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RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology

Imagine having a high-definition TV that is 80 inches wide and less than a quarter-inch thick, consumes less power than most TVs on the market today and can be rolled up when you're not using it. What if you could have a "heads up" display in your car? How about a display monitor built into your clothing? These devices may be possible in the near future with the help of a technology called organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLED is a flat display technology, made by placing a series of organic thin films between two conductors. OLED stands for Organic EL (ElectroLuminescence), and is the phenomenon of light emitted by organic materials to which a voltage has been applied Organic light emitting diodes have been receiving a lot of attention over the world as a new type of display technology. OLEDs have many advantages over conventional display technologies. First, the fabrication process is easy, and devices are thinner and lighter than those fabricated by cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology. Second, there are also some advantages over liquid crystal (LCD) displays: greater viewing angle, lighter weight, and quicker response. Unlike LCDs, which require backlighting, OLED displays are "emissive" devices, meaning they emit light rather than modulate transmitted or reflected light. Since only the part of the display that is actually lit up consumes power, the most efficient OLEDs available today use less power. Based on these advantages, OLEDs have been proposed for a wide range of display applications including magnified micro displays, wearable, head-mounted computers, digital cameras, personal digital assistants, smart pagers, and mobile hones as well as medical, automotive, and other industrial applications. Video wallpaper - just a millimeter thick - could transform your living room wall into a flat screen and electronic film as thin as a sheet of paper could serve as your screen for the internet, the news, images or games. In future, all of this will be possible thanks to organic light emitting diodes, so-called OLEDs. ECE Department 1

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Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) operate on the principle of converting electrical energy into light, a phenomenon known as electroluminescence. They exploit the properties of certain organic materials which emit light when an electric current passes through them. In its simplest form, an OLED consists of a layer of thin luminescent material sandwiched between two electrodes. When an electric current is passed between the electrodes, through the organic layer, light is emitted with a color that depends on the particular material used. In order to observe the light emitted by an OLED, at least one of the electrodes must be transparent.

The basic OLED cell structure consists of a stack of thin organic layers sandwiched between a transparent anode and a metallic cathode. The basic structure of OLED is shown in fig.1. The organic layers comprise a hole-injection layer, a holetransport layer (HTL), an emissive layer and an electron-transport layer(ETL). When an appropriate voltage (typically a few volts) is applied to the cell, the injected positive and negative charges recombine in the emissive layer to produce light (electroluminescence). The structure of the organic layers and the choice of anode and cathode are designed to maximize the recombination process in the emissive layer, thus maximizing the light output from the OLED device. Both the electroluminescent efficiency and control of color output can be significantly enhanced by "doping" the emissive layer with a small amount of highly fluorescent molecules. Like an LED, an OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material

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RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology An OLED consists of the following parts: Substrate: The substrate which is made of glass, clear plastic, or foil. The substrate is used to support the OLED. Anode: The anode is made of natural graphite particles, which is transparent and is the second layer. The anode layer removes electrons from the conductive layer when a current flows into the devices. Organic Layers: These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers. Conducting layer: The third layer is the conducting layer. This layer is made of organic plastic molecules. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. Emissive layer: The fourth layer is emissive layer. This layer is also also composed of organic plastic molecules, but has a different function. The emissive layer removes electrons from the cathode layer which causes light to be made. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene.

Cathode: The final layer is the cathode. It may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED. The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. Tungsten is used.

Fig 2.1. Structure of OLED

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A typical OLED is composed of an emissive layer, a conductive layer, a substrate, an anode and cathode terminals. The layers are made of special organic molecules that conduct electricity. Their levels of conductivity range from those of insulators to those of conductors, and so they are called organic semiconductors. The first, most basic OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer, for example the first light-emitting polymer device synthesized by Burroughs et al involved a single layer of poly (pphenylenevinylene). Multilayer OLEDs can have more than two layers to improve device efficiency. As well as conductive properties, layers may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile, or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.

Fig.2.1.1 OLED working The organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a p-n diode, in which charge-carriers (e-h pairs) recombine to emit photons in an organic layer. The thickness of this layer is approximately 100 nm. OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs, through a process called electrophosphorescence as shown in fig.2. A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. This causes a current of ECE Department 4

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode. Thus, the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer, and the anode withdraws electrons from the conductive layer; in other words, the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer. Soon, the emissive layer becomes negatively charged, while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons, accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. That is why this layer is called emissive. The emission of light is shown in fig.3. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current, the brighter the light. The device does not work when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. In this condition, holes move to the anode and electrons to the cathode, so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine. Indium tin oxide is commonly used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer.

