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Lysias I and Platos Crito

Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and


Commentary

Geoffrey Steadman

Lysias I and Platos Crito


Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary
1st edition
2012 by Geoffrey D. Steadman

All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may
not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by
Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the
public press), without written permission from the publisher.
The author has made an online version of this work available (via email) under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. The terms
of the license can be accessed at creativecommons.org.

Accordingly, you are free to copy, alter, and distribute this work freely under the
following conditions:
(1) You must attribute the work to the author (but not in any way that suggests that
the author endorses your alterations to the work).
(2) You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
(3) If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting
work only under the same or similar license as this one.

The Greek text for Lysias I is from the edition by Karl Hude first published by Oxford
University Press in 1912. The Greek for Platos Crito is from the edition by John
Burnet, first published by Oxford University Press in 1903.
ISBN-13: 978-0-9843065-6-5
ISBN-10: 0-9843065-6-0
Published by Geoffrey Steadman
Cover Design: David Steadman
Fonts: Times New Roman, GFS Porson, New Athena Unicode
geoffreysteadman@gmail.com

Table of Contents

Pages
Preface to the Series.v-vii
How to Use This Commentary..ix-x
Introduction to Lysias I.........xi
Core Vocabulary.......xii-xiii
Abbreviations..xiii
Selected Bibliography.xiv

Lysias I
On the Murder of Eratosthenes (text, vocabulary and commentary, 1-50)......2-31
Introduction (, exordium), sections 1-5
Narrative (, narratio) of the case, sections 6-28
Proof (, confutatio) of charges by the accusers, sections 29-46
Epilogue (, peroratio), sections 47-50
On the Murder of Eratosthenes (full page Greek text)...32-45

Crito
Platos Crito (text, vocabulary and commentary).47-106
Introduction.49-51
Core Vocabulary.52-53
Selected Bibliography..54
Commentary.56-106
Platos Crito (full page Greek text)........107-126

Glossary
Verb Synopses....128-132
Running High Frequency Vocabulary List,133-140

Preface to the Series


The aim of this commentary is to make both Lysias I: On the Murder of Eratosthenes
and Platos Crito as accessible as possible to intermediate-level Greek readers so that
they may experience the joy, insight, and lasting influence that comes from reading
some of the greatest works in classical antiquity in the original Greek.
Each page of the commentary includes 9-10 lines of Greek text, exactly one-third
of a page from Hudes 1912 Oxford Classical Text of Lysias I or one-third of a page
from Burnets 1903 Oxford Classical Text of Platos Crito, with all corresponding
vocabulary and grammar notes arranged below. The vocabulary includes all words
occurring nine or fewer times, organized alphabetically, while the grammatical notes
are arranged according to line numbers.The advantage of this format is that it allows
me to include as much information as possible on a single page and yet insure that the
numerous commentary entries are distinct and readily accessible to readers.
To complement the vocabulary within the commentary, I have added a very short
core list of words occurring 10 more more times in the preface of each commentary
and recommend that readers review this list before they begin reading. Together, this
book has been designed in such a way that, once readers have mastered the core list,
they will be able to rely solely on the Greek text and commentary and not need to turn
a page or consult outside dictionaries as they read. Readers who desire a more
extensive vocabulary review may consult a running list of 327 highly frequent Greek
words available in the glossary of this commentary.
The grammatical notes are designed to help beginning readers read the text, and
so I have passed over detailed literary, historical, and philosophical explanations in
favor of short, concise, and frequent entries that focus exclusively on grammar and
morphology. The notes are intended to complement, not replace, an advanced level
commentary. Assuming that readers finish elementary Greek with varying levels of
ability, I draw attention to subjunctive and optative constructions, identify unusual
aorist and perfect forms, and in general explain aspects of the Greek that they should
have encountered in first year study but perhaps forgotten. As a rule, I prefer to offer
too much assistance rather than too little.

vi
Better Vocabulary-Building Strategies
One of the virtues of this commentary is that it eliminates time-consuming
dictionary work. While there are many occasions where a dictionary is absolutely
necessary for developing a nuanced reading of the Greek, in most instances any
advantage that may come from looking up a word and exploring alternative meanings
is outweighed by the time and effort spent in the process. Many continue to defend
this practice, but I am convinced that such work has little pedagogical value for
intermediate and advanced students and that the time saved by avoiding such
drudgery can be better spent reading more Greek, memorizing vocabulary, mastering
principal parts, reviewing morphology, and reading advanced-level commentaries and
secondary literature.
As an alternative to dictionary work, this commentary offers two approaches to
building knowledge of vocabulary. First, I isolate the most common words (10 or
more times) for immediate drilling and memorization. These words are not included
elsewhere in the commentary but have been gathered into a running list in the
introduction to this book. Second, I have included a eight-page running vocabulary of
327 high frequency words in the glossary of this volume. Readers who want a quick
review of core vocabulary before reading should consult and master the core list;
while those who desire a regular review of vocabulary may single out, drill and
memorize the high frequency vocabulary. Altogether, I am confident that readers who
follow this regimen will learn Greek more efficiently and develop fluency more
quickly than with traditional methods.
Print on Demand Books
This volume is a self-published, print-on-demand (POD) book, and as such it
gives its author distinct freedoms and limitations that are not found in traditional
publications. After writing this commentary, I simply purchased an ISBN number (the
owner is de facto the publisher) and submitted a digital copy for printing. The most
significant limitation of a POD book is that it has not undergone extensive peerreview or general editing. This is a serious shortcoming that should make readers
wary. Because there are so many vocabulary and commentary entries, there are sure

vii
to be typographical and factual errors that an extra pair of eyes would have spotted
immediately. Until all of the mistakes have been identified and corrected, I hope the
reader will excuse the occasional error.
The benefits of POD, however, outweigh the costs. This commentary and others
in the series simply would not exist without POD. Since there is no traditional
publisher acting as a middle man, there is no one to deny publication of this work
because it may not be profitable for the publisher. In addition, since the production
costs are so low and there is no publishing company which needs to recover its own
investment, I am able to offer this text at a low price of my own choosing. If I wish to
make revisions or publish a second, third, or fourth edition, I alone make the decision.
Finally, since this book is no more than a .pdf file waiting to be printed, I am able to
make corrections and place a revised edition of a POD book for sale in as short as 24
hours. In this regard, we should liken PODs to software instead of typeset books.
Although the first edition of a POD may not be as polished as a traditional book, I am
able to respond very quickly to readers recommendations and criticisms and create
an emended POD that is far superior to previous editions. Consider, therefore, what
you hold in your hand as an inexpensive beta version of the commentary. If you
would like to recommend changes or download a free .pdf copy of any of the books in
this series, please see one of the addresses below. All criticisms are welcome, and I
would be grateful for your help.
Lastly, I would like to thank Dr. Tarik Wareh, Lisa Baerga, Christopher Boyd,
Olivia Fitzgerald, Tom Walker, and in particular K.P. from Adelaide, Australia for
reading through earlier versions of this commentary and recommending changes.
Their astute observations have saved readers from numerous omissions and
embarrassing gaffes throughout the work.
Geoffrey Steadman, Ph.D.
geoffreysteadman@gmail.com
www.geoffreysteadman.com

ix

How to Use this Commentary


Research shows that, as we learn how to read in a second language, a combination of
reading and direct vocabulary instruction is statistically superior to reading alone.
One of the purposes of this book is to encourage active acquisition of vocabulary.
1. Master the Running High Frequency List.
A. Develop a daily regimen for reviewing vocabulary and learning principal parts
before you begin reading. Review and memorize the words in the running high
frequency list (pp. 133-140) before you read the corresponding pages in Greek.
B. Download and use the digital flashcards available online in .ppt or .jpg formats
(www.geoffreysteadman.com). Research has shown that you must review new
words at least seven to nine times before you are able to commit them to long term
memory, and flashcards are efficient at promoting repetition. As you review, delete
flashcards that you have mastered and focus your efforts on the remaining words.
2. Read actively and make lots of educated guesses
One of the benefits of traditional dictionary work is that it gives readers an interval
between the time they encounter a questionable word or form and the time they find
the dictionary entry. That span of time often compels readers to make educated
guesses and actively seek out understanding of the Greek.
Despite the benefits of corresponding vocabulary lists, there is a risk that without
that interval of time you will become complacent in your reading habits and treat
the Greek as a puzzle to be decoded rather than a language to be learned. Your
challenge, therefore, is to develop the habit of making an educated guess under
your breath each time before you consult the commentary. If you guess correctly,
the vocabulary and notes will reaffirm your understanding of the Greek. If you
answer incorrectly, you will become more aware of your weaknesses and therefore
more capable of correcting them.
3. Reread a passage immediately after you have completed it.
Repeated readings not only help you commit Greek to memory but also promote
your ability to read the Greek as Greek. You learned to read in your first language
through repeated readings of the same books. Greek is no different. The more
comfortable you are with older passages the more easily you will read new ones.
4. Reread the most recent passage immediately before you begin a new one.
This additional repetition will strengthen your ability to recognize vocabulary,
forms, and syntax quickly, bolster your confidence, and most importantly provide
you with much-needed context as you begin the next selection in the text.
5. Consult an advanced-level commentary for a more nuanced interpretation
After your initial reading of a passage and as time permits, consult some of the
literature in the selected bibliography for a more detailed and learnd discussion
than this commentary can provide.

A Note for Greek Instructors


Many of the features of this book are the result of requests made by instructors in
third-semester Greek courses. In other books in this series, I have tabulated running
core vocabulary lists for words that occur in high frequency within the Greek text that
is the focus of the commentary. Such a method allows readers to focus vocabulary
review exclusively on words that are specific to the author and the work at hand.
Since, however, this commentary on Lysias I and the Crito will be used in thirdsemester college courses and Greek instructors desire a broader review of the
vocabulary that students may have encountered in first-year Greek, I decided to create
a running high frequency list of all the words in Lysias I and Crito that are also found
in a general high frequency list of all words in Classical Greek literature (see p. 133140). The result is an extensive eight-page 327-word running vocabulary list that
includes (1) words that may not occur frequently in Lysias I or the Crito but are
highly useful in future courses and (2) words that readers have encountered in firstyear Greek but must review and know nonetheless.
Below are recommendations on how to use all of the features of this book:
1. Since students no longer need to dedicate time to dictionary work, require that
they take regular vocabulary, verb stem, and morphology quizzes.
The running high frequency list includes the page number in the commentary where
the word first occurs. If you ask students to prepare the Greek for pages 2-4, for
example, consider also asking them to review the corresponding high frequency
words in the glossary for a short vocabulary quiz at the beginning of each class.
Principal parts lists, running and alphabetical, are conveniently available on the
website for instructors who want students to review specific verbs for assessment.
2. Require that students use the Greek-only pages when reviewing in class.
The Greek-only pages have been added at the request of Greek instructors who
wish to set an appropriate level of expectations for classroom review and want
students to avoid the temptation of looking at vocabulary lists and grammar notes
when asked to translate or identify forms and constructions in class.
3. Download the free .pdf and copy and paste relevant vocabulary lists and the
Greek text for presentations, quizzes, and exams.
Since all of the Greek is written in unicode, it is easy to copy (ctrl+c) and paste
(ctrl+v) text or vocabulary directly from the .pdf into a document for translation
quizzes and tests. If you wish to preserve the formatting of the original, simply
enlargen the .pdf on the computer screen and take an image capture of the passage
you wish to copy (Shift+Command+4 on a Mac, Alt+Prt Scr or 'Snipping Tool' on a
PC) and insert the resulting image into your document. Finally, if you want to
design an impromptu whiteboard presentation, just enlargen the .pdf on a computer
or tablet and project the image onto a whiteboard screen.

xi

A Very Short Introduction to Lysias I


for the Intermediate Reader
We must never forget, or fail to appreciate, the extraordinary technology that allows
us to bring the past to the present. Imagine if the world were suddenly to discover an
intelligible signal from a star 2400 light-years away. We would scramble as a people
to find a way to interpret those signs. We would share our insights freely with others,
debate the validity of what we had deciphered, and offer alternative readings. We
would pool our resources and develop public institutions, where we would seek to
preserve our understanding and pass on what we had learned to others so that they
might reinterpret and reflect on what they had observed. Our hope, above all, would
be not merely to add to the encyclopedia of knowledge but, through similarities and
differences with that alien world, to discover more about what it means to be human.
To the untrained, such a discipline might seem impractical, useless to confront the
problems of the modern world; but to others, such learning would expand our
imagination and help us realize to what extent our lives are the sum of forces and
choices of which we are knowingly or unknowingly a part. Through the study of this
2400-year-old alien world, we would learn how to live more deliberately.
For many Greek students, Lysias I is the first work that they read after an initial
study of grammar. The speech is suitable not only because it is of manageable size
and conveniently reinforces many of the lessons of first-year study but also because it
offers remarkable insight into both the public and private lives of the Greeks. Lysias
(ca. 445-380) was a logographer, a speechwriter hired, in this case, to write a speech
defending an ordinary Athenian named Euphiletus on the charge of the murder of
Eratosthenes, a adulterer caught in bed with Euphiletus wife. While a jury might
excuse such a killing if Euphiletus acted out of the passion of the moment, the
prosecution argues that the murder was premeditated and the defendant should be
punished. In addition to providing a window into Athenian law and the domestic lives
of the Athenians, the speech reveals Lysias skill in responding to the rhetorical
challenge of the work: how to depict the killing as unpremeditated and yet make the
husband Euphiletus not appear so nave as to incur the contempt of the jurors. Enjoy.

xii
Lysias I Core Vocabulary (10 or more times)
The following is an alphabetized list of all words that occur ten or more times in the Lysias I. These words
are not included within the vocabulary in the commentary and therefore must be reviewed and mastered as
soon as possible. The end of the dictionary entry, both below and throughout the commentary, indicates the
number of ccurrances of the word in the entire speech. The number counts were tabulated by the author.

: but, 15
, , : man, husband, 27
: modal adv., 21
, : human being, person, 10
, , : every, quite all, 10
, -, -: -self; he, she, it; the same, 47
: but, and, on the other hand, 69
: to be able, can, be capable, 20
: I, 75
, : out of, from (+ gen.), 15
, -, -: that, those, 27
, -, -: my, mine, 10
: in, on, among. (+ dat.), 16
: when, after, since, because, 11
: near, at (+ gen.), to, toward (+ acc), near, at (+ dat.), 15
: to have, hold, possess; be able; be disposed, 13
: if, whether, 13
: into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 21
: to be, exist, 161
-: to go in, enter, 12
: for, since, 31
: to come to be, become; be born, 19
, , : a woman, wife, 20
: or (either...or); than, 18
: to lead; consider, think, believe, 14
: and, also, even, too, 107
: to bid, order, command, exhort, 13
: to take, receive, catch, grasp, 12
: on the one hand, 34
: not, lest, 12
, : law, custom, 19
, , : who, which, that, 20
: that; because, 17
: to know, 21
, : a house, home, dwelling, 10
, , : this, these, 51
: and so, then; at all events, 10
, , : not, 21
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 15

xiii
-: and not, neither...nor, 11
: in this way, thus, so, 17
, , : every, all, the whole, 18
: around, about, concerning (+ gen., dat., acc.), 17
: to do, make, create, compose, 16
: to do, accomplish, make, act, 36
, : anyone, anything, someone, something, 14
, -, -: such, 16
: you, 19
: as, thus, so, that; when, since, 19
: O! oh! (in direct address) 25

Abbreviations
abs.
acc.
act.
adj.
adv.
aor.
app.
comp.
dat.
dep.
d.o.
f.
fut.
gen.
imp.

absolute
accusative
active
adjective
adverb
aorist
appositive
comparative
dative
deponent
direct object
feminine
future
genitive
imperative

impf.
imper.
indic.
i.o.
inf.
inter.
m.
n.
nom.
obj.
opt.
pple.
pass
pf.
pl.

imperfect
impersonal
indicative
indirect object
infinitive
interrogative
masculine
neuter
nominative
object
optative
participle
passive
perfect
plural

plpf.
pred.
prep.
pres.
pron.
reflex.
rel.
seq.
sg.
subj.
superl.
voc.
(S. 813)
(813)
(D. 41 )

pluperfect
predicate
preposition
present
pronoun
reflexive
relative
sequence
singular
subject
superlative
vocative
(Smyth 813)
(Smyth 813)
(Denniston p. 41)

Citing Lysias
Although the speech below is commonly called On the Murder of Eratosthenes,
scholars refer to the text by a Roman numeral, in this case Lysias I. The speech itself
is also divided into fifty numbered sections, which scholars use to cite and locate a
particular passage in different editions of the speech. In this commentary, the numbers
1-50 are embedded in the Greek text. If you must cite a passage from the speech, use
both the Roman numeral and the relevant section numbers, e.g. Lysias I.5-8.
In addition to the section numbers, Hudes 1912 edition of the Greek Text, which I
use, includes line numbers which start at 1 and descend to 27 or 28 on each page of
his OCT edition. Since the line numbers are more precise than section numbers
which may cover 8-9 lines of textI use Hudes line numbers as a convenient way of
citing lines in the grammatical notes on each page of the commentary.

xiv

Selected Bibliography
Bateman, J.J. 1958. Lysias and the Law. TAPhA 89: 276-85.
Bury, R.G. 1893. The Use of Prepositions in Lysias. CR 7.9: 394-6.
Carey, C. 1995. Rape and Adultery in Athenian Law. CQ 45.2: 407-17.
Gagarin, M. 2003. Telling Stories in Athenian Law. TAPhA 133.2: 197207
Hall, E. 1995. Law Court Dramas: the Power of Performance in Greek
Forensic Oratory BICS 40: 39-58.
Harris, E. M. 1990. Did the Athenians Regard Seduction as a Worse Crime
than Rape? CQ 40: 370-77.
Herman, G. 1993. Tribal and Civic Codes of Behaviour in Lysias I CQ 43:
406-19.
Lefkowitz, M. 1983. Wifes and Husbands. Greece and Rome 30:31-47.
Morgan, G. 1982. Euphiletos House: Lysias 1. TAPhA 112: 115-23.
Porter, J.R. 1997. Adultery by the Book: Lysias I and Comic Diegesis.
EMC 41: 421-53.
Scodel, R. 1993. Meditations on Lysias I and Athenian Adultery.
Electronic Antiquity 1.2.
Todd, S.C. 2007. A Commentary on Lysias: Speeches 1-11. Oxford.
Wolpert, A. 2001. Lysias I and the Politics of the Athenian oikos. CJ 96:
415-24.

Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network


of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all
indirectly.
-Martin Luther King, Jr.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail

To make the ancients speak, we must feed them with our own blood.
-von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff

Lysias I.1-2

2
1

10

, ,
,
,
,
, ,

. 2.
,


,

: to be irritated, annoyed, angry, 1


, -, : a wrong done, a wrong, 2
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
-: to give back, allow, assign, 2
-, -: weak, feeble, sick, 1
: to come to know, learn, realize, 4
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
, : democracy, 1
, , : a juror, judge, 1
, , : Hellas, Greece, 1
: to pursue. follow, practice, 2
: well, 2
, : loss, damage; penalty, fine, 6
, -, -: very big, great, important 3

, -, -: small, little; trifle, 2


, -, -: alone, only, solitary, 6
, , : very sort which, 1
, : oligarchy, 1
, , : very one who, which, 5
, , : whoever, whatever, 6
: to suffer, experience, 2
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
, , : much, many, 7
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
: to, towards (acc); near, in addition, 7
, : punishment; help, aid, 6
, -, -: worst, most inferior, 1
: so that, that, so as to, 8

1 ...: I would
consider it of great (importance); idiom,
+ aor. optative is a potential optative
...: that you become; acc.
articular infinitive, is acc. subject
: predicate of
2 : for me; dat. of interest
: the sort as; the
sortwhich correlatives, demonstrative,
and relative, S. 340; enclitic - adds force
: you would be; potential opt.
3 : for you yourselves; reflexive
dat. of interest parallel to
: pf. act pple
: , 1st sg. pf. with present sense
4 ... : shouldwould be; fut.
less vivid condition; opt. and
: the same; between article and noun

: supply
5 : there would not be (anyone)
who
: in the case of; + dat.
: pf. pple
: potential opt. does not retain
after , S. 2552
6 : 2nd pl. potent. opt.
7 : neuter pl. takes a sg. verb
......: not onlybut (also)
8 : recognized; pf. pple + is a
periphrastic pf. optative pass.
10 ...: against those
being capable of; i.e. most powerful
: pf. pass. -
: the same; between article and noun
11 : so as to attain the same

Lysias I.2-4
, ,
. 3.

