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OUTLINES
OF

TURKISH GRAMMAR,

PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND EDINBURGH AND LONDON

CO.

A SIMPLE

TRANSLITERAL GRx\MMAR
OF THE

TURKISH LAI^GUAGE.
Cflmpileti

from lJari0us ^oiirrcs.

WITH DIALOGUES AND VOCABULARY,

BY

EDWIN ARNOLD,

M.A., C.S.L, F.R.G.S.

LONDON:

TRUBNER

& CO.,

LUDGATE

HILL.

1877.
{All rights rese^-ved.\

PREFACE.
merely a compilation formed

This

little

book
other

is

by the author in
offered

his

own study
as

of Turkish,

and

to

beginners

an aid towards
instruc-

acquaintance with that language, in the present


singular dearth of Turkish
tion books.

grammars and

The Eastern Problem has re-arisen in an absorbing manner to give new interest to a tongue spoken over so vast and important an Empire
;

while

apart from the advantage


it is,

to the

politician, the journalist,

the educated English-

man, and the

traveller of

some knowledge of the


for its

Ottoman language
tific

own

sake, well

worth a scholar's passing attention, being scienin structure

and

in

composition
rules,

clear, con-

cise,

and expressive.

These

forms,

dia-

logues,

and vocabularies are condensed from many


with intent to convey that degree of

sources,

knowledge upon which a limited

but

useful

power of conversation can be

built.

The attempt

20247S3

VI

PEEFACE.

has been

made

to dispense
it is

w'itli tlie

Oriental char-

acter altogether, since

something at least to
a spoken

learn the grammatical architecture of

language, and the ear then becomes a tutor to the


eye.

The

difficulty of representing the

Turkish

letters could not

have been quite overcome with;

out fuller details


})recision,

but further study must supply

and

in the present

unassuming sketch

the author aims at no credit except that of sim}>licity,

and

to render a small service in the great

matter of " Justice to Islam.'^


LoNDOX, February 1877.

(JONTENTS.

PART

I.

Vlll

CONTENTS.

OUTLINES
OF

TURKISH GRAMMAR.
~

I.

The Turkish alphabet contains twenty-eight

Arabic characters, foar Persian, and one only of


native origin
thirty-three
;

the

''deaf ?i"

(marked^)
last,

in all

Lam-Alif, the
letters are here

being a comin their simple

pound.

The

shown

form

they alter their shape in the middle and at


:

the end of words

their pronunciation

is

generally
is

that here given opposite each letter.

Turkish

read from right to

left.

The vowels, supplied by


letters, are

marks above and below the


omitted in writing.

commonly

As

this sketch of the lan-

guage aims to teach by transcription, no time need


be lost over these points.
is

Turkish, though simple,


;

expressive and scientific in construction

and,

on
its

many accounts, own sake.

a language worth studying for

NOUNS.
2.

Turkish has no

article,

but the indefinite

hir, a, an, one, is

sometimes used.
Distinctions of

Turkish nouns have no gender.


sex,

when not conveyed


for

in the

word
kiz for

itself,

are

marked by oghlan

male and

female in

human relations; by erhek,


for animals.

male, and dishi, female,

II

Turkish nouns have two numbers

singular
lar or

and

plural.

Their cases are formed by terminal

variations.
lev to

The

plural

is

made by adding
first

the singular

the

after a

hard con-

sonant, the second after a soft one.

Turkish nouns are of two kinds


in a consonant, as vezir, calpak,

those endiui'
in a
dereJi,
;

and those

vowel-sound, as haba, father


village.

cajwo, gate

Declension of Consonantal Xouns.


Singular.

Kom.
Gtn.

vezir,

the minister.
'

vezirun,
vezireh,

of the njinister.
to the minister.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

veziry,

the minister.
minister.

ya

vezir,

Ahl.

vezirdan,

from the minister.


Plural.

No7n.
Gen.

vezirler,

the ministers.
of the ministers. to the ministers.

vezirler uu,
vezirlereh,

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

vezirlery,

the ministers.

ya

vezirler,

ministers.

Ahl.

vezir lerden,

from the ministers.

12

Declension of

13

ADJECTIVES.
Turkish adjectives have no
for
inflections,

either

gender or number, except when used as sub-

stantives.

They stand before

their nouns,

and

are unchanged, in this

way

fSingula?\

Norn,
Gen.

giizel el

the pretty hand.


of the pretty band.

guzel eliin
guzel elah

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

to the pretty hand.

guzel ely

the pretty hand.


el

ya guzel

pretty hand.

Ahl.

guzel eldan

from the pretty hand.

Plural.

Nom.
Gen.

guzel eller
guzel ellerun
guzel ellerah

the pretty hands.


of the pretty hands.
to the pretty hands.

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

guzel ellery

the pretty hands.


pretty hands.

ya

guzel eller

Ahl.

guzel ellerdan
adjectives

from the pretty hands.

Turkish
follows
:

form

their

degrees

as

The comparative
handsome
good
;

is

made by adding

djeh or

tcheh tQ_the positive, as


guzel,
;

guzehljeh, handsomer.

(eyi) eiu,

eiutcheh, better.

14

Or by putting

c/a/^ a,
;

more, before

tlie

adjective, as

buyulc, large

daha

huyulc, larger.
richer.

zenguin, rich

daha zenguin,

Or by the

ablative, followed

by the

adjective,

;is

l-alemdan guzel, finer than a pen.

halpahdan

hiiyiih, larger

than a hood.
1.

am

henden eyi sen, thou art better than


is

The superlative

made by putting

the noun
to the

in tlie genitive or ablative,

and adding y
and sy

adjective

if it

end

in a consonant,

if it

end

in a vowel.

Thus
eyiisy, best of fathers.
dtig.

hahanun

lieupeyun fenasy, the worst

avretlerun guzely, handsomest of

women.

Superlatives are also expressed by placing before the adjective the particles
ghairet,
en,
i^el;,

ziadeh,

which

thus

all

mean

" exceedingly."

These may even be coupled, as


2'>eh

ziadeh, the most.

The Turks
ness

also obtain the idea of superlative-

by doubling the

adjective

or

adverb

as

cumulative epithets.
pel' pek,

Thus

very much.
very often.

seh

se/c,

tchok tchok eyu

adam, a very, very good man.

15

Besides their primitive nouns

tlie

Turks comadjectives.

monly form nouns from verbs and

Thus " nouns agent

"

are

made by adding djy

or idjy to the second sing, imperative of the verb.

As
sevidjy^ a lover,

from

sev,

love thou.

koortardjy,

saviour,

from koortar, save

thou.

The " nouns acted " are


ping the

made

either

by drop-

last letters of the infinitive,

as

eidm, death, from eulmeJc, to die.

Or by changing

the inak or

mek

of the infinitive,

into sh or ish, as

almak, to receive

alish, receipt.

gurmek, to see

gursli, sight.

Or by eh
tive, as

or

ah substituted

for the

k of the

infini-

hilmeh, knowledge, from lUmek, to know.

anmah, memory, from anmak,

to

remember.

Or by adding

Ilk to the infinitive, as

hilmek, to

know
;

hilmeklik, knowledge.

yemek, to eat
Adjectives are
also

yemeklik^ food.

made from nouns


or
ly
to

and nouns
nominative.

by

adding lu

the

Thus

i6
maJ, wealth
mallu, wealthy.
;

gumush,
Venedil',
tooz, salt
at,

silver

giunusldy, silvered.
;

Venice
;

Venedikly, a Venetian.
salt-savoured.

toozltj,

horse

atlu, a
clji/

horseman.

The

particle

denotes trade or action.

Thus

hail',

boat
;

haihlji/,

boatman.

yol,

road

yoldjy. traveller.'
;

etmelc,

bread

etmchljy, baker.
is

The
to

particle

Uk

added

to

nouns or adjectives

form new substantives.


gnzel, beautiful
;

Thus
beauty.

guzeliJc,
;

pasha, governor
dost, friend
;

pashalik, the government.


friendship.

dostliJc,

yeni,

new;

yenUiJc, novelty.

