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Chapter # 1 SCIENCE The study of all the things of universe is called science. Or The knowledge based on observations experiments and results is called science. At the beginning, science was named as Natural Philosophy and it had two branches. Natural Philosophy ( science )
Physical Science Study of Non-living matter Biological Science Study of Non-living matter

Note: As there are only two types of living things from the beginning ie Animals and plants, so Biological science got two main farther subjects ie Botany( from Greek word Botany ----Herbs study plants ). Zoology ( from Greek word Zoo --- Animal ). On the other hand with the passage of time more and more development took place, in physical science, therefore it is divided into the following main branches . Physics =, chemistry, Maths, computer Astronomy etc. Matter: Anything which has mass and volume is called matter Or Anything having mass and volume is called matter e.g Pen, Air, Water, etc States of matter. Solid state Liquid state Gaseous state Plasma state Chemistry: Is that branch of science which deals with the properties, compositions and structure of matter, changes occurring in matter and the laws under which these changes occur. Branches of Chemistry: With the passage of time, more and more development took place in chemistry, therefore it was felt necessary to divide chemistry into various branches to make its study more convenient and systematic, chemistry has been divided into the following important branches. Organic Chemistry: The carbon containing compounds ( except CO2, CO, CO3-2, HCO3-1 & CN ) are called organic compounds and their study is called organic chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry: The study of all the elements and compounds of the elements other than carbon is called inorganic chemistry .

Physical Chemistry: The branches of chemistry dealing with the study of laws and principles which are responsible for the separation and combination of atoms during chemical reaction called physical chemistry. Analytical Chemistry: The study of qualitative and quantitative analysis of a substance is called analytical chemistry. Biochemistry: The study of chemical reactions place inside the body of living things is called biochemistry. Industrial Chemistry: The study of chemical reactions occurring during the formation of various synthetic products like content, glass, plastic etc in industries is called industrial chemistry./ Nuclear Chemistry The study of changes occurring in the nuclei of radio active elements as a result of spontaneous emission of radiations & their effects is called nuclear chemistry. Environmental Chemistry The study of chemical reactions taking place in the environment and their effects upon us is called environmental chemistry. Lecture# 3 Matter

Pure matter (sub stance) Element Compound

impure matter (sub stance)




Non-metal Molecule

Homogeneous Mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture

Formula unit

Atom: The smallest particle of matter which may or may not have free existence is called atom, For example hydrogen element is composed of H atoms which dont have free existence. Similarly Helium element is composed of He atoms which have free existence. Note: The word Atom is derived from a Greek word, Atoms which means indivisible. This name was given by Democritus / 460-370 B.C. Actually the Greek, philosophers thought that matter could be divided into smaller and smaller particles to into smaller and smaller particles to reach a basic unit, that can not be further sub-divided. According to the modern concepts, atom is further composed of sub-atomic particles which are more than 100. however there are the fundamental ones they are; 1. Porton 2. Electon & 3. Neutron All the particles of an atom are inside the nucleus of it. Only electrons are present outside, the nucleus, revolving around it. A Swedish chemist. Named as J. Berzelius ( 1779-1848) determined the atomic masses of elements.

He also provided the system of giving symbols to elements. Elements: Element is a pure substance, which is composed of chemically identical atoms. e.g.; hydrogen is an element which consists of it atoms which are all chemically identical y the term chemically. Substance: Any pure matter which a uniform composition is known as substance. e.g.; elements, compound, molecule etc. Identical wn mena that all atoms of an element will have same number of protons and same no. of electrons. However their number of neutrons mean be different. i. H - element H,H,H,H,H,H Atoms So far more than 110 elements are known. Most of them are natural while some are synthetic, Types:- Elements are of the following three types. 1. Metals 2. Non-metals & 3. Metalloids Metals 1. They are hard solids excepts hg which is liquid gases 2. There have shine 3. They are good conductors of heart & electricity except graphite 4. Some metals are ductile i.e.; their wires can be format their & some are malleable i.e.; their sheets can be formed formed. 5. They have light m.p & b.p.. s.p. Non-metals 1. They may be solid, liquid or 2. They have no shine 3. They are bad conductors

4. Non-metals arte brittle, i.e.; wires & sheets cannot be 5. They have low m.p. &

Examples Na, K, Mg, Cu, Ag, Au, Me etc.

Examples i. Sold:- C, S, P etc ii. Liquid:- Br. iii. Gas:- H2, U2, O2 etc.

Metalloids: The elements which have properties in between metals and non-metals. e.g.; Ga, Ge. Etc. Compound: When atoms of two or more elements chemically combine in a fixed ratio, a new substance is formed. Which is known as compound. For example when two atoms of hydrogen element chemically combine with one atom of oxygen element, a compound, water (H2O) is formed in which the atoms are combined in 2:1 Molecule: The smallest particle of a substance which is capable of free existence is known as molecule. e.g.; H2O, HU, H2, O2 etc. Classification of Molecules: Molecules can be classified in two ways as:

1. On the basis of nature of elements: On the basis of nature of elements, there are two types of molecule a. Molecule of Elements: The molecules which are made of atoms of same elements. e.g.: H2, O2, O3, S8, P4, N2, U2 etc. b. Molecule of Compound: The molecules which are made of atoms of different elements. e.g.: H2O, HU, H2 SO4, C6H12 06 etc. 2. On the basis of number of atoms. On the basis of no. of atoms there are three types of molecules, which are described as follow. a. Mono-atomic molecules: The molecules which are made of only one atom are called mono-atomic molecules. e.g.; He, Ne, Xe etc. b. Diatomic molecules: The molecules which are made of only two atoms (same or different). e.g.; H2, N2, CO, HU, U2 etc. C. Poly atomic molecules: The molecules which are made of more than two atoms are called ply atomic atoms are called ply atomic molecules. e.g.; H2O, H2 SO4, C6 H12 O6, CH4, NH3 etc. Formula Unit: The simplest combination of atoms of a compd which possesses all the called formula unit. For example NaU is a formula unit. Sodium chloride is a cluster of NaT & U Ions and each U ion is surrounded by 6 NaT & U ions of sodium chloride there is no independent NAu Unit. Therefore, NaUis termed as formula unit rather than molecule. All ionic compounds are represented by formula units. Isotopes: Isotopes of an element may be defined as: "The atoms of an element having same atomic number but different atomic masses, are called isotopes of that elements." OR "Atoms of an element having same no. of protons and same no. of electrons but different no. of neutrons are called isotopes of that elements. OR " Atoms of an element having same chemical properties but different physical properties are called isotopes of that element. For example carbon element has three isotopes. Which are known as C-12, C-13, & C-14. All these isotopes of carbon have same no. of protons (e.g.; b) & same no. of electron (i.e.;6) but different no. of neutrons i.e.; 6,7 and 8 respectively in C-12, C-13, & C-14. Lectures 4 ISOTOPES Isotopes of an element may be defined as: The atoms of an element having same atomic number but different atomic masses, are called isotopes of that elements. Or Atoms of an element having same no of protons and same no, of electrons but different no of neutrons are called isotopes of that element. Or Atoms of an element having same chemical properties but different physical properties are called isotopes of that element. For example carbon element has three isotopes, which are known as

