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Short Discussion Questions :

1: Minzbergs Figurehead and spokesperson roles are related.Both of them are the Mintzbergs Managerial Roles . Figurehead is a symbolic head ;obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature. Examples are greeting visitor and signing legal documents. Beside spokesperson is a transmits information to outsiders on organizations plan ,policies, actions, results,etc;serves as expert on organizations industy. Example is holding bord meetings and giving information to the media. 2: Difference between managers and operative employees are: Managers are meant to be individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others. Managers can devided by 3 ,there are top managers,middle managers and first line managers. Besides,Operatives are meants people who work directly on a job or task but they dont have responsibility for overseeing the work of others. 3: First line managers are called supervisors or team leader , coaches or unit coordinators.Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to day activities of operative employees. Middles managers are individuals at level of management between the first line manager and top management.They manages other managers and possibly some operative employees.Such titles as agency head ,department head, project leader, unit chief, district manager, dean ,bishop or division manager. Top managers individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and estabshing policies that effect all organizational members.Examples vise president,managing director or president. 4: Efficiency means doing the tasks correctly,refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs;seeks to minimize resource costs. Effectiveness means doing the right tasks;goal attainment. 5: Planning defining goals,establishing strategy and developing plans to coordinate activities. Organizing includes determining what tasks are to be done,who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped,who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. Leadings are motivating employees,directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts.

6: Profit making the companies that absolutely organize to earned profit,or maximizing profit .. Not for profit is the companies that was organized that the profit is not as the primary focus . 7: First line managers are called supervisors or team leader , coaches or unit coordinators.Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to day activities of operative employees. Middles managers are individuals at level of management between the first line manager and top management.They manages other managers and possibly some operative employees.Such titles as agency head ,department head, project leader, unit chief, district manager, dean ,bishop or division manager. Top managers individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and estabshing policies that effect all organizational members.Examples vise president,managing director or president. 8: Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10 differents but highly interrelated roles.The term managerial roles refers to specific catagories of managerial behavior. 9: Conceptual skills:managers mental ability to coordinate all of the organizations interests and activities. Interpersonal skills:managers ability to work with understand,mentor,and motivate others,both individually and in groups. Technical skils : a managers ability to use the tools,procedures, and techniques of specialized field. Political skills: managers ability to build power base and establish the right connections of channels.