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DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
This catalogue deals with transformers immersed in insulating fluid with natural self cooling (ONAN), three-phase, 50 - 2500 kVA for indoor or outdoor use, 50/60 Hz, hermetically sealed.

MANUFACTURING STANDARD
The transformers described in this catalogue are designed and tested in accordance to European Union Harmonisation Document HD428, UNE 21428 and IEC 76 standards. However, and by request, they can be manufactured according to any other national or international standards, such us HD-398, BS 171, NF C52.100, DIN 42.500, UNE 20.101, IEC 76 UNE 21320, UNE 48103, UNE EN 60551, UNE 20110, UNE 20145, UNE EN 50180, ETU 5201 E and UNESA recommendations. Another applicable documents are: ANSI C57, NEMA, ESI, HN, UTE.

RATINGS
50, 100, 160, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500 kVA. Preferential power ratings are marked in bold print.

HIGH VOLTAGE
This material is designed for voltages of 36 kV. Specific figures are not given for this parameter because of the wide variety of voltages used. Transformers can be supplied on demand to run at two different primary voltages, the shifth between these input voltages has two basic alternatives: with a primary tap changer which can be switched with no load and no applied voltage or by changing terminals under the cover.

LOW VOLTAGE
The secondary voltage under no load is allocated at 420 V, though other voltages can be supplied on demand. When usage requires two voltages, transformers with two simultaneous voltages can be supplied. In this case the no-load voltages are set to 420 and 242 V. For the lower voltage output the power is K x Pr. In simultaneous loads the power distribution is: P 1 + P2 =Pr where: K P1 = load supplied at 242 V P 2 = load supplied at 420 V Pr = rated power K = 0,75

VECTOR GROUP REFERENCE


The connections normally used are as follows: For rated power levels of 160 kVA or less: Yzn11 For rated power levels over 160 kVA: Dyn11.

INSULATION LEVELS
As per IEC 76, BS 171 and UNE 20101 standards these are set in accordance with the highest voltage for the material, being the level immediately above the rated voltage.

Material maximum admissible voltage Withstand voltage Basic insolation level

12 kV 17,5 kV 28 kV 75 kV 38 kV

24 kV 50 kV

36 kV 70 kV

95 kV 125 kV 170 kV

TEMPERATURE RISE
As per IEC 76 and UNE 20101, in normal operating mode: 60 K max. in oil 65 K average in windings Other temperature rise levels on demand.

ADVANTAGES OF HERMETIC SEALING


Transformers covered by document HD 428 (UNE 21428-1) must have one of the following oil expansion systems: a) an external conservator tank b) an air chamber under the cover c) a hermetically sealed elastic tank Alkargo recommends option (c), which is the one considered in this catalogue, as it has the following advantages: 1. Smaller size, as there is no need for an conservator tank or air chamber, making for easier transformer transportation and placement. 2. Lower overall weight. 3. Increased sturdiness and less risk of leaks, there being no weak points such as welds between the expansion tank and the cover, oil level gauge, Silicagel air breather, etc. 4. Low maintenance due to the absence of elements such as the drier, overpressure valves and liquid level indicators. 5. No degradation of insulating liquid (oil) by oxidation or absorption of moisture, as there is no contact with the air. The liquid therefore remains in ideal condition. 6. Better conservation of seals due to lack of contact with air, which means that they stay more flexible.

Construction details

I- MAGNETIC CIRCUIT
Oriented grain, very low loss magnetic plate is used following UNE 36128. The type or class of plate is chosen on the basis guaranteed noise level and losses. The net cross section is maintained constant in limbs and yokes throughout the magnetic circuit, as a special configuration does away with the need for cross-section reducing grip bolts (section reduction). The limbs and yokes are joined by 45 lugless joints, with complete one-piece yoke, and stacking is arranged so that each plate profile is staggered with regard to the previous one, thus minimising the effect of the gap. The profile is stepped, with the number of steps required to obtain the best coefficient of useful surface area.

II- LOW VOLTAGE WINDING


This winding is located next to and concentric with the magnetic circuit. Two clearly different types of wire are used depending on the allocated current: - Rectangular cross-section with rounded edges as per UNE 21179; or - Strips with conditioned edges. In the former case each wire is insulated with thermal class A cellulose paper or class H enamel. Strips are used bare. The rectangular wire winding is set up in a complete layer configuration with one or more concentric channels for cooling. The insulation between layers is always B status resin impregnated. The width of the strip on strip type windings with conditioned edges covers the whole axial width of the coil, so that each turn is a layer of winding. As the strip is wound a layer of type B resin impregnated paper is wound with it. This polymerises during the drying cycle, giving the winding the strength to withstand the mechanical stresses entailed by short circuits as per IEC - 76 and BS 171 standards.