c- 12 c-13 c-14a All these isotopes of carbon have same no, of protons ( ie, b ) same no of electrons ( ie, 6 ) but different no of neutrons i-e 6, 7 and 8 respectively in c-12, c-13, c-14. Other examples are, Hydrogen has 3 isotopes, oxygen has three, Nickle ( Ni ) has five, calcium has six, palladium has six, cadmium has nine and tin has ii isotopes. Note: Round about 280 natural isotopes are known 40 of them are radio active isotopes. Beside these 280, about 300 unstable radio active artificial disintegration. Elements like Arsenic (As), fluorine (F), iodine ( I ) and gold ( Au ) etc, have only a single isotope. It important to not e that elements of odd atomic number almost never possess more that two stable isotopes. On the other hand elements of even atomic number usually have larger number of isotopes. The isotopes whose mass number are multiple of 4, are particularly abundant out of 280 isotopes that occur in nature, 154 have even mass number, and even atomic number. Ion: When an atom loses or gains one or more electrons have 8 electrons in their outermost (valence ) shell, they get a tire of ive sign. This positively or negatively changed species is k own as ion. e.g. Electron configuration of Na is K=2 , l=8, M=1 So sodium loses its single valence electron & thus forms sodium ion ( Na+ ). Such an ion having + ive charge is called caption Na ----------------------- Na+ + Ie2, 8, 1 2, 8 Similarly the electronic configuration on of 17CL is k=2, L=8, M=7 so it gains an electron to form chloride ion ( Cl -1 ) i. e Cl + Ie- ---------------------------- Cl-1 2, 8, 7 2, 8, 8 The ion having negative change is called Anion ". It is important to note that properties of ions are totally different from their corresponding neutral atoms. The ions may be a group of atoms like So1-2 , Co3-2, Hco3-1 , no4-1 , Cr2O7-2, PO4-3 etc The + ive ion common e.g. NH4+ ion and some car bo captions in organic chemistry. NOTE: Ion are always stable inside their solution E.g.: Na+ & CL- ions are always stable inside water. MOLECULAR ION: When a molecule loses or gains electron or electrons which is known as molecular ion. e. g CH4+ , N2+ , CO+ etc The cationic molecular ions ( +ive ) are more abundant than the anionic ones. Molecular ions are formed by passing high speed electrons or xparticles through a gas. RADICAL: Any negatively or positively charged species or a specie with unpaired electron, which is unable to have free existence is known as radical.

e. g H. + CL. ( Neutral radicals with unpaired electron ) R+ Carbocation RCarbocation. Etc ATOMIC NUMBER: The no of protons or electrons present in an atom is called atomic number of that element. For example there are 11 protons and 11 electrons in an atom of sodium element, therefore atomic mass of sodium is 11. ATOMIC MASS OR MASS NO: Sum of the protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic mass of that atom. e. g There are 11 protons ans 12 neutrons in the nucleus of Na atom, therefore the atomic mass of Na will be: 11 + 12 ======= 23 a. m. u RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS OR TELATIVE MASS NO: The mass of one atom of an element compared with the mass of one atom of corbon 12 is called relative atomic mass of that element. Carbon- 12 ( C-12 ) which is an isotopes of carbon element and it is considered as standard. It mass is considered as exactly 12 a.m. u The masses of all the other elements are compared with the mass of C- 12 which are known as their relative atomic mass. NOTE: The unit of atomic mass is a. m. u ie atomic mass unit. ATOMIC MASS UNIT ( A. M. U ) It may be defined as the 12th part of the mass of an atom of C-12 Or The mass of an atom of E-12 divided by 12 is known as one a. m. u. Let the mass of an atom of C-12 is Xg, then value of one a.m.u wil b: 1 a. m. u = x --------12 E.g. : the mass of an atom of hydrogen id 0.084 times the mass of C-12, so the relative atomic mass of Hydrogen is 0.084* 12 ===1.008 a. m. u. We can find the mass of one atom of C-12 as follow. As atomic mass of C-12 = 12g which is equal to one mole of carbon 12 containing 6.023*1023 C-12 atoms i.e. 12g of C= 6.023 * 1023 carbon atoms now as 6.023* 1023 C atom have a mass = 12g mass of one C atom will be = 12* 1 ---------------------6.023 * 1023 ------------- -----==== 1.99 * 10-23g Now it is easy to find the value of 1 a. m. u As 1 a.m. u = mass of an atom f c-12/12