, ,

4. , ,
,


,

15

20

: to shame, dishonor; feel ashamed, 4


, -, -: responsible, blameworthy, 3
, -, -: best, 2
: it is necessary, must, ought (inf.), 5
, -, -: terrible; wondrous, clever, 3
-: to be disposed, affected; settled, 4
, : thought, intention, purpose, 1
-: to corrupt, lead astray, destroy, 5
, : loss, damage; penalty, fine, 6
-: to prove, point out, show 4
, : Eratosthenes, 6
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
, : enmity, hostility, 1
, , : magnitude, size, 1

, -, -: small, little; trifle, 2


: to commit adultery with, debauch, 2
: to believe, think, deem, 4
: to suppose, think, imagine, 4
, -: contemptuous, scornful, 1
, , : whoever, whatever, 6
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
: except, but (+ gen.), 4
-, : forgiveness, pardon, 2
: both, and, 8
: to chance upon, get; happen, 6
: to commit outrage, insult, maltreat, 3
, : hubris, outrage, insult, violence, 1

12 : as; dat. governed by


, the same
13 : superlative adj.
: same; between article and noun
15 : to be
disposed so carelessly; , used
four times in the speech, governs an adv.
: to gain, attain; + gen. object
: (rather) than; comparative in force
16 : of a small penalty; gen.
object of acc. pl.

17 : fordeeds; object gen.


governed by
18 : this(namely) how; object of
aor. inf.
: obj. of , subject of
: aor. inf. -
20 : 3rd sg. aor.
: me myself; intensive
21 : nom sg pres. pple - (-)
: governed by
: 3rd sg. impf.

Lysias I.4-6

4
1

, ,
,
. 5.
, ,

,
.
6. , ,
,

: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 2


, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 2
, -: true, 4
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
, : beginning; rule, office, 1
: to marry, take as a husband or wife, 1
-: to be disposed, affected; settled, 4
: to seem good, seem, think, imagine, 6
: , if (+ subj.), 7
: to be willing, wish, desire, 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
, -, -: myself, 7
: for the sake of, because of (+gen.), 2
-: to prove, point out, show 4
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9
: down, down along (acc.); down from, 5
, -, : gain, profit, advantage, 1

: to say, speak, 9
: too much, exceedingly, 1
: to cause pain, distress, grief, 2
-: and not, neithernor, 2
, -, -: alone, only, solitary, 6
-: to pass by or over, 1
, -, : a poor man, a day-laborer, 1
: except, but (+ gen.), 4
, -, -: rich, wealthy, opulent, 1
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
, : deliverance, safety, 1
, : punishment; help, aid, 6
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
, -, : thing, money, goods, 4
, : time, 8
: so that, that, so as to, 8

1 : often governs a genitive that comes


before rather than after the preposition
: so that; purpose clause,
aor. subjunctive
2 ...: supply from above
: -, gen. sg.
: according to; + acc.
4 : 1st sg. fut. -
5 : the truth; true things,
...: this alone (is); supply
, is a predicate noun
6 : I am able; aor. deponent subj. of
, in a future more vivid condition

: pf. pass. pple


7 : aorist inf.
8 : 1st sg. aor. mid.
...: for; acc. of duration
: 1st sg. impf.
9 : so as to; result clause governing
infinitive
: to grieve (her); transitive verb
: to be in that ones (power);
i.e. did not give her too much freedom;
+ dat. expresses dependence S. 1689
: whatever; + 3rd sg. subj. in a
general relative clause

Lysias I.6-8
, ,
. ,
,

5
10

7.
, ,
[]
,
, 8.
,

15

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 1


, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 2
, -, -: responsible, blameworthy, 3
: to follow, 2
: accurately, precisely, exactly, 3
-: to die off, perish, 2
, -, -: best, 2
, -, -: terrible; wondrous, clever, 3
-: to manage a household, 1
, , : likely, probable, reasonable, 1
-, : a carrying out, burial procession, 2
, -, -: myself, 7
: already, now, at this time, 4
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 7
, -, -: very big, great, important 3
, : a mother, 3
, : mind, thought, reason, attention, 1

, -, : relationship, intimacy, 1
-, : housekeeper, house-manager, 1
, -, -: of what sort, as, 7
: to see, look, behold, 5
, : a little or young child, child, 6
-: to give over, hand over, 1
: to trust, believe in, rely on, 1
-: to provide, offer; direct, 1
, -, -: first, earliest, 9
: both, and, 8
: to end, complete, finish; die, 2
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
, -: thrifty, sparing, frugal, 1
: to keep watch, keep guard, 3
, : time, 8
: as, just as, as if, 2

10 : as far as
: it was possible; , I
am the sort to + inf. is a common idiom
for I am able to; impers. 3rd sg impf.
: paid attention; 1st sg. impf.
common translation with
11 : supply as object
12 : my own (affairs)
: 1st sg. aor., -
14 : partitive gen. pl. ,
15 : clever; the connotation is positive
: feminine sg.; two-ending adj.

: feminine nom. sg. pres. pple


16 : who; relative pronoun , , ; the
speaker blames not his mother but her
funeral for the evils () that follow
: objective gen. governed
by
17 : nom. aor. pple
: pf. mid.
: her; i.e. the body of the mother
being carried in a burial procession
18 : by; gen. agent with pass.
: nom. fem. aor. pass. pple.,

Lysias I.8-10

20

25



. 9. , , (
) ,
.
,
, ,
, , .
10. ,

, : marketplace, 3
, : mens quarters, 1
: up, above, 2
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, corrupt, 3
: to walk, to go, 4
: for, since, 31
, : womens quarters, 1
: it is necessary, must, ought (inf.), 5
-: to live, 1
-: to corrupt, lead astray, destroy, 5
-: to lead through relate, narrate, 1
, -, -: twofold, double, 3
-: to look for, see, 2
: already, now, at this time, 4
: we, 5
, : handmaid, maid, 6
: to nurse, 1
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9

, -, -: equal to, the same as, like, 1


: down, down along (acc.); down from, 5
-: to step, go or come down, 2
: down, below, 3
: to risk, venture; 3rd sg. it is likely 3
, -, : stairs, ladder, 1
, : word, speech, discourse, argument 3
: to wash, bathe, 1
, : a mother, 3
, : small house, 1
: when, by what time, 1
, : a little or young child, child, 6
: many times, often, frequently, 2
-: to bring to, apply to, ply, 1
, -, -: first, early, 9
-: to accustom, use, 1
, : time, 8
: so that, that, so as to, 8

19 : through time; S1528b


25 : so thatnot; or lest, negative
20 : 3rd sg. aor. -, which
purpose clause with 3rd sg. subj
here means corrupt not destroy
whenever; optative of replaces
:
+ subj. in a general temporal clause
21 : first (of all); adverbial accusative
in secondary sequence
22 : i.e. two-storied
: down from; + gen.
: having; neut. pple modifies 26 : (while); circumstantial
: things (on the floor) above
pres. pple. modifying the understood
subject: fem. from l. 24
23 : to things (in the floor) below;
: I lived; 1st sg. impf., -
dat. governed by
27 : it was thus customary
: in; the is
that; pf. mid. + impf. is often a
assumed to be on the upper floor
24 : was born; aor.
periphrastic plpf. but here that translation
is not suitable; followed by a result clause
: it; i.e. the child,

Lysias I.10-12
,
.
, ,
, . 11. ,
, ,
-

7
1

,
12. .
, : field, farm, 5
-: to go away, depart, 6
--: unexpectedly
: to cry aloud, to shout, 1
, : dinner, 1
-: to be disposed, affected; settled, 4
: to give, offer, grant, provide, 2
-: to be discontent, irritated, 1
, -, -: himself, her-, its-, them-, 4
, -, -: myself, 7
: within, at home, 5
, -: on purpose, deliberately, 1
: to have come, be present, 4
, -, -: silly, nave, foolish; idle, 1
, : handmaid, maid, 6
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9
-: to lie down to sleep, sleep, 3
1 : 3rd sg. impf. -
: intending to sleep; going
to sleep fut. pple expresses purpose
: to the child; is a
preposition + accusative
2 ...: 3rd sg. pres. subj. ,
in a purpose clause;
: for; acc. duration of time
: sg., subject is neuter pl.
3 : so navely; so simplemindedly
4 : 1st sg. impf.
: ones one wife; i.e. my own wife;
one would expect , my own, and
this variant is found in the textual tradition
of Lysias but the editor Hude chose
acc. subject of

: down, below, 3
: to cause pain, distress, grief, 2
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 8
: to suppose, think, imagine, 4
-: not ever, never, 2
, : a little or young child, child, 6
, : a city, 8
, , : much, many, 7
-: to come or go forth, pass, 1
: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 9
, -: temperate, prudent, 1
, : breast, teat, 2
: later, 3
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
-: to be suspicious, 1
, : time, 8
: so that, that, so as to, 8

6
7

: of all (women); partitive gen. fem.


: superlative
: this prepositional phrase in the
attribute position modifies gen. pl.
: gen. sg. pres. pple
(=) in a gen. absolute with
; as often, translate the noun first,
then the pple.
: 1st sg. impf.
: ; 3rd sg. impf. -contract verb
: by; gen. agent
: being distressed; pres. pass.
pple modifying
: 3rd sg. pres. subj. , in a purpose
clause
: 1st sg. aor.

Lysias I.12-14

8
10

,
. ,

,

15


. , 13.
, ,
.
, . 14.

, : field, farm, 5
-: to make to stand up, raise up, 1
-: to go away, depart, 6
, -, -: well-pleased, glad, 2
: at least, at any rate; indeed, 2
: to laugh, 1
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 3
: to give, offer, grant, provide, 2
: to be willing, wish, desire, 2
: to draw, drag, 1
-: take to heart, consider, ponder, 3
: here, there; then, at that time, 1
-: to draw, draw to, 1
: to have come, be present, 4
, : a door, 7
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9
-: to lie down to sleep, sleep, 3
: to cry out, wail (elsewhere ), 1
, : bolt, doorbolt, 1

: to be drunk with wine, 1


: to see, look, behold, 5
: to make angry, provoke, irritate, 6
: and not, but not, nor, not even, 4
, : a little or young child, child, 6
, : young girl, maiden, 1
: to play, to sport, 1
: to stop, make to cease; mid. cease, 2
: to try, attempt, endeavor, 1
, -, -: before, earlier, 2
-: to pretend, 1
-: to put to, shut, 1
, -, -: first, early, 9
: you, 8
, : breast, teat, 2
-: to think secretly, suspect, 1
: to say, claim, assert, 4
, : time, 8

10 : pres. inf. -
: aor. inf.
11 : 3rd sg. aor. mid. subj., governs
a complementary pple; purpose clause
: crying; neuter sg. pres. pple
: and that one; demonstrative pronoun
...: as if she had been glad to
see; on the grounds that she glad(ly)
had seen, + pple expresses alleged
cause (the character not speakers. point of
view), + nom. sg. fem. pf. pple
is the equivalent to + ind. expressing
unrealized past potential (contrary to fact)
: at first; adverbial acc. set
in constrast to and when

: over time
13 : pres. inf. -
: so that you;. emphatic
highlights the contrast: she will leave
while he will pursue the maid
14 : you have a go at; lit. you may try
out i.e. have sex with, pres subj. + in
a purpose clause
15 : pulled on her; dragged her
:
: ; 1st sg. impf.
: nom. sg. aor. pple -
16 : pres. pple - (stem - )
17 : governs a gen. obj.
18 : having come; pple, causal in sense

Lysias I.14-15
, .
,
,
.
. , , ,


. 15. , , ,
,
, : a brother, 1
-: to open, 2
-: leave behind, abandon, forsake, 1
-: put out, extinguish, quench 1
, , , : neighbor, 1
-: to go through, pass, 2
: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 6
: aor., said, spoke, 8
: then, next, and so, therefore, 2
, -, -: myself, 7
-: to kindle, lit; bind on or to, 1
-: to go out, come out. 2
: out of (+ gen.); adv. outside, 2
: to ask, enquire, question, 1
: to have come, be present, 4
, : day, 6
: to die, 1
, : a door, 7
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 7
, : lamp, 1
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 8
: betwixt, between, 1
19 : was; 3rd sg. impf.
: near daylight
20 : 3rd sg. aor. -
: gen. absolute, pple.
: why;opt. in ind.
question in secondary sequence
21 : aor. pass. inf.
: preposition phrase in the
attributive position, modifies
22 : to get a light; aor. mid. inf.

20

25

: by night, 1
: to go, go off, depart, 4
: nevertheless, however, yet, 1
: and not, but not, nor, not even, 4
-: not yet, 1
, : a little or young child, child, 6
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
, , : much, many, 7
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
, : old woman, 1
: to, towards (acc); near, in addition, 7
-: to come or go to, approach, 4
-, : face, countenance, 1
: to be silent, 1
, : silence, 2
, : who? which?, 4
: thirty, 1
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat), 7
: to say, affirm, claim, 3
, : time, 8
: to whiten, paint with white lead, 2
: to make a noise, 2

23
24
25
26

: ; impf. 1st sg.


: to be so; holds thus, +
adv. is often translated to be+ adj.
: pf. mid inf.
: having died; gen. absolute
: for; duration of time
: 1st sg. impf.
...: gen. absolute
: pf. pass. pple in gen. abs.
: by; gen. of agent

Lysias I.15-16

10
1

,
,
.
,
16.

.
,


, : marketplace, 3
-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8
: to hear, listen to, 9
, -, -: responsible, blameworthy, 3
: to walk, to go, 4
: put to the test; examine closely 1
: to minister, serve, do service, 1
: , if (+ subj.), 7
: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 3
-: to find out, discover, 2
-: to look for, see, 2
, : Euphiletus, the speaker, 1
, -, -: hated, hostile; subst. enemy, 3
: until, as long as, 1
: we, 5
, : handmaid, maid, 6
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
: to commit adultery with, debauch, 2

: to believe, think, deem, 4


, -, -: like, resembling, similar, 1
: to make angry, provoke, irritate, 1
-: no more, no longer, no further, 1
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
-, : meddlesomeness, 1
: to, towards (acc); near, in addition, 7
-: to come or go to, approach, 4
, -, -: your, yours, 2
: you, 8
: to chance upon, get; happen, 6
: to commit outrage, insult, maltreat, 3
: later, 3
-: to send secretly, 1
: to say, claim, assert, 4
: to go to and fro, visit, 2
: to keep watch, keep guard, 3

1 : nom. sg. fem. aor. pass.


pple
: whom; relative pronoun, acc. sg.
: as
2 : this one; note the accent
3 : , 3rd sg. impf.
: to her; acc. place to which
4 : what was; opt. replacing indicative
impf. in secondary sequence; opt. of
: the woman; the noun can
change gender to denote a woman
5 : gen. obj of
: vocative for

6 : out of no meddlesomeness; dat.


of cause S. 1517
: pf. act. inf.
: consider that; sg. imperative
governing acc. subj. and infinitive
7 ...: happens to be; a common
translation for + pple, here
8 : if you takeyou will learn;
fut. more vivid condition; + aor. subj.
and 2nd sg. fut. mid.
9 : aor. subj.

Lysias I.16-17
.
,
[] . 17.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
.

11
10

15

, -, -: other, one...another, 8
-: recall, remind (acc of gen) 1
-: to set free, release, deliver, 1
-: to shut out, lock out, 1
, -, -: belonging to the courtyard, 1
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
-: to corrupt, lead astray, destroy, 5
: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 6
, : bed-chamber, chamber, 3
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-: take to heart, consider, ponder, 3
, : Eratosthenes, 6
: immediately, straightaway, 3
: in truth, truly (begins open question), 6
, : a door, 7
, -, -: full, filled, filled full, 2

, -, -: inner courtyard, 1
, -, -: alone, only, solitary, 6
, , : a night, 5
-: from Oe (an Attic deme), 1
-: not ever, never, 2
, , : much, many, 7
: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 9
, -, -: your, yours, 2
: to trouble, confuse, 1
: both, and, 8
, : art, skill, craft, 1
-, : suspicion, jealously, 2
: to say, claim, assert, 4
: to whiten, paint with white lead, 2
: to make a noise, 2

10 : 2nd sg. fut. mid.


: 3rd sg. impf.
11 : not onlybut
also
: 3rd sg. pf. .
13 : departed; lit. was set
free or was let go aor. pass.
14 : 3rd sg. impf. -

15 : was; 3rd sg. impf.


: partitive gen. with
15 : how
: 1st sg. aor. pass.

16 : , -contract impf.
17 : occurred, happened
18 : perf. inf.

12

20

25

Lysias I.17-18
, . 18.
,


,
,
,
. , .

: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 2


, : marketplace, 3
: to seize, take; mid. choose, 2
: to follow, 2
, -: true, 4
: make a mistake, miss the mark, 2
: to wish, be willing, desire, 6
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
: two, 1
-: to go in, enter, 12
-: fall upon; be thrown into, 1
-: it is allowed, permitted, possible, 3
, -, -: fit, suitable; close friend 4
: to come or go, 5
: in truth, truly (begins open question), 6
, : handmaid, maid, 6
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 7
-: to denounce, speak against, 1
: to say, speak, 9
19 : 3rd sg. impf. -
: was; 1st sg. impf.
: partitive gen. with
19 : aor. pple
21 : aor. pple
() : to one of
my friends; is a preposition + acc.;
originally it preceded to express
alleged cause or motive, i.e. as if, 1702
22 : had learned; a 1st sg.
periphrastic pf. (pf. mid. pple + 1st sg opt.
); here opt replaces indicative in ind.
discourse secondary seq.;
23 : 1st sg. impf.
: which of the two
(options); is dual gen.

: to whip, flog, 1
, -, -: full, filled, filled full, 2
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
-: not ever, never, 1
, -, : mill, mill-house, 1
: homeward, to home, 2
, -, -: which (of two), 2
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
: to suffer, experience, 2
: to stop, make to cease; mid. cease, 2
: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 9
: you, 8
-, : forgiveness, pardon, 2
-: to contain, constrain, 1
: to set, put, place, arrange, 3
: to chance upon, get; happen, 6
-, : suspicion, jealously, 2
: to say, claim, assert, 4
: mid. to lie, cheat, beguile, 3

24
25
25
26
27

: 2nd sg. pres. mid.


: to choose; aor. mid.
: eitheror
: aor. pass. pple
: aor. inf. -
: being constrained; pres.
pass. complementary pple with
: the truth; true things
: aor. inf.
: to attain: + gen., aor. inf.
: object gen. governed by.
, the gen. obj. of
: you should lie; 2nd sg. aor.
prohibitive subj.
: not at all; nothing (false), inner
accusative

Lysias I.19-20
19.


,
,
. ,
20. ,
,

, ,

13
1

: accurately, precisely, exactly, 3


: to wish, be willing, desire, 6
-: to strike out, drive out; amaze, 1
-, : a carrying out, burial procession, 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-: to go in and announce, 1
-, : entrance, entryway, 1
, -, -: denying. 1
-: then, next, secondly, 3
, : Eratosthenes, 6
: to come to know, learn, realize, 4
, , : knee, 1
: already, now, at this time, 4
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 7
-: to speak against, to accuse, 2
: with (+ gen.); after, behind (+ acc.), 8

-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
: remind; mid. mention, remember, 1
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
: to persuade; mid. obey, 6
: to fall, fall down, 1
, : trust, faith, pledge, 4
: to, towards (acc); near, in addition, 7
-: to come or go to, approach, 4
-: let come to, admit, send to, 1
, -, -: first, early, 9
: to end, complete, finish; die, 2
: at that time, then, 1
, : a manner, way; direction, 3
: to go to and fro, visit, 2
, : time, 8

1 :
: at first; adverbial acc.
: 3rd sg. impf.
: supply the object me
: what; neut. sg. relative pronoun
is often represented as two words to
distinguish it from , that
2 ...: for (she said) that (she)
knew nothing; ind. speech: supply
: I recalled; aor. dep.
governing a gen. object, as often with verbs
of remembering and forgetting
3 : was the one visiting; pred.
noun; the opt. of replaces an impf. in
indirect discourse, secondary sequence
4 : 3rd sg. aor. pass. dep -
5 : perf. act. inf.