As

also for localities.

Thus

donooz, pig

donoozllh, {)ig-stye.
;

azum, grape

azmlik, vineyard.

Diminutives are obtained by adding djek or


djak to nouns, and
tives.
djeli,

djah, or tcheh to a<ljec-

Thus
adam, a man
;

adamdjek, a dwarf.
;

kutchuk, small

kiitchuktcheh, very small.

And from
adding
ez,

these are
as

made terms

of

endearment by

17
hahadjek, little father
atJJel',

habaJJaghez, clearest father.


pretty
little

pony

atcljeghez,
siz,

nag.

Finally,

by adding
is
;

without, to nouns the

idea of deprivation

expressed, as
dostsiz, friendless.

dosl, a friend
dja?i, life
;

djajisiz, lifeless.

[Many

postpositions are thus used.]

NUMBERS.
The
1.

cardinal

numbers
II.
12.
Oil

are

bir
iki

bir
i/ii

30. otooz
40. I irk
50.

2.

OR

3.

u(ch
deui't
besli

13. 14.

Oil utclb

tin
altinish

4. 5. 6.
7.

Oil

deurt

60.

15. on hesh 16.


17. 18.
Oil alti

70. yetmish

alti
^^(/i

80. sckzen
90. doksan

Oil 0)1

ytdi
sekiz

8.
9.

s^H^;

100. ^//^

dohooz
o/i

19.

Oil

dohooz

icoo.

6m
?/?/i;

10.

20.

iyir^mi

100,000.

6m

iV.i)*.

In

ciphering, the Turks write and read


us,

figures, as

with

from

left to right.

The

ordinal

numbers

are

formed by adding

iiidjy to the cardinal.

Thus

i8
hiriii'ljii,
first.

oonoonin({iy,

tenth.

ikindjy,
2itchin(Jjy,

second.
third.
foiirtli.

iyivmindjy,
hiuinJjy,

twentieth.

thousandth.

denrtincljy,

Tliese are declinable, as

utcMndjyhrun

iki,

two

of the thirds.

Fractional parts are yarem,


chook),

a half

(or

hoot-

and

tclterelc,

a quarter, as

yarem

sa'at, half

an hour.

tcherek yol, a fourth of the way.


iki hootclhook ghroush,

two

piastres

and a

lialf.

The

particle er or sher repeats a


hirer,

number, as

one by one.

ikisher,

two by two.

Keri multiplies, as
iki keri, twice.

hesh keri, five times.

For numbers of persons, animals, and things


the Turks use
kislii,

the different words respectively


tana.

hash,

and

Thus
100,000 men.
(of cattle).

ynz

hill kishiler,

ikiyuz bashler, 200 head


elli hi?i

tana, 50,000 pieces (of clotli).

19

Kat

or keder answers to " fold," as

vtch

heeler, threefold.

tchoJc hat,

manifold.

PRONOUNS
Are

(i)

personal,
(4)
relative,

(2)

possessive,

(3)

demon(6)
in-

strative,
definite.

(5)

interrogative,

K.B.
it is

The

vocative case

is

omitted below as

simply the nominative with ya prefixed.

I.

Personal Peonouxs
Singidar.

are

FIRST PERSON.
Plural.
hiz,

Xom.
Gen.

hen,

I.

we.

benim, of me,

hizim., of us,

Dat.
Ace.

hana, to me.
heni,

hizeh, to us.
hizi, us.

me.

Ahl.

henden, from me.

hizden,

from

us.

SECOND PERSON.
Singular.

Plural.
siz,

Kom.
Gen.
J)at.

sen,

thou.
of thee.
to thee. thee,

you.
of you.

senun,
Sana,
seni,

sizim,
sizeh,
sizi,

to you.

Ace.

you.

Ahl.

senden,

from

thee,

sizden,

from you.

THIRD PERSON.
Singular.

Nom. o\
Ge7i.

o,

he, she,

it.

onoon, anoon,

of him, her, &c.


to him, &c.

Dat
Ace.

ana,
ani, onoo,

him, &c.

Ahl.

anden, ondan,

from him,

&:c.

Plural
Norn, anlar, onlar,
Gen.

them.
of them.

anlarun, onlarun,
anlareJi, onlareh,

Dat.
Ace.

to them.

aniari, onlari,

them.

Ahl.
2.

onlar den, onlar dan,

from them.
are the genitives

The Possessive Pronouns


Thus
heidm,

of the personal pnmouns.

my

hlzim, our.
;

seniui or senin, thy

sizun, your.

onoon, his

onlarun, their.

They

are indeclinable. cut

But the Turks

these short, and join

the

abbreviated sign to a noun in order to denote


possession, using for

mine
thine

ni,

im, uni.

ours

miz,

iniiz.

n, in, un.
i,

yours
theirs

niz, iniz.
i,

his, her, its

y, u.

y,

xi.


21

Examples

haha, father,
kitab,
ev,

makes babam,
,,

book,

hitabim,

my father. my book.

house,

,,

evun, thy house.

kalam, pen,
huzrety worship,
cooler, slave,

kalamimiz, our pen.


huzretiniz,

,,

your worship.

coolery, their slaves.

These compounds may be declined like an ordinary substantive.

Thus

carndashwiizehj to our brother.

dostundan, from thy friend.

The

absolute possessives, mine, thine, &c., are


ki,

represented by the genitive followed by


benimki, mine
bizimki, ours
3.
;
;

as

seninki, thine.

anlarunki, theirs.
are
that.

Demonstrative Pronouns
shoo,
boo,
this, that.
0,
ol,

this.

that.

ishboo, this.

kendi, himself.

Thus,
Singular.

Nom.
Gen.

boo, shoo, ishboo,

this, that.

boonoon,

of this. to this.
this.

Dat.
Ace.

boonah,
booni,

Abl.

boondan,

from

this.

"

22

Plural

Xom.
Gen.

hoonlar,

these.

hoordaruR.

of tbem.
to tliem,
these.

Dat.
Ace.

hoonlar ah,
hoonlari,

Ahl.

boonlardan,
ol

from

these,
per-

{0 and

have already been declined as

sonal pronouns.)

Kendi has

slight variations.

Slnx/ular.

Nam.
Gen.

l-endi,

himself.
of himself. to himself.

kendunin, kenduyeh, Icendineh,


kenduyi, hendiny,

Dat.
Ace.
Ahl.

himself.
,

kendinden, kendooden
riural.

from

liimself.

IS^om.

kmdiler,
kendulerim,
kendulereh,
kenduleri,

themselves,
of themselves, to themselves,

Gen.

Dat.
Ace.

themselves,

Ahl.
4.

kendiderden,

from themselves.
kill,

The Relative Pronoun


is

wlio, Avliich,

what,

not declinable, but

it

is

joined to per-

sonal pronouns sometimes for inflection, as


kill

anun, of

whom

kih ondaii^ from

whom.

23
5)

The Interrogative Pronouns


?

are

kim,

neh.


24
Dat.
Ace.
neldereh,
nelileri,


to wliat, which.

what, which.

Ahl.

nehlerdan,

from what, which.

Nell preceding an adjective signifies "

how

"

how handsome. neh mootla, how happy.


neh guzel,

Neh

also takes the possessive signs, as

nehmiz vay\ what have we got

Kanghy,

^^

\\'\\\c\\^^

(indeclinable), should

also

be mentioned

hanghy

at,

which horse
which
of us

Jcanghi miz,

6.

Indeflntite Pe,onouns are


Jiim-<^eh,
.

hir

>
)

some
all.

one.
A'-TyV?',

hir Jashi,

whatever.
all.

hehr,
liehr hiri,
\

heuteun,

hehr

Irss,

>
/

each,

all.

hepissi,

hitch hir kimseh, hitch hir shey,


filcin,

no one.
nothing.

such an one.
tlie other.

ol hir,

25
hehr him
]

whoe^
whatever,

hehr kangJiy, hehr


neli,

These pronouns are undeclined.

VERBS.
Turkisli verbs

would appear formidable


voices

if dis-

played in

all their

and

varieties

but these
the

are best learnt after

some

familiarity with

spoken language.