So 1 a.m. u = 1.99*10-23/12 1 a.m. u = 1.66*10-24 RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS: Sum of the relative atomic masses of all the elements present in a molecule is called as relative molecular mass of that molecule. For example The relative atomic mass of H= 1.008 a. m. u ---------of Cl = 35-5 a. m. u 80 the relative molecular mass of HCL will be : 1.008 + 35.5 === 36.508 a. m. u AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS: The average of the atomic masses of all the isotopes of an element with respect t their relative abundance is known as average atomic mass of that element for the determination of the average atomic mass of an element we multiply the masses of all the isotopes with relative abundance and then add then up and finally divide them by 100. Fro example copper element ( Cu ) has two isotopes which are 6329CU ( 69. 09% ) and 6529CU ( 30. 91 % ) so the average atomic mass of copper can be calculated as Average Atomic == 63*69.69 + 65* 30.91 Mass of CU ----------------------------100 Average Atomic mass of CU 63.55 a. m. u RELATIVE ABUNDANCE: The no of atoms of an isotopes of an element present in 100 atoms of element is known as relative abundance of that isotope. Eg if we take 100 atoms of Hydrogen element & let the no of protium atoms is 97 that of deuterium atoms is 2 and that of tritium, atoms is 1. Thus we can say that the relative abundance of protium is 97% , Deuterium is 2% and tritium is 1 % . DETEMINATION OF RELATIVE ATOMIC MASSES OF ISOPTPES BY MASS SPECTROMETRY: Mass spectrometry is a technique by means of which the relative abundance and atomic mass of the isotopes of an element can be determined. The instrument used in this technique is called MASS Spectrometer Although there are several methods for the determination of atomic mass and molecular mass, but mass spectrometry is the most direct and accurate method. In this component is called vaporizer. Here the sample (element or molecule ) is vapourised. This vaporized sample is then passed into another component known as filament. Here high speed electrons are passed through the vaporized sample. These high speed electrons collide with the electrons of the atoms of sample and get them out of these atoms. Thus tiredly charged ions. These tiredly change ions of mass " m" and change "e" are passed through tiredly charged plates. Thus the +tive ions are accelerated. Then the +tive ions are padded through the poles of magnet (magnetic field) which forces them into a circular path. The radius of the path depend upon the charge to mass ration ( e/m) of the tire ions. The ions with larger e/ m have smaller radius and the ions (+ ive ) with smaller e/m have larger radius. The ions with different masses and same charges are separated.

+ ive ions with different e/m are thus separated and the detector receive them of different points producing different signals. Thus we easily come to know about the no of isotopes, their atomic masses and their relative abundance. One of the first application of mass spectrometer was determined by F. W. Aston. It was about Neon ( Ne ). It was told or explained that the naturally occurring neo has B isotopes ie Ne-20 ( 90.92 %) Ne- 21 ( 0.26 %) and Ne-22 ( 8.82% ). All this information is got from the graph as shown in the following diagram.

CHEMICAL FORMULA: The symbolic representation of a compound is known as its chemical formula. Or The representation of a compound in terms of symbols of its elements is known as chemical formula of that compound. ADVANTAGES OR CHARACTERIOTICS FO CHEM. FORM: The chemical formula of a compound has the following advantages i.e. it provides us the following information about the compound. It tells us about the elements present in the compound. it tells us about the no of atoms of each element. it tells us about the chemical composition of compound i.e. tells us the ratio b/w the atoms of elements of the compound. It shows us about the no of moles of each element present in one mole of the compound. For example the chemical formula of water is H2O. Thus H2O provides us the following information about water . There are H and O element in water. There are 2 atoms of H element. The ratio b/w the atoms of H & O is 2:1 There are 2 moles of H and One mole of a elements in one mole of H20 TYPES OF CHEMICAL FORMULA: There are two types of chemical formula. Molecular formula 2. Empirical or simplest formula MOLECULAR FORMULA: The formula of a compound which shows the actual no of atoms of its element is called as molecular formula of that compound. EM[EROCAL OR SIMPLEST FORMULA: The formula of a compound which shows the simplest whole ratio b/w the atoms of its elements is known as empirical formula of that compound.




RELATIONSHIP B/W M.F.& E.F The molecular and empirical formula of a compound ( molecule ) have the following relationship. There are some molecules for which both molecular and empirical formula are same. E.g. : water has H2O as molecular as well as empirical formula M. F is an integral multiple of the E. F i.e. M. F = N X E. F Where "N" is an integer and its value may be 1, 2,3 The value of "N" is determined as N = Molecular Mass -------------------------------------------Formula Mass Examples: The E.F of Acetic Acid is CH2O. Its Molecular Mass is 60g/mol. What is its M,f Data E.g. Acetic Acid = CH2O There fore Mass of Acetic Acid = 12+ 1+2+16 30g Molecular Mass of Acetic acid = 60 g/mol M. F = ? M. F = n E.F = Mole mass/ For Mass (CH2O) = 60/30 (CH2O) = 2 (CH2O) = C2H4O (CH3 CooH)


PECENTAGE COMPOSITION: The components ( Part ) of each element ( by mass ) is known as percentage composition of the compound. The percentage of element of a compound may be determined in two cases. If the chemical formula of the compd is known, then the percentage of any element is determined as: Element = Mass of that element ----------------------------------------------* 100 Molecular mass of compd For example : what is the % age of C & O in CO2

If we dont know about the chemical formula of the compound. Whose % age composition is to be determined, then first of all, we determine, the chemical composition of compound by a process known as chemical analysis and then find out the % age of each element.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: The process by which the chemical composition of a compound is determined is called chemical analysis: Let we have an organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen elements. During chemical this compound a weighted quantity ( known mass ) of this sample compd is placed in the combustion tube which is fitted with a furnace. Oxygen is supplied at one end of the combustion tube . At the other end of the combustion tube two consecutive jars are placed one containing a water absorbing substance like 50% KOH and the other jar containing a CO2 absorber like. Magnesium per chlorate [ Mg ( ClO4 )2 ]. These two jars are pre- weight. As a result of combustion of the organic compd, all the hydrogen converts into H2O and carbon into CO2. These two gases ( H2O (g) & CO2 ) pass into the jars where they are absorbed and as a result the weights of both the jars increased. From the increase in the weight of jars, we can easily, determine the masses of H2O and CO2 formed from a known mass of the organic compd

Now the percentage of each element is determined as follow: % C = Mass of Co2 / Mass of org. compd * Mass of C (12)/ M. Mss of Co2 * 100 % H = Mass of H2o / Mass of org. compd * Mass of H (2)/ M. Mss of H2O (18) * 100 The %age of oxygen element is determined indirectly as; %O = 100 ( %C + %H) Example : During combustion analysis of an organic compd containing C,H and O, 1.039 g of CO2 and 0.636 g of H2O are produced from 0.5439 g of the org, compd. Determined the %age composition of compd. Mass of Data / org. compd = 0.5439 g Mass of Co2 = 1.039g Mass of H2o = 0.6369 g