: fem. nom. sg. aor. pple


6 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: that (she) would suffer; fut.
inf.
7 ......: thatthatthat; all
governed the
: her; dat. obj. of compound verb
......: 3rd sg.
pres. opt.. -, aor. opt. , and aor. pass. opt. in
indirect discourse, secondary sequence;
translate these verbs in the simple past
8 : finally; pres. pple as adverb
9 : was persuaded; opt.
: in what ways she
admitted entrances; opt. mid. -

14
10

Lysias I.20-22


. , 21.
,
, .

15


, ,
. 22. .
, . . .

, : field, farm, 5
: accurately, precisely, exactly, 3
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
: to deem or think worthy, 4
-, -: caught in the act, detected 1
: to wish, be willing, desire, 6
: to want, need; to ask, beg, 1
-: to go through, pass, 2
-: to lead through relate, narrate, 2
: if really, if that is to say, 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-: to prove, point out, show 4
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
, : day, 6
, : Thesmophoria festival, 1
, : temple, 1
, -, -: authoritative, legitimate, 3
: to say, speak, 9

, : word, speech, discourse, argument 3


, , : big, great, important, 1
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 8
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
, : a mother, 3
: to go, go off, depart, 4
-: to agree, acknowledge, 5
: how, in what way; in order that, that, 2
: five, 1
: to, towards (acc); near, in addition, 7
, -, -: first, early, 9
: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 9
: you, 8
, : indication, proof, 1
, -: four, 1
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
, -, -: visible, manifest, evident, 1

10 ...: me being; gen. absolute


: at the Thesmophoria
festival; dat. of time when
: impf.
11 : the other;
: things having occurred; aor.
pple
12 : plpf. pass.
: by her; dat. of agent
13 : (see to it) that; + fut.
denotes an exhortation; originally the
construction depended upon the imperative
, see or , look out (S 2213)
: fut. deponent,
14 : will be; 3rd sg. fut.
: the things acknowledged

pf. pass. pple. -


: with me; to me,
: in the act, red-handed
: aor. inf.
: I have no need; + gen.,
is an inner accusative
. . .: that the act become..;
object of
: it is so; holds in this way,
+ adv. is often translated as to be
+ adj.
: , 3rd sg. impf.
: fut. inf.
: as

15
16

17

18

Lysias I.22-23
.
.
.
.
, ,
,
. 23. ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, : field, farm, 5
-: to go up, climb, mount, 3
-: to meet, encounter (+ dat) 2
-: to go away, depart, 6
-: to come, arrive, 2
: to wish, be willing, desire, 6
: to dine, 2
-: to lead through relate, narrate, 2
: to set, sink, plunge, 1
: aor., said, spoke, 8
: within, at home, 5
-: to wake up, 1
-: to prove, point out, show 4
-: to take care, care for (+ gen.), 1
, -, -: fit, suitable; close friend 4
, : Eratosthenes, 6
: to come or go, 5
: immediately, straightaway, 3
19 : with; dat. of mean
: 1st sg. fut.
20 : aor. pass. pple
: on; dat. of time when
: impf.
: to this (man); dat. compound verb
21 : after the sun;gen.
absolute, pf. pple
: dat. sg. pple modifies

22 : knowing; nom. sg. pple.


: pf. mid. pple
: Hude, the
editor of this Greek text follows Bekkers
emendation of , nothing of
necessities, in the manuscript tradition

15

20

25

, : the sun, 2
, : day, 6
, : handmaid, maid, 6
: well, nobly, 2
-: to lie down to sleep, sleep, 3
-: to seize, lay hold of; find, 4
: homeward, to home, 2
: at home, 2
: to go, go off, depart, 4
, -, -: first, early, 9
-: to dine together with, 4
, : Sostratus, 2
, : indication, proof, 1
, -, -: last, 1
: at this hour, at that time, 1
, : upper story (of the house), 1
, -, -: friendly, dear, 4
: to point out, tell, indicate, 1

23
24
25
26
27
28

with the acc. sg. , no one of my


friends; many wish to preserve the
original
: would find; aor. opt. in
secondary sequence
: nom. pl. aor. pple
: to me; as preposition S 3003
: aor. pple
: it was good for him; holds
well + adv. is often translated as to
be + adj.; impf. and dat. of interest
: nom. sg. pple -
: impf.
: aor. pple
: telling that one to take
care of the door; dat. indirect object

Lysias I.23-25

16
1

, ,
, ,
. 24.
.
,
.

,
. 25. , ,

-: to open, 2
-: to come, arrive, 2
: to walk, to go, 4
, -, -: naked, bare, 1
, : torch, 1
, : bed-chamber, chamber, 3
: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 3
: within, at home, 5
-: to go out, come out. 2
-: to live at home, be in town, 2
: still, besides, further, 3
: to find out, discover, 2
, : a door, 7
: to make stand, set up, stop, 1
, : shop, tavern, 1
-: to step, go or come down, 2
-: to throw down, 1

-: to lie down, recline, 1


-: to seize, lay hold of; catch, 4
, : a couch, bed, 1
, -, -: of what sort, as, 7
: and not, but not, nor, not even, 4
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
-: to take, receive, catch, 2
: to prepare, get ready, 3
-: to be near, be present, be at hand, 1
: to beat, knock, 1
, -, -: most, very many, 2
, -, -: first, early, 9
, : silence, 2
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
: later, 3
: to push, shove, force, 1

1 : nom. aor. pple


: to this (man) and that;
as preposition, as demonstrative
2 ... : someothers
: 1st sg. aor.
3 : 1st sg. aor.
: as many as it was
possible; + superl. = as X as possible;
, I am capable/the sort to,
here translated impersonally as it is
possible is making the construction +
superlative explicit; impf.
4 : gen. pl. pres. pple
: acc. pl.

5 : superlative adverb,
...:
gen. absolute; is pf. pass.
pple., -
6 : by the woman; note
feminine article, gen. of agent
: aor. pple of
7 nom. pl. aor. pple.
: we saw; 1st pl. aor.
8 : those (entering) later (saw);
in constrast to
9 : standing; acc., pf. pple
: aor. pple

Lysias I.25-27
,
. ,
.
, 26. , ,


. 27. , ,

17
10

15

-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8


: to seize, take; mid. choose, 2
, : a failure, fault, sin, 2
-: to entreat, supplicate, beg, 2
-: to kill, slay, 3
, : money; piece of silver, coin, 1
: to bind; lack, want of, need, 1
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 3
: aor., said, spoke, 8
, -: smaller, fewer, 3
-: to commit a mistake, fail, 2
: to ask, inquire, question, 1
, : pleasure, enjoyment, delight, 1
: to supplicate, beg as suppliant, 2

, -, -: well-ordered, moderate, 1
: more, rather, 2
-: to agree, acknowledge, 5
: behind; in the future; prep. (gen), 1
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
-: to transgress; go beside, 1
: to persuade; mid. obey, 6
-: to bring around, lead around, 1
, : a city, 8
: you, 8
, : who? which?, 4
: to chance upon, get; happen, 6
: to commit outrage, insult, maltreat, 3
, , : hand, 2

10 : two hands; acc. dual form


: ; i.e. behind (him)
: nom. sg. aor. pple
11 : , 1st sg impf.
: why, on account of what
: nom. sg. pple.
:
12 : acknowledged; ,
3rd sg. impf.
: takes the place of in wishes and
exhortations
13 : to exact money;
common meaning for aor. mid.
: fut. -

15 : you consider
of less (importance); (), 2nd sg.
aor. mid. cf. first line of the speech
: than your pleasures; gen. of
comparison with comparative
16 : you chose; (); took for
yourself, 2nd sg. aor. mid.
: cognate acc.
17 : (rather) than; after comparative

18 ...: these things which


: 3rd sg. aor. here means
gain or attain with a gen. object

18

20

25

Lysias I.27-28
,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
. 28. , ,

,
. .

: to hear, listen to, 9


, -: true, 4
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
: to keep off, ward off, defend, 1
-: to read, 3
-: to flee, get away from, escape, 1
, -, -: just, right, lawful, fair, 6
, : bed-chamber, chamber, 3
-: to snatch, seize and carry in, 1
: within, at home, 5
, : hearth, 1
: immediately, straightaway, 3
, -, -: hated, hostile; subst. enemy, 3
-: to flee, 1
-: to fall, fall down, 1
: down, down along (acc.); down from, 5
: to say, speak, 9
: make ready, contrive, devise, 1
19 : which.(to attain); relative
pronoun, the gen. pl. obj. of a missing inf.
, aor. inf. of ; the missing
inf. makes the clause parallel to
above
20 : aor. pass. pple
: aor. pple
21 : how could anyone
whohave (fled to the hearth)?; + a
missing aor. ind. expressing past potential,
here unrealized potential
22 : I twisted around
: being struck; nom. sg. aor. pass.
pple

, : wood, 1
, : road, way, path, journey, 1
: to suppose, think, imagine, 4
-: to agree, acknowledge, 5
, : anger, passion, 1
, , : very one who, which, 5
, , : whoever, whatever, 6
: and not, but not, nor, not even, 4
: to prepare, get ready, 3
-: to turn about, turn round, 1
: to strike, 1
, -, -: first, early, 9
: how? in what way?, 1
, : piece of iron, tool, 2
, -, -: so great, so much, 2
: as, just as, as if, 2
, , : hand, 2
: mid. to lie, cheat, beguile, 3

23
24
25

28

29

: aor.
: two hands; dual. acc.
: 3rd pl. impf.
: by which; dat. of means
: he could fend off; + acc.,
+ aor. mid. expressing present
potential
: pf. inf. , present in sense
:
make their listeners angry; provide anger
to those listening; the article indicates
that is a dat. pl. pple., ind. object
: against
: aor. imperative

Lysias I.29

, , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
.

19
1

29.

-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8


-: dispute, disagree with (dat.), 1
-: to go up, climb, mount, 3
-: to entreat, supplicate, beg, 2
: to deem or think worthy, 4
-: to die off, perish, 2
-: to pay back, out, 1
, -, -: just, right, lawful, fair, 6
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 6
: to pursue. follow, practice, 2
, -, -: ready, prepared, at hand, 1

: to supplicate, beg as suppliant, 2


, -, -: authoritative, legitimate, 3
. , : a witness, 7
-: to acknowledge, agree, 5
: how, in what way; in order that, that, 2
, : a city, 8
-: to agree; concede, yield (dat) 1
: to order; arrange, organize, 1
, -, : payment, fine, penalty, 1
, -, : thing, money, goods, 4

1 : acknowledged; , impf.
: which; acc. subj. of
2 ...: in order that; purpose
: superlative
clause, 3rd sg. aor. subj.
: those pursuing; dat. pl. pres.
: epexegetical (explanatory) inf.
pple
limiting. S. 2001
7 : you ordered; 2nd pl. aor.
3 : 1st sg. impf.
8 : for me
4 : 1st sg. impf. of
: step up, step forward; aor. pl.
6 : I exacted this
imper. -
penalty; 1st sg. aor.

Lysias I.30-31

20

10

15

<>
.

, ,
,
, ,
. 31.

30.

, : Areopagus, Hill of Ares, 2


: to hear, listen to, 9
-: to read, 3
-: to give back, allow, assign, 2
, : married woman, wife, 2
, : wife, spouse, 1
-: expressly, explicitly, 1
: to judge, to give judgment on, 2
, -, -: just, right, lawful, fair, 6
, : court, courtroom, 1
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 6
, -, -: himself, her-, its-, them-, 4
: we, 5

-: to condemn (gen. for acc.)


2
: to say, speak, 9
. , : a witness, 7
, : adulterer, 6
, : lawgiver, 1
, : stele, plaque, 1
: very, very much, exceedingly, 1
, : punishment; help, aid, 6
, -, -: ancestral, of ones father, 1
, : murder, homicide, slaughter, 2

10 : aor. sg. imperative


: also
13 : by this court; dat.
of agent governed by the pf. pass.
below
14 ...: by which it is both
ancestral custom and in our time it has
been granted to; a contrast between
and ; + gen.
denotes time
: pf. pass. -

15 : for murder; with


: it is said; pf. pass.
16 : whoever inflicts...; aor.
mid. subj. in a general relative clause
: on top of his
own wife; or in the case of the
adulterer must be caught in the act
: catching; aor. pple
: in the case of
married women
: considered; aor. mid.
with a double acc.: considered x y

Lysias I.31-32
,
. ,
,
,
. .

32. , , , -

21

20

25

,
, ,
: to shame; mid. feel ashamed, 4
: to hear, listen to, 9
-: to read, 3
, -, -: worthy of, deserving of, 4
: to deem or think worthy, 4
-: to kill, slay, 3
, , : strength, force, might, 3
, : harm, damage, hurt, 2
, : married woman, wife, 2
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 6
, -, -: twofold, double, 3
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous, 1
: , if (+ subj.), 7
, -: smaller, fewer, 3
, -, -: free, 1

-: to set upon; add; set upon, attack 1


-: it is allowed, permitted, possible, 3
-: to find out, discover, 2
, -, -: strong, powerful; severe, 2
: and yet, and indeed, and further, 3
, -: better; too much, too great, 1
: now; as it is, 3
, -, -: of what sort, as, 7
, , : very one who, which, 5
: to owe, ought, 1
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
, : mistress, concubine, 2
: both, and, 8
, : punishment; help, aid, 6
: so that, that, so as to, 8

19 : also
: in the case of
concubines
: less worthy; worthy of
less; i.e. lower status than married women
20 : the same; attribute position
: imposed; 3rd sg. aor. -
: it is clear that; supply
...... : if he hadhe
would have; contrary to fact condition,
impf. in the protasis, + aor. in apodosis
21 : than this; gen. of comparison
: greater; , comparative
degree, acc. sg. of , ,
: in the case of married
women
: but as it is; commonly following a

contrary to fact condition


22 : being able; lit. being the sort
to, pres. pple of
: than this; gen. of comparison
: in the case of those
: aor. inf.
23 : the same (penalty); attributive
position, supply
: 3rd sg. aor.
: aor. sg. imperative
24 : for me
26 : that it orders; subject
27 : dishonors with force; i.e. in
cases of assault rather than consensual sex;
+ 3rd sg. subj, present general condition
28 : in which cases

Lysias I.32-33

22
1

, ,
, , , 33.
, ,
,
, .

-, -, -: unclear, not evident, 1


, -, -: of another, foreign, 3
: instead of, in place of (+ gen.), 1
, -, -: worthy of, deserving of, 4
, : harm, damage, hurt, 2
, , : force, might, strength, 3
: to constrain, use force, overpower, 2
-: to accomplish, effect, 3
-: to corrupt, lead astray, destroy, 5
, -, -: twofold, double, 3
, -: smaller, fewer, 3
-: be liable to, subject to; cling on, 1
, : loss, damage; penalty, fine, 6
, : death, 3

-: to condemn (acc. for gen),


2
: to hate, 1
, : adulterer, 6
, -, -: intimate, closely attached, 2
, -, -: which (of two), 2
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
: to persuade; mid. obey, 6
: to chance upon, get; happen, 6
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
, : breath, life, spirit, soul, 1
: so that, that, so as to, 8

1 : he is liable on the same


7 : than; following comparative
(penalty); is held on the same, ; is
: to their husbands
again in the attributive position: same
: entire; predicative position
: those employing force; middle
: in thoses power, in the
2 : smaller penalty
hands of those; i.e the adulterer controls the
than; gen. governed by
house of another man
8 : pf. inf.
3 : governs a double accusative
...: it is unclear
... : for thesefor those
whose children; lit. the children are
: (the law) condemned; 3rd sg. aor.
unclear whose they, same as
; is subject below

4 : those forced; aor. pass. pple
9 : happen to be; common
5 : but those persuading (sex);
translation for + pple, here
nom. pl., aor. act. pple of
: against whom; with elision
6 ...: so as to make; result,
and before an aspirated vowel; the
governs a double accusative: to make x y
antecedent is
: to themselves; ()
is a reflexive pronoun

Lysias I.33-36
. 34.
, ,
,
. 35.
,
,
. . 36.

23
10

15

-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8


, -, -: worthy of, deserving of (gen) 4
: to deem or think worthy, 4
-: to acquit, free (+ gen.) 1
: to be at a loss, be bewildered, 1
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 3
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 6
: to come or go, 5
, : loss, damage; penalty, fine, 6
: we, 5
, : death, 3
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9
, -, -: strong, powerful; severe, 2

-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
, -, -: alone, only, solitary, 6
: to suppose, think, imagine, 4
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
-: to encourage, urge (+ dat.),
1
, : a city, 8
, -, -: which of the two, whether, 2
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
: to look at, examine, consider, 4
: to set, put, place, arrange, 3
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
: it is necessary, fitting; must, ought, 1

10 : the one making; nom. sg. pres.


pple,
: a double acc: made x y
: me; gen. separation, object of
and below
11 ...: have
acquitted and have ordered; pf. pples +
is a periphrastic form of the perfect
12 : to exact
13 ...: it is up to you; lit. it is
in you
...: whetheror
: these (laws are); acc. subject,
add , is acc. predicate
:
15 : on account of this

(namely) so that; clarifies


: concerning
whatever matters; general relative clause
with pres. subj.
16 : to these (laws); supply

: aor. pple
: we may consider; aor. subj. in
a purpose clause with ,
: what we must
do, what we ought to do; lit. what is to be
done by us, is a dat. of agent with
the verbal adjective
18 : to exact
: as these; dat. after , same

24

20

25

Lysias I.36-37
,
, , ,
, .
,
:
.
37. , :

. , ,

-, : license, immunity, 2
, : cause, responsibility, blame, 1
, -, -: of another, alien, 3
: to deem or think worthy, 4
: to fasten; mid. touch, grasp (gen) 1
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
: it is necessary, must, ought (inf.), 5
: to fear, 2
, -, -: just, right, lawful, fair, 6
: , if (+ subj.), 7
, -, -: himself, her-, its-, them-, 4
-: to lift up, set up, incite, 1
: well, 2
: to lead; consider, think, believe, 14
, : day, 6
, : handmaid, maid, 6

: to speak against, to accuse, 2


, : a thief, 1
, -, -: authoritative, legitimate, 3
: to say, speak, 9
-: to pursue, go after, 2
, : adultery, 1
, : adulterer, 6
, : a youth, young man, 1
, : a city, 8
: to look at, examine, consider, 4
, -, -: your, yours, 1
: to say, affirm, claim, 3
: to rejoice, be glad, enjoy, 1
, : ballot, vote; a small stone, 1
: so that, that, so as to, 8

19 : acc. subject
: the same; attributive
position, governs a dat.: same as
: you will incite; fut. -
21 : knowing; acc. pl. pple ,
modifying
: this reason
22 : for this (purpose)
: pres. inf. -
23 : fut. mid + partitive gen.,
i.e. no one will apprehend thieves
24 : will know; fut. deponent
(stem + )
: to dismiss; lit. to allow to
say goodbye, inf. and

25 : pf. inf. , supply


: and this; i.e. the fem.
: parttive gen. with
26 : most authoritative,
superlative
27 : aor. imperative pl.
: they accuse me
that; i.e. the prosecution
28 : aor. inf. -, i.e. to
bring back and entrap the adulterer
29 : that (I) would do the
just thing; + the equivalent to an impf.
ind. expresses present unrealized potential
: 1st sg. impf.

Lysias I.37-39
-

25
1

38. (
,

,

<> ) 39.
. ,
, ,

, : field, farm, 5
-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8
-: to meet, encounter, 2
: to come to know, learn, realize, 4
-: to be disposed, affected; settled, 4
-: to accomplish, effect, 3
-: to corrupt, lead astray, destroy, 5
, : the setting (pl. with sg. meaning) 1
: aor., said, spoke, 8
, -, -: myself, 7
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
: already, now, at this time, 4
, : the sun, 2
: to say, speak, 9
, : word, speech, discourse, argument 3
-: to pursue, go after, 2

-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
, , : this, this here, 1
, , : very one who, which, 5
, , -: whosoever,
whatsoever, 2
, -, -: intimate, close, related, 2
: many times, often, frequently, 2
, -, -: before, earlier, 2
, -, -: easy, ready, 1
: to look at, examine, consider, 4
, : Sostratus, 2
: to be of sound mind, prudent, 1
, : a manner, way; direction, 3
, -, -: friendly, dear, 4
: mid. to lie, cheat, beguile, 3

1 : in whatsoever way; dat.


of manner
: the one; intervening
words are the acc. obj. of the aor. pple
2 , ...:
gen. abs. with pf. pples. ,
3 : aor. inf. -
: If I orderedI
would be unjust; impf. indicative, impf. ind.
+ is a contrary-to-fact condition; i.e. if I
had entrapped him, it would be unjust
4 : gen. absolute,
pf. pass. pple -
() : him having
entered; gen abs. pf. pple -
5 : in whatsoever way; dat.

of manner
6 : I would
consider myself to be sensible; a late editor
added , thus the brackets < >, to create a
suitable contrary to fact condition with
impf.
6 : aor. mid. plural imperative
: in these matters as well; in
respect to these things acc. respect
7 : from the following; the pronoun
, often refers to remarks that follow
: 2nd pl. fut.
8 : being; pres. pple modifies
: just as; lit. the very (thing) which
9 : being close; being
disposed close i.e. a close family friend

Lysias I.39-41

26
10

, , []
,

;
.
,
, ; 41. , ,
,
40.