III- HIGH VOLTAGE WINDING


This is wrapped around the low voltage winding to lie concentric with it, separated by an insulation structure giving the level of insulation desired. The conductors used are of two types: circular cross-section wire rectangular cross section strips. The conductors are insulated with thermal class H enamel. The rectangular section wires or strips have thermal class A paper or thermal class H enamel. With both types of wire, the winding configuration is anti-resonant in one section, making it highly resistant to ray type pulse waves. The insulation between layers is resin impregnated, polymerising during drying to give the winding the strength to withstand the mechanical stresses entailed by short circuits.

IV- ACTIVE PART


This is the name given to the set of elements which can be removed from the tank of the transformer. Apart from the core and windings, the main elements are: fixing and guide structure tap changer cover cover bushing

-The purpose of the fixing structure is to hold the windings in the correct axial position with regard to the magnetic circuit, and to exert the pressure required on that circuit to minimise noise level. It comprises four beams: two made of layered wood with phenol resin at the top cylinder head and two made of steel at the bottom one. Gripping for height and thickness is via threaded steel rods which help to adjust the cover height. Distances between windings and tank are maintained by two guide feet attached to the bottom beams. -The tap changer, whose control is on the cover, is set between the cover and the top of the magnetic circuit. It is a rack type unit with a clogged pinion which acts directly on the control shaft. -The cover is made of plain steel plate reinforced by sections which also serve to attach the vertical rods which raise the rest of the components. The cover is considerably bigger than the tank frame to prevent rain water getting into the seal seating area. -The high and low voltage cover bushings are fitted for outdoor service. On demand, and according to the rated current, low voltage bushings are mounted on an anti-magnetic plate.

V- TANK
The distribution transformer tank is elastic, enabling it to absorb the increase in volume of insulating fluid as it heats up due to the transformer operation without experiment permanent deformations. It comprises the following components: supporting frames base cooling fins outer frame - The supporting frames are welded to the base in a continuous, watertight bead to prevent rusting. They have holes for attaching wheel heads and dragging the transformer. - The base is bath shaped, with earth connections and a drainage device on the sides. - The cooling fins are the fundamental part of the tank: they form the corrugated side walls and give it the required elasticity. They are made of cold-rolled steel plate between 1 and 5 mm thick, bent without drawing. Elasticity is obtained by a suitable combination of height, depth, plate thickness and resulting internal pressure. - The outer frame of the tank is made of L-section steel, welded to the top of the corrugated side walls. The top of this frame houses the pressure limiters for the seal and bear the holes for the cover/tank fixing screws.

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The two tables below indicate the guaranteed rated figures as per document HD 428, UNE 21428-1 (1996) and IEC-76 standards. These figures are valid for a single secondary voltage, even if there is more than one primary voltage.

Highest voltage for material: 24 kV Low voltage B2: 420 V

Rated Power (kVA) No load losses (Wo) Load losses (Wc) at 75C Short-circuit voltage (%) at 75C Efficiency (%), cos =1 4/4 F.L. 3/4 F.L. 2/4 F.L. 1/4 F.L. Efficiency (%), cos =0,8 4/4F.L. 3/4 F.L. 4/4 F.L. 1/4 F.L. Regulation voltage (%) . cos =1 Regulation voltage (%) . cos =0,8 Lw= Acoustic pressure level dB(A) F.L. = Full Load

50 190

100 160 320 460

250 400 650 930

630

800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500

1300 1550 1700 2130 2600 3100 3800

1100 1750 2350 3250 4600 6500 8100 10500 13500 17000 20200 26500 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6

