilos.ritual cha. -an cha -__ GEN.3PL wa ira ma ma ira ma PERF PL D3 a chiwa baliy cha ngo na cha -ma baliy cha ngo LK OBL -D3 house GEN.3PL own

But for other chilos rituals now, there are now those who live in other houses who their own houses are where they perform their chilos rituals. 54. Hetan i sodsod ono istoriya na kigwan cha i sengeg na setan i sodsod ono istoriya na kowan -iycha i sengeg na D2 ABS explanation or story OBL say -PFT- ERG.3PL COMP foundation GEN baliy chiya Karao.

baliy cha -ja Karao house OBL -D1 Karao This is the explanation or story about what they call the foundation house here in Karao.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Pesing a pesing way na LK

Mantenem mantanem IMPFT.AG- plant

na na OBL

Tapsoy tapsoy watercress

The Way to Plant Watercress Mrs. Vicenta Sabaoan

1. No

kecheng na

powek

iy

ma-jeran

chanom

no kecheng na powek iy meejed -an i chanom after finish GEN rainy.season SIMUL PASS.IMPFT.TH- subside -__ ABS water panad na panteneman cha kolos, naiyaykafoy cha kolos na- iyaykafo -i panad na pantanem -an OBL river HAB- PASS.PFT.TH- start -ABS preparation.of.site GEN NR.IMPFT- plant -__ na tapsoy. na tapsoy OBL watercress After the end of rainy season when the water subsides in the river, we will start preparing the place where we will plant watercress.33 2. No mekcheng no mekecheng after PASS.IMPFT- finish a mepanaran, mengenap na mepanad -an meNanap LK PASS.IMPFT.TH- prepare.site -__ IMPFT.AG- look.for

na maytenem tep edigat i pengedaan kiya kiya na maytanem tep edigat i peNala -an ABS.1PL.IN OBL PASS.IMPFT.TH- plant because ST.PFT- difficult ABS NR.IMPFT- get -__ na na tapsoy tapsoy a maymola na maynem singka-chom. mola nem singka-chom sometimes

GEN watercress LK PASS.IMPFT.TH- plant TI

After it has been prepared, we look for something to plant because sometimes it is difficult to get watercress for planting. 3. Edigat i pengedaan na tanem tep iyaykel-od edigat i peNala -an na tanem tep iyaykel-od ST.PFT- difficult ABS NR.IMPFT- get -__ GEN plant because PASS.PFT.TH- sweep.away
33

Watercress gardens line the shallows of the river that runs through the valley where Karao is located. They are usually prepared and tended by women.

103
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

da nonta powek. da nonta powek DIR TI rainy.season It is difficult to get the plants because they are swept away during rainy season. 4. No maytenem i tapsoy, mebinga-bingay na sangko-tik. no maytanem i tapsoy meCVCV- bingay na sangko-tik when PASS.IMPFT.TH- plant ABS watercress PASS.IMPFT- CONT- divide OBL little.bit When we plant watercress, we divide it into small bunches [and plant them]. 5. No mekcheng no mekecheng when PASS.IMPFT- finish bengat i bengat i only chanom to chanom to i tanem, banbantayan mo i tanem CVC- bantay -an mo ABS plant CONT- watch -IMPFT.TH ERG.2SG

no kosto. no kosto enough

ABS water

GEN.3SG if

When the planting is finished, you just keep watching the water to be sure that it is enough. 6. Tep tep no otik i no otik i chanom to, chanom to edigat ea onbadeg. na on-

digat

badeg

because if

little ABS water

GEN.3SG ST.PFT- difficult LK IMPFT.TH- grow

Because if they have only a little water, they [the plants] will have a hard time growing. 7. Amed to nem tiyakow, nabimala-ba. amed to nem tiyakow na- bala-ba -imespecially ERG.3SG TI dry.season HAB- turn.brown -PFT.THEspecially during dry season, they usually turn brown. 8. Ampet i mesalneb na chanom. ampet i mesalneb na chanom necessary ABS ST.IMPFT- covered OBL water They have to be covered with water. 9. No kostoy chanom to na olay, nasimimit a chakos i no kosto -i chanom to na olay na- simit -imna chakos i if enough -ABS water GEN.3SG TI always HAB- sprout -PFT.TH- LK immediately ABS

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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105

tapsoy. tapsoy watercress If they always have enough water, the watercress usually sprouts right away. 10. Naida thoy chon domingko ono mesosodok na- ala -iyto -i chowa -na domingko ono meCV- solok HAB- take -PFT- ERG.3SG -ABS two -LK week or ST.IMPFT- DIM- more.than pay asan moha koltaa. pay asan mo -ka kolta -a more will ERG.2SG -CONT harvest.with.knife -TH It usually takes about two weeks or a little longer before you can harvest it. 11. Say naiyanteneman na say na- iyantanem -an na NM HAB- NR.PFT- plant na temtem. na temtem GEN spring The place where watercress is usually planted, it is at the location of a fresh water spring. -__ tapsoy, tapsoy chiwed cha -ma -cha ma kad-an ma kawad-an

GEN watercress OBL -D3 -OBL D3 place

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Pesing a pesing way na LK

Pandeko pandaho NR.IMPFT- sell

na na OBL

Natnateng CVC- natheng PL- vegetable

The Way to Sell Vegetables Mrs. Vicenta Sabaoan

1. Si-nengen

na

gardiniro no mebedin

si-neng -en na gardiniro no mebalin na see -IMPFT.TH ERG gardener if ST.IMPFT- possible COMP mengolta. meNkolta IMPFT.AG- harvest.with.knife The gardener will see if the vegetables are ready to harvest.34 2. No sa-ki thon mengolta, no sa-ki to -na meNkolta if one ERG.3SG -LK IMPFT.AG- harvest.with.knife naindogan na- indogan HAB- PFT.TH- send.on.a.vehicle

tod ma kanayon a naiyanbiyakin jeep alid ja Karao. to -cha ma kanayon na na- iyanbiyahi -na jeep ali -cha ja Karao ERG.3SG -OBL D3 regular LK HAB- PFT.AG- travel -LK jeepney DIR -OBL D1 Karao If he is the only one who is harvesting [vegetables], then he sends them on the regular jeepney that goes back and forth from Karao. 3. Nem no chakel i nem no chakel i but if koltaen kolta to to ono natnateng ono CVC- natheng PLto, to

-en

many ABS harvest.with.knife -IMPFT.TH toy sa-kin

ERG.3SG or dogan.

vegetable GEN.3SG

naiyalkira

na- alkira -iyto -i sa-ki -na dogan HAB- hire.a.vehicle -PFT- ERG.3SG -ABS one -LK vehicle But if he has a lot of produce or vegetables, he hires a jeepney.

34

In Karao today, a primary means of acquiring cash income is to grow vegetables to sell wholesale to the main market in Baguio. This activity began only after the road reached Karao in 1977, and people had a way to transport their vegetables easily. Vegetables commonly grown in Karao for sale in Baguio are green onions, green beans, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage.

106
Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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107

mengolta 4. No chakel iren no chakel ira -na meNkolta if many ABS.3PL -LK IMPFT.AG- harvest.with.knife

et, et CNTR

ialkiret cha, et pantothodagan cha ialkira -et cha et panCV- tolag -an cha CAUS.IMPFT.TH- hire.a.vehicle -CNTR ERG.3PL and IMPFT.TH- PL- agree -__ ERG.3PL ibayad cha. nem piyay nem piya -i ibayad cha COMP how.much -ABS IMPFT.TH- pay ERG.3PL On the other hand, if there are many who have harvested vegetables, they will have a jeepney hired, and they will agree upon how much they will each pay. 5. No singka-chom naiyalkira no singka-chom na- alkira TI sometimes ono enem a chiy cha sa-kin sa-ki -na jeep jeep na na dima dima

-iy-

-i

HAB- hire.a.vehicle -PFT- ERG.3PL -ABS one -LK jeepney OBL five

dasos.

ono enem na dasos or six LK hundred Sometimes they will hire a jeepney for five or six hundred pesos. 6. Nem no otik met kitdi kalka na gardiniro, nainkalka thod

nem no otik met kitdi kalka na gardiniro na- inkalka to -cha but if little CNTR CNTR cargo GEN gardener HAB- PFT.TH- load.cargo ERG.3SG -OBL ma kanayon a naiyanbiyakid ja Karao. ma kanayon na na- iyanbiyahi -cha ja Karao D3 regular LK HAB- PFT.AG- travel -OBL D1 Karao If however the gardener has only a little cargo, he loads it on the regular jeepney going to and from Karao. 7. Et et si-nengen si-neng -en -IMPFT.TH na na kondoktor nem kondoktor nem piyay piya kilo tho, kilo to et et