Only the very simplest forms


given here.

and

rules will be

Almost

all

the

tenses are

made from

the second person of the

imperative.

All regular verbs have the infinitive in mal:

if

the preceding syllable has o or u, or


i

mek

if it

has

or

e,

the

first

taking a in conjugating, the last

e ;

as

kosamak, to

fly,

gives kosariin, I

fly,

sevmek, to love, gives severim, I love.

Besides the active and passive voices, Turkish

has

many

others

but those most necessary for

practical purposes are, next to the above, the negative, impotential, causal, reciprocal,

and

reflected.
it

To form the passive from the

active,

is

necessary to place

//

after the

root of
;

tlie

verb,

which

ill

Turkish

is
;

easily recognised
sevihrnl', to

as

sevmek, to love

be loved.

To form the me
or

negative,
;

it

is

necessary to place

ma

after the root


;

as
to love.
tlirow.

sevmek, to love

swmemek, not

atmak, to throw; atmamak, not to

To form the
place erne or

ini

potential,

it

is

necessary to

ama

after the rout

as

sevmek, to love; sevememek, not to be able to love.

hakamamak,

to be incapable of seeing.
it is

To form
tir,

the causal,

necessary to place dii\

or

after the root


;

as

sevmek, to love

sevdinnek, to cause to love.


;

okumak,

to read

okutmak, to make to read.


it is

To form the

reciprocal,
;

necessary to place

ish after the root

as
;

sevmek, to love

sevuhmek, to love one another.


^in

To form
the root
;

the reflected,
as
to see
;

or in

is

written after

gunnek,

gurinmik, to see
it

oneself.

After this explanation,

will suffice to give

the active voice of one regular verb.

27

FIRST CONJUGATION OF BEGULAR VERB>


ill

mek-

Infinitive, sevniek, to love.

Indicativk Mood.

present tense.
Sing it lew.
sevenvi,
seversen,
sever,
I love.

Plural,
severiz,
seversiz,

\\q love.

thou
lie

lovest.

ye love.

loves.

severltr,

they

love.

IMPERFECT.
Sinr/nlav.

Plural,
severduk,

severdhn, I did love.

we

did love.

severdin, thou didst love, severdiniz, ye did love.


sevtrdi,

he did

l<ve.

severdiler, they did love.

PRETERITE TENSE.
Singula?',

sevdim,
sevdin,
sevdif

have loved.

thou hast loved.


he has loved.
Plural,

sevduk,
sevdin'tZj

we have

loved.

ye have loved.
they have loved.

sevdUer^

28

PLUPERFECT TENSE.
Singular.
i<evmishidim,
I

bad

loved.

sevmishidut,
se omisk'uH,

thou

liadst k)ved.

be bad k)ved.
Plural,

fierviishiduk,

we had

loved.

isevmishidinez,

ye bad loved. they had loved.

sevmislddler,

FUTURE TENSE.
/Singular,
.^evejeim,

I shall love.

Kevejeksin,
^evejekder,

thou

slialt love.

he shall love.
Plural,

sevejeiz,

we

shall love.
love.

sevejehsiz,
sevejeJclerder,

ye shall

they shall love.

Subjunctive Mood.
present tense.
Singular.
eyer sevtrsim,
if I love. if
if

eyer seversen,
eyer severse,

thou

lovest.

he loves.

30

PLUPERFECT TENSE.
Singular.
eyer sevseJndim,
ei/er sevsehidcn^
if

had loved.
hadst loved.

if tliou
if

eyer sevsehidi.

he had loved.

Plural,
eyer sevsehiduk,
if

we had

loved.

eyer sevsehidiniz,

if
if

ye had loved.
they had loved.

eyer sevsehidiler,

FUTURE TENSE.
Singidar.
eyer sevedjek olursim, eyer sevedjek olursiu,
eyer sevedjek olur,
if I

shall love.
love.

if
if

thou shalt

he shall love.

Plural,
eyer sevedjeh olursul;
if

we

shall love.

eyer sevedjeh olursiniz,


eyer sevedjek olursaler,

if if

ye shall love,

they shall love.

Imperative Mood.
Singular.
srv,

Plural.
sevelim,
seveniz,
let

love thoii.

us love.

sersiu, let

him

love.

love ye.
let

sevsinler,

them

love.

3f
Participles.

PRESENT.
Declinahle,
seven, loving.

Indeclinalle.
sever, loving.

PRETERITE.
Declinahle.
sevdel-, loved.

Indeclinable. semnish, loved.

FUTURE.
sevecljek,

about loving.

Gerunds.
severlrn, in loving.
severek, while loving,

sevup, having loved.


sevemljeh, in loving.

DEFECTIVE VERB,

im, I am.

Indicative Mood.

present tense.
Singular.
im,
sen,

Plural,
iz,

am.
art.

we
ye

are.

thou he
is.

siz,

are.

dur,

dirler,

they are.

32

PRETERITE AND IMPERFECT TENSES.

33

PRETERITE TENSE.

34

35

Imperativk Mood.
Suigular.
ol,

be
let

tliou.

olsooiij

him, her, or

it

be.

riural.
olalem,
ohuiiz or
olsooiiltr,

let

us be.

ohm,

be ye.
let

them

be.

Potential Mood.
present or future tense.
Singular.
oil am,

37

Subjunctive Mood,
present tense.
Singular.
eyer issam,
if I be.
if

Plural,
CT/e?' issel:,

if

we

be.

eyer issea^
eyer isseh,

thou
he

be.

eyer

isse/iiz,

if
if

ye be.
they
be.

if

be.

eyer isseler,

IMPERFECT TENSE.
Singular,
eyer olsaidam,
eyer olsaiilun,
if if
if

I were.

thou wert.
he were.

eyer olsaidy,

Plural,
eyer olsaiduk,
eyer olsaiduhuz,
if

we

were.

if
if

ye were.
they were.

eyer ohaidihr,

PRETERITE TENSE.
Singular,
eyer ohnish issam,
if

have been.

eyer olmish issan,


eyer olmish isseh,

if
if

thou hast been.


he has been.

Plural,
eyer olmish issek,
eyer ohnish issanuz,
eyer olmish
isseler,
if if if

we have

been.

ye have been. they have been

38

FUTURE TENSE.
Siiu/ular.

eyer olmish oloorim,

if I

shall be.
be.

eyer olmish oloorsen,


eyer olmish oloor,

if
if

thou shalt

he shall be.

Plural,
eyer olmish olooriz, eyer olmish oloorsiz,
if if
if

we

sliall be.

ye shall be.

eyfT olmish oloorler,

they shall

be.

Infinitive Mood.
olmak, to be.

Gerunds.
iken,

being.

olidjac,

about tu

be.

oloop,

having been.

oloomljeh, whilst being.

Participles,

present.
ollan, being.


39

The verb
tlie

''

to

have

" is

expressed in Turkish by
is,"

impersonal var dir, " there

preceded by

the genitive case of the possessive pronoun.

Im-

personal verbs have forms as follows


va?' dir,

there

is.

j/ok-

dir, there is not.

var id I/, there was.

i/<^><jhidi/,

there

was

not.

var

isse/i, if

there be.

t/or/hissa/i, if

there be not.
there

mr

said//, if there

had

yoghsaidi/,

if

had

been.
var iken, there being.

not been.
yo^/iiXcw, there not being,

with other tenses from


obnak, to
be.

with

otlier

tenses from
to be.

olmamak. not

CONJUGATION OF

no-

<//r,

to have.

Indicative Mood.

present tensk.
Singular,
btiiini rar,'^

I have.

senun var,

thou

hast.

anun

var,

he has.

riaraL
bizum var,
siziui var,

we

have.

ye have. they have.


is,"'

anlariui var,
*

Jd

tut,

' mine there

&c.

40
IMPERFECT.
Singular,

heuim var idy,


senun var idy,
anuTi var idy,

I had.
tLoii liadst.

be had.
Plural,

hizum var idy,


sizun var idy,

we had.
ye had. they had.

a)daruFi var idy,

PRETERITE, AS THK IMPERFECT.