15

-: to go away, depart, 6
-: to send forth, let loose, release, 1
: to dine, 2
: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 6
-: to lead in or into, 1
: then, next, and so, therefore, 2
-: take to heart, consider, ponder, 3
-: then, next, secondly, 3
-: to plot or contrive against, 2
, -, -: fit, suitable; close friend 4
, : Eratosthenes, 6
, -: desolate, alone, solitary, 1
: elsewhere, 1
, : day, 6
, -: less, weaker, inferior, 2
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9

: and yet, and indeed, and further, 3


: well, nobly, 2
-: to leave behind, abandon, 1
, -: better, stronger, superior, 1
: to stay, remain, 1
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 8
, : adulterer, 6
, -, -: alone, only, solitary, 6
, , : a night, 5
: to go, go off, depart, 4
-: to send a message, 2
, -, -: which of the two, whether 2
, -, -: first, early, 9
-: to dine together with, 4
: to avenge, exact vengeance, 1
: to dare, undertake, endure, 1

10 : it was good for him;


holds/is disposed well, + adv. is
often translated as to be + adjective
: pres. pple - (stem -)
: impf.
11 : aor. pass. dep. imperative
- (stem -)
12 : (against) Eratosthenes, dat.
governed by a compound verb
12 : was it.or?;
introduces two options in this yes/no
question and, as often, is left untranslated
: was; impf.
13 : better for him; i.e. for the
adulterer
: dinner companion;
one going to dine, fut pple; acc. obj. of
, aor. inf. ;the speaker
invited a friend over for dinner

14 : would have less


likely dared; + aor. indicative expresses
past potential
: aor. inf. -
15 :
does it seem to you that I, sending away a
dinner companion, would; governs
the infinitives and expresses past potential;
nom. sg. aor. pple -
16 : aor. pass. inf -
: aor. inf. , governs a
nom. pred. that modifies subject of
17 : to remain; aor. inf.
...: where he punished;
with an indicative, here impf. mid. is often
translated as where
18 : does it not seem
to you that I would summon; governs
the aor. inf., cf. line 15

Lysias I.41-42

,
,
; ( ), ,
. 42. ,

,
( ;),
;
: to perceive, feel, learn, realize, 2
, : Harmodius, 1
-, -: safe, secure, 1
: to walk, to go, 4
: at least, at any rate; indeed, 2
, , , : a certain one, such a one, 1
: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 6
: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 3
: within, at home, 5
: out of (+ gen.); adv. outside, 2
-: to live at home, be in town, 2
: to come or go, 5
, -, -: one of two, other, different, 2
: in truth, truly (begins open question), 6
, -, : attendant, companion, 1
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9
: and yet, and indeed, and further, 3
-: to seize, lay hold of; find, 4
: more, rather, 2
19 : would bid; aor. inf., supply
: aor. passive inf. -
20 : superlative adverb
: rather than
: as soon as; lit. when
very quickly S. 2383
: 1st sg. impf.
: during the night; gen. time within
21 : nom. sg. pple
: fut. mid.
: whomever (I will catch)
outside; supply ; a contrast
between adverbs and
22 : to Harmodius. as
preposition

27

20

25

. , : a witness, 7
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 8
: now; as it is, 3
, , : a night, 5
: at home, 2
, -, -: of what sort, as, 7
, , : whoever, whatever, 6
-: to send a message, 2
: to prepare, get ready, 3
-: to run around, 1
, -, -: most, very many, 2
-: to know in advance, 1
, : piece of iron, tool, 2
-: to collect, gather together, 1
: very quickly, most speedily, 1
: both, and, 8
, : punishment; help, aid, 6
, : who? which?, 4
, -, -: friendly, dear, 4

23
24

26
27
28

: a certain one; acc. sg. ,


clever, has an accent on the ultima
: aor.
: I did know; 1st sg. plpf.
: (those) whom I was able (to
catch); was the sort to, impf.
, : I had known, does
it not seem to you that I would have;
contrary to fact condition, 1st sg. plpf.
- (past sense), governs
the two aor. infinitives
: as safe as possible
: where I myself entered; impf.
: a weapon; some iron
: how I inflicted; impf.

Lysias I.42-44

28
1

, .
.

,
,

. . 44.
, , ,
43.

: to hear, listen to, 9


-: to go up, climb, mount, 3
, : indictment, 1
: write; mid. make an indictment, 1
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 6
: to judge, to give judgment on, 2
-: to throw out, reject, 1
-: put one's hand on, attempt, try, 1
, : Eratosthenes, 6
: to find out, discover, 2
, -, -: hated, hostile; subst. enemy, 3
: to seek, search, inquire, 1
: in truth, truly (begins open question), 6
, -, -: one's own, peculiar, 2

, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 7


. , : a witness, 7
, , : a night, 5
, -, -: of what sort, as, 7
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
-: to take, receive, catch, 2
: except, but (+ gen.), 4
, : a city, 8
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
-: ever yet, ever, 2
: to look at, examine, consider, 4
, : a false accuser, slanderer, 1
-: know along with, be conscious of, 2
: both, and, 8

1 : of things going to be; fut.


pple is a partitive gen. with
: dat. of time when
: whom I was able (to grab);
I was the sort to + form of ,
here impf., commonly denotes to be able
2 : for me
: aor. pl. imperative, -
4 : 2nd pl. pf. + gen.
: aor. imperative pl.
5 : for yourselves
6 : any hostility (between); + dat.

: pf. mid.
7 : 2nd pl. fut.
8 : did not bring
indictments against me; lit. indict
indictments (against) me, cognate acc.
: supply me as object
: the adulterer is still the subject
9 : did not bring private
suits; as in line 8, cognate accusatives
...: and notany; translate
as a positive
: was he aware of; past. of -

Lysias I.44-46
, ,

. 45.
,
.
,
;
46. , ,

29
10

15

-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8


, -, : a wrong done, a wrong, 2
, -, -: one another, 1
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 3
-: to be or act impiously, ungodly, 1
: to wish, be willing, desire, 6
: it is necessary, must, ought (inf.), 5
: to fear, 2
-: to accomplish, affect, 3
, : difference, distinction, 1
: to hope, hope for, expect, 1
: for the sake of, because of (+gen.), 2
, -, -: some, 1
-: it is allowed, permitted, possible, 3
-: then, next, secondly, 3
-: to plot or contrive against, 2
-: to desire, long for, 2
: in truth, truly (begins open question), 6
: we, 5
, : death, 3

: to risk, venture; 3rd sg. it is likely 3


, : risk, danger, venture, 1
, : reproach, abuse, railing, 1
. , : a witness, 7
, , : big, great, important, 1
, , : a night,
: to see, look, behold, 5
: and not, but not, nor, not even, 4
-: to call to, call beside, 1
, : a drunken bout, 1
: except, but (+ gen.), 4
: from some place, from somewhere, 1
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
: to learn by inquiry or hearsay, 9
-: ever yet, ever, 2
, : who? which?, 4
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
, -, -: so great, so many, 2
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
, -, : thing, money, goods, 4
: so that, that, so as to, 8

10 : which; acc. direct object of


: fearing; nom. sg. pf. pple
: lest someone; clause of
fearing: + aor. subj.
: to destroy; aor. inf. -
11 : I accomplished; indefinite
clause, aor. opt. replaces + subj. in
secondary sequence
: impf.
: money; i.e. paid compensation
12 : to receive; fut. inf.
: for the sake of; governs a preceding
genitive, here
13 ...: it is so far

from having become; + pred. nom., lit.


it lacks from so much to have become,
governs a gen. of quanitiy
: I had seen; nom. sg. pf. pple
+ 1st sg. impf. form a
periphrastic form of the pluperfect
16 : wishing what?; is
the acc. object of the participle
...: would I risk; + past
indicative, in a contrary-to-fact condition
17 ...: I had been
wronged by the greatest of wrongs; inner
acc.; periphrastic form of plpf. passive
18 : it being possible ; pple, acc. absolute

30

20

25

Lysias I.46-48
,
;
47. , ,
,
,
, , .
48. , ,
,

-, -: unrighteous, unjust, 1
, : prize, prize of a contest, 1
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
, : a failure, fault, sin, 2
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 3
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
: , if (+ subj.), 7
, -, -: himself, her-, its-, them-, 4
: if really, if that is to say, 2
, -, -: myself, 7
-: obliterate, erase, blot out, 1
-: to make a mistake, wrong, 2
-: to desire, long for, 2
, -, -: one of two, other, different, 2
, -: less, weaker, inferior, 2
, -, -: one's own, peculiar, 2

, -, -: beautiful, noble, fine, 1


: to be set, be placed, lie, 1
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
: to believe, think, deem, 4
, -, -: of what sort, as, 7
: to see, look, behold, 5
, , : whoever, whatever, 6
, : a city, 8
, , : much, many, 7
-: to be set before, lie before, 1
-: know with, be conscious of (dat) 2
: to set, put, place, arrange, 3
, : punishment; help, aid, 6
: above, on behalf of (gen); beyond (acc)2
: to keep watch, keep guard, 3

19 : aor. inf. -
20 : pf. inf. -, the verb is
pf. in form but present in translation
21 ..: this peculiar
punishment; acc. subject of
: on my behalf; in contrast
to
23 : what sort of prizes
: for such
crimes; gen. of exchange
24 : less (likely); comparative adverb
: against others
: fut. mid. -

25 : if they see; + pres. subj. in


a future more vivid condition
: the same; attributive position
26 : (it would be) far better;
acc. of extent in degree (S 1586) with
comparative adverb; supply linking verb
: the existing laws
: aor. inf. -
27 : to set up; aor. inf.
: which; i.e. laws, this relative
pronoun is the subject of and

Lysias I.48-50
,
. 49.
,
, ,
, . 50.
,
.

31
1

, : contest, trial, 1
-, : license, immunity, 2
-: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 8
, -, -: other, one...another, 8
, -, -: of another, foreign, 3
: make a mistake, miss the mark, 2
: to wish, be willing, desire, 6
, -, -: terrible; wondrous, clever, 3
, -, -: just, right, lawful, fair, 6
: , if (+ subj.), 7
: to lie in wait for, entrap, 1
, : loss, damage; penalty, fine, 6
: to penalize, fine, 2
-: to set up, appoint, establish, 1

-: to shame dishonor, 1
: to risk, venture; 3rd sg. it is likely 3
, : adulterer, 6
, : law, custom, 19
: now; as it is, 3
: from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
: to persuade; mid. obey (dat.) 6
, : a city, 8
, : citizen, 1
, , : much, many, 7
, : the body, 1
: by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
: to deal with, use, employ, 1
, -, : money, goods, property, 4

1 : will punish with


penalties; dat. of means
: for those wishing to do
wrong against them; i.e. the adulterers
against the wives
2 : they will bring about
... : (it would be) far
more just in this way than; acc. of extent in
degree (S 1586) with a comparative adj.
3 : pres. pass. inf.
4 : catches; + aor. subjunctive
in a present general condition
: to deal (with the
adulterer) in whatever way one wishes; inf.
is governed by and

itself governs a missing dative and an


relative clause which behaves as an
adverbial accusative; introduces a
general relative clause, pres. subjunctive
: more terrible
: pres. pass. pple
: have become; + nom. pred.
3rd pl. pf. -
: contrary to; + acc.
: dat. pl. pres. pple
...: bothand
: I take a risk; here governing
+ gen.
: because
: 1st sg. aor. mid.

6
7
8
9

Lysias I
Greek-only pages
for classroom review





, ,
,
,
,

, ,

. 2.

10

15

20

,


,
, ,
. 3.

, ,

4. , ,
,


,

35

4-10

, ,
,
. 5.
, ,

,
.
6. , ,
,

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. ,
,

10

7.
, ,
[]
,
, 8.
,


. 9. , , (
) ,
.
,
, ,
, , .
10. ,

36

15

20

25

10-15

,
.
, ,
, . 11. ,
, ,
,

10

12. .
,
. ,

,

15

20

25


. , 13.
, ,
.
, . 14.
, .
,
,
.
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,

37

15-18

,
,
.
,

16.

.
,
.
,
[] . 17.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
.
, . 18.
,


,
,
,
. , .

38

10

15

20

25

10

15

20

25

19.

19-23


,
,
. ,
20. ,
,

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. , 21.
,
, .

, ,
. 22. .
, . . .
.
.
.
. 23.
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,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
.

39

23-28

, ,
, ,
. 24.
.
,
.

,
. 25. , ,
,
. ,
.
, 26. , ,


. 27. , ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
. 28. , ,

,
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40

10

15

20

25

10

15

20

25

29-32

29. , , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
.

30. <>
.

, ,
,
, ,
. 31.

,
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,
,
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32. , , , ,
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41

32-37

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. 34.
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. 35.
,
,
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,
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42

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37-42

38. (

10

15

20

25

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<> ) 39.
. ,
, ,

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40. , , []
,

;
.
,
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;

43

42-48

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.

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43.


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,
.
,
;
46. , ,
,
;
47. , ,
,
,
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48. , ,
,

44

10

15

20

25

10

48-50

,
. 49.
,
, ,
, . 50.
,
.

45

Platos Crito





49

An Introduction to Platos Crito


for the Intermediate Reader

The Crito is an account of how Socrates chose to die to defend a set of principles
rather than live comfortably without them. The fact that scribes chose to copy this
work, often painstakingly, generation after generation speaks both to the conviction
that there is wisdom within that should transcend Platos and Socrates own deaths
and to the desire of readers to understand what is worth dying for and therefore what
is worth living for. Socrates story is our story. And so, as you struggle with the
occasional odd verb form, new vocabulary, and grammar rules in the Crito, do not
forget, Reader, the real reason that you hold this book in your hands. The Greek is a
means to help us understand ourselves.
The dialogue begins as Crito, a wealthy Athenian and friend of Socrates, wakes
up the philosopher in prison and offers him an opportunity to flee his impending
execution and live a comfortable life abroad. What follows is a philosophical
exchange between the two men on the merits of such an escape. Soon afterward, the
conversation takes an abrupt turn when Socrates introduces the personified Laws,
who in their own voice deliver a lengthy speech to Socrates to convince him that he
must obey the laws of his city, remain in prison, and await his looming execution.
This work is one of four Platonic dialogues set around the death of Socrates. The
Euthyphro, a short dialogue on piety, takes place as Socrates walks to a preliminary
hearing before his trial. The Apology, which is not a dialogue but a speech, is Platos
account of the famous defense which Socrates delivers in the law courts against the
charges of corrupting the young and creating new gods. The Crito, as described
above, takes place while Socrates awaits his execution in prison, and the Phaedo, a
dialogue on the nature of the soul and the afterlife, depicts Socrates equanimity in the
last moments of his life. Modern scholars often strive for consistency in their
understanding of the first three dialogues and assume that Plato composed the fourth
work at a later time in his life, when Platos literary aims were different from those in
the first three works.

50
Historical Context and Interpretation
When possible, scholars use the historical context to illuminate an interpretation
of a dialogue. For example, in 406 BCE, several years before the events depicted in
the Crito, Socrates was one of fifty prytanes elected by lot to preside over the
Athenian Assembly. On this occasion, more than 6000 assembly members voted on a
decree to try and execute en masse rather than individually eight generals accused of
abandoning their shipwrecked comrades at the battle of Arginusae. As Socrates
explains in the Apology, although the Athenians later recognized that the decree was
passed contrary to law (), at the time Socrates was the lone prytanis who
opposed the decree on the grounds that it was in fact contrary to the laws (
, Ap. 32b). Xenophon, a contemporary of Plato, describes the same event in
Hellenica I.7.14-15 and adds that, while other prytanes opposed the decree but later
succumbed to the jeers and threats from supporters, Socrates alone remained
undeterred in refusing to bring the proposal to a vote. When the issue was brought
before the Assembly despite Socrates' objection, Socrates says that he showed his
disapproval once more by voting against the decree ( , Ap. 32b).
Xenophon adds that soon after the execution of the generals, the supporters of the
degree were prosecuted on the charge of deceiving the people (Hel. 1.7.35).
Whether Plato was influenced by this episode when he wrote the Crito is
debatable, but the account in the Apology shows that this confrontation between
Socrates and the assembly was not far from Plato's mind. There are two points in this
narrative that are worth noting. First, the historical Socrates confronted a situation
that, as Plato describes, pitted the arbitrary will of the people against the rule of law,
and this event became part of Socrates public persona. Not only is Plato comfortable
having Socrates allude to its importance in a trial speech, but Xenophon offers
independent confirmation that the event was worthy of mention. In fact, until Socrates
faced his own trial, his opposition to the decree was the defining moment in his
political life, and a part of his identity that Plato could not easily ignore as he wrote
the Crito. Second, the Apology depicts Socrates as an advocate for the rule of law and
a supporter of the view that established law should be an arbiter in public debate.
Whatever private reason the historical Socrates may have had to oppose the decree,

51
the argument that Plato places in Socrates mouth to persuade his fellow Athenians is
not an appeal to the soul or to individual virtues or to ones moral conscience but to
the principle that decisions in public discourse must be made with due regard to
existing laws.
Socrates role as prytanis may shed light on interpretations of the Crito, which
have been remarkably diverse and even contradictory. The controversy arises when
scholars try to clarify Socrates' relationship with the personified Laws. According to
the most popular reading of the dialogue, defended in particular by Richard Kraut,
Socrates decision to place the speech in the mouth of the Laws is not dramatically
significant: the Laws arguments are Socrates own, and whether the Laws or
Socrates himself delivers the speech makes no difference to the interpretation of the
work. On this view, Socrates argues in favor of the rule of law and finds the
arguments within the Laws speech persuasive enough to convince him to remain in
prison and face his own execution. On an alternative reading, defended among others
by Roslyn Weiss, the decision to include the personified Laws marks a dramatic
turning point in the dialogue. Socrates places the speech in the mouth of the Laws
precisely because he wishes to distance himself from a defense of the rule of law and
is unwilling to claim the Laws arguments as his own. On this reading, the speech is
offered not for Socrates benefit but for Critos. Since Crito appears unconvinced by
Socrates earlier arguments for staying in prison, Socrates constructs the imaginary
Laws and their arguments as a less desirable alternative to philosophical dialogue, one
that succeeds where the earlier arguments do not and persuades Crito that Socrates
must not escape.
The range of opinions regarding the Crito reminds us of how rich this work truly
is, and Socrates role in the assembly merely adds to the complexity. Do we expect
the views of Platos Socrates to be the same as those of the historical Socrates? Is
Platos portrayal of Socrates consistent among different dialogues? Which ones?
Should we aim for consistency within a single dialogue? Are the views of the
personified Laws Socrates or someone elses? These are a few of the issues that we
encounter as the drama unfolds, but they pale in comparison to the single overarching
question: why does Socrates stay in prison and why should we care 2400 years later?