-i

and see

ERG conductor COMP how.many -ABS kilo GEN.3SG and

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Sherri Brainard

bejaran si-kathoy si-katho -i bayad -an 3SG -ABS pay -IMPFT.TH

niwa mahakalkaen. na -ma maha- kalka -en ERG -D3 owner- cargo -__

And then the conductor will see how many kilos [of vegetables he has], and that will be what the owner of the cargo pays [for the transportation]. 8. Niman nainbasar chiy bayad na kalken natnateng cha

niman na- inbasar cha -i bayad na kalka -na CVC- natheng cha today HAB- PFT.TH- base ERG.3PL -ABS pay GEN cargo -LK PL- vegetable OBL kilo tho. kilo to kilo GEN.3SG Today they base the charge for the transportation of the vegetables on its kilo weight. 9. No alkira i chakel iren mahakalkaen, naiyay-olop no alkira i chakel ira -na maha- kalka -en na- iyayolop if hire.a.vehicle ABS many PL -LK owner- cargo -__ HAB- PASS.PFT.TH- take/go.along sa-ki ono chegwen mahapiyan i i sa-ki ono chegwa -na maha- piyan ABS one or two -LK CONT- want/like a mekikowan na mekikowan LK IMPFT.AG- go/come cha Bagiw. cha Bagiw OBL Baguio

If many vegetable owners hire a jeepney, one or two of them who want to will go along [on the jeepney] to Baguio. 10. Ono no singka-chom iy gwariy mebedin a gwayed ma ono no singka-chom iy gwara -i mebalin na gwaya -cha ma or TI sometimes SIMUL EXT -ABS ST.IMPFT- possible COMP space -OBL D3 alkiraen alkira -en hire.a.vehicle -IMPFT.TH cha. cha ERG.3PL Or sometimes when there is space in the jeepney that they hired, they will all go if they want to. cha, nakimowan iren emiin no piyan cha na- kowan -imira -na emiin no piyan ERG.3PL HAB- go/come -PFT.TH- ABS.3PL -LK all if want/like

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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riy kalked jeep, 11. Nem asan a ikalka nem asan na ikalka cha -i kalka -cha jeep but before LK IMPFT.TH- load.cargo ERG.3PL -ABS cargo -OBL jeepney nasiyola-siyolathan cha i saho ono basket na nomiron ma na- CVCVCV- solat -iy-an cha i saho ono basket na nomiro -na ma HAB- CONTwrite -PFT.LOC- -__ ERG.3PL ABS sack or basket OBL number -GEN D3 pengikowanan cha ono ngaran niwa toon powiston powisto -na pengikowan -an cha ono ngaran na -ma too -na booth -LK NR.IMPFT- take/bring -__ GEN.3PL or name GEN -D3 person -LK cha. pengi-kanan pengiikan -an cha NR.IMPFT- give -__ GEN.3PL But before they load the cargo on the jeepney, they label all the sacks or baskets with the number of the booth where they are sending it or the name of the person to whom they will give it. 12. No onmothok da ired Bagiw, igwa no onmothok da ira -cha Bagiw igwan when IMPFT.TH- arrive DIR ABS.3PL -OBL Baguio D3 komboy a naiyanseke-seked a mengikowan komboy na na- iyanCVCV- seked na mengikowan carrier LK HAB- PFT.AG- CONT- wait LK IMPFT.AG- take/bring ngo iriy ngo ira -i ?? PL -ABS ma powisto. ma powisto

ded da -cha

DIR -OBL D3 booth

When they arrive in Baguio, there are carriers [with handcarts] who are waiting to take it to the booths. 13. Ikowan iren ma komboy ngarod cha powisto, et tetpeken ikowan ira -na ma komboy ngarod cha powisto et tepeg -en IMPFT.TH- take/bring PL -ERG D3 carrier EMPH OBL booth and verify -IMPFT.TH iren ma mahakalked ma powisto no mimothok a emiin. ira -na ma maha- kalka -cha ma powisto no mothok -imna emiin PL -ERG D3 owner- cargo -OBL D3 booth if arrive -PFT.TH- LK all The carriers will take it to the booths, and the owners of the cargo will check at the booths to be sure that all the cargo arrived. 14. No mimothok men emiin, ibaga na mahinkalka ono no mothok -imma -na emiin ibaga na mahin- kalka ono when arrive -PFT.TH- PERF -LK all IMPFT.TH- ask ERG owner- cargo or

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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engidokanan cha nem piyay kondoktor niwa kondoktor na -ma engidogan -an cha nem piya -i conductor GEN -D3 NR.PFT- send.on.a.vehicle -__ GEN.3PL COMP how.many -ABS kilo tho. kilo to kilo GEN.3SG When all the cargo has arrived, the owner of the cargo or the conductor of the jeepney on which they sent it will ask how many kilos it was. 15. Et et i-kan iniwa iyanpowistoy ikan na -ma iyanpowisto ERG -D3 kilo tho, kilo to tan tan

-i

and IMPFT.TH- give igwanggwang igwanggwang IMPFT.TH- tell

PFT.AG- run.a.booth -ABS kilo GEN.3SG and

toy prisiyo na sa-kin kilon ma natnateng. to -i prisiyo na sa-ki -na kilo -na ma CVC- natheng ERG.3SG -ABS price GEN one -LK kilo -GEN D3 PL- vegetable

And then the owner of the booth will give the kilos, and he will tell the price of one kilo of that kind of vegetable. 16. Kowintaen ngarod niwa naiyanpowisto, kowinta -en ngarod na -ma na- iyanpowisto figure.amount -IMPFT.TH EMPH ERG -D3 HAB- PFT.AG- run.a.booth i-kan toy pilak tan disibo tho. iikan to -i pilak tan disibo to IMPFT.TH- give ERG.3SG -ABS money and receipt GEN.3SG The owner of the booth will figure the amount, and then he will give the money and the receipt for it. 17. Et no singka-chom naida na kondoktor ono sema engipiyalan et no singka-chom na- ala -iyna kondoktor ono sema engipiyal -an and TI sometimes HAB- get -PFT- ERG conductor or D3 NR.PFT- entrust -__ iren ira -na ma eg ma eg ekikowan ekikowan cha Bagiw a gwariy cha Bagiw na gwara -i kalka thon kalka to et et and

-na

PL -GEN D3 not PFT.AG- go/come OBL Baguio LK EXT

-ABS cargo GEN.3SG -LK

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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111

riy disibon ma kalka ra tan pilak to. peki-da pekiala cha -i disibo -na ma kalka cha tan pilak to IMPFT.TH- get ERG.3PL -ABS receipt -GEN D3 cargo GEN.3PL and money GEN.3SG Sometimes the conductor or the one who has been asked to collect the money by those who did not go to Baguio gets the receipt for the cargo and the money for it along with his. 18. Sema iren badbadon mangargardin a nagwariy

sema ira -na CVC- bado -na manCVC- gardin na nagwara -i D3 PL -LK INS- new -LK IMPFT.AG- PL- garden LK EXT -ABS am-amta CVC- amta ren cha powistod powisto -cha Bagiw ono pengidekoan cha, Bagiw ono pengidaho -an cha NR.IMPFT- sell -__ GEN.3PL

-na

INS- know ERG.3PL -LK booth

-OBL Baguio or

ira nem siyay mapteng a pengi-kanan naiyanbaga-baga na- iyanCVCV- baga ira nem siya -i mapteng na pengiikan -an HAB- PFT.AG- CONT- ask ABS.3PL COMP who -ABS good LK NR.IMPFT- give -__ naiyanpowiston nat sema maleka, chen cha -na na- iyanpowisto -na nat sema ma- daha GEN.3PL -LK HAB- PFT.AG- run.a.booth -LK not D3 AJR- buy.at.a.cheap.price igwa igwan D3 tep tep because

ira ma echom a naiyanpowiston nainda-kad ira ma echom na na- iyanpowisto -na na- inda-kad PL D3 some LK HAB- PFT.AG- run.a.booth -LK HAB- PFT.TH- do.too.much

chiy kanansiya. cha -i kanansiya ERG.3PL -ABS profit Those who are very new at gardening, who do not know any booths in Baguio or any place where they can sell their produce, they ask around to find out who is a good booth owner to give their produce to, one who does not buy at a low price, because there are some booth owners who make too much profit. 19. Nem no supply met kitdi, naintolok iren na gardiniroy nem no supply met kitdi na- intolok ira -na na gardiniro -i but if supply CNTR CNTR HAB- PFT.TH- allow PL -ERG ERG gardener -ABS piyan chen penongkal piyan cha -na peNtongkal want/like ERG.3PL -OBL NR.IMPFT- buy basta eg cha basta eg cha as.long.as not ERG.3PL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