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Fig.2.1.2 Emission of light

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OLEDs are typically fabricated on a transparent substrate on which the first electrode (usually indium-tin-oxide which is both transparent and conductive) is first deposited. Then one or more organic layers are coated by either thermal evaporation in the case of small organic dye molecules, or spin coating of polymers. In addition to the luminescent material itself, other organic layers may be used to enhance injection and transport of electrons and/or holes. The total thickness of the organic layers is of order 100 nm. Lastly, the metal cathode (such as magnesium-silver alloy, lithium-aluminum or calcium) is evaporated on top.the basic structure is shown in fig.4. These metals are chosen for their low workfunctions in order that they provide efficient injection of electrons. The two electrodes add perhaps 200 nm more to the total thickness of the device. Therefore the overall thickness (and weight) of the structure is mostly due to the substrate itself.

Fig.3 layers of OLED The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying the organic layers to the substrate. This can be done in three ways.

1. Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) - In a

vacuum chamber, the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates. This process is expensive and inefficient

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2. Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) Vapor phase deposition is an

OLED manufacturing technology with the potential to increase the performance and reduce the cost of OLED production. The OVPD process offers the possibility to deposit high-quality, organic films with better performance and cost characteristics than achieved using todays conventional vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) process. The OVPD process employs an inert carrier gas to precisely transfer films of organic material onto a cooled substrate in a hot-walled, low-pressure (typically 0.1 1 Torr) chamber. The organic materials are stored in external, separate, thermallycontrolled cells. Once evaporated from these heated cells, the materials are entrained and transported by an inert carrier gas such as nitrogen as shown in fig.5. Gas flow rate, pressure and temperature as process control variables. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs. The materials deposit down onto the cooled substrate from a manifold located only several centimeters above the substrate. For patterned displays, a shadow mask can be placed very close to the substrate. OVPD offers multiple advantages and end-user benefits.

Fig.3.1 OVPD process OVPD Process Features

Higher Deposition Rates. Deposition rates with OVPD can be several

times higher than the rate for conventional VTE processes because the OVPD deposition rate is primarily controlled by the flow of the carrier gas. ECE Department 8

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Higher Materials Utilization. Because the organic materials do not

deposit on the heated surfaces of the chamber, materials utilization is much better than with VTE where the materials deposit everywhere. This feature should translate into lower raw material cost, less downtime and higher production throughput.

Better Device Performance. The OVPD process can provide better film thickness control and uniformity over larger areas than VTE. With threevariable process control OVPD offers more precise deposition rates and doping control at very low levels. As a result, sharper or graded layer interfaces can be more easily achieved. In addition, multiple materials can be co-deposited in one chamber without the cross-contamination problems commonly experienced in VTE systems.

Shadow Mask Patterning. OVPD offers better shadow mask-to-substrate

distance control than is possible with VTE up-deposition. Because the mask is above, instead of below, the substrate, its thickness can be dictated by the desired pattern shape rather than the need for rigidity. Thus precise, reproducible pixel profiles can be obtained.

Larger Substrate Sizes. Because the Aixtron AG-proprietary showerhead

can be designed to maintain a constant source-to-substrate distance, OVPD may be more readily scaled to larger substrate sizes. This also may render OVPD more adaptable to in-line and roll-to-roll processing for flexible displays. OVPD is an innovative technology for the thin film deposition of small molecular organic materials. It utilizes the advantages of gas phase deposition, where the materials are transported to the substrate by an inert carrier gas.

3. Inkjet printing - With inkjet technology, OLEDs are sprayed onto substrates
just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing as shown in fig.6. Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs ECE Department 9

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens or electronic billboards. Recognizing the importance of developing this field of expertise and supporting it licensees and partners in scaling up for production, CDT has installed the largest ink jet printing facility of its type, and offers a total solution covering all the aspects of making displays using ink jet printing. The focus for the efforts is a solution which is:Proven,Fast, gives reliable operation and high uptime, produces high resolution PLED displays.

Fig.3.2 Inkjet printing

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OLED design can be mainly classified into two; Passive matrix(PMOLED) and Active matrix (AMOLED).