52
Platos Crito Core Vocabulary (10 or more times)
The following is an alphabetized list of all words that occur ten or more times in the Crito. These words are
not included within the vocabulary in the commentary and therefore must be reviewed and mastered as
soon as possible. The end of the dictionary entry, both below and throughout the commentary, indicates the
number of ccurrances of the word in the entire Crito.

a0-dike/w: to be unjust, do wrong, injure, 13


a0lla/: but, 54
a1lloj, -h, -o: other, one...another, 34
a1n: modal adv. 55
a1nqrwpoj, o9: human being, 10
a1ra: then, therefore, it seems, it turns out, 16
au0to/j, -h/, -o/: -self; he, she, it; the same, 52
de/: but, and, on the other hand, 74
dei=: it is necessary, must, ought (+ inf.), 25
dh/: indeed, surely, really, certainly, just, 32
di/kaioj, -a, -on: just, right, lawful, fair, 26
do/ca, h9: opinion, reputation, honor, glory, 12
doke/w, do/cw, e1doca, dedo/khka, de/dogmai, e0dokh/qhn:: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 31
e0a/n: ei0 a1n, if (+ subj.), 18
e0gw/: I, 52
ei[j, mi/a, e1n: one, single, alone, 10
e0k, e0c: out of, from (+ gen.), 13
e0n: in, on, among. (+ dat.), 32
e0peida/n: whenever, 15
e0pi-xeire/w: attempt, try, put one's hand on, 12
e1ti: still, besides, further, 14
e1xw: to have, hold; be able; be disposed, 20
ei0: if, whether, 38
ei0j: into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 15
ei0mi/: to be, exist, 76
fai/nomai: appear, seem, become visible, 10
fhmi/: to say, claim, assert, 22
ga/r: for, since 34
ge: at least, at any rate; indeed, 21
gi/gnomai, genh/somai, e0ge/nomhn, ge/gona, gege/nhmai, -: to come to be, become, be born, 12
h1: or (either...or); than, 71
h9mei=j: we, 77
kai/: and, also, even, too, 253
kalw=j: well, nobly, beautifully, 13
Kri/twn, -wnoj, o9: Crito, 22
le/gw, le/cw (e0re/w), e1leca, ei1loxa, le/legmai, e0le/xqhn: to say, speak, 39
lo/goj, o9: word, speech, discourse, 13
me/n: on the one hand, 35
mh/: not, lest, 45
no/moj, o9: law, custom, 22
nu=n: now; as it is, 15
o3j, h3, o3: who, which, that, 53
o3sper, h3per, o3per: the very one who, very thing which, 10
o3ti: that; because, 34

53
o9, h9, to/: the, 388
o9mo-loge/w, o9mologh/sw, w9molo/ghsa, w9molo/ghka, -, w9mologh/qhn: speak together, agree, 14
o9ra/w: to see, look, behold, 10
w3ra, h9: time; season, period of time, 1
oi[oj, -a, -on: of what sort, as, 14
oi1omai, oi0h/somai, -, -, -, w|0h/qhn: to suppose, think, imagine, 15
ou[toj, au3th, tou=to: this, these, 95
ou]n: and so, then; at all events, 16
ou0, ou0k, ou0x: not, 82
ou0d-ei/j, ou0de-mi/a, ou0d-e/n: no one, nothing, 15
ou0de/: and not, but not, nor, not even, 20
ou1-te: and not, neither...nor, 28
ou3twj: in this way, thus, so, 17
pa/sxw, pei/somai, e1paqon, pe/ponqa: to suffer, experience, 11
pa=j, pa=sa, pa=n: every, all, the whole, 17
pei/qw, pei/sw, e1peisa, pe/poiqa, pe/peismai, e0pei/sqhn: to persuade, trust; mid. obey, 19
peri/: around, about, concerning (all cases) 19
po/lij, -ewj, h9: a city-state, city, 25
po/teroj, -a, -on: which of two? whether? 10
poie/w, -h/sw, e0poi/hsa, pepoi/hka, pepoi/hmai, e0poih/qhn: to do, make, create, compose, 34
polu/j, polla/, polu/: much, many, 31
pra/ttw, pra/cw, e1praca, pe/praxa, pepra/gmai, e0pra/xqhn: to do, accomplish, make, act, 13
pro/j: to (acc.), near, in addition to (dat.), 14
sautou=, -h=, -ou=: yourself, 12
su/: you, 91
Swkra/thj, -ouj, o9: Socrates, 33
te: and, both, 44
tij, ti: anyone, anything, someone, something, 66
w9j: as, thus, so, that; when, since, 35

Stephanus Page Numbers


The universal method for referring to pages in any of Platos dialogues is through
Stephanus page numbers. This paging system was developed by Henri Estienne (Lat.,
Stephanus), who published a multi-volume edition of Platos dialogues in 1578.
Stephanus divided each page in his edition into roughly equal sections, which he
labeled with the letters a, b, c, d, and e. This system allowed his readers to locate a
particular passage not only by the page number but by the section letter as well (e.g.
43a, 43b, 43c, 43d, 44a). Many modern editions, including the Greek text in this
volume, have adopted this system and gone one step further by dividing the sections
into individual lines (e.g. 43a1, 43a2, 43a3). This paging system offers the same
advantages as chapters and verses in the Bible. Since most editions of Plato include
the Stephanus page numbers in the margins of the text, a reader can pick up any
volume of Platoin Greek or in translationand easily locate a particular passage in
the dialogue.
Because Stephanus placed the Republic on pages 43-54 in one volume of Plato, the
Crito begins on Stephanus page 43a1 and ends on page 54e2. In this commentary all
of grammatical notes are arranged and labeled according to this paging system.

54

Selected Bibliography
Allen, R.E. 1980. Socrates and Legal Obligation. Minneapolis.
Bentley, R. 1996. Responding to Crito: Socrates and Political Obligation.
HPTh 17: 120.
Blondell, R. 2002. The Play of Character in Platos Dialogues. Cambridge.
Brickhouse, T.C. and N.D. Smith. 1994. Platos Socrates. New York.
Brown, H. 1992. The Structure of Platos Crito. Apeiron 25: 6782.
Bostock, D. 1990. The Interpretation of Platos Crito. Phronesis 35: 120.
DeFilippo, J.G. 1991. Justice and Obedience in the Crito. AncPhil 11: 249
63.
Harte, V. 1999. Conflicting Values in Platos Crito. AGP 81: 11747.
Kraut, R. 1984. Socrates and the State. Princeton.
Lane, M.S. 1998. Argument and Agreement in Platos Crito. HPTh 19:
31330.
Miller, M. 1996. The Arguments I Seem to Hear: Argument and Irony in
the Crito. Phronesis 41: 12137.
Stephens, J. 1985. Socrates on the Rule of Law. HPhQ 2: 310.
Strauss, L. 1983. On Platos Apology of Socrates and Crito. In T.L. Pangle,
ed. Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy. Chicago. pp. 3866.
Strokes, M. 2005. Dialectic in Action: An Examination of Plato's Crito.
Swansea.
Vlastos. G. 1974. Socrates on Political Obedience and Disobedience. Yale
Review 63:517-34.
Weiss, R. 1998. Socrates Dissatisfied. New York.
White, J. B. 1996. Platos Crito: The Authority of Law and Philosophy. In
R. B. Louden and P. Schollmeier, eds. The Greeks and Us: Essays in
Honor of Arthur W H. Adkins. Chicago. pp. 97133.
Woozley, A.D. 1979. Law and Obedience: The Argument of Platos Crito.
London.
Young, G. 1974. Socrates and Obedience. Phronesis 19: 129.

Platos Crito





Crito 43a1-a10

56
43a

10

. , ; ;
. .
. ;
. .
.
.
. , , , .
. ;
. .

: just, exactly, 2
-: to come, arrive, 1
, -, -: deep, tall, 1
, : prison, 2
: here, to this point, hither, 1
: through (gen) on account of (acc), 4
: to be willing, wish, desire, 5
: suitably, reasonably, fairly, 1
-: to treat well, show kindness, 1
: already, now, at this time, 4
: to have come, be present, 8
: to wonder, marvel, be astonished, 4
: especially, in particular, 5

: how, in what way; in order that, that 3


, : twilight (before dawn), day-break 1
: long ago, formerly, of old, 5
: quite, entirely, exceedingly, 3
: at what hour? at what time? 1
: many times, often, frequently, 4
: early, early in the morn, at morn, 2
-, -: accustomed, habitual, 1
-: at this time, so early, 1
-: to listen, heed, give ear to, 1
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9
: to go to and fro, visit, 1
, -, : a watcher, guard, sentinel, 1

a1 : why?
4
: adverbial acc. from the
7
demonstrative - (S. 333, 340)
: , 2nd sg. pf.
8
: definite article common throughout the
work for vocative, direct address
2 : quite certainly; and
are both usual affirmatives S. 2901

: late; lit. deep


...: visiting; articular inf. in acc.
sg.modified by ; -contract infinitive
: andalso; is a conjunction,
the second one is an adverb
: has been done some
kindness; inner acc. (1554); pf. pass.
: by; + gen. agent after passive voice

Personal Pronouns
st

1 person

,
,
,

I
my, of me
to me
me

we
our
to us
us

2nd person

,
,
,

you
your, of you
to you
you

you
your, of you
to you
you

is used 52 times; , 91 times; , 77 times; and , only 2 times.

Crito 43b1-b9

57

. , ;
. , ,
,


.
,
,
.

-, -: sleeplessness, waking, 1
: to perceive, feel, realize (gen) 1
, : life, 4
-: to live, exist, 1
: to wake up, rouse, stir, 2
: to be willing, wish, desire, 5
: then, next, and so, therefore, 1
-: to wake up, rouse, stir, 1
-: adv. for this purpose, decidedly, 1
-: call happy, fortunate (gen) 1
: right away, straight, directly, at once 1
, : Zeus, 2
: sweetly, pleasantly, gladly 2
, -, -: sweetest, most pleasant, 1
: to wonder, marvel, be astonished, 4
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 6
-: to lie down to sleep, sleep, 1
b1 : then; inferential, expressing surprise
: 2nd sg. non-sigmatic 1st aor.
demonstrative - (S. 333, 340)
: in silence; dat. of manner (1527) is,
as often, adverbial
3 : by Zeus!; acc. sg.
work for vocative, direct address
: I would not wish; + impf.
ind. expresses past potential (1784-88)
: intensive pronoun (-self) modifies
the understood subject 1st sg.
inf.
4 : but in fact; is adverbial
: partitive gen. obj. of
: I have been marvelling; after
1st person
2nd person

, -, -: my, mine, 2
, -, -: your, yours, 8

, : pain, distress, grief, 2


: by (in affirmation) 1
: especially, in particular, 5
: long ago, formerly, of old, 5
--: to sit down beside, 1
-: to stand at hand, be present, 1
: many times, often, frequently, 4
, -: mild, gentle, soft, 2
, -, -: before, in front of; earlier 4
: how? in what way?, 5
, -, -: easy, ready, 2
, : silence, 1
-, : misfortune, mishap, event, 3
, -, -: so great, so many, 2
, : a manner, way; turn, direction, 5
: to bear, carry, bring, endure, 6

5
6

, verb has sense of pf. progressive


: how; a relative adverb in an indirect
exclamation (cf. an ind. question) (2686),
: I did not wake; iterative impf
: pres. subj. of purpose
: as.as possible; common translation
for + superlative (here adverb)
and; conjunction
: in fact; strengthens affirmative
: even; adverb before
: your disposition
...: far the most; , far,
is the adverb of , many
: being at hand; fem. pf. pple
: so; demonstrative adverb; see. l. 5
, -, -: our, ours, 6
, -, -: your, yours, 0

Crito 43b10-c8

58
10

. , ,

.c
. , ,
,
.
. . ;
. , , , ,
5
,
, , , .
: to be annoyed, be irritated, 3
, : message, news, 1
: to be taken, be caught, 1
-: to come, arrive, 4
, -, -: low, heavy; grievous, 2
-: to release, relieve, give relief, 1
, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
: already, now, at this time, 4
, : age, time of life, 1
-: to be near, be present, be at hand 5
b10 : for in fact; is adverbial
: it would be; an + 3rd sg. opt.
is potential optative; inf. is the subject
11 : acc. sg. pres. pple
: -contract verb pres. inf.
c1 : others too; is adverbial
2 : not at all; adverbial acc. or inner
acc.: gives no relief
demonstrative - (S. 333, 340)
...: from; in respect to
articular inf. is likely an acc. of respect
3 : not; double negative with inf.
often after a negative main clause (2742)
: deictic iota (-) adds emphasis

-, -: out of tune, incongruent, 1


: early, early in the morn, at morn, 2
, -, -: your, yours 8
-, : misfortune, mishap, event, 3
: to end, complete, finish; die, 2
, -, -: at this age, 2
, -, -: such, 9
, : chance, luck, fortune, success, 3
: to bear, carry, bring, endure, 6
, -, -: difficult, hard, harmful, 4

5
7
8

: (being) present; pple


: deictic iota suffix (-) adds emphasis
: are (the case); sg. with neut. pl. subj.
: just why? Why exactly?;
emphasizes and suggests precision (2840)
: , 2nd sg. pf.
: postponing the adj.
adds emphasis and emotion to the reply
: nom. sg. pres. pple
: which; fem. sg. relative
: among those; demonstrative 1099
: superlative adverb
: would suffer; potential aor.
opt. ( aor. stem )

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

himself

herself
his
her
to/for him to/for her
him
her

itself

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

they
their
to/for them
them

they
their
to/for them
them

they
their
to/for them
them

its
to/for it
it

is used 49 times.
See the facing page
for its various uses.

Crito 43c9-44a1

59

. ; ,
;

. ,
. [ ] , ,
, .
. , , , ,
.
. ;

44

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


, : messenger, 1
, : necessity, force, constraint, 5
-: to report, announce, 1
: from, away from. (+ gen.), 9
: tomorrow, 2
-: to come, arrive, 4
, : life, 4
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
: there, in that place, 5
: to have come, be present, 8
, : a god, divinity, 4

: to die, 2
-: to leave behind, abandon, 2
: however, nevertheless; certainly, 2
-: certainly not, surely not, 1
, : vessel, ship, 2
: whence? from where? 1
, : Sunion (headland of Attica) 1
: to judge (by signs), conjecture, 2
: to end, complete, finish; die, 2
: today, 3
, : chance, luck, fortune, success, 3
, -, -: dear, friendly; friend, kin, 5

c9 ;: what is this?
: 3rd sg. pf.
: (at) which arriving; gen.
absolute (aor. pple); is a rel. pronoun
d1 : pf. act. pple
2 - : you know, (it) has not already
arrived; not , these; exactly
may be temporal: already, or now
demonstrative - (S. 333, 340)
: as it seems to me; inf.
absolute; the inf. is impersonal
3 : from which (reports); from (the
reports) which; acc. relative attracted
into gen. of missing antecedent

: aor. pple -
: it; i.e.
: (it is) clear that; add
5 : of course, in fact; emphasizes
: til tomorrow
: 3rd sg. fut. (dep. )
7 : in this way; dat. of manner
: (it is) dear; + dat., add
8 : let it be; 3rd sg. imperative
: , governs ind. discourse
: (that) it; acc. subject, i.e.
44a : from where (in the world)?
: (), 2nd sg. pres. mid

Three Uses of , ,

1. Personal Pronoun
2. Intensive Pronoun
3. Adjective same

how to identify

example

translation

alone, no article
modifies noun
following an article

them, him
the women themselves
the same women

Crito 44a2-b1

60

. . .
. .
.
. -

10


.
. ;
. ,

, ,

-: to die off, perish, 6


, , : a woman, wife, 1
: to wake up, rouse, stir, 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
: to come or go, 6
-, : dream, vision seen in sleep, 3
-: to approach, attack, assault, 3
: I will say or speak, 7
, -, -: one of two, other, different, 2
-, -: good-looking, attractive, 1
: to have come, be present, 8
, : day, 2
, : a cloak or mantle, 1
, : right moment, time 1

: to call, summon, invite, 1


, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5
: to risk, venture; it is likely, 3
, -, -: authoritative, legitimate, 2
, -, -: white, bright, brilliant, 1
, , : a night, 2
-, -: few, little, small, 4
, : vessel, ship, 2
: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 5
-: to come or go to, approach, 1
, -, -: before, in front of; earlier 4
: to judge by signs, conjecture, 2
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
, -, -: next; later, following, 1

a2 ;: , treated as the fut. of


(): on; dat time when
: I suppose; D. 494
3 : than; following later
: on (that day); relative, dat. time when
: comes; + 3rd sg. aor. subj.
, indefinite temporal clause
4 ;: 3rd pl. pres.
: at any rate; is restrictive and
emphasized by
: those in authority over these
things
5 -: the coming; gen. sg fem. pple
-
: during; gen. of time within
:
: (that) it; acc. subject, i.e.

(): during; see above


: which; neut. acc. relative pronoun
: 1st sg. pf.
7 : a little; acc. of extent of degree
with comparative adverb
: comparative adv.
: than; gen. of comparison
: it looks as though you; + inf.
you run the risk of not waking aor. inf.
; is often translated as
probably or perhaps + inf. as main verb
9 : 3rd sg. impf.
: just what?; lends emphasis
10 : 3rd sg. impf.
11 : wearing; fem. nom. sg. pple
: aor. inf. governed by

Crito 44b2-c2

61

.
. , .
. , , .
. , . , ,

, , , ,
, ,
,
.

, -: more shameful, disgraceful, 1


-: to not care, be careless, 1
: to use up, squander, spend, 3
-: to die off, perish, 6
-, -: extraordinary, out of place, 1
, -, -: possessed by a , 1
: to be willing, wish, desire, 5
-, -: clear, plain, visible, palpable, 1
-, : dream, vision seen in sleep, 3
: to be like, seem likely, 1
, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
-, -: very fertile, of large clods 1
: to come or go, 6
: to find, discover, devise, invent, 1
, , : day, 1

: to know, 7
: to come, arrive, 1
: and yet, and indeed, and further, 1
: modal adv., 1
: very, exceedingly, very much, 1
: ever, at some time, once, 3
: clearly, distinctly, 1
: to deprive, rob of, bereave (gen), 2
-, : misfortune, mishap, event, 3
: to save, keep, preserve 7
, -, -: such, 9
, -, -: a third, 1
, : Phthia (home of Achilles) 1
, -, : thing, money, goods, 7
: separately; apart from (gen.) 1

b4 : Homer, Iliad 9.363:



spoken by Achilles, who says that he can
return home to Phthia from Troy in 3 days
; on; dat time when
(): you could arrive; () + 2nd
sg. aor. opt. is potential optative
3 : elsewhere certainly in fact; here
a corrective: no, rather on the contrary
: so at least; restrictive in sense
4 : emphasizes the preceding word, much
like italics or the stress in oral speech
5 : god-touched; in response to
Socrates interpretation of the dream
emphasized by
6 : even; adverb modifies
: aor. imperative + dat.
: aor. pass. imperative

: if; present general


condition ( + aor. subj., pres. ind.)
: comes; + 3rd sg. aor. subj.
, indefinite temporal clause
7 ;: from being deprived;
articular inf. (pf. pass. inf. )
8 : from; separation
: as; which sort a relative which is
a correlative with demosntrative adjective
(this sortwhich sort or
suchas); here an accusative predicate
: not everanyone;
+ fut. in a generic assertion (2705g)
9 : 3rd pl. , pf. but pres. in sense
c1 : since; + pple expresses alleged cause
: being able; being the sort to
2 : would be; potential 3rd sg. opt.
: than; gen. of comparison

Crito 44c2-d3

62

;
5 .
. , ,
; ,
,
.
d
. , ,
.

, : necessity, force, constraint, 5
, -, -: worthy of, deserving of, 4
-: to go away, depart, 7
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
: to be willing, wish, desire, 5
: from here, from this place, 9
-: to work out, accomplish, 1
, -: suitable, reasonable, good, 1
: to lead; consider, think, believe 4
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6
, -, -: blessed, happy, 2
c3 : considerof
more (importance); gen. of value (1373)
; than; as often following a comparative
4 : fut. pass. (not mid.)
: that
: yourself; intensive following
4 : inf. -
like italics or the stress in oral speech
5 : (though) we; gen. absolute is
concessive in force
6 : why...?
7 : best men
: whose (opinion); supply
: (it is) worthwhile; supply

: more, rather, 8
: there is a care for (dat.) for (gen.) 2
: now; as it is, 1
-: to be near, be present, be at hand 5
, -: more, greater, 4
-: to be eager, ready, willing, 2
, -, -: small, little, 2
, -, -: dear, friendly; friend, kin, 5
: to think, worry, give heed to, 3
, -, : thing, money, goods, 7
: as, just as, as if, 8
a corrective: no, rather on the contrary
: that they; i.e. these matters, acc.
subject of pf. pass. inf. ; from
, where we may prefer
: 3rd sg. aor. pass. subjunctive
; + indicates a supposed fact
in future time (2545)
d1 : , 2nd sg. present
: in fact; emphasizes the verb (D 215)
2 ...: present affairs
themselves are clear that;
: just now; deictic iota lends emphasis
: are able; see below
: superlative adj.
8

+ = to be able/possible + epexegetical (explantatory) infinitive


:
:

()

being able (being fit to)


are able (are fit to)
to be able (are fit to)
it is possible (it is fit to)
are able to (are fit to)
were able (were fit to)

44c1p. 61, 46a2p. 68 can mean fit, or sort and


44d2p. 62
+ inf. translates as able/possible.
44d6, d7, d8p. 63
The particle is a connective
46a7p. 69
that is untranslatable (2970).
48a11p. 78
sThis construction is employed
48c5p. 80
eight times in the Crito.