Solution: %C = 1.039/0.5439 * 12/44 * 100 = 52.108% %H = 0.6369/0.5439 * 2/18*100 = 13.11% %O = 100 (52.108 + 13.11) = 34.77% DETERMINATON OF EMPERICAL: FORMULA OF A COMPOUND The empirical formula is the simplest formula that gives information about the simple ratio of atoms present in a compd. For the determination of Empirical formula, following steps are followed, Determination of the percentage of each element


e. g

C H O x% y% z% (2) The %age of each element is divided by its atomic (mass to get its no of moles) E. g x/12 y/10008 z/16

Moles :

(3) Divide the moles of all elements by the least one of them, to got the no, f atoms of each element E. g a/e b/e c/c

Atoms :

Note: if d, e, & f are whole numbers. Then they make the empirical formula of the compd. e: [CaHeOf] But if atoms of or more element are in fractions then all of the m are multiplied by a suitable number to convert them into whole numbers. e. g let d e f 1 1.33 1 As here 1.33 is fractional figure, so: we will convert it into whole number by multiplying it with 3 i.e 3 ( 1 : 1.33: 1 ) 3 : 3.99 : 3 Or 3:4:3 Now E.F = C3H4O3 Example : Ascetic Acid ( vitamin C ) contains 40.92 % carbon, 4. 58% Hydrogen and 5. 1. 5% oxygen. What is its empirical formula? Data. %C = 40.92 %H = 4.58 %O = 54.5 E.F = ? Solution: 1) Percentage : - 40.92%


54.5% 40.92/12 3.41/12 4.58/1.008 4.54/3.406 54.5/16

2) Divide %age by Atomic Mass to get 3) Divide to by least get to atoms 3.406/3.406

4)Multiplying by 3 to convert 1.33 into whole number to by least get to atoms


3*1 3 So Emp . Formula of Ascorbic Acid is = [C3H4O3]

: :

3*1.33 4

: :

3*1 3

DETERMINATION OF M.F. FROM E.F: The molecular formula of molecule can be determined from its empirical formula as follow Mol . Formula = n* Emp. formula Here n is an integer and its value can be find as: N = Molecular Mass Formula Mass N= 1, 2, 3 Molecular Mass: It is the sum of the atomic masses of all the elements present in the molecular formula of a molecule. e.g : The molecular formula of benzene is C6H6. Thus its molecular mass is 12*6+1*6===== 78a. m. u or 78g/ mole. Formula Mass: It is the sum of the atomic masses of all the elements present in the empirical formula of a molecule or formula unit of a compound. e.g The emp. Formula of benzene is CH, so its formula mass will be 12*1+1*1 ===13a. m. u or 13g/mol Example : The combustion analysis of an organic compd shows that it contains 65. 44%C, 5.50% H and 29.06 % O. what is its emp. Formula. If the molecular mass of the compound is 110.15 g/mol, then what will be the molecular formula of the compound Data. Thermodynamics: The branch of science which deals with the study of transfer- motion of heat from a region of high temp. to a region of low temp is known as thermodynamics. 1st law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy: this law states that energy can nether be created nor destroyed, however it can be converted from one from to another. CONCEPT OF MOLE & AVOGAROS NO: MOLE: The atomic mass of an element, molecular mass of a molecule or formula mass of a formula unit, expressed in grams, is called one mole of that element, molecule or formula unit, e.g Gram At. Mass of O= 16 g = 1 mole oxygen element. N= 14 g= 1 mole of N element, Na= 23g= 23g = 1 mole of Na element H= 1g = 1 mole of H element


Similarly : Gram Molecular mass of O =16 g = 1 mole oxygen element. --------------------------------------N = 14g = 1 mole of n element. ----------------------------------- Na = 23 g = 1 mole of Na element. ------------------------------------H = 1g = 1 mole of H element. Similarly: Gram Molecular Mass of H2O = 18 g = 1 mole of H2O molecules ------------------------------HCL = 36.5 g = 1 mole of HCL molecules. ----------------------------O2 = 32g = 1 mole of O2 molecules Similarly: Gram formula Mass of NACL = 58.5g = 1 mole of NACL formula units. ----------------------------------- Mgo = 40 g = 1 mole of Mgo formula units. Note: No of moles of a substance ( element, molecule or formula unit) is represented by n & can be calculated by the following formulas. Examples: What is the no of moles (or gram atoms of 0.1 of g on Na. No of moles of Na (n Na) = ? Mass of Na (m Na) = 0.1 g Solution: n = Mass (g) of Na / At Mass of Na n = 0.1/23 n = 0.0043 moles or 4.3*10-3 AVOGADROS NO (NA): As one dozen of eggs , one dozen of bananas and one dozen of oranges have fixed no. of items (eggs, bananas & oranges) although they have different masses, different fast and different nature , likewise it the case for one mole of a substance ( element, molecule or formula unit ). So we can say that : one mole of any substance contains a fixed no of particles. This fixed no, is called Avogadros No. it is represented by Na and its value is 6.023*1023. For example: 1 mole ( 23g) of Na element = 6.023*1023 Na atoms. 1 mole ( 1.008g ) of H element = 6.023*1023 H atoms. 1 mole ( 16g ) of oxygen element = 6.023*23 O atoms. SIMILARLY 1 mole ( 18g ) of H2O Molecule = 6.023* H2O Molecule. 1 mole ( 32 ) of O2 Molecule = 60023*1023 O2 Molecule. 1 mole ( 58.5g ) of Nacl formula unit.= 6.023*1023 Nacl formula units. ----------------------------------------------= 6.023*1023 Na+ ions ---------------------------------------------= 6.023*1023 Cl- ions. EXAMPLES: What is the no of moles ( or gram atoms ) of 0.1g of Na. DATA No of moles of Na ( Nna ) = ? Mass of Na ( Mna ) = 0.1g


Solv : As Nng SoA = mass of mg SO4 --------------------------------Formula mass of mg SO4 10-3 = Mass pf MgSO4 -------------------120 Mass of Mg SO4 = 120 * 10-3 ------------------- = 0.12 g 3 . What is no. of moles of 12. 023*1026 molecules fo water ( H2O ) DATA H2O = ? No. of H20 molecules = 12. 023 * 1026 molecules Solve: As H2O = No of H2O molecules -----------------------------Avogadrps No H2O = 12.023 * 1026 -------------------6.023 * 1023 H2O = 2 * 10 molecules CHEMICAL REACTION: The process in which two or more substances combine in such a way that the old bonds between their atoms are broken down and new bonds are formed to form new substances is known as chemical reaction. For example when two moles of Hydrogen gas ( H2 ) combine with one mole of oxygen gas ( O2 ) the old bonds between the atoms of these two gas are broken down and these atoms form new bonds in such a way t form two moles of H2O molecules. The substances which combine to undergo chemical reaction & whose bonds are broken are called the Reactants while the substances which are formed as a result of chemical reaction are known as products. CHEMICAL EZUATION: The representation of a chemical reaction in terms of symbols and formulas of reactants and products is known as chemical equation. Or The symbolic representation of a chemical reaction is known as chemical equation. e.g 2H2 + O2-------------------------- 2H2O In a chemical equation, the reactants and the products are separated by means of an arrow. The reactants are at athe left side of the arrow while products are at the right side. The arrow is always dirceted from reactants to products. I .e Reactants -----------------Products.