112

Sherri Brainard

i kanansiya. ida-karan ida-kad -an i kanansiya IMPFT.TH- do.too.much -__ ABS profit But on the other hand if the owner of the booth has supplied fertilizer, etc., the gardeners will accept what the booth owners give them as long as they do not make too much profit. 20. Nem no nat supply, otikel komiy a-daen ono kanansiyaen

nem no nat supply otikel koma -i ala -en ono kanansiya -en but if not supply little OPT -ABS get -IMPFT.TH or make.a.profit -IMPFT.TH iren ira -na ma naiyanpowisto. ma na- iyanpowisto

PL -ERG D3 HAB- PFT.AG- run.a.booth But if nothing has been supplied, the booth owner should get or make only a little profit. 21. Tep no amta na gardiniro i maleka tep no amta na gardiniro i ma- daha because if know ERG gardener ABS AJR- buy.at.a.cheap.price iwan a powisto i -man na powisto ABS -D3 LK booth

ono sema naenongkal na daho to, naiyanbonal cha ono sema na- eNtongkal na daho to na- iyanbonal cha or D3 HAB- PFT.AG- buy OBL goods.for.sale GEN.3SG HAB- PFT.AG- transfer OBL echom mowan a powisto. echom mowan na powisto other again LK booth Because if the gardener knows that the booth or the one buying his goods is paying too low a price, he transfers to another booth. 22. Sejay i nainpasing na gardiniron naiyandaho na sejay i na- inpesing na gardiniro -na na- iyandaho na D1 ABS HAB- PFT.TH- do ERG gardener -LK HAB- PFT.AG- sell OBL natnateng CVC- natheng PLnem nem chakel. chakel

vegetable when many

This is the way gardeners sell vegetables when there is lots of produce.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Bilin bilin advice

na na OBL

Pan-iskwida paniskwida NR.IMPFT- attend.school

Advice about Going Away to School Mr. John Beray 1. Niman si-kayon aanak, hejay ma onkwan kayon kayo -na ABS.2PL -LK

niman si-kayo -na CV- anak sejay ma onkowan now 2PL -LK PL- offspring D1 PERF IMPFT.TH- go/come man-iskwida. maniskwida IMPFT.AG- attend.school Now you children, you are going away to school now. 2. Ipayas jo kawi ma. ipayas jo kawi ma IMPFT.TH- leave.behind ERG.2PL ABS.1PL.EX PERF You will leave us. 3. Enosan anos -an have.patience -IMPFT.TH

miy pansa-sa-ki wid ja mi -i panCVC- sa-ki mi -cha ja ERG.1PL.EX -ABS NR.IMPFT- INS- one GEN.1PL.EX -OBL D1 kayo. kayo ABS.2PL

baliy tep piyan min man-iskwida baliy tep piyan mi -na maniskwida house because want/like ERG.1PL.EX -COMP IMPFT.AG- attend.school

We will be patient about being all alone in this house because we want you to go to school. 4. Piyan min man-achal kayo tep sejay a karakel

piyan mi -na manachal kayo tep sejay na ka- chakel want/like ERG.1PL.EX -COMP IMPFT.TH- educated ABS.2PL because D1 LK NR- many jo. jo ERG.2PL We want you to get an education because there are many of you.

113
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met i chakel kayon san-aaki, et nagwariy 5. Amta yo amta jo met i chakel kayo -na sanCV- ahi et nagwara -i know ERG.2PL also COMP many ABS.2PL -LK related- PL- sibling and EXT -ABS amta win itawid amta mi -na itawid know ERG.1PL.EX -LK IMPFT.TH- give.an.inheritance seja pan-achal jo. seja panachal jo D1 NR.IMPFT- educated GEN.2PL You also know that there are many of you who are brothers and sisters, and we do not know of anything to give to you as an inheritance if not your education. 6. Nagwariy nagwara -i EXT nagwara. nagwara EXT You will not inherit any property, rice fields, animals, or money nothing. 7. Agos toy achal a tegwiren jo tep say achal, tegwiren tawid -en jon jo kameng, payow, -na kameng payow animal, pilak animal pilak mid si-kayo nem eg mi -cha si-kayo nem eg ERG.1PL.EX -OBL 2PL if not

-ABS inherit -IMPFT.TH

ERG.2PL -LK property rice.field animal money

agos to -i achal na tawid -en jo tep say achal only ERG.3SG -ABS education LK inherit -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL because NM education angken toy kona-konan jo, itahi-tahin jo. angken to -i CVCV- kowan -an jo iCVCV- tahin jo no.matter where -ABS PLgo/come -NR GEN.2PL IMPFT.TH- INStake.along ERG.2PL It is only education that you will inherit because education, no matter where you go, you can always take it with you. 8. Osa-osalen jo. CVCV- osal -en jo INS- use -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL You can always use it.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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mengosal na achalen 9. Nagwiy nagwara -i meNosal na achal -en EXT -ABS IMPFT.AG- use OBL learn -IMPFT.TH No one else can use what you learn. 10. Si-kayo ngo. si-kayo ngo 2PL self

jo. jo ERG.2PL

It is only you yourselves. 11. Para si-kayo ngo. para si-kayo ngo for 2PL self

It is for you yourselves. 12. Isonga sejay i kalikagom min piyan isonga sejay i kalikagom mi -na piyan thats.why D1 ABS hope/desire GEN.1PL.EX -COMP want/like min man-iskwida mi -na maniskwida ERG.1PL.EX -COMP IMPFT.AG- attend.school kayo say mahaachal kayo. kayo say mahaachal kayo ABS.2PL so.that IMPFT.AG- educated ABS.2PL

Thats why it is our desire that we want you to go to school so that you will be able to get educated. 13. Tep tep say toon say too gwariy gwara -i achal achal to, to inam-ay a igwan inam-ay na igwan LK D3 i i ABS

-na

because NM person -LK EXT pan-obdaan to.

-ABS education GEN.3SG easy

panobda -an to NR.IMPFT- employment -__ GEN.3SG Because a person who has an education, it is easy for him to get employment. 14. Nagwariy payow tayon i-kan min

nagwara -i payow tayo -na iikan mi -na EXT -ABS rice.field GEN.1PL.IN -LK IMPFT.TH- give ERG.1PL.EX -OBL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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jo. tegwiren tawid -en jo inherit -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL We have no fields to give to you as what you will inherit. 15. Say tegwiren say tawid -en NM inherit -IMPFT.TH jo, seta achal jo. jo seta achal jo ERG.2PL D2 education GEN.2PL

What you will inherit, it is your education. 16. Isonga singpet joy pan-is-iskwida isonga singpet jo -i panCVC- iskwida thats.why do.well ERG.2PL -ABS NR.IMPFT- CONT- attend.school Thats why you should work diligently at your schooling. 17. Enog i indama-damang i pilak. yo. jo GEN.2PL

enog i inCVCV- damang i pilak dont ABS PFT.TH- INSwaste ABS money Do not waste any money. 18. Palit i pilak.

palit i pilak expensive ABS money Money is dear. 19. Enchek kayo manchine-chinel enchek kayo manCVCV- chinel dont ABS.2PL IMPFT.AG- INSbehave.in.carefree.manner a inges na inges LK same/like

toy echom jon iskwiden aanak na bebaknang. to -i echom jo -na iskwida -na CV- anak na CV- baknang ERG.3SG -ABS companion GEN.2PL -LK student -LK PL- offspring GEN PL- rich Do not spend it freely like your fellow students who are the children of rich people. 20. Ago-agos cha pay. CVCV- agos cha pay INS- alone ERG.3PL still They are all alone. [They have no brothers and sisters.]