The passive-matrix OLED display has a simple structure and is well suited for low- cost and low-information content applications such as alphanumeric displays. It is formed by providing an array of OLED pixels connected by intersecting anode and cathode. PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips as shown in fig.7. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. To get a passivematrix OLED to work, electrical current is passed through selected pixels by applying a voltage to the corresponding rows and columns from drivers attached to each row and column. The more current pumped through each pixel diode, the brighter the pixel looks to our eyes. An external controller circuit provides the necessary input power, video data signal and multiplex switches. Data signal is generally supplied to the column lines and synchronized to the scanning of the row lines. When a particular row is selected, the column and row data lines determine which pixels are lit. A video output is thus displayed on the panel by scanning through all the rows successively in a frame time, which is typically 1/60 of a second. While PMOLEDs are fairly simple structures to design and fabricate, they demand relatively expensive, current-sourced drive electronics to operate effectively. In addition, their power consumption is significantly higher than that required by a continuous charge mode in an active-matrix OLED. When PMOLEDs are pulsed with very high drive currents over a short duty cycle, they do not typically operate at their intrinsic peak efficiency. ECE Department 11

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2- to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry, passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices.

Fig.4.1 passive OLED


Active-matrix OLED displays provide the same beautiful video-rate performance as their passive-matrix OLED counterparts, but they consume significantly less power. This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs especially well suited for portable electronics where battery power consumption is critical and for displays that are larger than 2 to 3 in diagonal, The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors, largescreen TVs and electronic signs or billboards An active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) display consists of OLED pixels that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array to form a matrix of pixels that illuminate light upon electrical activation.the typical structure of active OLED is shown in fig.8. In contrast to a PMOLED display, where electricity is distributed row by row, the active-matrix TFT backplane acts as an array of switches that control the amount of current flowing through each OLED pixel.The TFT array continuously controls the current that flows to the pixels, signaling to each pixel how brightly to shine. Typically, this continuous current flow is controlled by at least two TFTs at each pixel, one to start and stop the charging of a storage capacitor and the second to provide a ECE Department 12

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology voltage source at the level needed to create a constant current to the pixel. As a result, the AMOLED operates at all times (i.e., for the entire frame scan), avoiding the need for the very high currents required for passive matrix operation.

Fig.4.2 Active OLED In contrast to the passive-matrix OLED display, active-matrix OLED has an integrated electronic back plane as its substrate and lends itself to high-resolution, high information content applications including videos and graphics. In an active-matrix OLED display, each individual pixel can be addressed independently via the associated TFTs and capacitors in the electronic back plane. That is, each pixel element can be selected to stay on during the entire frame time, or duration of the video. Since OLED is an emissive device, the display aperture factor is not critical, unlike LCD displays where light must pass through aperture. Therefore, there are no intrinsic limitations to the pixel count, resolution, or size of an active-matrix OLED display, leaving the possibilities for commercial use open to our imaginations. Also, because of the TFTs in the active-matrix design, a defective pixel produces only a dark effect, which is considered to be much less objectionable than a bright point defect, like found in LCDs.

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PHOLED Phosphorescent OLED technology and materials make it possible for OLED to attain up to four times greater efficiency than previously thought possible. Universal Display Corporation pioneered this technology with our partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California, using the principle of electro -phosphorescence to convert up to 100% of the electrical energy in an OLED into light. This compares favorably both to traditional fluorescent OLED technology, where approximately 25% of the electrical energy is converted into light, and to backlit liquid crystal displays (LCDs) where as much as 90% of the light from the backlight is reduced by the color filter array and other display components.

Fig. 5.1 Phosphorescent OLED Due to their extremely high level of energy efficiency, even when compared to other OLEDs, PHOLEDs are being studied for potential use in large-screen displays such as computer monitors or TV screens, as well as general lighting needs. One potential use of PHOLEDs as lighting devices is to cover walls with gigantic PHOLED displays. This would allow entire rooms to glow uniformly, rather than require the use of light bulbs which distribute light unequally throughout a room. ECE Department 14

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology A significant advance for the OLED industry, Universal Display Corporation's proprietary PHOLED technology and materials offer excellent performance with: Record-breaking power efficiencies that translate into up to four times lower power consumption with less heat generation, scalability to larger sizes based on reduced power losses and enhanced light output, and potential compatibility with amorphous-Silicon (a- Si), as well as poly-Silicon (poly-Si) TFT backplane technologies for active-matrix displays. Vibrant, bright colors for monochrome and full-color applications. Long operating lifetimes with spectral stability over time. Using our PHOLED technology a 2.2 full-color, active-matrix PHOLED operating at a brightness of 200 candelas per square meter (cd/m 2) consumes only 125 milliWatts (mW) under video-mode conditions (with illumination of 30% of the pixels). This compares favorably with 180 mW for an equivalent backlit LCD and 240 mW for a fluorescent OLED, under similar conditions. These performance features make PHOLEDs well suited for passive-matrix and active-matrix displays, as well as lighting and other opto-electronic applications PHOLED technology and materials are also well suited for use in a variety of manufacturing processes. Today, PHOLED materials are commonly used in vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) systems today, and are also compatible with OVPDTM organic vapor phase deposition systems. PHOLED materials may also be compatible with laser induced thermal imaging (LITI) and other novel deposition/patterning techniques, now under development In addition, solution-processible PHOLED materials are under development for use with ink-jet printing equipment. Innovation has led us to develop a suite of PHOLED materials with excellent spectral, efficiency and lifetime performance characteristics. We continue to develop additional materials and device architectures with enhanced performance, such as expanded colors, higher efficiencies and longer lifetimes to

