Anda di halaman 1dari 5

FOLKTALES

Characteristics: Has no known individual Has no fixed or original form Has a brief introduction Adapted to any change Has simple plot that is easy to remember Characters appear to both children and adults Values: Gives pleasure and enjoyment to children Stirs the imagination Gives insight into life Used for dramatization Used for illustration Develops ear training Plays a role in the emotional development of children Develops confidence and courage in children against fear of the unknown

MYTHS
Values: There is a dramatic quality about myths that captures the imagination of the poets and children. Many English poems are filled with classical allusions from myths. Subjects of sculpture and graphic arts are taken from the Greek and Roman myths. They furnish background for the great national epics of all countries. They serve to explain the origin and meaning of many words in everyday use. They serve as an aid in the understanding of art and literature. They widen our knowledge about the physical world, the history and civilization of the times in which the stories originated and about human nature. Myths give answers to questions often asked by children concerning the how, when, why of the ways of animals, birds, insects, trees, flowers, and other forces of nature.

LEGENDS

Values: LegeNd as a sOurce Of chiLdreNs Literature deaLs with reLigiOus facts. Religious facts help children in strengthening their faith in God. Legend deals with historical backgrounds. They awaken the national consciousness of children. They develop vivid and fantastic imagination. Some legends give children a moral lesson. They serve as a guide on what is right and what is wrong. Legends help acquaint children with the cultural phase of the country. They give pleasure and enjoyment to children.

EPICS AND HERO TALES


Characteristics: Hero tales are historical, biographical, mythical and legendary stories of heroes. They possess qualities of good adventure which children like: - Directness of action - Singleness of motive - Simplicity of language - Vigor in style The heroes present ideals of life and conduct worthy of emulation. The exploits and deeds of heroes are worth worshipping. The heroes succeed because of their ingenuity, valor, perseverance and other virtues. The style in which the story is told is serious, dignified and there is objectivity. Values: Develop in the child good moral character. eNLarge the chiLds vOcabuLary. Develop the imagination. Give good background to interpret later reading with the allusions to the classic.

FABLES
Characteristics: Characters of the story are usually animals.

Animals are made to think, act and talk like human beings. The moral lesson of the story is usually at the end. The story is usually short. Animals personify human beings. The fable is full of actions and conversations. Full of humor and funny situations. Some have tragic and dramatic series of events. Values: They give delight and enjoyment to both children and adults. They teach ethical truth in an attractive manner or form. They provide background for the understanding of many new or current expressions and allusions. sOMe Of the fabLes serve as a guide tO gOOd cONduct ON the chiLds level of experience. Children enjoy the fable because of the prominent part played by animals. They touch moral and spiritual sense of values. They cultivate thinking and imagination. They are good for story-telling and dramatization purposes.

BIBLE STORIES
Characteristics: Stories are of religious nature. Language is simple. Contains many phrases. Contains proverbs, poetry and songs. Writer is nameless or anonymous. Values: It helps children to know God. It gives children better understanding and appreciation of the bible. It gives moral and spiritual values to children. It helps children as well as adults to enter into a life that is dominated by Christianity.

REALISTIC STORIES
Characteristics: Must contain plots with action. Has unity of plot. Has logical development. The story must be true to human nature.

Must have a substantial theme. Style must absorb and interest young readers. Values: Children can identify themselves happily and profitably with the hero and/or heroine of the tale. Give children an insight into real life situations. Satisfy the need to belong. Satisfy the need of love and to be loved. Satisfy the need to know. Satisfy the need to achieve.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Values For information - one gets such information as the full name of writer, date birth, and other pertinent data needed. For recreational reading reader gets vicarious experience from reading about the experience of a writer. For inspiration to others the experience of the writer may be of heLP tO Others. aN exaMPLe is heLeN KeLLers the stOry Of MyseLf. For self-justification through reading autobiography you can justify a person, how he became a poet, a writer, a hero, etc. and to give proof that he really deserves that title. For example, cardiNaL NewMaNs aPOLOgia PrO sOra vita ( 1864).

BIOGRAPHY
Characteristics: A good biography must be very well-researched. Its interest is restricted to only one person, his activities, personal qualities and achievements. It records life that has been actually lived. It must be based on documented facts. Values: For recreation - Biography is well suited for free reading because it provides vicarious experiences for the reader. For information - Biography contains some factual material. Biography provides the human interest story for all forms of knowledge. For inspiration - Biography inspires a youth to have faith in himself and gives him a determination to make the most of his life. It gives them

courage to aspire and attain. It enriches moral character through the indirect lessons learned by reading the lives of great men and women. For vocational guidance - The choosing of a vocation wisely can be influenced by reading about the lives of those men and women who have succeeded in their chosen life or professions. -

FAIRY TALES
Characteristics: the stOry cOMMONLy begiNs ONce uPON a tiMe. There is no definite place where the story takes place. It may begiN ONce uPON a tiMe there was a PriNce whO Lived iN a sMaLL KiNgdOM. The setting of the story is an illogical world, inhabited with people whose lives are crossed by creatures of magic such as fairies, witches, genies, elves, dwarfs, who meddle in the affairs of human beings by means of enchantment. These human beings can be transformed into beasts. They can be put to sleep for a long, long time or they can be transported from one place to another in the wink of an eye. It is an unreal world in which the most difficult problem can be solved by enchantment or magic as a waving of a wand, granting three wishes, wearing a magic ring, repeating a charm or spell. The ending is always a happy one no matter how great the problem. Every character acts according to his nature, and the stories move in strong, direct action with an expected ending. The good are rewarded and the evil are punished. Values: A fairy tale is something that changes the common place into what is rich, strange and wonderful. Fairy tales teach children to look for wonder in the common place. Fairy tales stir the imagination. Fairy tales establish their sense of wonder. Fairy tales satisfy their hunger for adventure. Fairy tales develops courage in children. Fairy tales play a role in the emotional development of children. Fairy tales provide pleasure and enjoyment for children.