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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marinel 21. Isonga isonga ma- chinel thats.why AJR- carefree

ira a mankaskastos, ira na manCVC- kastos ABS.3PL LK IMPFT.AG- CONT- spend.money

a na LK

manbelbelakbol, a mengidama-damang na pilak cha. manCVC- belakbol na mengiCVCV- damang na pilak cha IMPFT.AG- CONT- wander LK IMPFT.AG- CONT- waste OBL money GEN.3PL Thats why they are carefree in spending their money, in wandering about, in wasting their money. 22. Eg cha isingpet. eg cha isingpet not ERG.3PL IMPFT.TH- do.well They do not spend their money wisely. 23. No no man-iskwida maniskwida kiya, kiya sema iskwidiy sema iskwida -i school -ABS nat sema

when IMPFT.AG- attend.school menemnem,

ABS.1PL.IN D3

nat sema mangwangwanchay,

menemnem nat sema manCVC- gwanchay nat sema PASS.IMPFT- think not D3 IMPFT.AG- CONT- laze.about not D3 manbelbelakbol. manCVC-

belakbol

IMPFT.AG- CONT- wander When we go to school, school is what we should concentrate on, not on lazing about, not on wandering about. 24. Singpet joy iskwida yo. singpet jo -i iskwida jo do.well ERG.2PL -ABS school GEN.2PL Work diligently at your studies. 25. Si-kawin awa jo tan ina jo, nat onbayag si-kawi -na awa jo tan ina jo nat onbayag 1PL.EX -LK father GEN.2PL and mother GEN.2PL not IMPFT.TH- live.a.long.time kawi. kawi ABS.1PL.EX We who are your father and mother, we are not going to live a long time.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kawi, emangka-ma kawi. 26. Ajay ma, emangkeba-kol ajay ma emangka- ba-kol kawi emangka- awa kawi D1 PERF ST.CONT- old ABS.1PL.EX ST.CONT- old ABS.1PL.EX Look now, we are now getting to be an old woman and an old man. 27. Niman i ikalikagom niman i ikalikagom now ABS NR.IMPFT- hope/desire kawi nin. kawi nin ABS.1PL.EX a.little.while Now is the time when you should desire to go to school because we will be here for a little while yet. 28. Nat onbatho-batho nat onCVCV- batho not IMPFT.TH- CONT- live.a.long.time We are not going to live forever. 29. Intono onkapsot intono onwhen onkafoy kawi kapsot kawi men ma -na man-obda, manobda talaken talaga -na -LK si-kayo. kawi. kawi ABS.1PL.EX jo so na iskwida tep aja jo so na iskwida tep aja GEN.2PL OBJ OBL attend.school because D1

IMPFT.TH- weak ngo i

ABS.1PL.EX PERF -LK IMPFT.AG- work true tolong a na LK i-kan mid

onkafoy ngo i tolong IMPFT.TH- weak also ABS help

iikan mi -cha si-kayo IMPFT.TH- give ERG.1PL.EX -OBL 2PL

When we become too weak to work, the help that we give you will surely also become weak. 30. Isonga asan na ka-ma wi, keba-kol min isonga asan na keawa mi keba-kol mi -na thats.why before TI NR.IMPFT- old GEN.1PL.EX NR.IMPFT- old GEN.1PL.EX -LK pasiya, piyan min kekchengen pasiya piyan mi -na kecheng -en very want/like ERG.1PL.EX -COMP finish -IMPFT.TH joy iskwida yo. jo -i iskwida jo ERG.2PL -ABS schooling GEN.2PL

Thats why before we become really old, we want you to finish your schooling. 31. Piyan min gwariy obda yo a metaen piyan mi -na gwara -i obda jo na matha -en want/like ERG.1PL.EX -COMP EXT -ABS work GEN.2PL LK see/look -IMPFT.TH

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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pan-obdaan jo say no angken ma-ma min mi -na panobda -an jo say no angken ma-ma ERG.1PL.EX -OBL NR.IMPFT- employment -__ GEN.2PL so.that TI even.if even.more.so kawi ma, angken metiy kawi ma, nagwariy chanag mi.

kawi ma angken metiy kawi ma nagwara -i chanag mi ABS.1PL.EX PERF even.if ST.IMPFT.die ABS.1PL.EX PERF EXT -ABS worry GEN.1PL.EX We want you to have a job that we can see you working at [so that we are sure you have employment] so that even though we will grow old, even though we will die, we will have no worries [about you]. 32. Nagwiy sahit na nemnem min ipayas

nagwara -i sahit na nemnem mi -na ipayas EXT -ABS illness GEN thought GEN.1PL.EX -COMP IMPFT.TH- leave.behind mi kayon mandikat. mi kayo -na mandigat ERG.1PL.EX ABS.2PL -LK IMPFT.TH- have.difficulties We will not be worried that we are leaving you with difficulties. 33. Pangaasi yo, enog i kedkedsel. pangaasi jo enog i CVC- kedsel please ERG.2PL dont ABS INS- get.into.trouble Please, dont get into any trouble. 34. Enog i barbarkada na echom jon iskwida. enog i CVC- barkada na echom jo -na iskwida dont ABS INS- gang OBL companion GEN.2PL -LK student Dont join any bad gangs with your fellow students. 35. Mapteng i barkada nem sema mapteng i ma-ma-mag. mapteng i barkada nem sema mapteng i CVC- meamag good ABS gang if D3 good ABS CONT- PASS.IMPFT- do/make Joining a group would be good if the things it did were good. 36. Enchek kayo maoda-odaw na iolo-olop enchek kayo meCVCV- olaw na iCVCV- olop dont ABS.2PL ST.IMPFT- INSconfused TI NR.IMPFT- CONT- take/go.along

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kayo sod ma kona-konan jon kompormi. cha cha kayo so -cha ma CVCV- kowan -an jo -na kompormi ERG.3PL ABS.2PL OBJ -OBL D3 PLgo/come -NR GEN.2PL -LK any Dont be led astray when they ask you to come along with them wherever they go. 37. Mesingpet i iskwida. mesingpet i iskwida PASS.IMPFT- do.well ABS schooling Work diligently at studying. 38. No gwariy pilak, maytongkal na maosal cha no gwara -i pilak maytongkal na meosal cha if EXT -ABS money PASS.IMPFT.NTH- buy OBL PASS.IMPFT- use OBL iskwidaan. iskwidaan school If you have money, you use it to buy what you will use for school. 39. Maytongkal mayna tongkal na mekan. mekan

PASS.IMPFT.NTH- buy You use it to buy food.

OBL food

40. Maytongkal na kasepolan cha iskwidaan, kasepolan na bakdang. maytongkal na kasepolan cha iskwidaan kasepolan na bakdang PASS.IMPFT.NTH- buy OBL necessities OBL school necessities OBL body You use it to buy what you need for school, what you need for your physical well-being. 41. Enog i ininges ira ma anak na bebaknang a kompormiy enog i inges -iyira ma anak na CV- baknang na kompormi -i dont ABS same/like -PFT- PL D3 offspring GEN PL- rich LK any -ABS kaskastosan CVC- kastos -an CONT- spend.money -IMPFT.NLOC cha so na pilak cha. cha so na pilak cha ERG.3PL OBJ OBL money GEN.3PL

Dont be like those children of rich people who keep spending their money on any sort of thing.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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met i biyag tayo; mandikat. 42. Si-kathayo, amta yo si-kathayo amta jo met i biyag tayo mandigat 1PL.IN know ERG.2PL also ABS life GEN.1PL.IN IMPFT.TH- have.difficulties As for you, you also know our way of life; it is difficult. 43. Kada otik a siya-nop mi, nainnahol kada otik na sa-nop -iymi na- innahol each little LK gather.together -PFT- ERG.1PL.EX HAB- PFT.TH- save.for.a.purpose mid si-kayo. mi -cha si-kayo ERG.1PL.EX -OBL 2PL Every little bit that we accumulated, we saved it for you. 44. Kada otik a nikayen kada otik na nigay mi mi a na sira, sira

-en

each little LK gather.food -IMPFT.TH ERG.1PL.EX OBL side.dish nainpawpaw-it mid si-kayo.

na- inCVC- paw-it mi -cha si-kayo HAB- PFT.TH- CONT- send ERG.1PL.EX -OBL 2PL Every little bit of vegetables that we gather for a side dish, we send it to you. 45. Botheng. botheng drunkenness Drunkenness. 46. Pangaasi yo, si-kayon daleki, enog i botheng pangaasi jo si-kayo -na CV- dahi enog i botheng please ERG.2PL 2PL -LK PL- man/boy dont ABS drunk botheng, oncharal na bakdang. botheng on- charal na bakdang drunkenness NR- destroy OBL body Please, you boys, dont get drunk because drinking, it ruins the body. tep say tep say because NM

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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na iskwida. 47. Oncharal on- charal na iskwida NR- destroy OBL schooling It ruins school. 48. Imbis imbis a man-iskwida na maniskwida ka, ka igwa igwan ked ka ma inoman. ma inoman

-cha

instead LK IMPFT.AG- attend.school ABS.2SG D3 Instead of you going to school, you are at the drinking place. 49. Imbis imbis nga man-istudy ka, nga manistudy ka IMPFT.AG- study

ABS.2SG -OBL D3 drinking.place

ebotheng ebotheng

ka. ka ABS.2SG

instead LK

ABS.2SG PASS.PFT- drunk

Instead of you studying, you are drunk. 50. Intono egwa-gwa, epaes intono egwa-gwa epaes when next.day PASS.PFT- have.hangover Then the next day, you have a hangover. 51. Eg ka mahapangan. eg ka mahapangan not ABS.2SG IMPFT.AG- eat You cannot eat. 52. Mandengan mandangan IMPFT.AG- take.an.absence ka ka wed ma -cha iskwidaan mo. iskwidaan mo GEN.2SG ka. ka ABS.2SG

ABS.2SG PERF -OBL school

Then you are absent from your school. 53. Say panpa-noan say panpa-no to -an to wa, ma dangan. dangan

NM NR.IMPFT- outcome -__ The outcome then, it is absence.