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TOLED transparent and top-emitting OLED technology uses a proprietary transparent contact structure to create displays that can be be made to be top-only emitting, bottom-only emitting, or both top and bottom emitting (transparent). Top qnd bottom emitting TOLED is shown in fig.10. TOLEDs can significantly enhance display performance. TOLEDs can greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight.

Fig.5.2 structure of transparent OLED By comparison to conventional OLEDs, TOLEDs use a transparent compound cathode (top electrode) that allows light to emit from both surfaces (transparent on left) or selectively from the top surface by using an opaque substrate or film (top-emitting on right). Because TOLEDs are 70% transparent when turned off, they may be integrated into car windshields, architectural windows, and eyewear. Their transparency enables TOLEDs to be used with metal, foils, silicon wafers and other opaque substrates for topemitting devices. Transparency: TOLEDs can be 70% to 85% transparent when switched off, nearly as clear as the glass or plastic substrate on which they are built. This feature paves the way for TOLEDs to be built into vision-area applications, such ECE Department 16

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology as architectural windows for home entertainment and teleconferencing purposes, and automotive windshields for navigation and warning systems. TOLEDs may also enable the development of novel helmet-mounted or "heads-up" systems for virtual reality, industrial and medical applications. Top emission: Using the same transparent structure, TOLED technology can also be used for top-emitting structures for active-matrix displays and with opaque substrates. Especially desirable for high-resolution, active-matrix OLED applications, a top-emitting structure can improve the effective active area and the power consumption of the display by directing the emitted light away from the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane rather than through it. Top-emitting OLEDs can also be built on opaque surfaces such as metallic foil (e.g., automotive components.) and silicon wafers. Potential TOLED applications include smart cards or displays on furniture, automotive parts and other opaque surfaces, to suggest a few. Simple TOLED displays have the potential to be directly integrated with future dynamic credit cards. Top emitting TOLEDs also provide an excellent way to achieve better fill factor and characteristics in high resolution, high information- content displays using active matrix silicon backplanes. Enhanced high-ambient contrast: TOLED technology offers enhanced contrast ratio. By using a low-reflectance absorber (a black backing) behind either top or bottom TOLED surface, contrast ratio can be significantly improved over that in most reflective LCDs and OLEDs. This feature is particularly important in daylight readable applications, such as on cell phones and in military fighter aircraft cockpits. Multi-stacked devices: TOLEDs are a fundamental building block for many multistructure (i.e. SOLEDs) and hybrid devices. Bi-directional TOLEDs can provide two independent displays emitting from opposite faces of the display. With portable products shrinking and desired information content expanding, TOLEDs make it possible to get twice the display area for the same display size.

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The Stacked OLED (SOLED) uses novel pixel architecture that is based on stacking the red, green, and blue subpixels on top of one another as shown in fig. 11 instead of next to one another as is commonly done in CRTs and LCDs. This improves display resolution up to three-fold and enhances full-color quality. SOLEDs may provide the high resolution needed for wireless worldwide-web applications.

Fig.5.3 structure of SOLED A SOLED display consists of an array of vertically-stacked TOLED sub-pixels. To separately tune color and brightness, each of the red, green and blue (R-G-B) subpixel elements is individually controlled. By adjusting the ratio of currents in the three elements, color is tuned. By varying the total current through the stack, brightness is varied. By modulating the pulse width, gray scale is achieved. With this SOLED architecture, each pixel can, in principle, provide full color. Universal Display Corporation's SOLED technology may be the first demonstration of an vertically integrated structure where intensity, color and gray scale can be independently tuned to achieve high-resolution full-color.