Crito 44d4-e1

63

, .
. , ,
,
, .
,
.
. , ,

10

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


-, -: senseless, foolish, silly, 2
-: to slander, dispute; pass over, 1
, -, -: capable, strong, possible, 2
: to work, labor, toil, 4
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 6
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6
, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5

, -, -: greatest, best, longest, 4


, , : this, this here 5
, -, -: not either, neither, 2
: to owe, ought, be bound, 1
: nearly, almost, just about 3
: chance upon, get; meet; happen, 7
, -: intelligent,wise, prudent, 2

d3 : if; protasis in a present general


condition ( + subj., present ind.)
: periphrastic 3rd sg. pf.
pass. subjunctive (pf. pass. pple + )
6 : Would that; + inf.;
, here with impf. , introduces
an unattainable wish (1780); shows
approval of what was said, i.e. yes, for
: to be able; inf.
7 : that they might have
been able (to accomplish); expresses
purpose usually with subj. or opt. but here
with past. ind. after an unfulfilled wish
showing that the purpose is unfulfilled
8 ; it would be good;
(holds, is disposed) + adv. is equivalent to

to be + adj.; + aor. ind. expresses past


(unrealized) potential; adv. is often
translated as well, hence the adj. good
: but as it is; often after contrary-tofact conditions and unfulfilled wishes
( ): supply verbs
9 (): supply 3rd pl. pres.
: aor. inf.
: this...(namely) whatever
10 (): + 3rd pl. aor.
subj. , indefinite relative clause;
+ pple is translated happen to
e1 : letbe; 3rd sg. imperative + neut.
pl. subject; ; (holds, is disposed) +
adv. is equivalent to to be + adj

Common Translations of
+ infinitive

+ adverb

to be able + inf.

p. 70
we are able to say
p. 87 I am able to reply
p. 106
I am able to say

to be + adjective
holds, is disposed

p. 63
p. 63
p. 71
p. 85
p. 89
p. 90

it would be good
letbe so
I am so
being right
they are good
it is so

Crito 44e2-45a5

64

. , ,
5

45

,
, ;
,

. .
. , ,
.

: otherwise, in another way, 4


: to force, compel, require, 2
-: to throw off, or away, 1
: truly (introduces yes/no question), 6
: to permit, allow, let be, suffer, 4
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-: to steal away, deceive, 1
: from here, from this place, 9
-: to go out, come out, 6
, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
: to risk, venture; it is likely, 3
, : risk, danger, venture, 1
, : larger, greater, 3

, : property; being; substance, 2


-: to provide, furnish, give, 2
: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 5
, : deed; matter, affair, trouble, 5
-: show forethought, care for,
regard for (gen) 1
-, - : false accuser, informer, 2
, -, -: long, much, many, great 1
: to save, keep, preserve 7
, -, -: such, 9
: to fear, be afraid 6
: to rejoice, be glad; fare well, 2
, -, : thing, money, goods, 7

e2 : aor. imperative
5 : eitheroror
...: You are not, are you?;
: aor. inf.
Smyth (2651) says anticipates
6 : aor. inf.
a no reply (Lat. num) but Denniston (48.
in addition to these things
50) claims merely suggests that
45a : (), 2nd sg. pres. mid.
the affirmative is difficult to accept
: dismiss; lit. allow (acc.)
: (), 2nd sg. pres.
to say farewell, aor. sg. imperative
3 : if; protasis in a present
2 : 1st pl. pres.
general condition ( + aor. subj., ind. )
: to run this risk; cognate acc.
4 ... : lestmake
inf.; epexegetical (explanatory) inf.
trouble; fearing clause (3rd pl. pres. subj.)
following
: (on the charge) that;
3 : 3rd sg. pres subj.
the sycophants charge; 3rd pl. aor.
(): (); acc. sg.
: aor. pass. subjunctive
: sg. mid. imperative
parallel to in fearing clause
: ; sg. act. imperative
Epexegetical (Explanatory) Infinitive
This near equivalent to an acc. of respect limits and clarifies the range of a noun or adjective.
being fit to save p. 61
right to risk p. 64

ready to spend p. 65
a desire to know p. 96

Crito 45a6-b6

65

.
.
, ;
, ,

,
, , .
, ,

: at the same time; along with (dat.), 2


: to use up, squander, spend, 3
-: grow weary; fail, hestitate, 1
, : silver (coin), piece of silver, 3
: to be willing, wish, desire, 5
, -, -: my, mine, 2
-: hither, thither, 3
: from here, from this place, 9
-: to lead out, help escape, 4
: near, at (gen.), to (acc), upon (dat.) 5
-: then, next, secondly, 2
, -, -: ready, prepared, at hand, 2
-, -: easily paid, cheap, paltry, 1
, -, -: Theban, 1
, -, -: enough, sufficient; capable 3

, : Cebes, 1
: to care about, be troubled, 2
: to bring, convey; travel, journey, 1
: to take, receive, catch, grasp 5
-: and not, 6
, : guest, foreigner, stranger, 4
: quite, entirely, exceedingly, 3
, : Simmias, 1
-, - : false accuser, informer, 2
: to save, keep, preserve 7
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
-: to be there, be ready, be available 1
: to fear, be afraid 6
, -, : thing, money, goods, 7
: so that, that, so as to, 7

a6 : (), sg. mid. imperative


7 : , crasis
: which; relative, neut. acc. sg. object
of nom. pl. aor. pple
: , 3rd pl. pres.
: 1st aor. inf.
: 2nd aor. inf. -
8 : , 2nd sg. -contract verb
9 : how cheap these informers
(are); proleptic use of which
should come after not before
: not at all; inner acc. of there
is no need or adverbial acc.
: there would be a need; potential
opt., governs a gen. of separation
: aor. inf.

b1 : for you; dat. of interest


2 : having some care for +
gen.; an inner acc.
: (), 2nd sg. pres. mid.
3 : (); crasis
: these (friends are); Cebes is talking
about the friends who are not now present
: epexegetical (explanatory) inf.
governed by
4 : 3rd sg. pf.
: for this very (purpose)
6 : just as I have been saying; the
present is pf. progressive in sense
: prohibitive subj. ( +
2nd sg. aor. subj) may be translated dont
tire or you should not tire + inf.

Crito 45b7-c8

66

, , ,
c


,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.

: love, show affection, be fond of, 1


-: to another place, to elsewhere, 3
-, : safety, security, assurance, 1
-: to come, arrive, 1
: to wish, be willing, desire, 8
-: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 8
, : court, 3
-, -: hard to manage, difficult, 1
: there, in that place, 5
-: to go out, come out, 6
: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
: to come or go, 6
, -, -: hated, hostile; subst. enemy 1
, : Thessaly, 7
: down from (gen), down (along) (acc.) 1
b7 : 1st aor. inf.
: and dont let it become;
negative 3rd sg. aor. imperative
8 : (namely) that; the entire nounclause is subject of
of nom. pl. aor. pple
: you would know; potential opt.
: what; , interrogative, inner acc. of
: what use you would make
: you would do with
yourself; employ yourself, () is
2nd sg. pres. opt. replacing an deliberative
subjunctive in secondary sequence
c1 : to whereever; indefinite
relative clause (an + 2nd sg. aor. subj.)
2 : 2nd sg. pres. mid. subj. in a general
present condition ( + subj., ind.)
: inf.

: to cause pain, distress, grief, 1


-, -, -: no one, nothing, 5
-: and not, 6
, : guest, foreigner, stranger, 4
: to which place, whither, 3
-: to provide, furnish, give, 2
-: in many places, 1
, : deed; matter, affair, trouble, 5
-: to give over, deliver, betray, 3
: to hasten, hurry, rush, be eager, 3
: to save, keep, preserve 7
, -, -: such, 9
: to use, employ, possess (+ dat.), 2
: so that, that, so as to, 7

3
4

6
7
8

: 3rd pl. pres.


: who; relative, note the accent
: considerof
great (importance); gen. of value (1373)
: so that; result, + acc. subj .+ inf.
: is acc. subj., , object
: of those.; partitive gen.
: in Thessaly
: and furthermore; and still
() : you think unjust
to; + inf. or you think (it is) not just to
: to attempt this matter
: aor. inf.
: (though) it being allowed to
be saved; acc. absolute.; neut. pple
: both would be eager;
aor. potential opt.
: in addition to these things

Crito 45c9-e1
,
,
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,

67

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


: to seize, take; mid. choose, 6
: to shame; mid. feel shame, 3
, -, -: brave, courageous, manly 1
, , : a man, 6
, : excellence, goodness, virtue, 4
, : life, 4
: through (gen) on account of (acc), 4
: I (for my part), 6
: to be accustomed, be in the habit 3
, - : what is likely, probable,
reasonable 2
-: to educate completely, 1
-: to bring up from childhood, rear 4
: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
-: to take care, care for (+ dat.) 5
, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
-: to leave behind, abandon, 2

, -, : a part, share, portion, 3


, : orphanhood, 1
, -, -: orphan, bereft of parents, 1
, -, -: the sort which, such as, 1
: to have gone, be gone, depart, 1
: to educate, teach 8
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
-: to give over, deliver, betray, 3
, -: easy, light; indifferent, lazy, 1
, -, -: your, yours 8
--: endure hardship with 1
, -, -: such, 9
: to bring up, raise, rear 2
: chance upon, get; meet; happen, 7
, -, : a son, child, 1
: above, on behalf of (gen); over (acc) 3
: to say, affirm, claim, 3
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8

c9 : children; see Apology 34d


: pres. inf.
: whom; relative
d1 : (though) it being
allowed; acc. absolute concessive in
sense.; neut. pple
: aor. inf. -
: (), 2nd sg. fut.
: nom. aor. pple
2 : on your part; acc. respect
(): whatever
(the children) happen to accomplish;
indefinite relative clause (+ aor. subj);
governs a complementary pple,
here missing;the antecedent is
: this they will

accomplish; i.e. they will fare in this way


in which they happen to fare fut.
: they will attain; + gen; i.e. hit
upon fut.
: such as; correlative
: it is customary; pf.
: to consider
...: bothand
: superlative adverb
: to choose; pres. mid. inf.
: would choose; potential opt.,
aor. mid.
: (you) accustomed to
claiming certainly; strengthens (D
245); evokes iterative/customary action

3
4
5
6
7

Crito 45e2-46a5

68


,
,
, ,

, 46 , ,
.
, ,
.
5

, : trial; contest, competition, 1


, -, -: shameful, disgraceful, 3
: at the same time; along with (dat.), 2
-, : unmanliness, cowardice, 2
, , : every, quite all, 4
: to deliberate, plan, take counsel, 6
, : plan, deliberation, advice, opinion, 3
-: to flee, get away from, escape 1
, : court, 3
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 9
, -, -: capable, strong, possible, 2
: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
-: to go in, enter, 2
-, : entrance, 1
e2 : lest the entire matter may seem; 3rd
sg. aor. subj. in a fearing clause
: because of; dat. of
cause
: pf. pass. inf.
3 ......: bothandand
: legal case
: when (the case) entered
4 : (though) it being possible
not to entire (the case); acc. abs. is
concessive in force; neut. pple
: the trial
: see line 3 parallel above
5 : finally; adverbial acc.
: this; deictic iota gives emphasis
6 : dat. cause, see line 2
46a : (namely) that we seem; in

, -, -: our, ours, 6
, : wickedness, cowardice, 1
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6
, -, : derision, ridicule, 1
: more, rather, 8
, , : small, little; trifle, 1
, : profit, benefit, help, advantage 2
, : deed; matter, affair, trouble, 5
, - : action, deed; business, 1
: to save, keep, preserve 7
, -, -: last, 1
, : time; season, period of time, 1
: as, just as, as if, 8

4
5

apposition to ; is acc. subject


: who; antecedent
: (though) it being possible;
acc. abs.; neuter. sg. pres. pple
: if we were good for anything at all;
lit. if our use was even something small,
even is adverbial; is subjective
gen. of (if we profited Socrates)
: in respect to; acc. respect
: see (to it) that; fearing clause
with 3rd sg. pres. subj. (2220)
...: (these things) also be shameful;
supply neuter pl. subject for 3rd sg. verb
: sg. mid. imperative
: (it is) time; infinitives are subject
: and there is; supply verb

Crito 46a6-b6
,
, .
, , .
. ,

69

,
.


.

-, : unable incapable impossible 1


: always, forever, in every case, 1
: otherwise, in another way, 4
, -, -: worthy of, deserving of (gen) 4
, -, -: best, 2
: either...or; whether...or, 8
, -, -: my, mine, 2
-: to approach, attack, assault, 3
: to reckon, calculate, count, 1
, : larger, greater, 3
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 6
: in no way, not at all, 1
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 5
, , : a night, 2

, -, : erectness, upright, 1
, -, -: as much or as; all who, 4
-: no more, no longer, no further, 1
-: to wait for, await, 1
, -: to be done, must be done, 2
-, : eagerness, zeal, willingness, 1
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
, -, -: such, 9
, -, -: so great, so many, 2
, : a manner, way; turn, direction, 5
, -, -: dear, friendly; friend, kin, 5
, -, -: difficult, hard, harmful, 4
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8

a6 -: coming; pple -
: during; gen. of time within
: pf. pass. inf.
7 : supply verb
(): (it is) possible; is the sort,
neut. sg., + is an idiom
: in every way; dat. manner
8 : sg. mid. imperative
: ; sg. act. imperative
b1 : your eagerness (would be);
supply , potential opt. to complete
this future less vivid ( opt., opt.)
2 : (it) should be; 3rd sg. opt. , protasis
of the future less vivid conditions
: by as much much(it
is)by so much(it would be); relative
and demonstrative, correlatives; both dat.
of degree of difference with comparatives
: relative clause; supply verb

: predicate; supply linking


verb and as subject
: (we) must do these things; (it
is) to be done, verbal adj. + suggests
necessity or obligation; often with dat. of
agent (supply ); here, the construction
is impersonal and takes an acc. obj. (2152)
: since I (am); causal in sense
: not now for
the first time but in fact always;
is adverbial acc.; is adverbial
: so as to obey; + dat.
which sort (is) to obey, relative;
epexegetical (explanatory) mid. inf.
: of my own; partitive gen.
: than;
: whatever; + subj. in an
indefinite relative clause

Crito 46b7-c8

70

,
, ,
c


,
, -

,
. ;
,
. ,

-: to take up, find, resume, 1


, -, : a carrying or taking off, 1
, -: better, 4
, : a binding, bond, fetter, 1
: to be able, can, be capable, 3
, -, : power, force, capacity 1
: each time, on each occasion, 3
-: to throw out of, cast away, 1
-: before, former; earlier, 2
: when, after, since, because, 7
-: to send to or against, 1
: well, 5
, : death, 2
, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5
, -, -: moderate; enough; modest 1
: to frighten, scare, terrify, 1
, , : this, this here 5
b7 : aor. inf.
8 : misfortune
: 3rd sg. pf.
: just about, almost
c1 : the same (ones); as often
when is attributive (follows article)
: just as; which very ones (I
honored); relative, supply form of
: comparative adverb
2 : than which; gen. of comparison
: better things; (); acc. pl.
: we are able; common idiom for
+ inf.; 1st pl. subj. in mixed condition
: present (time); pple -
: sg. imperative
3 : NOT;a strong denial + fut. (2755)

: to know, 7
, -, -: like, resembling, similar, 2
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
-: to be near, be present, be at hand 5
, -: more, greater, 4
: to revere, venerate, honor 1
, -, -: before, in front of; earlier 4
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
: how? in what way?, 5
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
-: yield to, concede to (dat), 1
: nearly, almost, just about 3
: to honour, value, esteem, 5
, : chance, luck, fortune, success, 3
, -, : thing, money, goods, 7
: as, just as, as if, 8

5
6

: more; (); acc. neuter pl.


inner acc. give us more frights
: than (those); gen. of
comparison; see line 2 above, -
: fem. pple modifies
: acc. pl. -
: should we consider; fut.
less vivid should, would ( opt, + opt)
: superlative adverb
: them; neuter acc. pl.
: we should; aor. opt. see 6
of the future less vivid conditions
: you have been saying; the present
is pf. progressive in sense
: is left untranslated
: well

Crito 46d1-e1
,
; ,

, ;
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
, .

71
d

: truly, 2
, -, -: different, of another sort, 1
: otherwise, in another way, 4
, : human being, 10
-: to die off, perish, 6
: to think, imagine, suppose, 1
: to permit, allow, let be, suffer, 4
: I (for my part), 6
: each time, on each occasion, 3
: for the sake of, because of, for (+gen) 2
: when, after, since, because, 7
-: to desire, long for, 2
-: to look upon, examine, regard, 1
-, -, -: quite clear, evident 1

, -, -: common, ordinary; public, 4


: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 6
, : mind, intention, attention, thought, 2
-: just now, 2
, : childish play, game, 1
: until, before, 4
-: to offer, provide; direct 2
: somehow, in any way, 1
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9
, : nonsense, silly talk, foolery, 1
: to rejoice, be glad; fare well, 2
: in this way, so, thus, 3
: as, just as, as if, 8

d1 : to someto others;
dat. of compound verb
: partitive gen. with
2 : previouslybut now
...: that it is necessary that;
+ acc. + inf., subject of
: it was said; inf. is subject
: it seems, then; particle is inferential
4 : poorly; otherwise, in contrast to
it means not well or poorly
e2 : for the sake of (idle)
speech; i.e. Socrates complains that they
should not treat the earlier arguments as
something said but not followed
: it was; impf.
4 : truly
5 : aor. inf. -,
which takes its non-present tenses from the
verb

: in common
: at all; acc. extent of degree with adj.
6 : fut. (fut. stem )
: (holds, is disposed) + adv. is
often translated as to be + adjective
: eitheror
: (it is) the same; a predicate
7 : will we dismiss; lit.
allow (acc.) to say farewell, 1st pl. aor.
: fut. mid. + dat.
8 : I suppose; crasis,
: by those thinking; gen. of agent
: to say something (important)
9 : among the opinions which
e1 : it was necessary; opt. ind. discourse
replaces an indicative in secondary seq.
: to consider (acc)
of great (importance); gen. of value (1373)

Crito 46e2-47a8

72

, , ;
, , 47

, -


,
, , ; ;
;
. .
. , ;
. .

, -, -: of a human, human 1
-: to die off, perish, 6
: tomorrow, 2
: outside; out of, far from (+ gen.) 1
, : a god, divinity, 4
: sufficiently, adequately 2
: to be about to, intend to, 2
: yes, yea, 2
, -, -: as much or as; all who, 4

: therefore, then, accordingly, 4


-: strike aside, mislead, 1
-: to be near, be present, be at hand 5
, -, -: bad, evil; wicked, 2
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
-, : misfortune, mishap, event, 3
: to honour, value, esteem, 5
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8
, -, -: good, useful, worthy, 2

e2 : subject, is pass. inf.


: by the gods!; from the gods
in exclamation rather than gen. agent
3 : so far as (they are)
human affairs at least; is adverbial,
is neuter plural
: 2nd sg. pres. , is predicative
: of going to: + fut. inf. an
articular infinitive governdd by
+ acc. + inf., subject of
47a : would lead astray..;
strike aside, potential opt.
: fem. pple

2
3
4

5
7

: ; sg. imperative
: just; emphasizing the imperative
: inf. -contract
: someothers;
: of someof others;

: 2nd sg. pres.


: deictic iota (-) adds emphasis
: well
: 3rd sg. pass. with neut. pl. subject
: (is it necessary) to honor; add
, : i.e.