GEN.3SG PERF absence

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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na olay, ngoy panbenagan mon too? 54. No setan ma no setan ma na olay nengo -i panbanag -an mo -na too if D2 PERF TI always what -ABS NR.IMPFT- meaning -__ GEN.2SG -OBL person If it is always that way, what kind of person will you become? 55. Kenchat man-a-kal kenchat manresult ka. ka

ekal

IMPFT.AG&TH- remove ABS.2SG

The result will be that you will have to quit. 56. No man-a-kal no manif ka, ka etaktak ei taktak i iskwidam. iskwida -mo

ekal

IMPFT.AG&TH- remove ABS.2SG PASS.PFT- delay

ABS schooling -GEN.2SG

If you have to quit, your schooling will be delayed. 57. Konen mo mowan i asan ka mowan nem sa-kin tawen. kowan -en mo mowan i asan ka mowan nem sa-ki -na tawen say -IMPFT.TH ERG.2SG again COMP will ABS.2SG again TI one -LK year You say that you will [go to school] again next year. 58. Mangkedagwas ma liy timpo. emangkadagwas ma da -i timpo PASS.CONT- pass PERF DIR -ABS time Time is passing now. 59. Emangka-ma kayo wa. emangka- awa kayo ma ST.CONT- old ABS.2PL PERF You are getting old. 60. Kasta kawi met, emangka-ma kawi. kasta kawi met emangka- awa kawi as.for ABS.1PL.EX also ST.CONT- old ABS.1PL.EX As for us, we are also getting old.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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pansingpet joy iskwida yo. 61. Isonga isonga pansingpet jo -i iskwida jo thats.why SUBJNCT.TH- do.well ERG.2PL -ABS schooling GEN.2PL Thats why you should work diligently at your studies. 62. Ma-ma ma-ma kawi kawi ma. ma

even.more.so ABS.1PL.EX PERF We are getting old now. 63. Metiy metiy kawi kawi nem engkay iy nem engkay iy soon eg eg jo jo kekchengen kecheng -en -IMPFT.TH i i ABS

ST.IMPFT.die ABS.1PL.EX TI iskwida yo. iskwida jo schooling GEN.2PL

CNTR not ERG.2PL finish

We will die soon, and you will not have finished your schooling. 64. Siya wiy mengastos kayo? siya ma -i meNkastos kayo who PERF -ABS IMPFT.AG- spend.money ABS.2PL Who will support you then? 65. Kenchat men man-a-kal kayo. kenchat ma -na manekal kayo result PERF -COMP IMPFT.AG&TH- remove ABS.2PL The result will be that you will have to quit. 66. Eg jo wa kekchengen i iskwida yo.

eg jo ma kecheng -en not ERG.2PL PERF finish -IMPFT.TH You will not have finished your schooling. 67. Nagwa wiy kekchengen

i iskwida jo ABS schooling GEN.2PL

jon

degree, et

kenchat men

nagwara ma -i kecheng -en EXT PERF -ABS finish -IMPFT.TH

jo -na degree et kenchat ma -na ERG.2PL -LK degree and result PERF -COMP

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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enafen jon koston pan-obdaan nagwa wiy nagwara ma -i anap -en jo -na kosto -na panobda -an EXT PERF -ABS find -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL -LK good -LK NR.IMPFT- employment -__ jo. jo GEN.2PL You will not have finished a degree, and the result will be that you will not find good employment. 68. Nagwariy kamaptengan a panchinedan na

nagwara -i ka- mapteng -an na panchinel -an na EXT -ABS NR- good -__ LK NR.IMPFT- depend.on -__ GEN panbiyagan to nem eg sa-sa-kiy achal. toon too -na panbiyag -an to nem eg CVC- sa-ki -i achal person -OBL NR.IMPFT- living -__ GEN.3SG if not INS- one -ABS education There is absolutely nothing better for a person to depend on for a living if not education. 69. Say achal, eg ma-tiw. say achal eg meathiw NM education not PASS.IMPFT- lose Education, it will not be lost. 70. Angken ton kona-konan mo, gwared si-kam si-kam 2SG na na TI

angken to -na no.matter where -LK olay, osalen olay osal -en always use -IMPFT.TH

CVCV- kowan -an mo gwara -cha PLgo/come -NR GEN.2SG EXT -OBL mo. mo ERG.2SG

No matter where you go, it is always with you, you can always use it. 71. Nat maypejas nat maypayas not PASS.IMPFT.TH- leave.behind Education will not be left behind. i achal. i achal ABS education

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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na olay. 72. Mayteki-tekin mayCVCV- tahin na olay PASS.IMPFT.TH- INStake.along TI always It can always be taken along. 73. Angken angken ton to dogad i dogad i konan kowan mo, mo osalen osal -en mo. mo

-na

-an

no.matter where -LK

place ABS go/come -NR GEN.2SG use -IMPFT.TH ERG.2SG

No matter what place you go to, you can use it. 74. Isonga isonga say toon say too iyan-achal, iyanachal angken ebitheg, agwak angken ebitheg agwak defeat

-na

thats.why NM person -LK PFT.TH- educated even.if ST.PFT- poor

toy toon angken baknang no nagwariy achal to. to -i too -na angken baknang no nagwara -i achal to ERG.3SG -ABS person -LK even.if rich if EXT -ABS education GEN.3SG Thats why a person who is educated, even if he is poor, he is better than a person who has no education even if he is rich. 75. Tep no ma-pos iwa kinabaknang to, egwahen tep no meepos i -ma kinabaknang to agwak -en because if PASS.IMPFT- use.up ABS -D3 wealth GEN.3SG defeat -IMPFT.TH ngorechan na toon iyan-achal. ngorechan na too -na iyanachal surely ERG person -LK PFT.TH- educated Because if his wealth is used up, the person who is educated will surely do better than him. 76. Tep say toon iyan-achal, chakel i amta thon pesing

tep say too -na iyanachal chakel i amta to -na pesing because NM person -LK PFT.TH- educated many ABS know ERG.3SG -LK do to. to ERG.3SG Because a person who is educated, he knows how to do many things.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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remidjon panbiyakan to iy say sema 77. Chakel i chakel i remidjo -na panbiyag -an to iy say sema many ABS alternative -LK NR.IMPFT- living -__ GEN.3SG CNTR NM D3 ignorantin nagwiy achal to.

ignoranti -na nagwara -i achal to uneducated -LK EXT -ABS education GEN.3SG He has many more ways of earning a living than an uneducated person who has no schooling. 78. Isonga si-kayon aanak, pangaasi yo, bebtihan

isonga si-kayo -na CV- anak pangaasi jo betik -an thats.why 2PL -LK PL- offspring please ERG.2PL leave -IMPFT.LOC jo kawi wa. jo kawi ma ERG.2PL ABS.1PL.EX PERF Thats why you children, please, you are leaving us now. 79. Onkwan kayon man-iskwida, onkowan kayo -na maniskwida IMPFT.TH- go/come ABS.2PL -LK IMPFT.AG- attend.school jay. jay D1 You are going away to school, and so you keep thinking about these things. 80. Enog i diningding ira jay a bili-bilin mi. enog i dingding -iyira jay na CVCV- bilin mi dont ABS forget -PFT- PL D1 LK PLadvice GEN.1PL.EX Dont forget this advice of ours. 81. Nagwiy echom a memidin kayo nem eg si-kawi ngon awa nagwara -i echom na meNbilin kayo nem eg si-kawi ngo -na awa EXT -ABS other LK IMPFT.AG- advise ABS.2PL if not 1PL.EX self -LK father jo ni ina jo. jo ni ina jo GEN.2PL and mother GEN.2PL There is no one else who will advise you if not we ourselves who are your father and mother. et nemnemnem jo et CVC- nemnem jo and CONT- think ERG.2PL

