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MOOD DISORDER Mood adalah kondisi perasaan yang selalu ada dalam memberikan corak kehidupan psikologis individu.

Perasaan sedih atau depresi bukanlah hal yang abnormal dalam konteks peristiwa atau situasi yang penuh tekanan. Namun, orang dengan gangguan mood mengalamikendala mood yang luar biasa parah, atau bisa berlangsung lama, serta mengganggu kemampuan individu untuk berfungsi memenuhi tanggung jawab secara normal. GangguanMood adalah gangguan pada mood yang berlangsung sangat lama, tidak seperti biasanya, atau parah, serta cukup serius sehingga menghambat fungsi individu sehari-harinya. Terdapatberagam jenis gangguan mood, termasuk gangguan depresi (unipolar), seperti gangguan depresi mayor, dan gangguan distimik,dan gangguan yang melibatkan perubahan mood, seperti gangguan bipolar dan gangguan siklotimik. Gangguan Depresi Mayor Pada depresi mayor, seseorang mengalami suatu perubahan yang mendasar dalam mood yang menghambat kemampuanya untuk berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya. Ada banyak ciri yang dihubungkan dengan gangguan depresi mayor, termasuk kemampuan mood yang menurun, perubahan selera makan, kendala dalam tidur, berkurangnya rasa bahagia pada aktivitas yang sebelumnya dinikmati, perasaan lelah atau kehilangan energi, rasa tidak berharga, rasa bersalah yang berlebihan atau yang tidak pada tempatnya, kesulitan berkonsentrasi, berpikir secara jernih, atau kesulitan dalam mengambil keputusan, pikiran berulang akan kematian atau bunuh diri, percobaan bunuh diri, dan bahkan pula perilaku psikosis (halusinasi maupun delusi). Gangguan Distimik Gangguan Distimik adalah suatu bentuk depresi kronis yang lebih ringan dibandingkan gangguan depresi mayor. Namun, tetap dapat diasosiasikan dengan penurunan pada fungsi peran-peran sosial dan fungsi pekerjaannya. Gangguan Bipolar Pada gangguan bipolar, orang mengalami kondisi mood yang berfluktuasi, dimana hal tersebut mengganggu kemampuannya dalam berfungsi normal. Gangguan bipolar I diidentifikasikan dengan satu atau lebih episode manik. Bipolar II dicirikan dengan munculnya paling sedikit satu episode depresi mayor dan satu episode hipomanis, tapi tanpa disertaiepisode manik yang penuh. Ciri-ciri dari suatu episode manik antara lain : Adanya peningkatan atau ekspansi secara tiba-tiba dari mood dan perasaan self-importance. Perasaan memiliki energi yang hampir tak terbatas. Hiperaktivitas. Sosiabilitas yang ekstrem dimana sering kali dalam bentuk yang menuntut dan sangat mengatur. Memperlihatkan pembicaraan yang penuh tekanan dan sangat cepat. Menurunnya kebutuhan untuk tidur. Gangguan Siklotimik Gangguan Siklotimik adalah sebuah tipe gangguan bipolar yang ditandai dengan suatu pola yang kronis dari perubahan mood ringan yang kadang kala meningkat menjadi gangguan bipolar. Pandangan teoretis mengenai gangguan mood yaitu : Hubungan Stress Terhadap Gangguan Mood Deskripsi terhadap stress kehidupan berkaitan dengan suatu peningkatan resiko dari perkembangan dan kambuhnya gangguan mood, terutama depresi mayor. Namun, sejumlah orang memang lebih tangguh dalam menghadapi stress. Hal ini mungkin karena faktor psikososial seperti dukungan sosial dan pola coping individu yang berbeda-beda. Teori Psikodinamis Mengkonsepkan Gangguan Mood