STOICHOMETRY: The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of relationship between the quantities of reactants and products is called stoichiometry. It is based on two laws. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS: This law states that during a chemical reaction the total mass of reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products. LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTION This law states that a particular compound consists of particular elements combined together in a fixed ratio, no matter from which source it is obtained. E.g Water is a molecule and it always consists of H and O elements in 2:1 no matter how it is obtained . Lets see how the stoichiometry depends upon these laws take the formation of H2O from H2 and O2 i.e. H2 + O2 2 g 32g 34g Non-Stoichimetich H2 + O2 2 g 32g 34g Non-Stoichimetich Now 2H2 + O2 4g 32g 36g H2O 18 g 18g

H2O2 2g + 32 g 34 g

2H2O 36 g 36 g

Stoichimetich equation From the above discussion it is clear that a stoichiomrtric equation must follow both the above mentioned laws. If an equation follows one but not the other, then it will not be stoichiometric. From the knowledge of stoichiometry came to know that during balancing of a chemical equation we should always put some digit as the co-efficient of any reactant a product , not in the formula. CHERACTERISTICS OF A STOICH. EQN A stoichiometric equation must have the following characteristics. It should be correct i . e we should write the correct symbols and formulas of the reactants and products It should follow both the laws i. e law of conservation of mass & law of definite proportion. It should be balanced. NOTE. We can study the following type of relationships from a stoicliometric (balanced) chemical equation.


Mass Mass Relationship From a stoichiometric equation we can easily find the mass of any reactant or product, if the mass of any reactant or product is driven. For example. How much k2 SO4 will be formed from 14g of KOH according to the following stoichiometric equation. 2KOH + H2 SO4------------------ K2SO4 + 2H2O DATA Mass of KOH = 14 g Mass of K2SO4 = ? Solv According to the stoichio. Equ. 2KOH + H2SO4 --------- K2SO4 + 2H2O 2 (39+16+1) 2*39+32+16*4 2*56 78+32+64 112g/mol 174 g/mol As 112f of KOH give = 174g K2SO4 So 14 g of KOH will give = 174 *14 K2SO4 --------------------112 = 21.75g of K2SO4 Mole Mole relationship: If no of moles of any reactant or product are given then the no of moles of any other reactant or product can easily be found from a stoichiometric equation. For example : How many moles of oxygen are required to produce 8 moles of H2O according to the following equation. 2H2 + O2----------------------------- 2H2O DATA NO. of moles of O2 = ? No of moles of H2O = 8 moles. Solv : As according to St. equ: 2H2 + O2-------------------------2H2O 1 mole 2 moles 2 moles of H2O require = 1 mole of O2 8 moles of H2O will require = *8 = 4 moles fo O2 Mass Mole relationship : If the mass of any reactany or product is given then the no of moles of any other reactant or product can be calculated from stoichiometric equ For example: How many moles of water will be produced from 20 g of H2O DATA H2O = ? Mass of H2 = 20 g As 2H2 + O2----------------- 2H2O 4g 36g 4g of H2 give 36 g H2O So 20g of H2 will give 36/4 * 20


--------------------180g H2O Now as H2O = mass of H2O/ m. mass of H2O = 180/18===== 10 moles MOLE MASS RELATIONSHIP IF the no of moles of any reactant or product ae given then the mass of any other reactant or product can be calculated from the stoichiometric equation. For example: How much nitrogen will be required to react with 16 moles H2 to produce ammonia (NH3) according to the following stdoichiometric equation. N2 + 3H2-----------------------2NH3 DATA Mass fo N2 = ? No of moles of H2= 15 moles Solv: As IN2 + 3H2-------------------2NH3 1 mole 3 moles 3 moles of H2require = 1 mole N2 15 moles of H2 will require = i/3 * 15 ---------------------------------- = 5 moles N2 Now as N2 = Mass of N2/ mole. Mass of N2 5= Mass of N2/ 28 Mass of N2 = 5 * 28 ====== 140 g LIMITING REACTANT: The reactant which gives the leay no of moles of the product is called limiting reactant. Or The reactant which is consumed earlier is called limiting reactant. Or The reactant which stops a chemical reaction or which controls the formation of products is called delimiting reactant . For example it we have 3 molecules of a reactant > & 4 molecules of a reactant > to form the product then is the limiting reactant because it is consumed earlier or it gives the least no of moles of the produce I.e

Lets take another example consider the reaction between, H2and O2 as 2H2(g)+ O2(g)------------------------------------2H2O Let we take 2 moles of Hydrogen ( 4g ) and react it with 2 moles of oxygen ( 64g ) then we will get only 2 moles (36) of H2O. Here 2 moles (36g) of H2O are obtained because 2 moles of hydrogen (4g) reacy with only one mole (32g) of O2 according to the stoichiometric equation. Now as less H2 is O2, So H2 is the limiting reactant. Now let we react 4 moles ( 8g ) of H2 with 2 moles (64g) of O2 then we would obtained four moles (72g) of water. IDENTIFICATTION OF LOMITING REACTANT: For the identification of the limiting reactant, the following three steps are performed. First of all find the no of moles of each reactant if their masses are given. If no of moles of reactant are given directly, then this step is not required. Find out the no of moles of the product from all the reactants whose moles are given The reactant which gives or produces. The least no of moles of the products is selected as the limiting reactant.