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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penngedan jo na bilin? 82. Ampay siyay ampay siya -i peNchengel -an jo na bilin RQ who -ABS NR.IMPFT- hear/listen -__ GEN.2PL OBL advice Who will give you advice? [Lit. From whom will you hear advice?] 83. Ampay bidinen ampay bilin -en RQ advise -IMPFT.TH to to ka ka na na toon too afil? afil

-na

ERG.3SG ABS.2SG ERG person -LK other

Will other people really advise you? 84. Iolay icha cha kayo kayo ngo tep ngo tep amta yo amta jo i i igwan igwan

olay

IMPFT.TH- abandon ERG.3PL ABS.2PL self because know ERG.2PL COMP D3 ngarod i apal nem singka-chom. ngarod i apal nem singka-chom EMPH ABS jealousy TI sometimes They will leave you by yourself because you know that sometimes there is jealousy. 85. Et no metaen et no matha -en and if see/look -IMPFT.TH cha ken mandenga-dengan, cha ka -na manCVCV- dangan ERG.3PL ABS.2SG -LK IMPFT.AG- CONT- take.an.absence i Niyana aja i niyana aja COMP why D1

manbela-belakbol, ampay cha ka konen manCVCV- belakbol ampay cha ka kowan -en IMPFT.AG- CONT- wander RQ ERG.3PL ABS.2SG say -IMPFT.TH ked jay? ka -cha jay ABS.2SG -OBL D1

And when they see you that you are absent, wandering about, will they really say, Why are you here? 86. Iolay icha cha ka. ka

olay

IMPFT.TH- abandon ERG.3PL ABS.2SG They will abandon you. 87. Isonga enog i olo-olop isonga enog i CVCV- olop thats.why dont ABS INS- take/go.along chiwa echom a toon cha -ma echom na too -na OBL -D3 other LK person -LK

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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kayod ma echom a dogad, echom den mengibenga-bengat mengiCVCV- bangat kayo -cha ma echom na dogad echom da -na IMPFT.AG- CONT- lead ABS.2PL -OBL D3 other LK place other DIR -LK kedingdingan jo iy eg jo et senga-sengaben kedingding -an jo iy eg jo et CVCV- sangab -en NR.IMPFT- forget -__ GEN.2PL CNTR not ERG.2PL CNTR INS- attend.to -IMPFT.TH obda yo. i i obda jo ABS work GEN.2PL Thats why you should never go with other people who keep leading you to other places, other places that make you forget [about school] so that you do not attend to any of your work. 88. Konen kowan -en say jo jo i i Ahow, angken... Ahow angken no.matter

-IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL COMP yes na sejay.

mandenganak

mandangan -ak na sejay IMPFT.AG- take.an.absence -ABS.1SG TI today You will say, Yes, it doesnt matter...I will be absent today. 89. Asanak nem megwa-gwa.

asan -ak nem megwa-gwa will -ABS.1SG TI tomorrow I will go tomorrow. 90. No setan man na olay, onkwan men say pantongpalan no setan man na olay onkowan ma -na say pantongpal -an if D2 D3 TI always IMPFT.TH- go/come PERF -LK NM NR.IMPFT- outcome -__ man-a-kal ka. to, to manekal ka GEN.3SG IMPFT.AG&TH- remove ABS.2SG If it is always that way, the outcome will be, you will quit. 91. No man-a-kal kiya, chakel i nakimawas. no manekal kiya chakel i na- kawas -imif IMPFT.AG&TH- remove ABS.1PL.IN many ABS HAB- waste -PFT.THIf you quit, much will have been wasted.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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i pilak. 92. Onkawas onkawas i pilak IMPFT.TH- waste ABS money Money will have been wasted. 93. Onkawas i timpo. onkawas i timpo IMPFT.TH- waste ABS time Time will have been wasted. 94. Sema timpon onkawas, nat mebedin a sema timpo -na onkawas nat mebalin na D3 time -LK IMPFT.TH- waste not ST.IMPFT- possible COMP maodi. me-

oli

PASS.IMPFT- take/get.back Wasted time, it is not possible to get it back. 95. Hetan i setan i D2 nemnemnem jo. CVC- nemnem jo ERG.2PL

ABS CONT- think

That is what you should keep thinking about. 96. Ipasnek jo tan. ipasnek jo tan IMPFT.TH- do.ones.best ERG.2PL D2 You do your best concerning that. 97. Sapay koma ta hejay a bilin mid si-kayo, ikamid sapay koma ta sejay na bilin mi -cha si-kayo ikamid OPT OPT LK D1 LK advice GEN.1PL.EX -OBL 2PL IMPFT.TH- put.away jo, et onoran jo na olay. jo et onod -an jo na olay ERG.2PL and follow -IMPFT.TH ERG.2PL TI always Hopefully this advice of ours, you will store it away, and you will always follow it.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Appendix A Nominal Markers and Pronouns


The following is a brief description of nominal markers, personal pronouns, and deictic pronouns in Karao.

1. Nominal markers
Nominal markers occurring with S, A, and P arguments are marked for case and follow an ergative-absolutive pattern; that is, S and P are marked alike and A is marked differently.35 Ergative markers are homophonous with 1) genitive markers that precede the possessor in genitive NPs, and 2) oblique markers that precede non-Locs, e.g. demoted objects. The cha set of oblique markers precedes only Locs, i.e. physical sites. Marked markers precede NPs in marked positions, e.g. NPs in sentence-initial positions. Table 1. Karao Nominal Markers Absolutive (S and P) Singular Common noun Personal name Plural Common noun Personal name iriy ires chiy ches ira na iren cha na chen ired ired ched ched say si i si -y -s na cha cha -d -d say si Ergative (A) Oblique (Loc) Marked

-n

In table 1, several nominal markers have two allomorphs. The general rule is that the first allomorph follows either a consonant-final or, less commonly, a vowel-final word (1)(2); the second follows only a vowel-final word (3).

35

Here S is the single, syntactically required NP of an intransitive clause; A is the more agentive, syntactically required NP of a transitive clause; and P is the less agentive, syntactically required NP of a transitive clause.

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(1)

Kimowan i tood kolos. kowan -imi too -cha kolos go/come-PFT.TH ABS person -OBL river The person went to the river.

(2)

Aofa i too. eofa i too ST.PFT- hungry ABS person The person is hungry.

(3)

Aofiy too. eofa -i too ST.PFT- hungry -ABS person The person is hungry.

The nominal markers chiy, ches, and ched follow a vowel-final word only (4)(7).36 (4) Kimowan iriy tood kolos. kowan -imira -i too -cha kolos go/come -PFT.TH PL -ABS person-OBL river The people went to the river. (5) Aofa iriy too. eofa ira -i too ST.PFT- hungry PL -ABS person The people are hungry.

36

All plural nominal markers are composed of the plural morpheme cha plus one or more morphemes. The form ira, an allomorph of cha, is composed of i plus cha in which case ch [t ] becomes r [ ] intervocalically. (The phoneme ch [t ] has three allophones: [t ] which occurs in word-initially, or syllable-initially following a closed syllable; [ ] which occurs intervocalically; and [d] which occurs syllable-finally.) The allomorphs ira and cha function as plural markers and as third-person plural pronouns.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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(6)

Igwan di chiy too. igwan ali ira -i too D3 DIR PL -ABS person People will come.

(7)

*Igwan chiy tood baliy. igwan ira -i too -cha baliy D3 PL -ABS person-OBL house There are people at the house.

Ergative markers, genitive markers, and oblique markers that precede non-Locs are homophonous; however, speakers vary in their pronunciation of the plural forms of these markers. For the marker ira na, some speakers use iren na (8)(11).37 For the marker cha na, some use chen (12)(13). (8) A-daen ira na tooy bekas. ala -en ira na too -i bekas get -PFT.TH PL ERG person-ABS husked.rice The people got the rice. (9) A-daen iren na tooy bekas. ala -en ira -na na too -i bekas get -PFT.TH PL -ERG ERG person-ABS husked.rice The people got the rice.

