Anda di halaman 1dari 3

1) What do understand by the term discontinuity?

A discontinuity is a plane or surface that marks a change in physical or chemical characteristics in a soil or rock mass. A discontinuity can be a bedding, schistosity, foliation, joint,cleavage, fracture, fissure, crack, or fault plane. A division is made between mechanical and integral discontinuities. Discontinuities may occur multiple times with broadly the same mechanical characteristics in a discontinuity set, or may be a single discontinuity. A discontinuity makes a soil or rock mass anisotropic. Discontinuities are fractures and planes of weakness in the rock mass and include joints, fissures, faults, cleavages and bedding. Structural discontinuities are universally present in rock masses, irrespective of their origins. Such features have appreciably lower strengths than the intact rock, and much of the strength and stability of rock masses depends on the strength of discontinuities rather than the intact rock.

2) How do you differentiate between a shear and a fault?


Shear is a structural break where differential movement has occurred along a surface or zone of failure. It is characterized by polished surfaces, striations, gouge, breccias, mylonite, or any combination of these. Often direction of movement, amount of displacement, and continuity may not be known because of limited exposures or observations. Fault is a shear with significant continuity across which there has been significant displacement. The direction of movement, amount of displacement, and continuity may be known.Slippage (or shear) along brittle fractures in Earths crust creates faults. They are formed by the application of differential stress.Displacement along faults ranges from a few centimetres to hundreds of kilometres.

3) Describe the various types of faults.


Types of faults Dip-Slip faults: Movement along dip-slip faults is vertical, one side moves up and the other side moves down. The two types of Dip-Slip Faults are Normal Faults and Reverse Faults: Normal Fault: The hanging wall has slipped down in comparison to the foot wall. Gravity causes the hanging wall to slip down. Normal Faults are from layers being pulled apart it is also known as a gravity fault. Reverse Fault: The hanging wall has slipped up in comparison to the foot wall. When layers are pushed together this is the kind of fault that occurs.It is also known as a thrust fault. Strike Slip Fault: Two layers of rock are shifted horizontally or parallel to the fault plane.

Describe the various types of folds and describe the fold geometry.
Anticlines: This is when layers are folded upwards in what looks like an arch. The layers are symmetrical (look alike) to either side of its centre. Rock layers in anticlines dip away from the centre axis. The oldest rocks are exposed on the centre axis. Synclines: This is when the rock layers are folded downward.The youngest layers of rock are exposed on the center axis Monocline: This is when the rock layer has a gently dipping bend in the horizontal rock layer.

Geometry of folds

Define a Thrust
A thrust fault has the same sense of motion as a reverse fault, but with the dip of the fault plane at less than 45. Thrust faults typically form ramps, flats and fault-bend (hanging wall and foot wall) folds. Thrust faults form nappes and klippen in the large thrust belts. Subduction zones are a special class of thrusts that form the largest faults on Earth and give rise to the largest earthquakes.

less than 15 degrees

Thrusts are low angle reverse fault