97,48 97,97 98,27 98,46 98,64 98,78 98,81 98,79 98,77 98,79 98,84 98,80 97,89 98,29 98,53 98,70 98,84 98,96 99,00 99,00 98,97 99,00 99,04 99,01 98,17 98,51 98,70 98,84 98,98 99,07 99,12 99,14 99,13 99,16 99,18 99,18 97,97 98,31 98,51 98,65 98,80 98,93 98,98 99,07 99,06 99,09 99,14 99,13 96,88 97,48 97,85 98,09 98,30 98,47 98,52 98,50 98,46 98,50 98,56 98,51 97,37 97,87 98,17 98,37 98,56 98,70 98,75 98,75 98,72 98,76 98,80 98,77 97,73 98,14 98,38 98,56 98,72 98,84 98,91 98,93 98,91 98,95 98,98 98,97 97,48 97,90 98,14 98,32 98,50 98,66 98,73 98,84 98,82 98,87 98,92 98,92 2,26 1,81 1,54 1,37 1,22 1,10 1,18 1,22 1,25 1,23 1,18 1,23 3,77 3,58 3,43 3,33 3,25 3,18 4,44 4,47 4,49 4,48 4,44 4,48 52 56 59 62 65 67 68 68 70 71 73 76

Highest voltage for material: 36 kV Low voltage B2: 420 V

Rated Power (kVA) No load losses (Wo) Load losses (Wc) at 75C Short-circuit voltage (%) at 75C Efficiency (%), cos =1 4/4 F.L. 3/4 F.L. 2/4 F.L. 1/4 F.L. Efficiency (%), cos =0,8 4/4F.L. 3/4 F.L. 4/4 F.L. 1/4 F.L. Regulation voltage (%) . cos =1 Regulation voltage (%) . cos =0,8 Lw= Acoustic pressure level dB(A) F.L. = Full Load

50

100

160 520

250 400 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 780 1120 1450 1700 2000 2360 2800 3300 4100

230 380

1250 1950 2550 3500 4900 6650 8500 10500 13500 17000 20200 26500 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 6 6 6 6 6 6

97,13 97,72 98,12 98,32 98,51 98,73 98,75 98,77 98,75 98,78 98,83 98,78 97,57 98,07 98,39 98,56 98,72 98,91 98,94 98,96 98,95 98,98 99,03 99,00 97,88 98,29 98,57 98,70 98,84 99,02 99,06 99,08 99,09 99,12 99,16 99,16 97,59 98,03 98,33 98,43 98,59 98,83 98,90 98,95 98,99 99,04 99,10 99,09 96,43 97,17 97,66 97,91 98,15 98,41 98,44 98,46 98,44 98,47 98,55 98,50 96,98 97,60 98,00 98,20 98,41 98,64 98,67 98,70 98,69 98,72 98,78 98,76 97,36 97,88 98,21 98,38 98,55 98,78 98,83 98,86 98,86 98,90 98,95 98,95 97,01 97,55 97,92 98,04 98,25 98,54 98,62 98,69 98,73 98,81 98,87 98,86 2,57 2,03 1,68 1,49 1,32 1,16 1,23 1,22 1,25 426 4,02 3,83 3,72 3,62 3,51 4,48 4,47 4,49 52 56 59 62 65 67 68 68 70 1,23 1,18 1,23 4,48 4,44 4,48 71 73 76

DIMENSIONES & WEIGHTS

The data in the tables are approximate, and correspond to hermetically sealed oil transformers with electrical characteristics as per the above tables. They are not valid for other loss levels, double voltages, different insulation voltages, silicone transformers, etc. In these cases, please consult us.

Highest voltage for material: 24 kV Low voltage B2: 420 V


Rated Power Lenght (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) Wheels diameter (mm) 1Distance between wheel axis (mm) Wheels width (mm) Wheel free deep (mm) L.V. bushing height (mm) kVA A B C D E F G H

50 870 720 1270 125 520 40 35 125 80 385 275 115 128 460

100 950 720 1310 125 520 40 35 125 80 385 275 120 134 590

160 1170 720 1350 125 520 40 35 125 80 385 275 175 195 810

250 1240 870 1440 125 670 40 35 175 150 385 275 235 262 1040

400

630

800 1740 1040 1560 125 670 40 35 275 150 385 275 460 485 2240

1000 1860 1120 1640 125 670 40 35 325 150 385 275 490 547 2640

1250 1920 1120 1810 200 820 70 45 325 150 385 275 640 715 3330

1600 1860 1100 1990 200 820 70 45 355 200 385 275 830 927 3910

2000 2040 1160 2005 200 820 70 45 355 200 385 275 1030 1150 4850

2500 2100 1350 2055 200 1070 70 45 355 200 385 275 1170 1300 5500

1440 1540 870 960

1490 1490 125 670 40 35 175 150 385 275 260 290 125 670 40 35 275 150 385 275 310 346

Distance between L.V. bushing axis (mm) J H.V. bushing height (mm) K

Distance between H.V. bushing axis (mm) L Insolation fluid weight Insolation fluid volume Total weight Kg. l. Kg.