FUTURE.
Singular,

henim

oloor,

I shall have.

senun oloor,

thou shalt have.


he shall have.
Plural,

anun

oloor,

bizurn oloor,
sizufi oloor,

we

shall have.

ye shall have.
they shall have.

aiilarun oloor,

SECOND FUTURE.
henim oladjac,
I shall have,
(fee.

41

Conditional.
Singular.

benim oloordy,
senufi oloordy^

I should have,

thou shouldst have,


he should have.
Plural.

anufi oloordy,

hizum oloordy,
sizufl oloordy,

we should

have,

ye should have,

anlariui oloordy.

they should have.

Imperative.
Singidar.

senun olsoon,
anu/l olsoon,

have thou.
let

him

have.

Plural.

hizum

olsoon,

let

us have.
ye.

sizufl olsoon,

have
let

anlarun

olsoon.

them have.

Optative.
PRESENT.
Singular.

henim olaidy,
senun olaidy,
anufi olaid-y,

that I

may

have,

that thou mayst have,

that he

may have.


42
Plural,

hizum olaidy,
sizun olaidy,
anlar^iii olaidy,

that

we may

have.

that ye that

may have. they may have.

Peeteeite.
Singular,

henim olmisli olaidy,


senun olmisli olaidy,

that I might have.


that thou mightst have. that he might have.

anun olmish

olaidy,

Plural,

hizum olmish olaidy,


sizun olmish olaidy,

that

we might

have.

that ye might have.

anlaruTi olmish olaidy, that they might have, &c.

So henim yoh

dir, I

have not.

And

senun

yoTc,

&c., &c.

henim yoghidi, I had not, &c.

These verbs are conjugated with adjectives

and substantives

positively, negatively,

and
:

inter-

rogatively after the subjoined

examples

shashmishim,
zenguin dir,
cHalim
iz,

am

surprised.
^

he

is rich.

we
idi,

are learned.
Ipa'^

meshghool

he was busy

43
fakir oloorim,
temiz oladjaksiniz,
I

should be poor,
will

f^
X^"^.

you

be clean,

rahat

oloorler,

they should be quiet.

khahir deyil

seii,

thou art not


I

clever.

sikilmish deyil idum^

was not troubled,

kayermaz olmaz,
shashmish deyil misiniz,

he should not be heedless.


are

you not astonished


? ?

maghroor deyil miidy,


sakat olmayadjakmiim^
laik olmazler

was he not haughty


shall I not be

lame

mi idL

should

they
?

not

be

worthy
etun va7%

thou hast meat.


he has wine.

maraby

var,

sudunuz var idy,


kebahlery oloor idy,

you had milk.


they would have roast
meat,

hir gidy yok,

he has not a

rose,

aktchehniz yok,
hir

guemimiz yoghidi^

we have we have
we

not money, not a ship,

toozumiz olmayadjak^

will not

have

salt.
?

yokmi

hir calpaghun,

hast thou not a cap

yokmi idy atlarim,


mikrasim olmayadjakmi,

had I not horses


shall I not

have scissors?

44

ADVERBS.
Turkish adverbs really include the adjectives,

which are used adverbially

as

hhosh, nice, nicely.


eyi,

good, well.

They
usreli,

are also

made by adding
;

ileh,

with, or

upon, to nouns

as

delilik-ileh, stupidly.

dostlik-usreh, friendly.

And by

adding the Arabic an, or the Persian


;

ane^ to substantives

as

sooret-an, apparently,

from

sooret,

appearance.

akihet-an, finally,

from

akihet, end.

pederane, .paternally.

Also by afiixing djeh to express fashion or


nationality
;

as

Inglizdjeh, in English manner.

Farsi-dilindjeh,

the Persian tongue.

The subjoined

list

will be

found useful as an

adverbial vocabulary.

Adverbs of Quantity.
ol

cadar, as much.

2Jek
hi7^

2:>ek,

at most.
little.

ziadsiendjeh, too

much.

mikider, a

45
vafran, abundantly.
hir az^ a
little.

parah imrah, by
yetshir,

pieces.

ziadeh, eh, )

more.

enough.

arteh,
tclioc,

ifrat, excessively.

much.
^

ghaiet, extremely.
elcsih,

tchoc tchoc

\
J
little

dahhiziadeh, h, y
more.
daklia tchoc.

dakhiaz^

azar azai\

by

little.

Adverbs of Quality.
hed,fena, bad, badly.
dostaneh, friendly.
eyi,

nafileh, uselessly.
ahel,
\

'^itty, wittily.

good.

aJcelaneh,

guzel,

handsomely.

khosh, well.

Adverbs of
yahandeh,

Place.

46
ashaghdah,

48
gunduz,
evvel,

by day.
before.

ahhshartiy

evening.
early in the morning,

tchin sabah,
sal sal,

every year.
early.

erhen,

aTihsham sabah
guetchinlerdeh,

evening and morning.


formerly.
finally.

en swira,

yawash,

gently.

shimden sonra,
yahindeh,
esshy zemandeh,

henceforth.
in a little time.

in olden times.
in spring. in

hakarin,
yazin,
geiizin,

summer.
autumn.

in

hislmiy

in winter.

apansiz,

immediately.
lately.

demin,
hikhir,

last year.
late,

guidj, Tcati giiidjeh.

very lately.
this

shimdiden,
sabah,

from

moment.
(at).

morning
now.

shimdy,

sMmdiyedekj

until now.

49
hcHazy ha'azy,

now and

then,

guidjeh gimduz,
tchapooJc,

night and day.

promptly,
quickly, quicker,
sooner,

Us

tisdjeh,

ziadeh,

boo gun,

to-day.
\

yarin,

yarin

M gun,

to-morrow.
j

yarin deyil olhir gun, the day after to-morrow,

dun deyil

olhir gun,

the day before yesterday,


the next day.

ertessy gun,

euteh gun,
sik sih,

the other day.

very often.
I

dun,

yesterday.

dun

hi gun,

Adverbs of Interrogation.
neh sebehden?
nidjeh
?

for

what reason

neh Tcadar
Icatche ?

how? how much 1 what how many 1


? ?
"i

size

hatche Icerreh

how
J

often?

hatche def a a

nereyeh

towards where
?

nereyedek
katchian
?

until

where
?

when

50
neh
2

51
deyilf

52
ahihetan,


53
uzreh, on, about
as/irah,
;

thus hash

iizreh,

on the head.

beyond

thus deniz ashyxih, beyond

the sea.

Those taking the dative are


dek, as far as
;

thus ormaiiehdek, up to the

wood.
carslwo,

against; thus hanah carshoo^

op-

posed to me.
yakin^ near; thus
house.

emmeh

yaTcin, near

your

doghroo^ straight
straight

thus eveh doghroo guit, go

home.
;

guereh, according to

thus hanah guereh, in

my

view.

Those taking the ablative are


maade, besides
which.
oozac, far
;
;

thus hoondan maade, except

thus dostlarendan oozac, far from

friends.
evel,

before
before.

thus hir aidan

evel,

month
eiituru,

euturu,

concerning
this.
;

thus

hoondan

about
S0717XI,

after

thus henden sonra guel, come

after me.

54
hery,

since

thus
since.

iici

aidan

hery,

two

months
euteh,

beyond;

thus daglilerden

eiiteli^

be-

yond the

hills.

To

these
ara,

may be appended

55
a7nma,

56
neh kadar kih,

PART

II,

SYNTAX.
The Turks
the

address their equals or inferiors in

second

person
art

of

the
;

singular,

as

l-]t<u<k

geldin,

thou

welcome

but when speaking

politely, they use the


siz,

second person of the plural,


respect governing the third
:

or

some

title of

person singular, in the following manner

Djenahiniz or hazretiniz dedi, your excellency or

your lordship has

said.

X.B.

In complying with
sit,

a wish or request, in

inviting to

to enter,

to speak, or giving

and

taking an order, the Turks very often use hoijoaroiui,

from houyourmah, to command.