Lets explain all this process by means of a numerical example. Example. NH3 gas can be prepared by heating together two solids i.e NH4CL and Ca(COH). If a mixture containing 100 g of each solid is heated then: Calculate the mumber of grams of NH3produced Calculate the excess amount of reagent left unreacted. Equation: 2NH4CL + CA( OH )2 --------CACL + 2NH3 + 2H2o Solution: DATA Mass of NH4CL = 100 g Mass of Ca(OH) = 100 g Mass of NH3= ? For finding the limiting reactant, Finding no of moles of reactants. NH4CL= 100/53.5 = 1.87 moles Ca(OH)2= 100/74 = 1.35 moles Now finding th no of moles of producty ( NH3 ) from the both the reactants as from equation it is clear that 2NH4CL ---------------------------2NH3 2 moles of NH4CL give = 2 moles NH3 moles of NH4CL will give = 2/2 * 1.87=1.87 moles NH3 similarly CaCOH2=============2NH3 1 moles of Ca(OH)2 gives = 2 moles NH3 So 1.35 moles of Ca(OH)2 will give = 2/1* 1.35 = 2.70 moles NH3 C= As NH4CL gives theleast no of moles of the product ( NH3), so it is the limiting reactant And thus the no of moles of NH3 produced are = 1.87 moles Now as NH3 = mass (g) of NH3 /M. Mass of NH3 1.87 = mass (g) of NH3 17 Mass of NH3 = 1.87* 17 Mass of NH3 = 31.179g B . Amolunt of the reagent present in excess ? As 2NH4CL + CA(OH)2-------------------- CaCl2 + 2NH3+ 2H2O As 2 moles pf NH4CL require = 1 mole CA(OH)2 So 1.87 moles of NH4CL will require = * 1.87= 0.935 moles Ca(OH)2 Now as total no of moles of Ca(OH)2 = 1.35 moles The reacted ono of moles of Ca(OH)2 = 0.935 moles So The moles of Ca(OH)2 left unreacted = 1.35- 0.935= 0.45 moles Hence Mass of excess Ca(OH)2 left unreacted = n*x m. moles = 0.415* 74 ==========30.71g


Lecture # 10 YIELD: The amount of products obtained is known as yield. Types: There are two types of yield. Theoretical yield Actual Yield Theoretical yield: The amount of products calculated from a stoichiometric equation is known as theoretical yield. E .g 2H2 + O2 --------------------2H2O 4g + 32g ------------------ 36g theoretical yield. Actual yield: The amount of products obtained during chemical reaction or experiment is called actual yield. E .g When we combine 4g of H2 and 32gO2 in the presence of electric spar, then water is obtained whose, weight is known as actual yield. NOTE: The actual yield of a reaction is usually less then the theoretical yield. It is because of the following reasons, Due to the formation of by- produce is that product which unwanted whether it is indicated or not is the chemical equation. Due to reversible dreactopm e . g N2 + 3H2----------------2NH3 Here some of the NH3 converts back into reactants before it is collected. Due to mechanical loss during the process of weighing, drying, filtration etc. Usually yield is indicated as percent yield to note the efficiency of the process. The percent yield is calculated as. % Y = A.Y/T.Y * 100

CHAPTER 1 BASIC CONCEPTS EXERCISE Q2. A . SEA WATER: it is a mixture are dissolved it. B . Helium gas: it is an element because Helium lags consists of He atoms whose valence shall is complete and dont make bonds. C . Sodium Chloride : it is a compound because it is made of atoms of Na and Cl elements. D . Botle Of Soft drink: it is a mixture because CO2 gas So dissolved in it . e. Air : it is a mixture because it contains various non- reacting gases like N2(78%), O2, (21%) etc f. Concrete: it is a mixture because it contains various non-reacting substances like sand cement and pebbles etc. Q. 3 a. 11 X/B A (PS+NS) 5 B Z(Ps or es) No of protons = No of electrons = 5 No of Neutrons = A-Z


--------------------=11-5 --------------------=6 Q 4 . ans. Almost everuy element has isotopes lhaving diferent atomic masses & different relativ eabundance. Thus the atomic mass of an element is actually the average of the atomic masses of its isotopes with respect to their relative abundance carbon has isotopes C-12 & C13 with their relative abundance as 98.89% and 1.11% respectively. Thus the average atomic mass of carbon will be: Average At.Mass of C = 12*98.89 + 13*1.11/100 ------------------------- = 12.01 a. m .u. So it is clear that the average of atomic masses of the isotopes of C is 12.01, that is why atomic mass of crbon is taken as 12.01 a. m. u. rather than 12.a. m. u. DATA: Q.5 Atomic Mass of C-35 = 35a. m. u. Relative abundance of C-35 = 75.53% Similarly: Atomic mass of C-37 = 37 a. m. u. Relative Abundance of C-37 = 24.47% Average Atomic Mass of cl= ? Soln: Average At. Mass of cl = 35*75.53+37*24.47/100 = 35.489 a. m. u Q 6. DATA No. of person =5 billions No of particles = 6.023 *1023 particles No of particles counted per head per second= 2 particles Thus Total no of padrticles counted per second= 2*5 -------------------------------------------- = 10 billions ------------------------------------------- = 1*1010 particles Time ( in year ) taken for counting 6. 023*1023 particles =? Soln : 1st of all finding the time in seconds required for counting 6.02*1023 particles. As : 1*1010 particles are counted in = 1 second. So 6.023*1023 particles will be counted in = 1/1*1010 * 6.023*1023 So Time taken for counting 6.023*1023 particles = 6.023*1023/1*1010 ---------------------------------------------------------= 6.023*1013 secpnds Now converting this time into days & then into years. As 86400 seconds wil make = 1/86400 * 6. 023*1013 ----------------------------------= 0.000070 * 1013 days --------------------------------- = 7. 0 *108 days Now as 365 days make = 1 year. So 7.0*108 days will make = 1/365 *7.0* 108 years. = 0.01917 * 108 years = 1.917 * 106 years