Dalam teori psikodinamis klasik, depresi dipandang sebagai bentuk dari rasa marah yang diarahkan kedalam. Orang yang memegang kuat perasaan ambivalen terhadap orang yang telah hilang, atau terancam akan kehilangannya, dapat mengarahkan kemarahan yang belum terselesaikan terhadap representasi didalam dari orang-orang yang mereka rasa telah menyatu atau terintroyeksikan didalam diri mereka, menghasilkan self-loathing, serta depresi. Dalam teori psikodinamika, gangguan bipolar diasumsikan dalam bentuk keseimbangan yang berfluktuasi antara ego dan superego. Psikodinamis yang lebih mutakhir seperti model self-focusing, menggabungkan aspek-aspek psikodinamis dan kognitif untuk menjelaskan depresi dalam kaitannya dengan mengejar objek cinta yang hilang atau tujuan yang akan lebih adaptif bila direlakan. Teori Humanistik Memandang Depresi Teoretikus yang bekerja dalam kerangka kerja humanistik memandang depresi sebagai refleksi dari kurangnya arti dan autentisitas dalam kehidupan seseorang. Teori Belajar Memandang Depresi Pandangan belajar berfokus pada faktor-faktor situasional dalam menjelaskan depresi , seperti perubahan-perubahan dalam tingkat reinforcement. Saat reinforcement berkurang, orang akan merasa tidak termotivasi dan depresi, yang dapat menyebabkan ketidakaktifan,akhirnya semakin mengurangi kesempatan untuk mendapat reinforcement. Teori interaksi dari Coyne berfokus pada interaksi keluarga yang negatif dapat menyebabkan anggota keluarga dari orang-orang yang mengalami depresi mengurangi pemberian reinforcement kepadanya. Teori Kognitif Memandang Depresi Pendekatan Kognitif Beck berfokus pada peran berpikir yang negatif atau terdistorsi dalam depresi. Orang yang rentan mengalami depresi memegang keyakinan yang negatif terhadap dirinya sendiri, lingkungan, dan masa depannya. Segitiga kognitif dari depresi ini menghasilkan kesalahan tertentu dalam berpikir atau distorsi kognitif, dalam berespon pada peristiwa negatif, yang akhirnya dapat menyebabkan depresi. Pendekatan ketidakberdayaan yang dipelajari didasarkan pada keyakinan bahwa orang dapat menjadi depresi, jika mereka memandang dirinya sendiri tidak berdaya dalam mengontrol reinforcement yang ada padalingkungannya, atau dalam mengubah kehidupannya menjadi lebih baik. Faktor -Faktor Biologis Dalam Gangguan Mood Faktor biologis juga memegang peran penting dalam gangguan mood, terutama dalam menjelaskan gangguan depresi mayor dan gangguan bipolar. Ketidakseimbangan dalam aktivitas neurotransmiter dalam otak tampak terlibat dalam depresi dan maniak. Model-model diatesis-stress digunakan untuk mengasumsikan bahwa diatesis biologis atau psikologis bisaberinteraksi dengan stress dalam perkembangan depresi tersebut. Penanganan terapis psikodinamis terhadap depresi secara tradisional berfokus membantu orang depresi untuk menggali perasaan ambivalennya terhadap objek yang hilang. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mereduksi kemarahan yang diarahkan kedalam. Pendekatan psikodinamis modern cenderung lebih berfokus pada pengembangan cara-cara yang lebihadaptif dalam mencapai self-worth dan menyelesaikan konflik-konflik interpersonal. Pendekatan teoretikus belajar berfokus dalam membantu orang depresi dalam meningkatkan frekuensi reinforcement pada kehidupannya melalui cara-cara seperti meningkatkan jumlah aktivitas menyenangkan, dimana mereka berpartisipasi dan membimbing mereka dalam mengembangkan ketrampilan sosial yang lebih efektif dalam meningkatkan kemampuannyauntuk memperoleh reinforcement sosial dari orang lain. Terapis kognitif berfokus membentu orang depresi untuk mengidentifikasikan, memperbaiki pikiran-pikiran yang terdistorsi sertadisfungsional, dan mempelajari lebih banyak perilaku yang adaptif. Pendekatan biologis

berfokus pada penggunaan obat-obatan antidepresan dan pengobatan biologis lainnya, seperti terapi elektrokonvulsif (ECT). Obat-obatan anti depresan dapat menormalkan fungsi neurotransmiter pada otak. Gangguan bipolar biasanya diobati dengan litium.

Mood Disorders
Overview of Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders Statistics While major depressive disorder can develop at any age, the average age at onset is the mid -20s. The average age of onset for a first manic episode of bipolar disorder is during the early 20s. Dysthymic disorder, which often begins in childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood, affects nearly 3.3 million American adults each year. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports that research indicates that depression onset is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades. NIMH states that early-onset depression often persists, recurs, and continues into adulthood. Depression in youth may also predict more severe illness in adulthood.

What are mood disorders?


Mood disorders refer to a category of mental health problems that include all types of depression and bipolar disorder. Mood disorders are sometimes called affective disorders. During the 1980s, mental health professionals began to recognize symptoms of mood disorders in children and adolescents, as well as adults. However, children and adolescents do not necessarily experience or exhibit the same symptoms as adults. It is more difficult to diagnose mood disorders in children, especially because children are not always able to express how they feel. Today, clinicians and researchers believe that mood disorders in children and adolescents remain one of the most under-diagnosed mental health problems. At any age, mood disorders put individuals at risk for other conditions that may persist long after the initial episodes of depression are resolved.