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RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology The SOLED architecture is a significant departure from the traditional side-byside (SxS) approach used in CRTs and LCDs today. Compared to SxS configurations, SOLEDs offer compelling performance enhancements. The advantages of SOLED are the following Full-color tunability: SOLEDs offer dynamic full-color tunability for "true" color quality at each pixel -- valuable when color fidelity is important. High resolution: SOLEDs also offer 3X higher resolution than the comparable SxS display. While it takes three SxS pixels (an R, G and B) to generate fullcolor, it takes only one SOLED pixel -- or one-third the area -- to achieve the same. This is especially advantageous when maximizing pixel density is important. Nearly 100% fill factor: SOLEDs also maximize fill factor. For example, when a fullcolor display calls for green, the red and blue pixels are turned off in the SxS structure. By comparison, all the pixels turn on green in a SOLED under the same conditions. This means that SOLED color definition and picture quality are superior. Scalable to large pixel size: In large screen displays, individual pixels are frequently large enough to be seen by the eye at short range. With the SxS format, the eye may perceive the individual red, green and blue instead of the intended color mixture. With a SOLED, each pixel emits the desired color and, thus, is perceived correctly no matter what size it is and from where it is viewed.


FOLED flexible OLEDs are organic light emitting devices that are built on flexible substrates such as plastic or metallic foil. FOLED displays can offer significant performance advantages over LCD displays that are typically built on rigid glass substrates and contain a bulky backlight.

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Fig.5.4 Flexible OLED FOLEDs Offer Revolutionary Features for Displays Ultra-lightweight, thin form: The use of thin plastic substrates will also significantly reduce the weight of flat panel displays in cell phones, portable computers and, especially, large-area televisions-on-the-wall. For example, the weight of a display in a laptop may be significantly reduced by using FOLED technology. Flexibility: FOLEDs may be manufactured on a variety of substrates. FOLEDs built on optically-clear plastic films and thin, bendable metallic foils. These materials provide the ability to conform, bend or roll a display into any shape . For example, FOLEDs may someday be found affixed to curved helmet face shields, shirtsleeve cuffs and automotive instrument panels. The potential flexibility of FOLEDs may also enable the realization of Universal Display Corporations proprietary Universal Communication Device. In the meantime, earlier generation FOLEDs may provide limited conformability for applications that include a cell phone that conforms to the shape of your hand or a portable DVD player that has a curved surface to enhance the audiences viewing experience. Cost-effective processing: FOLED technology opens up prospects for highthroughput, roll-to-roll processing (R2R) of OLEDs in the future, providing the basis for their truly low-cost mass production. Durability: FOLEDs will also generally be less breakable, more impact resistant and more durable compared to their glass-based counterpart.

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RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology Key challenges for FOLEDs relate to flexible substrates, flexible packaging and encapsulation. The U.S. Department of Defense is partially supporting our efforts with the objective of providing soldiers with lighter, thinner, flexible displays in the future. Flexible Substrates Today, the primary substrate candidates are thin plastics, such as PET and PEN polyester films. While these materials offer many attractive features, they also currently impose limitations with respect to thermal processing and barrier performance The novel use of metallic foil substrates for FOLEDs is a complementary approach to the glass and plastic displays that Universal Display Corporation has made possible through its proprietary FOLED and TOLED top-emitting technologies. Flexible metallic substrates provide excellent barrier properties, thermal and dimensional stability over a broad temperature range, and cost effectiveness. They also offer potential near-term integration with backplane technology for active-matrix FOLED displays. FOLED Packaging and Encapsulation To protect an OLED from the degrading effects of water and oxygen, the conventional solution for glass-based OLEDs has been to seal the OLED with a glass lid (or metal can) using an ultraviolet-cured epoxy resin. A getter material is often incorporated within the package to eliminate residual water and oxygen or any that may find ingress through the seal. FOLED packaging, however, is much more challenging. The standard sandwich construction that works well for glass-based displays is insufficient or problematic for FOLED displays where the ability to conform or flex the display is key.

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A luminous form An organic LED panel Self emission of light Liquid crystal Panel Back light or outside

light is necessary Consumption of Electric It is lowered to about It is abundant when back power mW though it is a little light is used higher than the reflection type liquid Colour Indication form crystal panel Thefluorescent material A colour filter is used. of RGB is arranged in order and or a colour filter is used. High brightness 100 cd/m2 6 cd/m2 The dimension of the Several-inches type in It is produced to 28-inch panel Contrast The thickness the future to about 10- type in the future to 30inch type.Goal inch type.Goal 100:14 6:1 the It is thin with a little When back light is used over 1mm it is thick with 5mm. It becomes light weight With the one for the more than 1gm more portable telephone.10 gm than the liquid crystal weak degree. panel in the case of one Answer time A wide for portable telephone Several us of 86 *C ~ -40 *C Several ns ~ -10 *C


panel The mass of panel


temperature range The corner of the view Horizontal 180 * Horizontal 120* ~ 170* Table 7.1 OLED and LCD comparison