37

The exact identity of the morpheme -n in iren na (ira+-n na) is ambiguous; however, the existence of the plural deictics iren ja, iren ta, iren ma suggests that iren na may have developed by analogy with these forms. Specifically, the plural deictics are composed of the plural marker iren (which consists of the plural marker ira plus the ergative or genitive marker na) and the deictic ja(y), ta(n),

or ma(n). (Since the ergative or genitive marker na follows ira which ends in a vowel, na becomes -n resulting in iren.) This pattern suggests that the morpheme -n in iren na is a copy of the ergative or genitive na that follows it and is labeled accordingly.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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(10)

Setan setan D2

i i ABS

baliy baliy house

ira na too. ira na too PL GEN person

That is the house of the people. (11) Setan setan D2 i i ABS baliy baliy house iren na too. ira -na na too PL -GEN GEN person

That is the house of the people. (12) Setan setan D2 i i ABS aso aso dog cha na too. ira na too PL GEN person

That is the dog of the people. (13) Setan setan D2 i i ABS aso aso dog chen ira -na PL -GEN too. too person

That is the dog of the people.

2. Personal pronouns
Personal pronouns in Karao are marked for case and display an ergativeabsolutive pattern. Ergative pronouns are homophonous with genitive pronouns. Oblique pronouns function only as Locs and are always preceded by the marker cha. Marked pronouns are homophonous with oblique pronouns and are not preceded by a nominal marker with one exception noted to date which will be discussed shortly.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Table 2. Karao Personal Pronouns Absolutive (S and P) Singular 1 2 3 Plural 1 IN 1 EX 2 3 kiya kawi kayo ira tayo mi jo cha thayo wi yo ra si-kathayo si-kawi si-kayo si-kara -ak ka ko mo to -k -m tho si-kak si-kam si-katho Ergative (A) Oblique/ Marked (Loc)

cha

In table 2 certain pronouns have two allomorphs. The first follows a consonant-final word; the second always follows a vowel-final word. Notice that Karao does not have a first-person dual pronoun. The first-person inclusive plural pronoun is used for any situation in which the addressee is also included with the speaker regardless of number. When a first-person plural pronoun, inclusive or exclusive, refers to more than two people, the plural marker cha optionally follows the pronouns, e.g. kiya cha, kawi cha, tayo cha.38 Also notice that the following pronoun combinations never occur: 1) ko ergative first-person singular and ka absolutive second-person singular, and 2) ko ergative firstperson singular and kayo absolutive second-person plural. Instead ko + ka is represented by taha and ko + kayo by tahejo. Regarding the absence of nominal markers before marked pronouns, the one exception found to date occurs in a comparative construction which displays two patterns when the compared item following the comparative marker iy is a pronoun or a personal name. In the first pattern, the nominal marker say does not occur before the pronoun (14) or personal name (15); in the second pattern, it does (16)(17).

38

Depending on the case of the pronoun, the plural marker cha may be added optionally to second and third-person plural pronouns as well.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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(14)

Pangodowan si Jose iy si-kak. pangodo-an si Jose iy si-kak older -CMPR ABS Jose CMPR 1SG Jose is older than I am.

(15)

Pangodowan si Jose iy si Pedro. pangodo-an si Jose iy si Pedro older -CMPR ABS Jose CMPR NM Pedro Jose is older than Pedro.

(16)

Ba-banayan si Jose iy say si-kak. CVC- banay -an si Jose iy say si-kak CMPR- big -__ ABS Jose CMPR NM 1SG Jose is bigger than I am.

(17)

Pangodowan si Jose iy say si Pedro. pangodo-an si Jose iy say si Pedro older -CMPR ABS Jose CMPR NM NM Pedro Jose is older than Pedro.

When the compared item is a common noun, say is obligatory (18)(19). (18) Ka-ka-jangan CVC- kayang -an CMPR- tall -__ i i anak Juanita anak Juanita iy iy say anak Maria. say anak Maria

ABS child Juanita

CMPR NM child Maria

Juanitas child is taller than Marias child. (19) *Ka-ka-jangan i anak Juanita iy anak Maria.

In (16) and (17), say appears to be added by analogy following the pattern for common nouns (18). It may be that the construction is also undergoing reanalysis in that say may be associating with iy to form a new comparative marker, i.e. iy say, as in (20). (20) [iy] [say si-kak] [iy say] [si-kak]

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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The reanalysis hypothesis is based on the observation that the nominal marker si before a personal name is retained when say occurs in the sentence (17).

3. Deictic pronouns
In general, deictic pronouns are composed of a nominal marker plus a basic deictic morpheme (see table 3). The basic deictic morphemes are: jay this/here (near speaker), tan that/there (near hearer), and man that/there (away from both speaker and hearer). Thus, the ergative marker na plus the deictic morpheme jay becomes niyay (following consonant-final words) or -n jay (following vowel-final words). Similarly, say plus jay becomes sejay. Singular absolutive forms, however, display a slightly different pattern. Following a consonant-final word, the absolutive marker i combines with the deictic morpheme, e.g. i plus jay becomes iyay, but following a vowel-final word, the absolutive marker is obligatorily absent and only the deictic morpheme occurs before the noun, e.g. jay. In table 3, ergative deictics are homophonous with possessors in genitive NPs and oblique deictics that are non-Locs. The cha oblique deictics, on the other hand, are always Locs. Also when deictics function as adjectives, rather than nominals, the final consonant of the deictic is optionally deleted, e.g. iren jay or iren ja, and sejay or seja.

Table 3. Karao Deictics


Basic form Absolutive (S and P) Singular forms jay near speaker tan near hearer man away from speaker and hearer Plural forms jay near speaker tan near hearer man away from speaker and hearer ira jay ira tan ira man cha jay cha tan cha man iren jay iren tan iren man chen jay chen tan chen man ired jay ired tan ired man ched jay ched tan ched man sejay ira setan ira seman ira iyay ithan iwan jay tan man niyay nithan niwan -n jay -n tan -n man chiyay chithan chiwan -d jay -d tan -d man sejay setan seman Ergative (A) Oblique (Loc) Marked

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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In table 3, when a deictic has two allomorphs, the first follows a consonant-final word, or less commonly, a vowel-final word, and the second always follows a vowel-final word.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Appendix B Verb Affixes


Karao has an impressive array of verb affixes that signal a range of information including syntactic transitivity, aspect, and the semantic role of the absolutive NP (i.e. S and P). (Regarding aspect, the main distinction is perfective versus imperfective, although for many verbs, continuous action can also be indicated.) Depending on the verb, affixes may also signal other kinds of information, such as intentional action, partial affectedness, and direction of movement. Although every Karao verb is specified as semantically intransitive or transitive, the vast majority of verbs may occur in more than one clause type. Thus a semantically intransitive verb may occur in a transitive clause as well as an intransitive clause, and a semantically transitive verb may occur in an antipassive clause or a passive clause as well as a transitive. The ability of a verb to occur in a particular clause type and to take particular verb affixes is controlled by the semantics of the verb. Those verbs that are semantically similar also display similar syntactic behavior. For example, intransitive motion verbs tend to pattern alike in that they typically occur in intransitive clauses with the verb affix on- cross-referencing an absolutive Theme. In addition many intransitive motion verbs may also occur in transitive clauses in which the Theme is the ergative NP, the Loc is promoted to direct object, becoming the absolutive NP, and the verb affix crossreferences the Loc. If the Theme is moving towards the Loc, the verb affix is -en, but if it is moving in any other direction (i.e. away from the Loc or vertically), the affix is -an.39 Certain verb affixes have more than one allomorph. When this is the case, selection is determined by the canonical shape of the verb root. (See Brainard 1994a.) In tables 46, the first allomorph is the basic one.40 Continuous affixes listed in these tables are usually interpreted as signalling present continuous action. Continuous aspect for future and past events is usually signalled by reduplication, although the details are somewhat complex and beyond the scope of this description. Finally stative affixes are homophonous with passive affixes. As a general rule, a verb is identified as stative if it is semantically stative and never occurs in a basic transitive clause; conversely, a verb is identified as passive if it is semantically transitive and does occur in a basic transitive clause.

39

A comprehensive analysis of the association between verbs, verb affixes, and semantic roles is found

in Brainard (1994b). 40 The basic allomorph occurs with the greatest number of verb roots and also occurs with borrowed words.

