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Heavy-Duty Engine Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations

Craig Savonen, Guangsheng Zhu, Houshun Zhang, Sandeep Singh, Rakesh Aneja August 23, 2006

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Detroit Diesel Standard Template.ppt

Presentation Outline

Technical Status Towards Project Objectives Technology Development Methodology Technology Building Blocks Example Case Studies
9 Combustion 9 Fuel Injection System 9 Air and EGR System 9 Controls 9 System Integration

Conclusions

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Detroit Diesel Standard Template.ppt

Presentation Outline

Technical Status Towards Project Objectives Technology Development Methodology Technology Building Blocks Example Case Studies
9 Combustion 9 Fuel Injection System 9 Air and EGR System 9 Controls 9 System Integration

Conclusions

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Detroit Diesel Standard Template.ppt

Project Objectives

Develop and validate on-highway truck engine technologies for 50% thermal efficiency and nearzero emissions (NZ-50) that are viable for subsequent product development and eventual commercialization Project Duration Project Sponsorship CY2000-CY2006 U.S. DOE, Office of Vehicle Technologies

Emphasis on Enabling Sub-system Technologies


9 Low Emissions Combustion Processes 9 Fuel Injection Events 9 Engine Charge
Flexible, Precise, Repeatable, Distributed, Modulated Pressure / Rate-shape Efficient Charging and EGR Cooling; Efficient, Variable Breathing Model-based, Adaptive, Closed-Loop Vehicle Boundary Conditions

NZ-50 Multi-cylinder Test-bed

9 Controls and Automated Calibration Techniques 9 Basic Aftertreatment and System Integration

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Representative Over-the-Road Truck Route


Percent Time Spent as a Function of Engine Speed and Load Typical Over-the-Road Operation - Class 8 Truck with 80,000 lbs. GVW Detroit, MI to Carlisle, PA

100
10

90 80 70 Load [%] 60 50 40

6 10 14

14 10 6

30 20 10 0 400 600 800 1000


6

1200 1400 1600 Speed [rpm]

1800

2000

2200

In addition to the project objective of peak thermal efficiency at a single operating condition, emphasis placed on fuel economy (equivalent thermal efficiency) during over-the-road representative cycles
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D e t r o itD ie s e lS t a n d a r dT e m p la t e .p p t4

Thermal Efficiency Status

Integrated Experimental and Analytical Results Peak Thermal Efficiency at a Single Operating Condition

Roadmap for >50% Equivalent Thermal Efficiency Being Developed Technologies to Achieve 50.2% Thermal Efficiency Demonstrated

Phas e

I I -B

FY05 Joule Milestone Demonstration

NZ-50 Phase I Demonstration

Phase II-B Interim Results

Phase II-A Interim Result

Phase I Phase II-A


Current Production Engines

Out-of-Box with 07 Emissions

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Thermal Efficiency Roadmap - Key Building Blocks

Peak Thermal Efficiency at a Single Operating Condition

Increased Turbo System Efficiency Variable Breathing Aftertreatment Back-pressure Reduction Parasitic Loss Reduction Higher Compression Ratio (Higher Peak Firing Pressure) High Efficiency NOx Aftertreatment Exhaust Energy Recovery (Turbo-compounding)

Selective Implementation of Low Emissions Combustion Basic NOx Aftertreatment Integration

Combustion Optimization Distributed Injection Events EGR Cooling System Optimization Charging and Breathing Efficiency Improvement Basic Exhaust Recovery

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Progress Towards Near-zero Emissions


Experimental Multi-Cylinder Engine Results

System-out Emissions Demonstrated to be Below 2010 Emissions Levels over Representative Over-the-road Conditions
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Progress Towards Near-zero Emissions


Experimental Multi-Cylinder Engine Results

Integrated System/ Controls Optimization

Conventional Combustion Optimization

Selective Implementation of Low Emissions Combustion

EPA 2010 System-out Emissions Levels Demonstrated over Transient FTP


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Presentation Outline

Technical Status Towards Project Objectives Technology Development Methodology Technology Building Blocks Example Case Studies
9 Combustion 9 Fuel Injection System 9 Air and EGR System 9 Controls 9 System Integration

Conclusions

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DDCs Integrated System Development Approach


Transient Multi-cylinder Development Validates Steady-state Development; Simulates Vehicle Vehicle Development Validates Transient Development; Identifies Baseline for Next-generation

2010+ Technology

Steady-state Multi-cylinder Development Validates Analysis; Simulates Transient

Conceptual Targets Identified via Analysis

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NZ-50 Phase II-B Technology Integration


Builds on Phase I, Phase II-A

Phase I, II-A Demo Transferable Technology

2010+ System-level Boundary Conditions

Advanced Transient Combustion & Emissions

Model-based Control Strategies Phase II-B

Fuel System Flexibility

Next Generation EGR System & Exhaust Recovery Concepts


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Integration of Aftertreatment Technologies