OLED lighting

Incandescentlight bulbs

Fluorescent lamps


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Ultraviolet rays generated by an electric Emits light by Emits light by Emits light by current collide Principle of sending an electric applying a voltage applying a voltage with light emission current to a metallic to an inorganic to organic matter fluorescent filament semiconductor material to produce visible light Size of area Illuminates large illuminated is area (surface light Illuminates small between point Illuminates small source) area (point light light source area (point light Energy efficient source) and surface source) Low heatHigh power light source Energy efficient generation consumption (linear light Characteristics Long life Slim, lightweight High heatsource) Easy to reduce Flexible (when generation Energy size plastic substrate Closely efficient Environmentally used) approximates Uses sound Environmentally natural light hazardous sound substance (mercury) Anticipated applications Photographic Indirect lighting, include living Living spaces, lighting, living floor level spaces, offices, offices, Uses spaces such as lighting, spotlights decorative commercial dining rooms or for retail spaces, illumination, car premises, etc. bedrooms, etc. etc. interior lighting, and POP lighting Table 7.2 Comparison With Existing Forms of illumination


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LCD technology engages a backlight, whereas OLED has no backlighting function. Hence an LCD is not possible to display true black, OLED has a so called off element which produces no light and consumes no power. In general, organic LED technology consumes less power. This is especially useful for devices that are supplied by battery power. As there is no backlighting they can have a thinner form and a more light weighted character. OLEDs can be printed onto almost any substrate with inkjet printer technology. That is why new applications like displays embedded in clothes or roll-up displays are possible. Because of the different manufacturing process it is possible to produce OLED display at a lower cost in comparison to liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or plasma displays. only a very limited number of process steps are needed. This procedure requires fewer manufacturing steps than the manufacturing of LCDs, and, more importantly, fewer materials are used. In fact, the whole display can be built on one sheet of glass or plastic, so it should be cheaper to manufacture. Thin-film PolyLED technology will enable the production of full-color displays less than 1 mm thick OLED displays exhibit more than 16 million colors. Camera-class LCDs can typically reproduce 262,000 colors. The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are thinner, lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD. Because the light-emitting layers of an OLED are lighter, the substrate of an OLED can be flexible instead of rigid. OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs. Another advantage of OLED is that it has much better response time than other displays. So these screens often provide better user experience. OLED technology allows an increased brightness and a higher contrast. . Because the organic layers of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED, the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED can be

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RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology multi-layered. Also, LEDs and LCDs require glass for support, and glass absorbs some light. OLEDs do not require glass. OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. Because OLEDs are essentially plastics, they can be made into large, thin sheets. It is much more difficult to grow and lay down so many liquid crystals OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees. Because LCDs work by blocking light, they have an inherent viewing obstacle from certain angles. OLEDs produce their own light, so they have a much wider viewing range.

The major drawback is the limited lifetime of organic materials. This problem still needs to be solved to push OLED technology to be more successful in the future. Blue OLEDs have only a lifetime of around 5,000 hours, when used in flat panel displays, which is much lower than the typical lifetimes of LCDs or plasma displays. But there are various experimentations to increase the lifetime, some are reporting that they already reached a lifetime up to 10,000 hours and above. Organic materials can easily be damaged by water intrusion into the displays. Therefore an improved sealing process is necessary for OLED displays. The development of the technology is restrained by patents held by Kodak and other companies. For commercial development of OLED technology it is often necessary to acquire a license.

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Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are attractive for the use in lightweight, low-cost flat panel displays. The current color flat-panel displays do everything backward. First, the screen is lighted to its full brightness by a battery-draining lamp. Then a series of color filters and tiny liquid crystal displays, or L.C.D.'s, block most of that light to create on-screen images. Since light-emitting diodes, as their name suggests, actually generate their own light while using very little battery power, they have long been viewed as an obviously better way to create displays. While conventional L.E.D.'s work well in giant screens and advertising displays, they cannot easily be used to create small, high-resolution screens for portable computers. But displays made by OLEDs made from plastics and other organic (carbon-based) molecules rather than gallium nitride, promise to be not only more efficient but also easier on the eyes. OLED technology is already used in some devices. There are products that are powered by OLED displays. Most of them are cellular phones or portable music players, but also other products use this new technology