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Table 4. Verb Affixes Occurring with Semantically Intransitive Verbs in Karao


Intransitive Pattern 1 IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT onman-+CV(C)-immanman-+CV(C)iyanmeNman-+CV(C)eNiyaN-en -a -iypan--an -i iyan--an -en -a -iy-i-in-i-in-an -i -iy--an -i--an -in--an Transitive Pattern 2

Table 5. Verb Affixes Occurring with Semantically Transitive Verbs in Karao


Transitive IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT i in-en -a -iy-an -i -iy--an i--an i--i in--an -i--an -in--an -i-inAntipassive mengi engimeNman-+CV(C)eNmeNman-+CV(C)eNmengi engiiyaNiyaNPassive mayemangkaiiyaymeemangkeeme--an emangke--i e--an may--an emangkai--i iyay--an maemangkaiyama--an emangka--i iya--an

Note that the transitive affix i- and the antipassive affix mengi- in table 5 do not have present continuous forms; however, for mengi-, some speakers use the Ibaloi present continuous affix emengi-.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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Reciprocal and reflexive forms of verbs display two patterns depending on whether or not the verb is inherently reciprocal or reflexive. If the verb is inherently reciprocal or reflexive, the affixes -in- and -an do not occur on the verb in an intransitive clause, and -indoes not occur on the verb in a transitive clause. If the verb is not inherently reciprocal or reflexive, the affix -in- occurs on the verb in both intransitive and transitive clauses, and the affix -an may also be added optionally to the verb in an intransitive clause. Table 6. Verb Affixes Occurring with Reciprocal and Reflexive Verbs in Karao Intransitive Reciprocal/Reflexive IMPFT CONT PFT Comitative IMPFT CONT PFT meki ekipeki--an peki--i eki--an man-+(-in-)+(-an) iyan-+(-in-)+(-an) pan-+(-in-)+-an pan-+(-in-)+-i iyan-+(-in-)+-an Transitive

Note that in table 6 intransitive reciprocal/reflexive affixes and comitative affixes do not have a present continuous form. For the intransitive comitative affix set, some Karao speakers use the Ibaloi present continuous affix emeki-.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Appendix C Nominalizing Affixes


One way in which verbs may be nominalized is by adding an appropriate nominalizing affix. Selection of a particular nominalizing affix is controlled by semantic verb class. For example, intransitive motion verbs, the majority of which take the verb affix on-, also take the nominalizing affix i-. In tables 7 and 8, verb classes are represented by the verb affix that occurs on the greatest number of verbs in that class. Nominalizing affixes form two general patterns. The first pattern occurs in topic/comment-type nonverbal clauses in which a temporal is the comment. Affixes associated with this type of nominalization pattern are given in table 7.41 Note that pattern 2 in table 7 appears to be borrowed from Ibaloi. Examples follow.

41

As for verb affixes, certain nominalizing affixes may have several allomorphs, the selection of which is determined by the canonical shape of the root. In tables 7 and 8 the basic allomorph is given first.

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Table 7. Nominalizing Affixes in Karao Time


Verb affix Active intransitive onIMPFT PFT IMPFT PFT Aspect iinpanimpanPattern 1 Nominalizer Pattern 2

man-

Transitive iIMPFT PFT IMPFT PFT pengiimpangipeNimpaNiiniin-

-en/-an

Stative/passive me-/me--an IMPFT PFT IMPFT PFT keingkakayingkayka-

may-/may--an

(21)

Megwa-gwa megwa-gwa tomorrow

i imothok cha. i imothok cha ABS NR.IMPFT- arrive GEN.3PL

Tomorrow is when they will arrive.

(22)

Megwa-gwa megwa-gwa tomorrow

i i ABS

penbal peNtebal NR.IMPFT- talk.with

kod Juan. ko -cha Juan GEN.1SG -OBL Juan

Tomorrow is when I will talk to Juan.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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The second general pattern occurs in topic/comment-type nonverbal clauses in which a location is the comment. Affixes associated with this type are given in table 8. Again pattern 2 appears to be borrowed from Ibaloi. Examples follow. Table 8. Nominalizing Affixes in Karao Location Verb affix Active intransitive onIMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT Aspect Nominalizer Pattern 1 -an -i -im--an pan--an pan--i iyan--an Pattern 2

man-

Transitive iIMPFT CONT PFT IMPFT CONT PFT pengi--an pengi--i engi--an peN--an peN--i eN--an i--an i--i in--an

-en/-an

Stative/passive me-/me--an IMPFT CONT PFT may-/may--an IMPFT CONT PFT ke--an ke--i e--an kay--an kay--i iyay--an ka--an ka--i iya--an

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

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(23)

Kolos kolos river

i i ABS

iyandabaan ko. iyan- daba -an ko NR.PFT-wash.clothes-__ GEN.1SG

The river is where I washed (clothes). (24) Kolos kolos river i i ABS iyandabaan ko na barok. iyan- daba -an ko na baro -ko NR.PFT-wash.clothes-__ GEN.1SG OBL clothes -GEN.1SG

The river is where I washed my clothes.

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

References
Anderson, John M. 1971. The grammar of case: Towards a localistic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brainard, Sherri. 1994a. The phonology of Karao, the Philippines. Pacific Linguistics, Series B-110. _____. 1994b. Voice and ergativity in Karao. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon Ph.D. dissertation. DeLancey, Scott. 1984. Notes on agentivity and causation. Studies in Language 8.181213. _____. 1985. Agentivity and syntax. Papers from the Parasession on Causatives and Agentivity at the Twenty-first Regional Meeting Chicago Linguistic Society 21.1 12. _____. 1991. Event construal and case role assignment. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 17.338353. Gruber, Jeffrey. 1976. Lexical structures in syntax and semantics. Amsterdam: NorthHolland. Himes, Ronald S. 1998. The Southern Cordilleran group of Philippine languages. Oceanic Languages 37:120177. Jackendoff, Ray. 1983. Semantics and cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press. _____. 1990. Semantic structures. Cambridge: MIT Press. McFarland, Curtis D. (compiler). 1980. A linguistic atlas of the Philippines. Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series No. 15. Tokyo: Instititute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

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Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures (SPLC) combines two former publications titled Studies in Philippine Linguistics (SIPL) and the SIPL Supplementary Series: Philippine Texts. The focus of SPLC has been expanded to include cultural as well as linguistic studies. The publication is issued irregularly. Back issues may be purchased from the Academic Publications Manager, Summer Institute of Linguistics, P.O. Box 2270 CPO, 1099 Manila, Philippines. E-mail: Acad-Pub_Philippines@sil.org. Details (including prices) of individual issues are available on the SIL Philippines web site: <www.sil.org/asia/philippines/book_store.html#culture>.
SIPL Supplementary Series: Philippine Texts No. 1 1985 Upper Tanudan Kalinga Texts No. 2 1987 Central Cagayan Agta Texts No. 3 1987 Dibabawon Manobo Texts No. 4 1987 Guinaang Kalinga Texts No. 5 1991 Mamanwa Texts Studies Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume in Philippine Linguistics 1 No. 1 1977 1 No. 2 1977 2 No. 1 1978 2 No. 2 1978 3 No. 1 1979 3 No. 2 1979 4 No. 1 1980 4 No. 2 1983 5 No. 1 1984 5 No. 2 1984 The Elaboration of a Technical Lexicon of Pilipino 6 No. 1 1986 6 No. 2 1986 7 No. 1 1988 7 No. 2 1989 A Composite Dictionary of Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS) 8 No. 1 1990 8 No. 2 1991 Discourse Approaches to Cohesion: A Study of the Structure and Unity of a Central Bontoc Expository Text Volume 9 No. 1 1992 Volume 9 No. 2 1992 Binukid Dictionary Volume 10 No. 1 1997 A Discourse-Oriented Grammar of Eastern Bontoc Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures Volume 10 No. 2 1999 Studies in Kagayanen Volume 11 No. 1 1999 Studies in Agutaynen Volume 12 No. 1 2001 Volume 13 No. 1 2003 Karao Texts

Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0

Niyana eg kakanen na i-Karao i bohi na aso, bohi na kabajo, tan sili Why the Karaos do not eat the meat of dogs, the meat of horses, and hot peppers Sengeg na baliy The foundation house Pesing a mantenem na tapsoy The way to plant watercress Pesing a pandeko na natnateng The way to sell vegetables Bilin na pan-iskwida Advice about going away to school Appendix A Nominal markers and pronouns Appendix B Verb affixes Appendix C Nominalizing affixes References

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Brainard, Sherri, comp. 2003. Karao texts. Studies in Philippines Languages and Cultures 13. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. vi, 147pp. ISSN 0119-6456 / ISBN 971-780-017-0