The Turkish construction generally resembles


the Latin.
-

The nominative usually stands

at the beginning

of the sentence.


S8
It is

common

to put tlie dative before the ac-

cusative.

The
tives,

adjectives

must stand before the substan-

and the genitive before the noun related For instance,

to

it.

eyi

pashanun

ogloo, the son of the

good pasha.

Dependent genitives precede


and the
latter

their substantive,
si if

adds an
;

i if

a consonantal, and

a vowel noun

as

kitabin khiaghad-i,
kizin haba-si,

the paper of this book.

the father of the

girl.

But

if

the meaning be indefinite, then the geni-

tive sign is

dropped

as

pasha
dost

ogloOj

the son of a pasha.


the house of a friend.

ev-i,

But when olmak,


follows the
boo

to be,

is

used, the adjective

noun

as
this

ad am

eyi dii\

man

is

good.

When
verb
is

expressing

number by

tcliok,

much, the

often placed in the singular

tcliok

adam

geldi,

a great

many men have come.


59
Questions are asked, in absence of interrogative words,

by the

particle

mi ;
lias
is it

as
?

karndashin geldl mi,


mi,
1)00

thy brother come


this or that
1

mi,

In replying to questions,

evet or heli, yes,

and

yok or khair, no, are used

but

it is

customary to

repeat the asker's verb, thus

Q. aghami guerdin mi, have you seen


(

my

master

guerdim,
giiermedim,

I have seen.
i have not seen.

When

one speaks about a matter of number or

weight, this must stand in the nominative, and at


the end of the plirase
hi?' 2^ctrtse

etmek,

one piece of bread.


is

When

the continuation of time

expressed, the
it

numeral must

precede the object to which

belongs, as in this example


hesh sadt okudiim,
I have read five hours.

But

it

follows

when

the hour

is

indicated

as

sadt hesh geldi,

he came at

five o'clock.

The Turkish verbs

are generally followed


is

by

the same cases of their substantives as

usual

6o
in
otlier

languages.

However, some
;

of tliem

require the ablative and dative thus the verb korhmale,

to

fear,

takes

A llahddn
deliver
;

kork, fear
;

God

as likewise katchmal', to escaj^e


liate
;

ikrcik etmelc, to

hoortarmak, to

utanmak, to be

ashamed.

While hacmak,
demek, to say
strike, kill,
;

to see

henzemek, to resemble
;

sorinak, to inquire

voormak, to

with others, want a dative, thus


hac,

hana

look at me.
transitive verbs take a nomi-

Most

active

and

native as well as accusative for the object,

when

indeterminate

as
to drink wine.

sherdh itchmck,

But the accusative

is

used,

if

determinate or
if

joined to a pronominal termination, or

a proper

name

as
I

evimij satdim,

have sold

my

house.

Yacoohy gueurdim,

have seen Jacob.

To the question
tlie

katch, nekadar,
is

how much
;

answer of price
deurt grooshah,

given in the dative


four piastres.

as


6i

As an example
Lord's Prayer
is

of

Turkish construction, the


:

here appended

GueuMer deh olan Babamiz,


Heaveus
dess
fied

ismin

moolaxsancti-

in

being our Father,

Thy name

ohoon.
let be.

MelehiooUin guelsoon.

Gueukdeh
In heaven

Thy kingdom
iseh yerdeh
it

let

come.

muraduTi nidjeh
thy will
as

dakhi

heuileh.

Ilehr

be in earth

also so.

Every
vir. give.

guiuiikih
daily

etmelcimizy
our bread
(ace.)

hizeh hoo
to us
this

guiun
day

Ve

And

sootchlarimizy
our trespasses
lareh.
passers {dat.)
{ace.)

haghislah
forgive

hizeh

sootchly-olauto the
tres-

towards us

Hem
And
to

ighvayah
temptation
{dat.)

scdma,

ilia

lead not, but


kooivali,

kliabisdeii

coortar.
deliver.

Tclmn
For
dir.
is.

meleh,

from

evil (abl.)

kingdom,

power,

isset,

ebbed

senun
thine

Amin.
Amen,

glory, eternally

PART

III.

VOCABULARY OF SOME COMMON


WORDS.
A.
armistice, mutarekth.

abundance, holak. abuse, fena aidet.


the acacia, sont. account, hisah. accustom, to, alismak.
action, amil. adder, cava Han. afternoon, ikindy. agent, vakil.
agricultiire,
air,
t^iift,

arms, silah. tlie arms, col. the army, askur.


arrival, yidiah. arrival, ynelish.

arsenal, ter.'<aneh.

the ash, dish boodak.


ashes, kiycul. Asia, Meshrac. ass, (shek, huniar. assault, ynrish.

djU

k.

ague, sitmah.
haica. alone, valiniz. hehr. almond, had em.
all,

asthma, ttk ncfeshi.


attention, ihtiraz.

autumn, sow ba/iar. awake, to, oyanmak.


axe, balta.

America, Yehiidun ia. an arierj', shak damav.


anchor, demiry.
angels, indckJer. anger, gliu.sib.

antimony,

rasfir.

apoplexy, damlah. apothecary, ma'adjundjy. a]>ple, elma.


apricot, kayissy.

apron, foot<ik. arable land, ishlcnedjck tarla. architect, mi 'mar.

B. badger, boorsook. baker, ekmekdjy. barber, herbcr. biirley, arpa. barracks, kishJa. basin, cuornah. basket, zcnbil. baths, hamam. bay, corfez.
beau,.6aA.'a.

64
bear, ain.

the beard, sacaL beaver, coondooz.


bed, deusek.
bee, ari.

broom, supur. brown, essmer.


buckle, coptcha.
buffalo, soo sighiri.

the beech, ca^/^


])eef,

sighir eti. beer, arpasoovi. beetle, hoinoozhi beudjek. l)egmning, ibtida.

bug, tahtah bity. bull, boogha. butcher, kasab. butterfly, pervaneh. button, deuimch. buttonhole, ilik.
C.

belluws, keuruk. the belly, earn.


better, adsi. bird, a, koosh. birds, wild, ijehan koosh/er. birth, vierlut.
l)it.

cabbage, lahaneh.
cable, the, palainari.
calf,

boozaghy.

guiem.

calf (of leg), beldir. camel, dcveh.

black, siah.
l)lackbird, kara tanok. to blame, zem olmak.

blind, keur. the l)lood, can. blotting-paper, halva


kiaghidi/. blue, mavi. -boar, wild, yeban dofiooz)/. the body, voodjood.

camel-driver, derehdjy. cameleopard, surnaj>a. camp , ordoo. candle, moom. candlestick, sheni'dan.
cap, fes. cape, booroon.

cap-maker, calpaktchy.
carpenter, dulgher.
carpet, kaly.
carrier, hamal. cat, kcdy. caterpillar, hoc beudjeguy. cavalry, atlu.

a bone, giiemuk.

bootmaker, tchizmcdjii.
l)oot.s,

tchezmeh.
^

bottle, shisheh.

boy, oghlan. the brain, bepin. brambles, tsalu. branch, bodak.


l>rass, toodj.

cavern,

m aghar eh.
namdar.
a,

ceiling, tavan.

celebrated,

bread, etmek. break of day, gainn aghar-

yuz seneh. certain, gertsek. chair, isskemJy. change, to, deyistirmek.


century,
charcoal, keumur. chase, to, kovmak. cheap, udsooz.

masy.
breakfast, kafealti. the breast, gugus. bridge, keupry. bridle, ooyan. bridle, uyan. bronze, pirinteh.

cheeks, yanaclar.
cheese, peinir.

chemist, kimiadjy. chicken, pilitch.