Types of Conditions

Protasis (if-clause)

Simple Present, Simple Past

+ any indicative

Present General (Indefinite)

Past General (Indefinite)

Apodosis (then-clause)

any indicative
, .
If you do this, you do well.
+ subjunctive (if ever)
present indicative
, .
If (ever) you do this, you do well.
+ optative (if ever)
past indicative
, .
If (ever) you did this, you did well.

Crito 47a10-b6
. ,
;
. ;
. , ;

,
;
. .
.

10 , : predicates; add verb


13 : come now!; carry on now,
imperative often used to draw attention
: were said; iterative impf., easier
to express in the active: we used to say
b1 : is left untranslated
: to the; dat. object of the

Future Less Vivid

Present Contrary-to-Fact

Past Contrary-to-Fact

10

, -, -: bad, evil; wicked, 2


-: to offer, provide; direct 2
: how? in what way?, 5
, -, -: such, 9
: chance upon, get; meet; happen, 7
: to bear, carry, bring, endure, 6
: to fear, be afraid 6
, -: intelligent,wise, prudent, 2
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8
, -, -: good, useful, worthy, 2
, : blame, censure, 2

, , : a man, 6
: to welcome, embrace, 1
-, -: senseless, foolish, silly, 2
: again, once more; further, moreover, 3
: to train naked, exercise 1
, -, -: that, those, 9
, : praise, approval, 3
, : physician, doctor, 1
, -, -: alone, only, solitary, 2
, : mind, thought, reason, attention, 5
: therefore, then, accordingly, 4
-, : trainer, 1

Future More Vivid

73

2
3
4

compound verb
: i.e. pay attention
: of one; gen. sg.
: happen to be; + 3rd sg.
pres. subj. in an indefinite relative clause;
is a complementary pple, nom. sg.
: of one; gen. sg.

+ subjunctive

future indicative
, .
If you do this, you will do well.

+ optative (should)

+ optative (would)
, .
If you should do this, you would do well.
+ impf. ind. (were)
+ impf. ind. (would)
, .
If you were doing this, you would be doing well.
+ aor. ind. (had)

+ aor. ind (would have)


, .
If you had done this, you would have done well.

Crito 47b7-c4

74

.
. .
.
10 , ,
, .
. .
c
. .
, [] , ;
. ;
: truly (introduces yes/no question), 6
-: to disobey, be disobedient, 2
-: to dishonor, slight, 1
, -: to be trained, 1
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
, -: to be eaten, must be eaten 2
, : praise, approval, 3
-: to profess knowledge; give ear, feel 5
-: to stand near or over, impose, 2

, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6


: more, rather, 8
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 5
, -: to be drunk, must be drunk, 1
, -: to be done, must be done, 2
: how? in what way?, 5
-, -, -: all together, all at once 3
: to honour, value, esteem, 5

b8 : quite clearly; (it is) quite clear


9 : in this way; dat. of manner
: by him; dat. of agent with verbal
adjective (see below)
: see below
: emphasizes preceding word
10 : in whichever way; relative, dat. of
manner correlative with
: it seems best; 3rd sg. subj. in an
indefinite relative clause

: to the one; dat. sg.


: in apposition to
: rather than
11 : in whichever way (it seems best)
12 : are (the case); sg. with neut. pl. subj.
c1 : well!; particle from opt. let it be
3 : fut.
4 : how could he not?;
expresses impossibility and surprise

Verbal Adjectives Ending in -, -, -


Along with and a dative of agent, these verbal adjectives express necessity or obligation.
Often the construction is impersonal, and the form of or the dative is omitted. In
translation, we often make the dative of agent the subject of an active verb. (2149-2152, 944)
p. 69
p. 74
p. 74
p. 74
p. 74
p. 77
p. 79
p. 80

it is to be done by us we must/ought to do

he must do
he must train
he must eat
he must drink
we must consider
we must consider
we must examine

p. 82
p. 86 twice
p. 86
p. 92 twice
p. 92
p. 72
p. 92

we must wrong
we must consider
he must deceive
you must deceive
you must yield
you must withdrawn
you must abandoned

Crito 47c5-d3

75

. , ,
;
. .
. . , , ,
,
,
,
,
,

10

; , , -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


-, -: unrighteous, unjust, 5
, -, -: shameful, disgraceful, 3
: to shame; mid. feel shame, 3
: to follow (dat) 1
-: to disobey, be disobedient, 2
, : plan, deliberation, advice, opinion, 3
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
-: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 8
-: to go through, pass through, 2
-: to destroy, kill, ruin utterly, 2
-: to profess knowledge; give ear, feel 5

: to follow, accompany, escort 1


: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 6
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6
, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5
: more, rather, 8
: therefore, then, accordingly, 4
: whither? to where?, 1
-, -, -: all together, all at once 3
, -, : the body 4
: to tend, extend, direct; stretch, spread 1
: to fear, be afraid 6

c5 : onto what (of) part of the one


disobeying; is partitive, cf. 46b5
7 : (it is) clear that; or clearly
: 3rd sg. pres. -
8 : well
: and in other matters; crasis,
is neuter pl. acc. of respect
9 : so thatmay not; negative
purpose clause; subjunctive -

: in particular; and in fact also


11 : which; relative pronoun
: no need to translate
: dat. obj. of pres. inf.
d1 : it; i.e. fem. sg.
: that of one; assume
2 : whom; relative, object of infinitives
3 : whom; dat. object of

Common Constructions with


Indefinite (or General) Clauses

relative
temporal
conditional

, , + + subj.
, , + subj.
+ subj.

whatever she does...


whenever she does
if ever she does

so that (in order that)...

she would have done

Potential Optative

, , + subj.
Fearing Clauses

+ past indicative

Crito 47d4-e4

76

,
. ;
. , .
. ,
,
,
; ;
. .
.
;

-, -: unrighteous, unjust, 5
: truly (introduces yes/no question), 6
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
, -: better, 4
, -: to be lived, worth living, 3
-: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 8
-: to destroy, kill, ruin utterly, 2
: I (for my part), 6
, -, -: that, those, 9
-: to profess knowledge; give ear, feel 5

: maltreat, outrage, maim 1


: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 6
, -, -: wretched, worthless, 1
: yes, yea, 2
, -: sickly, diseased, unsound, 1
: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 5
, -, : the body 4
, -, -: sound, healthy, wholesome 1
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9
: to bear, carry, bring, endure, 6

d4 : future
: that which
: by the right, just; dat. means
5 : was made; is predicate
: by the wrong, unjust; means
: impf. pass. -
6 :
7 : come now!; carry on now, an
imperative often used to draw attention
7 : if we destroy; aor. subj.
- in a present general condition
(+ subj., pres. ind.)

... : the
thing becoming.but being corrupted
...: because of; gen. of cause
9 : if not; pple is conditional
is sense; hence instead of (2728)
: untranslated, begins yes/no question
: impf. pass. -
e1 : with it being
corrupted; gen. abs., pf. pass. pple
: deictic iota lends extra emphasis
3 : , as above
4 : pf. pass. pple

Common Uses of Subjunctive in Independent Clauses


Hortatory (1st pl. subj.)

Let us attempt 48c2 p. 79


let us examine 48d8 p. 81

let us begin
let us do

Prohibitive ( + aor. subj.)

do not tire! / You should not tire!


do not let Crito persuade!

Deliberative (subj. in direct question)

What are we to do? 48d7 p. 81

49d6 p. 85
54e1 p. 106

45b6 p. 65
54c8-d1 p. 105

What are we to say? 48d7 p. 98

Crito 47e5-48a6

77

. .
. ,
, ; ,
, ;
. .
. ;
. .
. , ,
,

48

-, : wrong-doing, injustice, 1
-, -: unrighteous, unjust, 5
, -, -: best, 2
, -: to be lived, worth living, 3
-: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 8
, : justice, righteousness, 3
, -, -: that, those, 9
-: to profess knowledge; give ear, feel 5
: I will say or speak, 7
: to lead; consider, think, believe 4
, -, -: our, ours, 6

: maltreat, outrage, maim 1


: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 6
: to profit, benefit, help, assist
: in no way, not at all, 6
: quite, entirely, exceedingly, 3
: ever, at some time, once, 3
, -, : the body 4
, -, -: honored, worthy, 2
, -, -: trivial, petty, worthless, 2
, -: to be considered, 1

e6 : with; + gen.
:
: supply
: pf. pass. pple with
7 : which; dat. obj. of ,
: the unjust, wrong; substantive
: the just, the right
: pred. adjective after
8 : than; gen. comparison
: acc. subj. of , inf. of
: which;

48a : with regard to which


3 : in contrast to
4 : yes, far (more honorable);
is adverbial acc. or acc. extent of degree,
supply
5 : not at all; exceedingly not
: by us; dat. of agent with verbal adj.
: it must be considered;
verbal adj. + missing expresses
necessity or obligation 47b9
6 : 3rd pl (used as fut. )

Common Uses of the Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses


Indefinite (or General) Clauses

relative
temporal
conditional

, , + + subj.
, , + subj.
+ subj.

whatever she does...


whenever she does
if ever she does

Purpose Clause

, , + subj.

so that (in order that)...

Fearing Clause

+ subj.

lest she does

Crito 48a7-b4

78

10

, .
,

. ,
, .
. , .
.
. , ,

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


-, -: unrighteous, unjust, 5
, : truth, 3
, -: true, 6
-: to kill, slay, 2
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
-: to go through, pass, 2
: I (for my part), 6
, -, -: opposite, contrary, 1
-: to bring in, introduce, explain, 2

, -, -: wonderful, marvelous, 1
, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5
, , : this, this here 5
, -, -: like, resembling, similar, 2
: rightly, correctly, 4
, -, -: before, in front of; earlier 4
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
: to think, worry, give heed to, 2
, -, -: to be considered 1
: so that, that, so as to, 7

a7 : the one
: itself; intensive
: at first; adverbial acc.
8 : in this way; dat. of manner
: - 2nd sg. pres. mid.
: gen. object of
9 : that it is necessary; ind. discourse
following pple
10 : but of course; in contrast
(D. 394); suggest positive certainty
: one might say; potential
3rd sg. pres. opt.
11 : they are able; are the sort,

neut. sg., + (3rd pl.) is idiom


: pres. inf.
b1 : (are) quite clear; supply
: also; adverbial
: for one would say (this);
Crito agrees by repeating Socrates words
2 : the truth; , truth things
3 : which; relative
: 1st pl. pf. -
4 : same as; (as) often
follows adjs. of likeness (1501)
: comparative adverb

Optatives may Replace Subjunctives in Subordinate Clauses


In secondary sequence an optative may replace a subj. (with/out ) in a subordinate clause.
Indefinite
subjunctive
optative
relative
temporal
conditional

whatever she did


whenever she did
if ever she did

Purpose

so that she might do

Fearing

lest she (might) do

Crito 48b5-c2

79

, .
. .
. ,
;
. .
. ,

,
, , .

10

, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 7
: again, once more; further, moreover, 3
-: to send forth; release, give up, 1
: justly, rightly, lawfully, fairly 3
: to permit, allow, let be, suffer, 4
: from here, from this place, 9
-: to go out, come out, 6
: well, 5
: to live, 7

: to stay, remain, abide, 5


: therefore, then, accordingly, 4
: to try, attempt, endeavor, 3
, -, -: most, greatest, 3
, -: to be made or done 5
, -: to be considered, 2
, -, : consideration, speculation, 2
: to look at, examine, consider, 9

11 : the (things) agreed on


: we must examine; (it is) to be
examined (by us); verbal adj., add
: leave untranslated
12 : (it is) right, (it is) just; add verb
: inf. -
: if the Athenian
do not...; gen. absolute, the indicates it
is conditional in sense; pres. pple -
c1 : pres. subj. in a mixed condition
2 : let us; hortatory subjunctive
: let us let it be; hortatory subj.
: which; is the antecedent
: as for the considerations; in
respect to acc. of respect

: ; sg. imperative
: whether
: (it) abides(namely) that
: to live; articular infinitive, , is
acc. object of impersonal
: of the greatest
(importance); gen. of value
: we must consider; (it is) to be
considered (by us); verbal adj., add
...() : that to (live).is the
same; lit. to livethat it is the same, the
articular infinitive (add ) is the subject;
an example of prolepsis (anticipation): in
this case the subject of is outside
the clause;
: abides; the clause is subject

6
8

Present
st

, 37, 39, : to say, claim


Imperfect
Subjunctive
28-29,40-1


2nd 18, 45
*
3rd () ()6, 29-30

Inf.

*or 43

Optative
44



24 42

superscript denotes page number

Crito 48c3-d4

80

,
, ,
, ,
, . ,

, ,
d ,
,
,

-, -: unrighteous, unjust, 5
: to seize, take; mid. choose, 6
, : truth, 3
: truly, 2
-: to bring back to life, 1
, - : expenditure, outlay, 1
-: to die off, perish, 6
-: to kill, slay, 2
: from here, from this place, 9
-: to lead out, help escape, 4
: when, after, since, because, 7
: to work, labor, do (acc) to (acc), 4
, : mind, thought, reason, attention, 5

-: just now, 2
: along with, with, together (+ gen.) 1
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
-: to abide, remain, 2
, -, -: easy, ready, 2
, - : speculation, question, 1
, -: to be considered, 2
: to end, complete, fulfill; pay, 1
, : nourishment, food; upbringing 2
-: to take into account, 1
, , : favor, gratitude, thanks, 1
, -, : thing, money, goods, 7

c4 ...: perhaps these are the speculations;


+ subjunctive in main clause (here, 3rd
sg. subj. ) expresses doubtful assertion
(1801), a construction used mainly by
Plato and twice more below
: truly; thus truly
5 : bringing (them)
back to life; + pple is equivalent here to
a + past ind. (past potential): who
would bring them back again
: + (here impf.) is
an idiom equivalent to to be able
6 : ; dat.
: by us; dat. agent with verbal adj.
: wins out; overtakes or takes over
7 .. : perhaps we must examine;
+ subjunctive in main clause (here, 3rd
sg. subj. ) expresses doubtful assertion;

perhaps it is to be examined; verbal adj.


+ expressing objligation + dat. agent
: than; following
: leave untranslated
8 : paying
d1 : to these; dat.
pl. fut. pple (going to) -
: acc. obj. of
2 : in truth; adverbial
3 : even if; crasis, + pres. subj.
in a present general condition
: appear to; + pple
...: perhaps it is necessary not;
+ subjunctive in main clause (here, 3rd
sg. subj. ) expresses doubtful assertion
(1801); is a doubtful assertaion and
, as above, is a negative negation
4 : bothand; following

Crito 48d5-49a2
, .
. , ,
.

81
5

. , , , , ,
, ,
,
,
.
,
.

49

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 4
, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 7
, , : unwilling, 2
-: to reply; speak against, gainsay 3
-: to go away, depart, 7
-: to answer, reply, 5
, : a beginning; rule, office, 2
: to do, 2
: from here, from this place, 9
: to ask, inquire, question, 4
: already, now, at this time, 4
, : silence, quiet, stillness, rest, 2

: sufficiently, adequately 2
, -, -: common, ordinary; public, 4
, -, -: blessed, happy, 2
: especially, in particular, 5
-, -: whosoever, whatsoever, 2
: to stop, make cease, 1
: to try, attempt, endeavor, 3
: in some way, somehow, 2
: many times, often, frequently, 4
: before, in front; in place of (+ gen.), 3
, -, : consideration, speculation, 2
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8

d5 : keeping
: whatsoever
: instead of; + articular infinitive
6 : well
: , sg. imperative
7 : are we to do; deliberative subj.
: let us; hortatory subjunctive
8 : in common; dat. of manners
: you are able
e1 : gen. absolute
: fut. mid.
2 : 1st aor. imperative,
: the same; attributive position
3 : (namely) that; apposition to
: although; gen.
abs. concessive in sense
: inf. -
4 : consider of great

(importance); gen. of value (1373)


: nom. sg. aor. pple
: governed by
5 (): if...; gen. abs. (supply
), suggests it is conditional in sense
: just see, see now; , sg.
imperative, is emphatic (D 217)
: whether the beginning;
lit. the beginning, whether (it) an
example of prolepsis: make the acc. the
subject within the conditional
: to you; dat. reference
49a : (), 2nd sg. mid imperative
: the thing; pass. pple
: in whatever way; relative, dat. manner
: 2nd sg. pres. subj. + in a
general relative clause

Crito 49a3-b2

82

. .
. ,
;
,
; [ ]

, , ,

10

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


, -: to be wronged, 2
, -, -: one another, 3
, , : a man, 6
: just, exactly, 2
-: to converse with, discuss 2
-: particularly, especially, 3
-: to pour out, cast out, 1
, -, -: that, those, 9
, , : willing, intentionally, 2
-: before, former; earlier, 2
, -, : old man; elder, 2
, : day, 2
, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5
: escape notice of, act unnoticed 2
: more, rather, 8
a3 : future
: in; dat. of manner
: 1st pl. pres.
4 : (we) unwilling; agrees with
missing accusative subject
: we must do wrong; is
to be wronged; verbal adj. + (inf.) in
ind. discourse
: eitheror
5 . : in some
waysin other ways; dat. of manner
6 : articular subject; add
: just as, as
: with us, by us; dat. of assocation
7 : in former times
: 3rd. sg. aor. pass.
8 : by us; dat. of assocation governed by

, , : this, this here 5


-, -: few, little, small, 4
-, : agreement, 6
: in no way, not at all, 6
: long ago, formerly, of old, 5
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
: to try, attempt, endeavor, 3
: many times, often, frequently, 4
: before, 2
, : eagerness, seriousness, haste, 1
, -, -: of such an age, so old1
: at that time, then, 3
, : a manner, way; turn, direction, 5
, : time, 3
: as, just as, as if, 8

: periphrastic pf. pass.


(pf. pass. pple -+ 3rd pl. pres )
10 : (we) old men
of this age; assume 1st pl. subject
: with one another
: earnestly, seriously; in earnest,
in seriousness dat. of manner
b1 : 1st pl aor,
: that wediffer; ind.
discourse
: from; gen. of comparison
: not at all; inner acc. no difference
2 : more than anything;
more than everything gen. comparison
: it is; holds + adv. is often translated
as to be + adjective
9

Crito 49b3-c1

83

,
,

; ;
. .
. .
. .
. ,
, .
. .

10

, -, -: shameful, disgraceful, 3
-: to commit injustice in return, 4
: certainly, to be sure, of course 1
: either...or; whether...or, 8
: when, after, since, because, 7
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6
, , : this, this here 5

: nevertheless, however, yet, 3


: in no way, not at all, 6
, -: mild, gentle, soft, 2
, : a manner, way; turn, direction, 5
: chance upon, get; meet; happen, 7
, -, -: difficult, hard, harmful, 4

b3 : 3rd pl. pres.


: that these; gen. of comparison
: neuter pl. comparative
: even; adverbal
: neuter pl. comparative
4 : articular subject
5 ...: bothand
: happen to be; neut. sg.
complementary pple.
: in; dat. of manner

6
9

: 1st pl. pres.


: certainly not; expresses approval
of the negation in the previous statement
10 : (one) being wronged; acc.
subject of
: supply
: as
c1 : no, it appears; as above,
expresses approval of previous negation

Cases that Accompany Comparative Adjectives (1063-93)


Positive
, ,
difficult

Comparative
, ,
more difficult

Superlative
, ,
most difficult

Gen. of Comparison can replace (than) + object. Supply than in translation. (1431)
.
It is necessary to suffer more difficult things than these.
Dat. of Degree of Difference is the amount by which the two groups in the comparison
differ. (1513)
...
It is necessary to suffer much more difficult things
Acc. of Extent of Degree, a type of adverbial acc., can replace the dative. (1514,-86,1609)
...
It is necessary to suffer much more difficult things

Crito 49c2-d1

84

10

. ; , , ;
. , .
. ; ,
, ;
. .
.
.
. .
.
, . ,
, ,

, -: true, 6
-: to commit injustice in return, 4
-: to do wrong in return, 2
-: perhaps, I suppose, of course, 1
-: to differ, surpass, be superior to 2
-: to consent (to ones harm) 1
-: to do wrong, do mischief, 1

: poorly, badly, 7
: how, in what way; in order that, that 3
-, -: whosoever, whatsoever, 2
: in no way, not at all, 6
: beside, alongside, in respect to, 6
: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 5
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9

c2 : Well, what then?; then is


inferential not emphatic (2846);
similar to (2848, D 263)
4 : well, what?, What (now)?
: this acc.-infinitive is
subject of () below
: modifies missing acc. subj.
(supply one as subject of the inf.)
5 : 3rd pl. pres.
: (is it) right? (is it) just?
7 ...: to treat; articular inf., a
common translation for when
governed by an adverb

: from; articular inf., here a


gen. of comparison governed by
9 : the truth; , true things
10 : to treat; see note 7 above
11 : not even if; is a contracted
form of + 3rd sg. pres. subj. in a
present general condition
: whatsoever; neut. acc.
: by, at the hands of; gen. of agent
: , sg. imperative
d1 : thatnot; clause of effort often
governs fut. ind. but here a pres. subj.
: contrary to opinion

Translating Participles and Absolutes


Participles and absolutes may be translated a variety of ways depending on their use in the
sentence. If they describe the circumstances of the main action, they are circumstantial in sense;
if they describe the causes, causal in sense, etc. Below are the main categories for translation:
sense of pple or absolute

(49c4)

(48e1)

Circumstantial
Causal
Concessive/Adversative
Conditional

(when/while) suffering badly


(since/because) suffering badly
(although) suffering badly
(if) suffering badly

(when/while) I am talking
(since) I am talking
(although) I am talking
(if) I am talking

Crito 49d2-e2

85

.
, ,
.
,
, ;
,
, .