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Detroit Diesel Standard Template.ppt

NZ-50 Phase II Multi-cylinder Test-beds

NZ-50 Phase II Test-beds based on Multi-cylinder Series 60-2007 (shown above) and Prototype Heavy-duty Engine Prototype Heavy-duty Engine Test-bed Equipped with Exhaust Energy Recovery Hardware and Increased Peak Firing Pressure Capability Test-beds Equipped with Multiple-leg Exhaust System with Bypass to Provide Flexibility for Testing Engine-out and Tailpipe-out Configurations Test-beds Equipped with Multiple Emissions Sampling Capability to Provide Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Exhaust Species for Low Emissions Combustion

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Presentation Outline

Technical Status Towards Project Objectives Technology Development Methodology Technology Building Blocks Example Case Studies
9 Combustion 9 Fuel Injection System 9 Air and EGR System 9 Controls 9 System Integration

Conclusions

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Example Combustion System Result Low Emissions Combustion Development on NZ-50 Phase II-B Engine Demonstrated Up to 70% Load (~15bar BMEP)

Low Emissions Combustion

Technical Demonstration of EPA 2010 Emissions Engine-out However, Technology not Viable for Commercialization in the Near-to-Mid Term due to Significant Thermal Efficiency Deterioration

In-cylinder Spatial Distribution of Temperature and Equivalence Ratio for Traditional Diffusion Limited Combustion and Low Emissions Combustion DOE-DDC Light Truck Program CY2002

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Example Fuel Injection / Controls System Result Technology Demonstration of Precise, Distributed Injection Events

Simulated NZ-50 engine cam/crank timing configuration 5 injection events with 360 to 360 CA injection timing span There is overlapping of injection among six cylinders
Cam Signal

720CA

Injector #1

Injector #3 240CA Crank Signal

TDC

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Example Air and EGR System Result Variable Breathing Optimization of Exhaust Valve Event and Intake Valve Event Using Design of Experiments

10 9 BSFC Improvement (%) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 A25

BSFC

BSFC

Various Modes B25 C25Engine B50 Operating A75 C75 A100 B100

Comprehensive Engine Cycle Simulation Model Developed and Calibrated Model Coupled with Design of Experiments and being Utilized to Analytically Optimize Engine Breathing Events to Reduce Pumping Losses, for Thermal Management and for In-cylinder Temperature Control for Low Emissions Combustion Initial Application of the Model over Steady-state Operating Conditions, Followed by Application over Transient Conditions

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Example Controls and Calibration System Result Model-Assisted Total System Calibration and Optimization Demonstrated improvement in FTP emissions (NOx, CO) and fuel economy Method emerging as a promising tool for calibrating and optimizing increasingly complex total system comprising engine, aftertreatment (NOx and PM) and vehicle systems The next step involves 2nd iteration of model generation and experimental validation over steady state and transient

Baseline

Optimized window showing improvement in NOx, Smoke and BSFC Analytical example shown here demonstrates ~6% reduction in fuel consumption and over 20% reduction in NOx and smoke emissions
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Example System Integration Result Demonstration of Transient EPA 2010 Emissions over FTP Cycle Experimental Multi-Cylinder Engine Results

Integrated System/ Controls Optimization

Conventional Combustion Optimization

Selective Implementation of Low Emissions Combustion

EPA 2010 System-out Emissions Levels Demonstrated over Transient FTP


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Presentation Outline

Technical Status Towards Project Objectives Technology Development Methodology Technology Building Blocks Example Case Studies
9 Combustion 9 Fuel Injection System 9 Air and EGR System 9 Controls 9 System Integration

Conclusions

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2004 vs. 2007 DDC Fuel Economy Comparison

Testing showed EPA07 engine to be within 1% of the EPA04 engine. All runs were within 2% variance. This test was a preliminary look at EPA07 vs. EPA04 Fuel Economy.
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Conclusions

Demonstrated Technologies, via Integrated Experiments and Analysis, to Achieve the Technical Objectives of the DOE-DDC Heavy Truck Project (NZ-50)
9 50.2% Peak Thermal Efficiency at a Single operating Condition 9 EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations over Steady-state and Transient Operation

Significant Risks and Challenges Remain for Application and Commercial Viability of Some of the Technology Enhancements However, Collaborative DOE-Industry Programs Lay a Strong Technology Foundation for Subsequent Industry-led Product Development to Address These Challenges Forward Engineering Methodologies Enabled by Analytical Tools were Beneficial to Develop and Validate the Technical Roadmap to Enhance Thermal Efficiency and Reduce Emissions

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Acknowledgements

DOE-DDC Collaborative Heavy-Truck Project (NZ-50) Department of Energy, HQ


9 Gurpreet Singh 9 Roland Gravel

National Energy Technology Laboratory


9 Carl Maronde 9 Jeffrey Kooser

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