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Norman kings William I (1066-1087) William II (1087-1100), called Rufus because of his red hair Henry I (1100-1135), William

Rufus brother Stephen (1135-1154), Henrys nephew and the last Norman king The House of Plantagenet Henry II (1154-1189), Henry Is grandson(Matildas son) Richard I (1189-1199), the Lion-Hearted, third son of Henry II John (1199-1216), the Lackland, fifth son of Henry II Henry III (1216-1272), Johns son Edward I (1272-1307), Henry IIIs son Edward II (1307-1327), Edward Is son Edward III (1327-1377), Edward IIs son Richard II (1377-1399), Edward IIIs grandson
Henry II: Control of Barons
He destroyed all castles that had been built illegally during Stephens reign. He hired mercenaries. Knights could pay a sum of money, the scutage, instead of giving the king military service. Henry II: the reform of justice The king regained control of the justice system by creating travelling judges. The law they administered was called common law The common law was used everywhere and based on local customs comparisons and previous cases. It was different from the law administered in other parts of Europe, linked to the civil law of the Roman Empire and the canon law of the Church.

In medieval times the Church was very important

Henry II and the Church Henry aimed at reducing the power of the Church. He appointed his friend Thomas Becket as his Chancellor. Once Archbishop of Canterbury, Becket became an opponent of the King, who claimed authority in investing the bishops. The conflict between the King and Becket lasted for a long time until Becket was murdered by four knights sent by the King. Europe was shocked by the murder of Thomas Becket. After his death, Becket was made a saint, and Canterbury Cathedral became a shrine for pilgrims to visit.

The Magna Carta

Events leading to the Magna Carta: King John became unpopular because: he lost French territories; he collected higher taxes to equal less income coming from the loss of a great mass of the French land. In 1215 the barons refused to pay the scutage; conspired to resist the King; occupied London; made King John sign an important document, the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta:

promised freedoms to all people; protected the rights of ordinary people; gave England the basis of a legal system; promised to have good and fair laws; prevented any freeman from being punished without a proper trial.