So 1.917*1.106 years are taken for counting 6.023*1023 particles ( Avogadros No of particles ). Q . 7 ans: As Mass of 1 a. m. u = 1.66*10-24g. Thus Mass of 13.2a. m. u will be = 1.66*10-24 * 13.2 ---------------------------------- = 21.912 * 10-24g -------------------------------- = 2.1912 * 10-23 Q. 8 DATA NO OF S atoms = ? No. of moles of S = 5.10 moles Soln ans N = NO. OF S Atoms/NA So 5.10 = No of s atoms /6.023*1023 So No. of S atoms = 5.10 * 6.023*1023 ---------------------------= 30.717 * 1023 S atoms ------------------- = 30.0717*1024 Q.9 DATA NO.of moles 0f Co= ? No. of Co atoms = 6*109 atoms. Soln: As Nco = No. of Co atoms /NA = 6*109/6.023*1023 = 0.996*1009-23 = 9.96 * 10-17 moles. Q. 10 Ethene (C2H4) and propenc (C3H6) are the molceules which have same emperical formula but different molecular formula. I.e Ethene Propene M.F C2H4 C3H6 different E . F CH2 CH2 same Q. 11 Ans. The expression P4 s signifies or shows that it is a molecule of phosphorous element containing four phophorous atoms bonded together by means of covalent bonds. The difference between P4 & 4p is that P4 means one mole of P4 molecule. While 4p means 4 moles of phosphorous element. Q.12 A I H2 ii O2 B I HCL ii CO C I P4 ii S8 D I H2O ii C6 H12 O6 Question . 13 solve by yourself. Q. 14 : formula of chlorophyll = C55 H72 MgN4O5 Molecular Mass= ? Soln: AS Atomic mass of : C =12 H =1 MG = 24 N = 14 & O = 16 The Molar Mass of chlorophyll (Css H/2 Mg N4O5) is = 12.55 11*72 + 24* 1 + 14*4 + 16 *5



of chlorophyll = 660+72+24+56+80 = 892 g/ mole Q. 15 DATA Formula of hydrated Aluminium sulphate = Al2(So4) * H2O % Al = 8.20 % No . of molecule (X) = ? in Al2 (SO4)2*H2O Soln: Mass of Al = 27 *2 = 54g As Mass of S = 32*2 = 64g % Al = Mass of Al/Molar Mass of *100 Mass of O = 16*8 =1289 Al2(SO4)2 *H2O Mass of H2O = 18 *X = 18xg 8.20 = 54/264x * 100 So molecular mass of Al2(SO4)2 x H2O Or = 54 +64 +128 +18x 8.20 * 264x + 54 * 100 *1 = 264 xg/ mole X = 54*100/8.20 *264 X = 2.49 Q . 17 A . Balance C3H8 + O2---------------------CO2 + H2O Balanced equation is : 2C3H8 + 100-----------------6CO2 +8H2O B. DATA Mass of CO2 = ? No. of moles of C3H8 = 3.65 moles. Stoichiometric equation is 2C3H8 + 100 ------------ 6CO2 + 8H2O 2 moles 6 moles As 2moles of C3H8 give = 6 moles of CO2 So 3.65 mole of C3H8 will give = 6/2 * 3.65 -------------------------------------------- = -10.95 moles CO2 Now as Mass of CO2 = nCO2 = 10.95 * 44 = 481.8g CO2 So 481.8g of CO2 are formed from = 3.65 moles of C3H8 Q . 18 DATA NO . OF moles of Mno2 = 0.86 moles Moles of HCL = 48.2g So No .of modes of HCL = 48.2/36.5 ===== 1.32 moles I . which reagent is used first ( limiting reactant )= ? Ii . Mass of CL2 = ? Reaction : Mno2 + 4HCL --------Mncl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O I . Limiting reactant = ? Mno2=? HCL = ? As As 1 Mno2-------------1CL2 4 moles of HCL give = 1 mole Cl2 1 moles Mno2 give = .1 mole Cl2 1.32 moles will give = 1/4 * 1.32 So = 0.33 moles Cl2 0.86 moles will give = 0.86 moles CL2 As HCL gives the least no. of moles of CL2 ( product ) thus HCL so the limiting reactant. And thus



No. of moles of CL2 = 0.33 moles. Therefore, Mass of Cl2 = ncl * Mol. Mass of Cl2 = 0.33 *71 --------------------= 23.43g CL2 Q . 25 Wrong or Ambiguous statements A . 1 moles of hudrogen b . the molecular moles of Nacl is 58.5 a. m. u Correct statements. A . 1 mole of hydrogen element or hydrogen molecule. B . Formula mass of Nacl is 58.5 a. m. u becaise Naccl is a formula unit hot a molecule and the mass of a formula unit is called as formula mass. Q . 26 A . SO2 compd and Molecule B . S8 molecule but not compd C . C5 element. D . N2O5 compd & Molecle E . O element F . O2 Molecule but not compd G . O3 Molecule but not compd H . CH4 Molecule & compd I . KBR compd but not molecule ( ionic bond ) J . S element K . P4 Molecule but cont compd L . Lif compd but molecule because of ionic bond. Q . 27. A 2.5 mole CH4 No .of atoms = ? First of all, we will determine the no. of CH4 molecule in 2.5 moles Thus nCH4 = no. of CH4 Molecules/ avogadros no = No . of CH4 molecules /6.023 * 1023 Or No. of CH4 molecules = 2.5*6.023*1023 -------------------------= 15.05* 1023 CH4 molecules Now as Molecule of CH4 has = 5 atoms Thus 15.05 * 1023molecules of CH4 will have = 5/1 * 15.15*1023 So No. of atoms in 15.05 * 1023molecules of CH4 = 75.28 * 1023 B NO .Of moles of He = 10 moles No. of atoms = ? As NO. OF He atoms = n * avosadros No -----------------------= 10*6.023 * 1023 -----------------------= 60.23 *1023 He atoms C No. of moles of SO2 = 4 moles No. of atoms = ? As No. of moilecules = n * avogadros No ---------------------------------= 4* 6.023 *1023 ----------------------------------= 24.092 * 1023 SO2 molecules