1410 1670

K H

E A J J J

F E

B D G

Highest voltage for material: 36 kV


Rated Power Lenght (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) Wheels diameter (mm) kVA A B C D 50 990 720 1380 125 520 40 35 125 80 500 375 115 128 460 100 1070 720 1410 125 520 40 35 125 80 500 375 120 134 590 160 1170 720 1450 125 520 40 35 125 80 500 375 175 195 810 250 1240 870 1540 125 670 40 35 175 150 500 375 235 262 1040 400

Low voltage B2: 420 V


630 800 1740 1040 1660 125 670 40 35 275 150 500 375 460 485 2240 1000 1860 1120 1740 125 670 40 35 325 150 500 375 490 547 2640 1250 1920 1120 1910 200 820 70 45 325 150 500 375 640 715 3330 1600 1860 1100 2110 200 820 70 45 355 200 500 375 830 927 3910 2000 2040 1160 2160 200 820 70 45 355 200 500 375 1030 1150 4850 2500 2100 1350 2210 200 1070 70 45 355 200 500 375 1170 1300 5550

1440 1580 870 960

1590 1680 125 670 40 35 175 150 500 375 260 290 125 670 40 35 275 150 500 375 310 346

1Distance between wheel axis (mm) E Wheels width (mm) Wheel free deep (mm) L.V. bushing height (mm) F G H

Distance between L.V. bushing axis (mm) J H.V. bushing height (mm) K

Distance between H.V. bushing axis (mm) L Insolation fluid weight Insolation fluid volume Total weight Kg. l. Kg.

1410 1670

BASIC EQUIPMENT
All transformers are supplied with: 3 high voltage bushings 4 or 7 low voltage bushings 5-position tap changer on cover, workable with transformer off load 2 lifting & tank removal eye-bolts Filling hole with M-40 x 1.5 outside thread and threaded cover Drainage & sampling plug at bottom of tank 4 two-way, 90 directional wheels 2 earthing connections at bottom with M-10 screws

OPTIONAL

ACCESSORIES

Two-contact dial thermometer Terminal box HV plug-in bushing Thermostat LV and HV cable boxes Protection & control block for the following functions:
Two-contact dial thermometer HV plug-in bushing Terminal box

Detection of gas emissions from dielectric liquid (trip), detection of excessive increase in pressure on tank (trip), dielectric liquid temperature reading and liquid level display (adjustable alarm & trip contacts)

LV bar bushing
Protection & control block

LV bar bushing

For conservator tank type transformers: Two contacts Buchholz relay Silicagel air breather Magnetic level sensor with one or two contacts Oil Level indicator Others
Silicagel air breather Two contacts Buchholz relay

TEST
All transformers undergo the following individual or routine tests as per IEC-76 , BS 171 and UNE 20101: Winding resistance measurement Check on connection elements & polarity Transformer ratio measurement & coupling check No load losses & no load current measurements Load losses measurement Short-circuit voltage measurement (main connection point) Dielectric tests Induced voltage test in windings Applied voltage test in windings On request the following type tests can also be performed: Heating test Lighting impulse test Measuring of noise level Oil characteristics Others

OTHER PRODUCTS IN OUR MANUFACTURING RANGE


Transformers in silicone (LNAN) Cast-resin dry type transformers from 50 to 5000 kVA with high voltage class 36 kV Medium power transformers up to 30 MVA and 72.5 kV Earthing transformers & reactances Impregnated dry transformers Auto-transformers Transformers for rectifiers Special transformers
Note: The data and descriptions in this catalogue refer to our present design and construction techniques, and do not constitute an undertaking on our part unless confirmed as such. We reserve the right to make such modifications and improvements as may be deemed convenient without prior notice.

ALKARGO, S. COOP
Aritz Bidea n 83 Atela Auzotegia 48100 Munga (Vizcaya) - SPAIN Tel.:+34 (94) 674.00.04 Fax: +34 (94) 674.44.17 Apartado 102 / P BOX 102 .O e-mail: alkargo@alkargo.com

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