Cellular/mobile phones
There are many mobile phones that use OLED display. LGs model VX8300 has an organic light-emitting diode display with 262,000 colors and a resolution of 176 x 220 pixels. Description Nokia N85, the latest Nokia Nseries multimedia computer made to set new standards for mobile entertainment, gaming and sharing. Along with an eye-catching 2.6" OLED screen. The SAMSUNG SCH-W760 is able to record infra-red video (Samsung calls it Infrared Video Telephony - IRVT), supported 7.2Mbps HSDPA and has a 3Mp camera and a microSD slot. It has an OLED screen type: 2.8" WQVGA AMOLED. Other mobile phone manufacturers like Motorola, Nokia, Panasonic or SonyEricsson are also using organic light emitting diodes for their external displays. ECE Department 26

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Plasma, and LCD televisions will soon be a thing of the past, imagine a television screen as thin as a piece of paper that weighs no more than a few ounces. Or, so flexible it could be worn around your wrist and is virtually indestructible. OLED TVs not only use less energy and take up less space in your house, but they also deliver an even better picture than LCD and plasma technology does. They have a reported contrast ratio of 1,000,000 to 1, faster response times than LCD or plasma, and display more vivid colors than either of its predecessors. They are the future of TVfor now.

Sony's OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) TV, the XEL-1 The XEL-1 is an 11 inch display that is only 3mm thin. The measurements of the XEL-1 are 87253140mm. y. It boasts a 3 millimeter thin panel and offers unparalleled picture quality with amazing contrast, outstanding brightness, exceptional color reproduction, and a rapid response time. It delivers astounding performance in all the key picture quality categories. OLED technology can completely turn off pixels when reproducing black, resulting in more outstanding dark scene detail and a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1. OLED also creates unmatched color expression and detail and enables rapid response times for smooth and natural reproduction of fast moving images like those found in sports and action movies. The XEL-1 features the latest connectivity options including two HDMI inputs, a digital tuner, and a Memory Stick media slot for viewing high-resolution photos. the Sony 11 inch diagonal OLED TV can result in reduced power consumption of up to 40% per panel square inch compared to conventional 20-inch LCD panels. Proprietary color filters and a special micro-cavity structure enhance color purity to reproduce as much as 105% of the NTSC color space. Wide 178 degree viewing angle enables an outstanding viewing experience for everyone in the room. ECE Department 27

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LG's 15-inch OLED TV to be launched this December. While 15-inches is small, it easily trumps the world's first production OLED TV. The prototype of 40 tv has been displayed by several companies but their commercial producyion have not yet been satarted.

Digital cameras
The Kodak EasyShare LS633 is the world's first digital camera with an organic LED display. The Sanyo Xacti HD1 is a high definition camera that features an OLED display. Other digital cameras with an OLED screen are from Hasselblad (H2D-39 and 503CWD for example).

OLED keyboard
Russian company has showed a prototype of an OLED keyboard. The keys are displayed with OLED technology. Thus the whole keyboard is highly configurable. The position, appearance and function of the keys are switchable. In addition, the keyboard looks awesome because of its LEDs. The keys can display icons as well as regular symbols. Its possible to associate keys with mathematical functions, HTML codes or other special characters. It is also possible to configure a gaming keyboard layout for first-person shooters, strategy games or other purposes. There are preconfigured layouts for Quake, Photoshop and other mainstream games and applications.

Windows that light-up at dark

It is true, this could be possible with OLED. This is because organic light emitting diodes can be transparent. A window could act as a normal window at day, but at night it can be used as a light resource. This vision can replace the boring old bulb in the middle of ECE Department 28

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology every room. It is getting even better: nearly every surface can become a lighting source. It does not matter if its curved or flat - OLED sheets are flexible and ultra-flat. OLEDs can mimic a natural feeling of light in the dark. If turned off, they are transparent an ideal precondition for windows. It is also imaginable that tables, cupboards or other furniture are used as a light source.

Kodak Wireless Frame

Kodak's new ultra-thin 7.6-inch OLED Wireless panel boasts a 16:9 aspect ratio, 800x480 resolution, and a white to black contrast ratio of 30,000:1. The panel comes with 2GB of built-in internal memory, but includes an additional built-in memory card reader and a USB port. In case that's not enough, the panel can also link up to internet content from Kodak Gallery. The new KODAK OLED Wireless Frame also features built-in WiFi technology that expands the user's experience by enabling access to pictures, videos and music stored on PCs in other rooms, as well as connectivity to online photo and video sharing sites and Internet content portals for news, weather, sports and more. At the heart of the new KODAK OLED Wireless Frame is an ultra-thin, 7.6-inch diagonal digital panel that produces stunning image detail, when viewed from any angle. The viewing experience is further enhanced by Kodak Perfect Touch technology, which automatically processes images to improve exposure, brightness and color, and KODAK Image Science, which optimizes image quality for display on OLED panels.