65
chimney, odjak.
chin, tcheneh. cholic, sandjy.

crow, koozghoon.
cruel, yavuz. cry, to, tshagirmnk. cuckoo, coocoorac. cucumber, khiar.

choose, to, setsinek. cinders, keuL chiy, bait chic. clean, temiz. cloak, yaghmoorlik. clock, tchaJlar aa'at. clouds, boolootler. coarse, kalin. coat, esvah. cobbler, cskidjy. cock, khoroz. coffee, kafeh. coffee-house, kafeh dukiauy. cold, sook. cold, a, ziikiam. colour, runy.
colt, tai.

cunning, akili.
cui>,

cup, bardak. findjan.

cupboard, dolab. curb, reshmeh. curtain, purdeh. cushion, yasdnk.

custom, adet. custom-house, guiumruk.


cut, to, ke.'imak. cutler, betchakchy.

cypress, servi aghadjy.

D.
dates (fruit), khoormah. day, geun. deaf, saghir. dear (in price), pahahlu.

column, dtrek. come, to, gelmek. command, to, huyurmak.


comi^anion, yoldas. compass, the, poosoolah. compassion, merhamet. complain, to, sitiar ekmek. conclusion, netidjeh. confectioner, halvadjy. consulate, consoloslik. consumption, verim. cook, kebabtchy. cook, to, isinak. copper, bakir. copy, to, tarif ekmek. corn-factor, oon djy.
cotton, pambook. couch, sofah.

dear (loved), mnhbub. deck, the, anbary.


deep, deriii. deer, gaeik. defend, to, arka olmak.

demand,

to, sormak. den, tchih. departure, guidedjek rakit.

desert, tchiulluk. desire, arzoo. destiny, tarz. destroy, to, bosmak, yok

et-

mek.
dig, to, bellemek.

count, to, sajmak. covered cart, eurtulu araba. cow, inek. cream, kaimac.
crescent, yarcm ai. crocodile, thnsah. cross road, arcoory yoJ.

disembarkation, tchikmasy.
dish, tepsy.

gucmiden

dismount,

to,

aiden inmek.

dog, keupek. door, kapu. double-barrelled aghz'ytufeuk.

gun,

iky

66
doubt, shoobeh. drawers, don.
dress, gueissy.

father, baha, ata, pedcr. fear, korkoo.


feet, ayaklar.

duck, eurdek. duck, wild, iiehan eurdcrjuy.

fever,

honma.
t

field, a,

chair.

dumb,

dilsiz.

fig-tree, iiidjir

aghadjy.

dust, tooz. dwarf, djndjeh. dyer, bouadiy. dysentery, iteh aghrissy.


E.
eagle, caj'a coosh, kartaL ears, the, koolacler. earth, toprak. earth, the, toprac. east, the, guiun doghossy. eat, to, yemek. elder, the, murveir aghadjy.

fine weather, atchik finger, pormac. finish, to, bitirtnek.

hawa.

the

fir,

tcham.

fire, atCfth.

fish,

baUk.

flag, bairac.

flame, \dev.
flea, i)irch.

flesh,

t.

elephant, ./j7. elm, the, cara aghadiy. elsewhere, kajvi yerde.

flour (wheat), oon. a flower, tchitchck. fly, si nek. fog, tooman. fold, to, cjmek.

follow, to, ardina gitmek.


folly, deliklik.

embassy, seferct devlet. employraeut, manzUb.


end, son. envelope-paijer, sarmac kiaghidy. envy, iradet. equitable, saha. evening, ak^ihiim. ever so little, azadzak. every, iradet.

a ford, guetchid. forehead, aln. forenoon, Coshlook.


forest, a, orm m. forget, to, unutmak. forgetfulness, nisian. fork, tchutal.

everywhere, hehr yerde. eyebrow, the, cash.


eyelid, the, kirpik.

fountain, tcheshmeh. fowling-piece, Jilintah, toofenky.


fox, dilky. frog, coorbagha.
frost, kiraghoo.

av

F.
face, 2/eiiz. fainting, yurek bailmchsy. faithful, dindar.

fruit, yemish.

fruiterer, yemishdjy. fruit-trees, yemish aghadjler.

falcon, doyhan. far, oozak.

farm,

bejlik.

garden, baghtche. gardener, boostandjy.


girths, colanler. glass, cadeh.

fai'rier,

naalband.

fat, semiz.

67
glazier, djamdji/.
hill, hair.

gloves, eUliven. goat, ki'tchy. go, to, qiimek,


gol<l, alto'.u.

hippopotamus,
hips, bel.

at baliguy.

honey,

bat.

goldsmith, cooyoomdjy. good, eyi.


goose, caz. gourd, cahac. gout, nikriz. grapes, itznin. grass, ot. grease, don yaghy. green, ydchil. gridiron, exrarah. grocer, \dar.

lionour, ikrum, izzct. hope, urn id.

horn, boynouz. horse, at. horse-dealer, nt hazukquiany horseslioe. nii\ii. hospital, bi/it'ir khanch. hotel, konnk. an hour, bir sa\it.

a house,

r.

hushand. codjia.
hut, kafib.

gun,

top.
'Ot.

hyena, sertlau.
I.

gunpowder, har

H.
liail, tool no.

ice, booz.
illness, khastalik.

hair, satch. half, yari. half an liour,

indignation, d^irgunlik.

yarcm saat.
\

halter, yoolar.

halting plat

e,

dooradjac

ycr.

ham, donooz jmstirmasy. hammer, tchtkidj.


hand,
el.

ink, munkeb. in order that, itshun. insect, beudjek. instead of, yerinde. insult, to, azarlainak. in vain, bo.^yo'e. iron, dcmi)'.

hare, tacshnn. harvest time, orak zcman.


liat, C'(f/>ttc.

ironmonger, dem irdjy.


island, ada/i.

ivory,

^fildishi.

hatchet, haltah.

hawk,

ti'hindik.

hay, iAh,.,k. head, bush. headache, hashaghrisy.


heart, yiirek. heat, issidjac.

J.

Jesus Christ, Hazrety


jeweller, (Iji-rah irdjy. join, to, djtm etmck. joy, shdzlik. jug, bardac.

''Issah.

heaven, sema, geuk.


helmit, hashlic. hen, taook. here is [roici), ishte. high, ynksck.

K.
kettle, cazan.

key, anaktar.
kill, to,

highway, olvo

yol.

euldurmek.

68
kinsman, kisim. kiss, to, eupmek. kitchen, matbakh.
knee,
diz.

M.
maize, misirboghdai.

knife, bitchac.

make, to, etmck. man, adam.


mare, kissrac. market-place, tchiarshoo. marry, to, evlenmek. matches, kibrit. meat, ct. metal, ma''adcn. melon, cavoon, angur. merchant, bazarguian. middle, oHa. milk, sood.
millet, daroo.

L.

labou rer, tch ijtchy.


lady, kadeen. lake, gueul.

lamb, coozij. lame, topal. lamp, candil.


lantern, faner. larboard, sol yatiy. latch, inundal.
late, getz.

mist, deuman.

money-changer, saraf.

laundress, tcliameshirdjy. lead, coorshoon. lean, mide.


leech, se)di(k.

monkey, meimoon. moon, ai.


morning, sabah. mortar, havan. mosque, djami. mother, ana.

lemonade, elimoonatah.
leopard, pars.
letter, mektoob. the laurel, defneh.

mount

(a horse),

binmek.

liberty, azadlik. light, aidinllk.


light, noor. light, to strike,

ateshtchak-

mount, to, tsikmak. mountain, dagh. mouse, sitchar. mouth, aghiz. to move, salmak.

mac.
lightning, shimshck. the lime, filamoor. linen, bez. linen-draper, asterdjy. lion, arslan.
lip,

much, tchok. mud, tchamoor.


mule, catir. murderer, khirsiz. mushroom, mantar. musket, tufeuk. mustard, khardal.

doodac.

little, az, kalil.

live, to,

yashamak.

N.

lock and key, kUidanaktar. locksmith, kiliddjy. look at, to, bakmak. looking-glass, ainah. love, to, sevmek. low, altskak.

naked

tch ihlak.

necessary, lazim. needle, meh.

new, yeni. news, khubber.


night, guidjeh.

69
noon, euileh.
nose, booroon.
plain, kir. plane, the, tchinar. jdaut, to, dikmek. pleasure, ztvk.