Now as 1 moleclules of So2 has = 3 atoms So 24.092 * 1023 molecules of So2 will have = 3/1 * 24.092*1023 = 72.27* 1023 D NO .Of moles of So8 = 1.8 moles No. of atoms = ? As No. of molecules = n * NA ----------------------= 1.8 *6.023 *1023 ---------------------= 10.84* 1023 So8 molecules Now as 1 molecules of SO8 contains = 9 atoms So 10.84* 1023 So8 molecules will have = 9/2 * 10.84* 1023 = 97.57 * 1023 atoms E No .of moles of NH3= 3 moles No. of atoms = ? As no .of NH3 moleclules = 3* 6.023* 1023 NH3 molecules Now as 1 molecules of NH3 has = 4 atoms So 18.069 * 1023 molecules will have = 4/1 * 18.069 * 1023 ------------------------------------------= 72.77 * 1023 atoms So it is clear that 1.8 moles of So8 has the largest number of atoms. Application of Buffer solutions : Imporatnce of B. Solns Buffer solutions have tramendous applications. Some important applications of B. sons are, The Human vlood is a buffer whose PH is 7.4. if this PH changes slightly then seriously problems may happen. Inspite of having so many acidic and alicalins substances the PH doesnt changes. Buffer solutions arte mostly used in Analytical laboratories for carrying out particulars reactions at particular PH. Buffer solutions are used in various industries. Buffer solutions are used in Biological labartories. COMMPM ION EFFECT: The decreases in solubility of an electrolyte in its soln by introduction of another electrolyte such that both the electrolytes produce common ions is known as common ion effect. It is important to note that the common ion may be caption ( + ive ) or anion (- ive ). Explanation : As we know that ionization is never 100% in case of strong electrolytes, most of the conc. Of the electrolyte goes into ionized form while small conc., remains an-ionized and thus an equilibrium us established. In case of work electrolyte gets ionized while most of it remains unionized and thus an equilibrium is established. It we dissolve on electrolyte in a solvent ( like water ) to form al soln, then an equilibrium is established among the unionized amount of electrolyte and its ions produced. Which produces a common ion to the already existing electrolyte, here an equilibrium is established among the unionized amount of the 2nd electrolyte and its ions.


One of the two electrolytes will be more stronger. So the reverse reaction of the weak electrolyte speeds up due to common ion and thus its solubility decreases. Application : Purification of commercials salt Commercial salt ( Nacl ) contains impurities like dust etc. To purify it , it is dissolved in water thus all impurities suspend in water and pure Nacl dissolves as Nacl====== Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) When another electralyte is introduced into the soln which produces a common ion with the alreay existing electrolyte. Lets consider Acl. Then HCL =====H+ (aq) + CL-(aq) As HCL is more stronger than NACL therefore the reverse reaction of Nacl increases and thus its solubility decreases thus pure Nacl precipitates out, the water containing the impurities is poured out and thus pure Nacl is left out which is washed with fresh water and then dried up. Of salt AB SIMILARLY Agel ( silver chloride ) is a sparingly soluble salt: then its solubility product expression will be, KSP = [AG+] [CL-] b/c Afcl =====H2O=============== Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Kc (Agcl ) = [ Ag+] [ CL-] KSP = [ Ag+] [ CL-] It is important to note that KSP depends rpon temperature. BUFFER SOLUTIONS: The solution which resists change in its Ph, even with addition of small amount of a strong acid or a strong base: is known as buffer solution. A buffer solution is made as. When a weak acid ( like CH3COOH ) is mixed with its salt made by it with a strong base ( i.e CH3COONa ). They are mixed in a particular ration. This mixture is known as buffer and the soln. of this mixture is known as buffer solution. Such a buffer is known as Acidic buffer. I . e CH3COOH / CH3COONa buffer When a weak base ( like NH4OH ) is mixed with its salt made by it with a strong acid ( I .e NH4CL ) in a fixed ratio and then dissolved in water. We get a buffer soln. such a buffer is known as basic buffer. I . e NH4OH / NH4CL buffer The buffer soln, has a particular PH range and this range remanins xonstant even for long time or even after the addition of small amount of strong add or strong base.

BUFFER ACTION: The ability of a buffer to resist change in its PH, even after the addition of small amount of strong acid or base : is known as buffer action. Now the question arises that how a buffer soln resists change in its ph even with the addition of small amont of a strong acid or base. It can be explained as, consider the CH3COOH / CH3COONa soln: If we add small amount of a strong acid like HCL the PH doesnt change. It is b/c of the fact that in CH3COOH/ CH3COONa: CH3COONa ionizes to large extent: so there are


CH3COOO- in large excess which come from CH3COONa. Here common ion both produce H+. As a result the solubility of CH3COOH is furthur decreased. change Thus most of H+ ion of HCL ( which are responsible for change of PH ) are converted into a weak acid, CH3COOH which is already in excess in buffer soln. Thus the PH of buffer remains constant b/c H+ ions of HCL dont remain in soln. Strong electrotype CH3COONA================= CH3OO-(aq) Weak electrotype HCL ========= H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Then: H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) ------------- CH3COOH From HCL From (CH3COONa) weak (acid) 11. if we add, small amount of a strong base like NaoH. The OH- ions of NAOH which are responsible for change of PH of buffer combine with H+ ions of CH3COOH producing a neutral compd H2O. Thus the PH of buffer soln doesnt. I.e CH3COONa =========== CH3COO-(aq) + Na+(aq) CH3COOH============CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq) NAOH==================Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) Then H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ------------- H2O ( Nuetral ) Amount of strong add or strong base. Buffer capacity: The extent till which a buffer can resist change in its PH is known as buffer capacity. A buffer can resist change in its PH if we add particular amount of strong acid or base. If we exceed the amount of strong acid or base, then the PH of PH will certainly change. So we cabin say that there is a certain limit till which a buffer can resist change in its PH. This limit is known as buffer capacity. CALCULATIOHN OF PH BUFFER SOLUTION: The ph of a buffer solution is calculated by an equation known as Hander so n Horseback equation . This equation is PH = Pka + log base/ acid The hander son Hesselback equation can be derived as Consider the ionization of a weak. Acid CH3COOH. CH3COOH CH3COOH- + H+ The ionization constant expression will be Ka = [H+] [CH3COOH-] / [CH3COOH] Solving the above equation for [H+] [H+] [CH3COOH-] = Ka [CH3COOH] [H+] = Ka [CH3COOH] / [CH3COOH] Taking -10g on both sides; -10g [H+] = -10g (Ka [CH3COOH] / [CH3COOH])


Ph = (-10g Ka) +(-10g [CH3COOH] / PH = -10g Ka - 10g [Acid]/[Base] But 10g Ka = pka PH = Pka 10g (Acid)/(Base) Or PH = Pka + 10g [Acid]/[Base]