7.2 OLED Lighting

OLED lighting goes mainstream in 2011 says Displaysearch! Although OLEDs used in lighting applications are not expected to become popular in the next few years and will initially target niche markets, the technology has several advantages over that of ECE Department 29

RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology conventional lighting. First among the advantages is slimness. The thickness of OLED panels for lighting applications could reach less than 1mm. Such a characteristic could allow OLED lighting placed directly on ceilings rather than hang from them. In addition, flexibility is another advantage, which may allow OLED lighting to be used when designing for spaces with limited conditions. OLEDs are a flat light source, emitting diffuse light from a potentially large active area. They do not need light distribution elements, thus reducing the cost for the whole lighting panel. In contrast, LEDs as main competitor are a point source technology which needs light distribution elements to achieve flat panel lighting. In addition, OLED lighting is more stable than that of ordinary lighting. Compared to LED or conventional fluorescent lamps, OLED lighting is more like sunlight, which is more comfortable for viewing.


The OLED technology has the potential to not only improve existing products, but also to create exciting, new product possibilities, for example: Low-power, bright, colorful cell phones Full color, high-resolution, personal communicators Wrist-mounted, featherweight, rugged PDAs Wearable, form-fitting, electronic displays Full-color, high resolution, portable Internet devices and palm size computers High-contrast automotive instrument and windshield displays Heads-up instrumentation for aircraft and automobiles Automobile light systems without bulbs Flexible, lightweight, thin, durable, and highly efficient laptop screens Roll-up, electronic, daily-refreshable newspaper Ultra-lightweight, wall-size television monitor Office windows, walls and partitions that double as computer screens Color-changing lighting panels and light walls for home and office 30

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RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology Low-cost organic lasers Computer-controlled, electronic shelf pricing for supermarkets and retail stores Smart goggles/helmets for scuba divers, motorcycle riders Medical test equipment Wide area, full-motion video camcorders

Currently, OLEDs are used in small-screen devices such as cell phones, PDAs and digital cameras. In September 2004, Sony Corporation announced that it was beginning mass production of OLED screens for its CLIE PEG-VZ90 model of personalentertainment hand helds. Kodak was the first to release a digital camera with an OLED display in March 2003, the Easy Share LS633. Several companies have already built prototype computer monitors and large-screen TVs that use OLED technology. In May 2005, Samsung Electronics announced that it had developed a prototype 40-inch, OLEDbased, ultra-slim TV, the first of its size [source:Kanellos]. And in October 2007, Sony announced that it would be the first to market with an OLED television. The XEL-1 will be available in December 2007 for customers in Japan. It lists for 200,000 Yen -- or about $1,700 U.S. Research and development in the field of OLEDs is proceeding rapidly and may lead to future applications in heads-up displays, automotive dashboards, billboard-type displays, home and office lighting and flexible displays. Because OLEDs refresh faster than LCDs -- almost 1,000 times faster -- a device with an OLED display could change information almost in real time. Video images could be much more realistic and constantly updated. The newspaper of the future might be an OLED display that refreshes with breaking news (think "Minority Report") -- and like a regular newspaper, you could fold it up when you're done reading it and stick it in your backpack or briefcase.

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Now OLED is fast a growing technology. The field of applications for OLED displays has a wide scale. OLED is expected to conquer the market within the next few years. One of the future visions is to roll out OLEDs or to stick them up like post-it notes. Aother vision is the transparent windows which would function like a regular window by day. At night it could be switched on and become a light source. This could be possible because OLED allows transparent displays and light sources. Organic full-colour displays may eventually replace liquid crystal displays for use with lap top and even desktop computers. Researches are going on this subject and it is sure that OLED will emerge as future solid state light source. .

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[1] Antoniadis, Homer, Ph.D. "Overview of OLED Display Technology." Osram optical semiconductors. [2] IEE ECE-592-s Soft Electronics Final Paper Due may 4,2008 [3] "DuPont shows new AMOLED materials and OLED displays" 3/6/2007. (10/9/2007) [4] Howard, Webster E. "Better Displays with Organic Films." Scientific American. [5] IEEE vol 93, No. 8(2005) flexible display- top emitting oled [6] Kanellos, Michael. "New Samsung panel pictures inch-thick TV." CNET 5/18/2005. (10/8/2007)

[7] Michael J. Felton (2001) "Thinner lighter better brighter, Today's Chemist at Work.";
10 (11): 30-34 [8] Williams, Martyn. "PC World - Sony Readies OLED TV"

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