What causes mood disorders?


What causes mood disorders is not well known. There are chemicals in the brain, called endorphins, that are responsible for positive moods. Other chemicals in the brain, called neurotransmitters, regulate endorphins. Most likely, depression (and other mood disorders) is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Life events (such as unwanted changes in life) may also contribute to a depressed mood.

Affective disorders aggregate in families and are considered to be multifactorially inherited. Multifactorial inheritance means that "many factors" are involved. The factors that produce the trait or condition are usually both genetic and environmental, involving a combination of genes from both parents. Often one gender (either males or females) is affected more frequently than the other in multifactorial traits. There appears to be a different threshold of expression, which means that one gender is more likely to show the problem, over the other gender.

Who is affected by mood disorders?


Anyone can feel sad or depressed at times. However, mood disorders are more intense and difficult to manage than normal feelings of sadness. Children, adolescents, or adults who have a parent with a mood disorder have a greater chance of also having a mood disorder. However, life events and stress can expose or exaggerate feelings of sadness or depression, making the feelings more difficult to manage. Sometimes, life's problems can trigger depression. Being fired from a job, getting divorced, losing a loved one, death in the family, and financial trouble, to name a few, all c an be difficult and coping with the pressure may be troublesome. These life events and stress can bring on feelings of sadness or depression or make a mood disorder harder to manage. The chance for depression in females in the general population is nearly twice as high (12 percent) as it is for males (6.6 percent). Once a person in the family has this diagnosis, the chance for their siblings or children to have the same diagnosis is increased. In addition, relatives of persons with depression are also at increased risk for bipolar disorder (manic depression). The chance for manic depression (or bipolar disorder) in males and females in the general population is about 2.6 percent. Once a person in the family has this diagnosis, the chance for their siblings or children to have the same diagnosis is increased. In addition, relatives of persons with manic depression are also at increased risk for depression.

What are the different types of mood disorders?


The following are the most common types of mood disorders : major depression - a two-week period of a depressed or irritable mood or a noticeable decrease in interest or pleasure in usual activities, along with other signs of a mood disorder. dysthymia (dysthymic disorder) - a chronic, low-grade, depressed or irritable mood for at least one year. manic depression (bipolar disorder) - at least one episode of a depressed or irritable mood and at least one period of a manic (persistently elevated) mood. mood disorder due to a general medical condition - many medical illnesses (including cancer, injuries, infections, and chronic medical illnesses) can trigger symptoms of depression. substance induced mood disorder - symptoms of depression that are due to the effects of medication, drug abuse, exposure to toxins, or other forms of treatment.

What are the symptoms of mood disorders?


Depending upon age and the type of mood disorder present, a person may exhibit different symptoms of depression. The following are the most common symptoms of a mood disorder. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include: persistent feelings of sadness feeling hopeless or helpless having low self-esteem feeling inadequate excessive guilt feelings of wanting to die loss of interest in usual activities or activities once enjoyed difficulty with relationships sleep disturbances (i.e., insomnia, hypersomnia) changes in appetite or weight decreased energy difficulty concentrating a decrease in the ability to make decisions suicidal thoughts or attempts frequent physical complaints (i.e., headache, stomach ache, fatigue) running away or threats of running away from home hypersensitivity to failure or rejection irritability, hostility, aggression

In mood disorders, these feelings appear more intense than what a person may normally feel from time to time. It is also of concern if these feelings continue over a period of time, or interfere with an individual's interest in family, friends, community, or work. Any person who expresses thoughts of suicide should be evaluated immediately. The symptoms of mood disorders may resemble other conditions or psychiatric problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

How are mood disorders diagnosed?


Mood disorders are a real medical disorder. A psychiatrist or other mental health professional usually diagnoses mood disorders following a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation.

Treatment for mood disorders:


Specific treatment for mood disorders will be determined by your physician based on: your age, overall health, and medical history extent of the condition type of mood disorder your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies expectations for the course of the condition your opinion or preference

Mood disorders can often be effectively treated. Treatment should always be based on a comprehensive evaluation. Treatment may include one, or more, of the following: antidepressant medications (especially when combined with psychotherapy has shown t o be very effective in the treatment of depression) psychotherapy (most often cognitive-behavioral and/or interpersonal therapy that is focused on changing the individual's distorted views of themselves and the environment around them, working through difficult relationships, and identifying stressors in the environment and how to avoid them) family therapy

Families play a vital supportive role in any treatment process.

Prevention of mood disorders:


Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of mood disorders are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, enhance the individual's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by persons with mood disorders