O.
oats, jioolaf.

obedient, meuteu. ocean, buyak deniz. odd 01' even, tek tchift. oil, yagh.
olive, zeytiii.

plunder, to, tclcf olmak. poison, zchir. poor, fakir.


poplar, the, cavac. potato, ycr elmassy. powder'(gun), barook. pray, to, yalvarmak. printer, basmadjy. promise, to, ikrar ctmck. pulse, the, nabs.

omelette, kaighanali.
order, to, huyuormak.

ornament,

bcztk.

ostrich, deveh cooshy. otter, soo semury.

oven, fooroon.
ox, eukuz.

Q. quantity, miktar.
quiirrel, tsekish.

question, sooal.

pack-saddle, semer.

quit, to,

brakmak.
E.

pack-saddle muker, scmerdjy.


painter, tasvirdjy. palace, xerai. paper, kiaghkl.
l)artridge, kcklik. passj)ort, yol emry. pay, to, eademek.

rabbit, ada tavshan. radishes, toorb. ;^


raft, a, sal.

rainbow, yaghmoor. ram, cotch.


rat, buyitk sitchan. reason, \ikil. receive, to, atmak.

peace, hoozoor.

peacock, taooz.
pear, cmvuO'.l. peas, )ioohood. pen, calem. pencil, coorshoon calem.

red, kizil.

reddish, kizlldjeh. refuse, to, istememek.


regret, to, adsimak.
reins, dizyuin. relate, to, nahil eimek. reptile, beudjeh.

pepper,

hiber.

l^ersist, to,

dayanmak.

pewter, callai. pheasant, suiUui. physician, hekim. pigeon, wild, yeban gayer
djcn. pincers, mashnh. pine, the, sham. pistols, tabauja. pitcher, desty. plague, yoomroodjac.

respect,
i

izzet.

rest, to,
;

rahat lanmak.

rice, hirindje.

rich, zenguin.

rigging, the, gev.minuh


I I

allaty. river, a, tchai, irmak.

roast meat, cainamish

et.

70
roast, to, kihah etmel:
snail, halezun. snake, ilian.

rock, kaia.
roof, tcan.

snow,

k((i'.

room, odd.
rose,
(/ul.

rudder, the, dameny.

son, oghl. sore throat, dolina bogkai soul, t^an. soup, tchorha.

saddle, eier. saddle, to, derhmek. saddle-bags, yandjook, hoorj. saddler, seradjy. sailor, kalioundjy. salad, salata.
salt, tooz.

sparrow, a, sertcheh. spoon, cashic. spring, bahar.


spurs,

mahmooz.

stable, akkor. stars, the, yddizler. stern, the, kitchy. stirrups, uzenguy rikaih.

sand, coom.
sash, cooshak. save, to, kartarmak. sauce, salsah. sausage, sudjook. scissors, micrass. sea, deuiz.

stockings, tchorab.

stomach, mVideh.
stone, a, task. stove, iara.

stream, irmac
street, sokak.

suddenly,

tez.

sealing-wax, muhur moomy. seedtime, ekin rakty. shark, keupek heliyhy. sheep, kooioon.
ship, (juemy.
shirt,

sugar, simker. summer, yaz.

supper, aksham, yemek.


sure, emin, gertshek.

guiumlek.
2^<^ipooshtchy.

swan, coo(iIioo. sword, kilidje.


T. table, sofrah. tablecloth, siny bezy.

shoes, j)apoosh.

shoemaker,

shop, dukian. shoulders, ootnooz. shovel, atesh keruguy. sigh, to, ai etmek. signature, imza. silver, guiumv.sh. sink, to, batmac.
sister, kiz

tanner, debbagh. tavern, meikhaneh.


tea, tchdi. tears, aghlaish. teeth, dish.

carndash.

skin, dery. skull, bash tchanaghy. sleep, uoyiikoo. slippers, condoorah. small-pox, tchitchck.

tempest, tuofan. tent cords, etnab.


tent, tchadir.

smell, to, kokmak. smoke, tutun.

thread, ipUk. throat, boghaz. thunder, iyildirim. tiger, caplan. time, zeman.

71
tin,

Unekeh.

trade, zend* at. traveller, yoldjy. tobacco, tootoon. tobacco Ijag, tovtoon kisesy.
tongiie, dil.

want, I, bana lazim dir. watch, to, oyanik olmak.

watchmaker,
water, soo.

'sa^atdjy.

water-bottle, tchenta. water-closet, aydc yoly.

too nnicli, pek tchok. toothache, dish ar/hrisy. touch, to, dokauiHuk. turn, to, dcnnmek.
turtle, citptoo/jaijha.

week,

a, bir heftah.

twiue, sidjim.
IT.

well, kooyoo. west, baty. whale, kadircjha. whip, camtchy, khoorhash. white, bcyaz.
wick,./i7Y.

uniform, hivtane. usury, maamalc.

wife, ehl. winil, yd.

valiant, f/hairetli.
valise,

djamedan.

window, pendjereh. wine, sh(i7'ab. winter, kis/i. wisdom, hakimet. wish, to, istemek.
wolf, koord.

valley, dvrch.

vanquish, to, (letshmck. vapour, buk/iO'j)'.


veal, tfinah et. veil, (inlhind.

wood,

odooii.\

world, diuiia.

vein, d<iii)(ir. velvet, k'idife. victory, zafcr, futtch. vile, altshak. vinegar, sirkeh.

Y.
j'acht, safa guemy. yard, the, avli. year, sen. yes, ecvct, beJi.

vintage, }ja(j}i hozoomy. viper, fnyucrek.


virginity, Inkirlik.

yesterday, dun.
yet, daha.

young, fjuendj.

voyage, yoL
vulture, ak-haha.\

W.
wall, divar.

zero, sifr. zinc, tatia ma'adcni.

72

EXAMPLE OF SHOET

LETTER.

Siadctloo EffencUm,

niicttindim.
i

Boo aksham sizeh bir ziaret ctnick Eyer waktiniz oloorsah tezkeriyi guetirine

djc va b vert sin iz.

Illustrious Sir,
This evening
I

have the intention


to receive

to

make you a

visit.

If

you have time

me, be

kind enough to give

me an answer by

bearer.

SIMPLE PHRASES

COMPLIMENTS.
You are welcome. Khosh geldin. Good morning, sir. Sabah khair olsoon,
cffendim.

How do you do Nidjesiniz ? How is your health ? Key jiniz


?

iiasil

dir ?

Is

your

.state

good
I

Keyjiniz

cyi

mi?

Thank God, Good night.

am well. Shuknr Allahah, khoahim. Guedjeniz khair olah. The same to you. Khairah karshev.

How
He He He
is is is

is

your father
.

Thank

you, very well.

Pederunnz na.nl dir ? Khosh hooldook, pek

eyi.

Eyi deil dir. not well dying. Eulur. dead. Eiddi.


your mother? Validehuniz nasil dir ? Shi/a hooldi. her head be preserved. Bashini sagh olsoon.
is

How
She

is

hetter.

May Memnounnm effendim. I am much obliged. May God reward you. ^^/aA berekiat virsoon.
What
o'clock
is it
?

Nearly eight o'clock.

Sa^at katchta ? So' at sekizeh vareyar.


ash.

Open the

curtains.

Purdurlari


What
trouble I give.
It is nothing.


74

What news is No news. Klmbbar


Is there

Nch zakmct virirum. Hitch bir shay yok. there ? Neh khuhbar var ?
yok.

Eyi khuhbar var mi ? Khubbar guzel dir. Fena khubbar var. It is bad news. From whom did you hear it ? Kiimlcn ishitdlniz mi ? Ani ishitniedum. I have not heard it.
good news?
is
-

The news

splendid.

It is untrue. I

am

glad.

Yanlish dir. Khoshnudini.


?

Is it possible
It is a

Mumkin mi

dir ?

strange thing.
I

To-day

Bir adjaib muslahat dir. have much business. Tshok ishim var boo

gun. Give me some fresh water. Bir az taza soo guctir bana. Bir chibook doldur. Fill me a pipe. Please take it, sir. Bouyouroon, effendim. How is the weather ? Hawa nasil dir ? Hawa rakid dir. It is hot. Boolanik dir. It is cloudy. Yaghmoor yaghayoor. It rains. Tshok toz dir. It is very dusty. Pek soouk dir. It is very cold.

It is dark.

The moon
It is noon.

shines.

Karanlik dir. Mehtab

var.

Eidlen dir. Let us go to a cafd. Bir kafeyeh guidelim. Take my cloak. Koorkiim id. Yes, sir. Evvet, effendim. Come here, waiter. Oghlan, guel boorayah. What do you wish ? Neh istersiniz ? Bring us coifee. Bizeh bir kafeh guetir.

75
Will you have a cigarette 1Bir chigara istcr-misiniz ?

Have you tobacco lTutuuuniz var mi


No.
I

Khayr.

a pity. Nehyazik. have some. Benini var. Bring us two pipes. Bizeh

What

Ucl nargillch guctir.

Very Take

well,

sir.

Pek

eyi, ejfcndini.

this for yourself,

wMiGX.Oghlan

dl

sana

hir

bakshish.

Thanks,
I

sir.
'^o.

Ey

wallah, cffoulim.

So, let us

Olsoon,

giddim.

am

going home.

Eceh gideiim.
8izch tcrk cf/ncly-i/n.

I must leave you. Your servant, sir.


(

Bcndcniz

i/n, cjfcndiin.

loodbye.

Vidua
Allali yol virrh.

CJocl

speed you.
you.

God be with
Is

Allah hitrndjrh olsoon.


?

your master at home


is, sir.

Aghan

evindch mi

Evdch, soolta)iim. Some one wants to see you. Sizch

He

bir kimschistcyar.

Who

is it ?

Kim

dir.

Gelsoon itcheru. Let him come in. Rest yourself a moment. Bir az istirahat idcrsiniz. Holloa is any one here ? Ya! hoo bir kimseh var mi ?
!

Make haste. Tiz eileh imdi. Which road must I take ? Kanghi yoli tootmahjim How must we go to it? A)ia yetishmcyeh nasil
gitmeli
iz ?

'/

Where does
guetirir ?
It leads

that road lead? the

Ya

boo yoli nercych

to

Bosphorus.

Karadcniz Boghazch

guetirir.


76
Is
it

Boondan oozalc mi? Boondan takminen ntch mil. I am much obliged. Niz j)ek memnoonim. It is very late. Pck gnidje dir. How far is it to Ailrianople ? Boondan Edrcnycdeh
far

from this?
miles,

About four

latch mil var dir ? hour's journey. Bir saUdlik yol. Arc there robbers ? Khcrsiz var mi ? Tliere is no fear day or night. Guidje ve guiiindiiz

One

Korku yok

dir.

? Yollar guzcl mi ? Well, friends, let us continue our journey. dostlarim, yolimizch gidelem.

Are the roads good

Shimdy

Farewell.

KJwshdjch kalin.
you, gentlemen.

God thank diUHm.

Allah razi olah,

cffen-

Summon

the \i\.\\<Wor(}i.Konakdjy tchagir.

Have you good rooms and beds?


dooshckiniz var dir ? Yes, sir. Evvet, effendim.

Eyi odalariniz re

Where

Let us alight. Inelem. At-oghlan neredch dir ? is the ostler ? Fake our horses to the stable. Atlaremizeh akhorah
trhekdir.

want refreshment, what have you


istenm, neh~niz var
?

Ta'am etmek
istersiniz, boo-

What would you


yooronn
Biing
a
?

like,

pray?

Neh

Have you a fowl

? Taook-iniz var mi Bir well-cooked cutlet.

eyi

pishmish

kulbasti virun.

Will you not have potatoes?


misiniz
?

Yerclmahsi hooyoormaz


77

No, that is enough. Khaii', ol ydishir. Bring me some wine. Bana hir az sharah guctir. Have you fruit ? Mhjve-niz var mi? Bring somc.Guetii' hir az. This wine is good. Boo sharab eyi. The meat is not well dressed. -^^ cyi pish-me-mish. KJiituiutkiarkr -imiz Where are our servants?

khaiidch devlcr

Supper

Bed

is

(table) is ready. Sofra kooroolmis-h dir. better than supper. Z>oo67if/i- bona sofraden

cyi dir.

Light the gentlemen. Ejfendiicreh


(Jood night.

moom

tutnn.

G uidjchfiiz khciyr olali.

What is

to pay tBoordjoomiz nch kadar dir ? Give Avhat pleases you. Istcdiyitiizi verin. Give me twenty-five piastres. Yirmi bcsh ghoroush
vcrin.

Waiter, here are yirmi -para. May God repay you.

twenty paras. Ya
Allah inayct
yok.

ogldan, Cd

mna

eilcych.

Do not answer me. Djcicab I am angry. Durilmish im.


It is

nothing.

Hitch bir shay yok.


Soosiniz.

Hold your tongue.


I

am
im.

not pleased with you.

Sizden khooshhnud dcil-

any hot water ? Kainar soo var mi? Give me some soap. Bir az saboon vir. Light the fire. Ateshi yak. Pour out cold water. Soonk soo denk. Are my boots clean? Tchismelerimi terniz What coat will you have to-dvLY tKanghi eshabi
Is there

guiersiniz boo g^iiiin ?


78
(Jive nic

my

cap.

Kidpmjhimi

vcr.

Let us go out. Tchikalun. Breakfast is ready. Kahfch alti hazir. Does the water hoil ? Soo kainar mi ? Bring two cups and saucers. Bana iki tass ilch zarf
guetir.

Take more cream.

Daha kaimak

dl.

Taza yoomoortah rjuctir. Bring new-laid eggs. "What have we for dinner to-day ? Booguiiui ycmekdch neh-miz var ?

Have we any fish ? BaliffJihniz I'cir mi? is game. Shi kiar var. At what hour do you wish to dine tScCat katchdeh
There
yemckdeli istcrmisiniz
?

Dinner
I

koroolmish dir. will take some roast meat. Kebabdcn bir azalirim.
is

ready.

*So/r
Bck

It is delicious.
I

Iczetloo dir.

drink to your health. ^Ashkinizch itchiurem. Best wishes. Afietlcr otsoon.


'

Where
Here
it

are

you going

Neredyeh gideyorsiniz
boldoon

Is there

a boat

tKaik
.^

mi ?

comes. Ishte gueliur. Hchr shay hazir mi ? All ready, sir. Hazir dir, effendim. Please get into the boat. Kaikah guirin booyooroon.
Is all

ready ?

Shall

Give way, my lads. Hai kardashlarim, tshek doghroo we go on shore ? Inelim mi ? Have we anymore wine ? Dakhi sharabimiz var mi ? I hope it Avill not rain. Allah vireh yaghmayaidi. I do not think it will rain. Deimedch ki yagha. I have no powder. Barootim yok dir. Here it is. Ishte dir. Have you bullets? Koorshiinin var mi ?


Is there


79

any game
is full

in this

country?

Boo ctrafdeh av
top toloo

var mi ? This wood


dlr.

of

game.

Boo orman av

Fire.
I

Atiniz.
to carry.

have hit it. Ben oordoom. Give the servants tlie game

Toofcukleri

khismetkiarlaruh vinut uz guctirsunlcr.

What
I

Let us enter this shop. do you look for?

SJioo duJcianch guirclim.

Nch

ararsiniz ?

want some fine cloth. Bir giizcl tchioka isterim. Here is excellent cloth. Ishte bir eyi tchioka. I want a dark colour. Kooyoo rengi isUrim. How do you sell it? Katchia virirsiniz ?
Three piastres a yard.
Is
it

Utch groushah

arshootii.

true

what is

.said of

the Vntihn'! Pashadai ufuru

didiklcri gucrtclick mi dir? AVhat is said \Nch dirlcr ? That he is disgraced. il/' azool olinish didilcr. His fall will be cause of much trouble to many. A nun niazool oldooghy tshok adanuih zurar

guctund'.

You
Well

are quite right.


!

Gucrtclick sen.

let

us go.

Ey, gidelim.

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