, -, -: one another, 3
: to fend off, mid. defend oneself, 1
, : necessity, force, constraint, 5
-: to commit injustice in return, 4
-: to act in return, in retaliation, 1
, : a beginning; rule, office, 2
: to begin; to rule, be leader of, 2
-: to remove; make revolt, 1
, : deliberation, purpose, 1
: to deliberate, plan, take counsel, 6
, : plan, deliberation, advice, opinion, 3
: to teach, instruct, 1
-: to abide in, remain, 5
: from here, from there, 1

: well, 5
: poorly, badly, 7
-: think down on, disdain (gen) 1
, -, -: common, ordinary; public, 4
: to have a share of, partake in 2
: very, very much, exceedingly, 1
: to know, 7
-, -: few, little, small, 4
: rightly, correctly, 4
-: not ever, never, 1
: long ago, formerly, of old, 5
: in some way, somehow, 2
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
-: to seem good also, 2

d2 : to some few; dat. reference


: bothseems (good); pl. subject
: to whom; antecedent
: pf. mid.
3 : dat. of possession: to these there
is or these have
4 : (it is) necessary; supply verb
: acc. subject of
: verbs of accusing and
condemnation govern gen. of person
5 : , sg. imperative
: just; often emphasizes an imperative
: and you (consider) very
well; assume again for emphasis
: whether; ind. question
6 : let us; hortatory subjunctive
7 : that; governed by

. . ()
: it is right; gen. abs. (the
other part is a series of articular infs.);
(holds) + adv. is translated as to be + adj.
8 (): supply to
make the articular inf. parallel to the others
: modifies missing acc.
subject of
: by; pple is causal in sense
9 : do you disagree?; do you
revolt from 2nd sg. mid. pres.
: the beginning; i.e. of the
examination; partitive gen.
e1 ...: bothand
: in; dative of manner
: imperative
: the previous (arguments);
dat. of compound verb -

Crito 49e3-50a3

86

, .
. .
5

50

. ,

;
. .
.
.
,
, ; ;

: to look at, gaze at, observe, 1


: to hear, listen to, 8
-: to go away, depart, 7
: again, once more; further, moreover, 3
-: to abide in, remain, 5
: from here, from this place, 9
, -: to be deceived, 1
: to ask, inquire, question, 4

, -, -: least; not at all 3


: poorly, badly, 7
: more, rather, 8
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 6
, -: to be made or done 5
: before, 2
-: to seem good also, 2

e3 : the next thing; the one after


4 : well; in assent, often short in Plato
and repeating words (2784a, D 16, 20)
: come now; but often before an
imperative it suggests impatience (2784c).
5 : now; temporal (2845)
: see above
: but rather
6 : .or?; leave
untranslated
: whichever; general relative clause
(relative + + subjunctive, here aor.)
: with someone; indefinite, alternative
to dat. sg. , here dat. of association
: acc. neut. pl. pple
6 : must he consider; (is it) to be
considered (by him); verbal adj. add
7 : must he deceive; (is it) to
be deceived (by him); verbal adj. +

50a : , sg. imperative -contract


: nom. pl. pres. pple
: if not persuading; aor.
; indicates the pple is conditional
2 : whetheror
: some; indefinite
: we treat; pres.
: and what is more; and in
respect to these things acc. of respect
3 ( ): (those)
whom we least ought to treat badly; a
clarification of above; is a
superlative adverb
: (those things) which; an acc. plural
(see 49e6); acc. neut. pl. relative attracted
into the dat. of the missing antecedent
4 : dat. pl. pple modifies
and should likewise be acc. see line 3
above and 49e6

vs. : often confused, the voice will distinguish these two verbs.
st

1
2nd
3rd

I ask

I will say occurs once (50a8).

, 7 times, is treated as

the future of the verb

Crito 50a4-b5
. , ,
.
. .
, ,

, , ;

;
,

; , ,

87

-: to overturn, upset, run back, 1


-: to run away, flee, escape, 4
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
-: to answer, reply, 5
-, -: without authority or power, 1
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 9
-: to think, consider, intend, 1
-: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 8
: aor., said, spoke, 8
: either...or; whether...or, 8
, -, -: that, those, 9
: from here, from this place, 9
-: to have in mind, consider, 1
-: to stand near or over, impose, 2
: I will say or speak, 7
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
: to ask, enquire, question, 1

: to come or go, 6
: to ask, inquire, question, 4
, -, : a private citizen, 1
: to be strong, powerful, 1
, -, -: common, ordinary; public, 4
: to be about to, intend to, 2
, -, : a part, share, portion, 3
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 5
, : mind, thought, reason, attention, 5
: to name, call by name, 1
: how, in what way; in order that, that 3
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
, -, -: your, yours 8
-, -, -: all together, all at once 3
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9
: in this way, so, thus, 3

a4 : I am able; as often with an infinitive


: regarding what; regarding (that)
which the antecedent is missing
: , 2nd sg. -contract
6 : , sg. imperative
: dat. pl. pple pple
: for us; dat. interest or dat. of
compound verb : over us
: eitheror
7 : or however one ought
call it; aor.
: nom. pl. aor. pple
8 : the common(wealth)
: standing over; pple, common
way in Homer of depicting the gods who

appeared to humans in dreams and visions


: should; opt. , protasis in
future less vivid condition ( opt, opt)
: sg. imperative
9 : in mind; dat. sg.
: is it anything else than?; (2652)
: by;dat. of means
b1 : which; relative, dat. of compound
: (), 2nd sg. pres.
: aor. inf.
2 : on your part; acc. respect
: to be able; to be the sort
3 : in which
4 : the decisions made
5 : 1st pl. ( fut. )

Crito 50b6-c7

88

; ,
, .
c
; ;
. , .
5

.


,

,
,
;
,

: otherwise, in another way, 4


-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
: give judgment, pass judgment, 4
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 9
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-: to abide in, remain, 5
: I will say or speak, 7
, : Zeus, 2
: truly, in truth (introducing a question) 1
: to wonder, marvel, be astonished, 4
: to; i.e. in response to
: one would be able, one could;
3rd sg. potential opt. + below
7 : especially; both otherwise
and
: on behalf of + gen.
: the legal
decisions decided upon; aor. pass. pple;
acc. subj. of inf.
c1 : 1st pl. ( fut. )
: , impf.
2 : in affirmative replies one often
repeats what the previous speaker said
3 : by Zeus; acc. sg.
4 : what if; + aor. subj.
protasis in a future more vivid condition;

: perhaps, probably; equally, likely, 5


: to choose, decide; interpret, 1
, -, -: authoritative, legitimate, 2
: by + acc.; invoking a divinity, 1
: rightly, correctly, 4
-: to order, assign, appoint 3
, : orator, a public speaker, 1
, -, -: such, 9
: above, on behalf of (gen); over (acc) 3

is an alternative to (2283)
: truly...?; begins a yes/no question
: these things also
: plpf. pass.
: by; dat. of association
: or
: dat. of compound verb
by whichever; relative, dat. of means
: 3rd sg. subj. + in a general
relative clause (hence whichever)
: ifshould,
they would; 1st pl. pres. opt. and 3rd pl.
aor. opt. in a future less vivid condition
: gen. obj. of

: negative command

Complementary (Supplementary) Participles (2088 ff.)


Some participles complete the sense of a main verb such as 7 times or 1 time.
: stop saying (48c2)
: happen to be (49b5)
: happen to do (44d10, 45d2)
: happened to be (50e8)
: happen to be (47b3)
: I happen to have(52b7)

Crito 50c8-d8
,
. ,
;
,
; , ,
,
; , .

;
,
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
-: to answer, reply, 5
, : a wedding, wedding-feast, 1
: to beget, engender, bring forth 2
: through (gen) on account of (acc), 4
-: charge (acc) against (dat), accuse 1
: to be accustomed, be in the habit 3
: when, after, since, because, 7
: near, at (gen.), to (acc), upon (dat.) 5
: to ask, inquire, question, 4
: to take, receive, catch, grasp 5
: to blame, censure, find fault with 2
, : a mother, 3
c8 : the things said; pass. pple
: (), sg. mid.
imperative
: you are accustomed; pf.
: pres. mid. inf.
c9 : by; two
articular infinitives, dat. of means
: what?; interrogative is acc. sg. obj.
of the nom. sg. res. pple
: dat. obj. of
d1 : inf.
: did we not beget?; a
question anticipating a yes response
: first; adverbial acc.
2 : 3rd sg. aor.
3 : aor. imperative
, : to those laws
among us; to these of us, the laws.
4 : regarding

89

, : education, culture, learning 2


: to educate, teach 8
-: to pass word, give orders, 1
, : a father, 6
-: to order, assign, appoint 3
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
, -, -: your, yours 8
: to order, command, arrange
, : nourishment, food; upbringing 2
: to bear, carry, bring, endure, 6
: to point out, tell, indicate, 1
: to plant, sow, beget, 1
: to use, employ, possess (+ dat.), 2

6
7
8

: (), 2nd sg. pres. mid. + dat


: on the grounds that; +
pple (dat. pl. pres) expresses alleged cuase.
: well
: (holds or is
disposed) + adv translates as to be + adj.
: I do not blame (these
laws regarding marriages) but those.... ;
supply
: I would say; 1st sg. pres. subj. +
is the apodosis of a future less vivid
condition that was started in c4
: of the one born
: relative pronoun
: 2nd sg. aor. pass.
: among us; partitive with
: for this (purpose) (1689)
: pf. pass. pple

Crito 50e1-e9

90
e

; , .
. ,

, ;
, ,
,
;
, ,
, -

: to hear, listen to, 8


-: to do in return, 2
: truly (introduces yes/no question), 6
, : master, lord, 3
, : a slave, 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-, -: offspring, a child, 1
-: to bring up from childhood, rear 4
: when, after, since, because, 7
, -, -: gymnastic, 1

, -, -: our, ours, 6
, -, -: equal to, the same as, like
: poorly, badly, 7
, : music, 2
: to educate, teach 8
, : a father, 6
-, : a forefather, ancestor, 2
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
: chance upon, get; meet; happen, 7
: so that, that, so as to, 7

e1 : well
: I would say; 1st sg. pres. subj. +
is the apodosis of a future less vivid
condition that was started in c4
2 : well!; particle from opt. let it be
: (), 2nd sg. impf. passive
, : 2nd sg. aor. pass.,
-,
3 : would you be able; or could
you potential opt., governs an inf.
: 2nd sg. impf.
: deictic iota (-) adds emphasis
4 : (you) yourself; nom. without an
article is an intensive pronoun, assume
: , nom. subject
5 : is; holds or is disposed + adv. is
often translated as to be + adj.
: introduces yes/no questions
: on equal terms; out of equal(ity)
: 2nd sg. pres mid.
: the just, the right; the article
makes this adjective a substantive
: for you and for us
: whatever; , neut. plural

: + pres. subj. in a
general relative cause with
: to doto you; governs
a double acc., and
: for you; dat. of interest governed by

: 2nd sg. pres mid.


: it is right;

: with regard to
your father
: on equal terms; out of equal(ity)
: 3rd sg. impf.
: you happen to have;
there happens to be for you, dat.
possession; + complementary
pple is often translated happens to
: whatever you experienced;
general relative clause, opt replaces +
subj. in secondary sequence, the
antecedent is
: being spoken of poorly;
is used passively with and
(1593, 1752)

Crito 51a1-b1


, ,
,
,
,
;


91
51

, -, -: sacred, holy, 1
, : truth, 3
--: to destroy or kill in return, 1
-: to reply; speak against, gainsay 3
-: to beat or strike in return, 1
, , : every, quite all, 4
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
, : excellence, goodness, virtue, 4
: to be able, can, be capable, 3
: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
-: to take care, care for (+ dat.) 5
: to lead; consider, think, believe 4
, : a god, divinity, 4
: down from (+ gen.), down, down along
(+ acc.), 4

: escape notice of, act unnoticed 2


, : larger, greater, 3
, : a mother, 3
, : fate, destiny, lot, share, 1
, -, -: as much or as; all who, 4
: beside, alongside, in respect to, 6
, : a father, 6
, -: fatherland, native land, 7
-, : a forefather, ancestor, 2
, -, -: holy, august, solemn, 1
, -, -: wise, skilled, 1
, -, -: honored, worthy, 2
, -, -: such, 9
: to beat, strike, 2
: so that, that, so as to, 7

51a : add - from the previous page


: pass. pple modifies the
missing acc. subject of the infinitive
3 : it will be allowed for you (to
act in this way); fut.
: if we
attemptyou will attempt; fut. more vivid
( + subj., fut. ind.)
: we; nom. subj. for emphasis
3 : inf.
4 : that it is just
: believing
5 : insofar as; 2nd sg.
present
6 : 2nd sg. fut.
: just (actions); inner accusative

: nom. in apposition to
you the understood subject of
7 : or
: 2nd sg. pres.
: it has escaped your notice
that; 3rd sg. pf.
9 : than; gen. of
comparison governed by the comparative

: nom. subject of
: predicate adj.
parallel to
b1 : in a greater position
... : both amongand
among

Crito 51b2-c2

92

,
,
,
, ,
,
, ,
,

,
,

: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 4


, -: to be withdrawn, retired 1
-: to die off, perish, 6
: to constrain, use force, overpower 1
: to bind; lack, want of, need, 1
, : court, 3
: , whetheror, 5
, : silence, quiet, stillness, rest, 2
: to flatter, 1
: to bid, order, command, exhort, 4
, -: to be left, 1
: more, rather, 8
, : a mother, 3
, : mind, thought, reason, attention, 5
, -, -: hallowed, sacred, ordained, 2

-: everywhere, 1
, : a father, 6
, -: fatherland, native land, 7
, : war, battle, fight, 2
, -: to be made or done 5
-: to order, assign, appoint 3
: to worship, honor, 1
, -, : post, order, rank; battle array 4
: to wound, 1
: to beat, strike, 2
-, -: to be conceded, yielded, 1
-: to withdraw, retire; yield; depart, 1
: to bring forth, beget, be by nature, 1
: to be sore, angry, grievous, 2

b2 : dat. pl. pres. pple


: modifies f. acc.
missing acc. subject of the infinitive
3 : than; following
7
: eitheror
4 : whatever; + 3rd sg. pres.
subj. in a general relative clause,
: if the fatherland orders;
+ 3rd sg. subj. present general condition c1
: aor. inf.
5 : keeping; acc. sg. pple
: to be bound; passive inf.
2
6 : it leads (him); 3rd sg. subj.
, : fut.
pples

of ,
: (you) must do; (it is) to be done
(by you); verbal adj. supply
: see b6 above
: (you) must do; (it is) to be done
(by you); verbal adj. supply
: see line 4, although the verb
is 3rd sg., the subject is plural,
: her; i.e.
: inf.
: is (by nature); 3rd sg. pf.
: (it is) impious
: far; adverbial acc. or acc. of extent
of degree with

Crito 51c3-d2
; ,
; ;
. .
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

93

, - d
,
, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 7
, -: true, 6
, , : every, quite all, 4
: to wish, be willing, desire, 8
: to do, 2
: I (for my part), 6
-: to bring up from childhood, rear 4
, : opportunity, power, authority, 1
: to beget, engender, bring forth 2
, -: less, weaker, inferior, 1

: perhaps, probably; equally, likely, 5


, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine 5
-: give a part of, give a share of 1
: nevertheless, however, yet, 3
: to educate, teach 8
, -: fatherland, native land, 7
, : citizen, 1
-: proclaim, tell beforehand, 1
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5

8
9

4
6
7

: than; gen. of comparison


: object of
: 1st pl. fut.
: in response to
: truth; , true things,
: acc. subject
: , sg. imperative
: would; 3rd pl. potential opt.

: we speak these
things true; is a predicative acc.
: (namely) that; in apposition to

: just things, right things; neuter pl.


substantives

: inf.
: aor. pple.
: aor. pple
: all fine things;
partitive gen. obj. of
(): which; gen. relative
is partitive gen. object of missing inf., the
complementary inf. of
: is the sort to
be is translated to be able, here impf.
d1 ...: dat. ind. object of pple
2 : by creating; dat. sg.
of means, articular inf. (pf. act. )
: partitive with
: to the one wishing

Some Common Uses of (2988-3001)


1. Exclamatory:
2. Relative:
3. Alleged cause (+ pple):
4. Purpose (+ fut. pple):
5. Superlatives:
6. Result:
7. Temporal:
8. Indirect Statement:

How sweetly! 43b5, also 43b8, 45a7, 53d4


just as I just now said 46d9, + 7 other times
since/on the grounds of being able 44c1, 50c4
so as about to hear (in order) to hear
as sweetly as possible 43b6
so that you grieve 45c4, also 6 times
when/after (the legal case) entered 45e3
sayingthat/how it is necessary 48e3

94

Crito 51d3-e4

, ,
5 .
,
,
, ,
e , . ,

,
,

-: to renounce, give up, forbid, 1


-: to go away, depart, 7
-, : settlement, colony, 1
: to please, satisfy, appease (dat) 8
-: to another place, to elsewhere, 3
() -, -: himself, herself,
itself, themselves 3
: to wish, be willing, desire, 8
-: to manage a house, govern, 1
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 9
: give judgment, pass judgment, 4
: to test, scrutinize, examine, 1
: , whetheror, 5
-: thither, to that place, 2

-: in the way, in one's path, 1


: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
: to come or go, 6
: already, now, at this time, 4
: to bid, order, command, exhort, 4
: to take, receive, catch, grasp 5
-: to change ones home, move, 1
: to which place, whither, 3
-: to abide, remain, 2
: somewhither, to somewhere, 2
, : deed; matter, affair, trouble, 5
, : a manner, way; turn, direction, 5
: you, 2

d3 : he was tested into manhood;


3rd sg. aor. pass. subjunctive; young men
were scrutinized before they were allowed
to enter adult political life
: he saw; 3rd sg. aor. subj.
....: the affairs
4 : whomever; relative, dat. object of
, pres. subj. + in a general
relative clause
: it is possible; inf.
: that (he) taking; aor. pple
, acc. modifying missing acc.
subject of
5 : his own goods; , a
3rd person reflexive pronoun
: inf.
: to wherever; relative, dat. object
pres. subj. + in a general relative clause
6 : whetheror

7
8

: inf.
: supply
: nom. sg. aor. pple
: see above
e1 : , reflexive, see above
: and whoever; general relative
clause (relative + + pres. subj.)
2 : , nom. pres. pple
: in what way; acc. of respect
: we make judgments
: crasis,
3 : 1st pl. pres.
: pf. inf.
: by his action(s); dat. of means
: with us; dat. association with inf.
4 : and that the one not
persuading; acc. subject; the use of
makes the pple condition in sense that
one, if not persuading

Crito 51e5-52a7
, , ,
, ,

, ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .

95
5

52

;
: wildly, fiercely, savagely, 1
, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 7
, : cause, responsibility; (legal) charge 1
: through (gen) on account of (acc), 4
: justly, rightly, lawfully, fairly 3
: two 1
: if really (to imply doubt) 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
-: to hold fast, cling fast, 1
- : to devise, contrive, think over, 1
-: to order, enjoin, command, 1
, -, -: one of two, other, different, 2

-: to send to, let upon, permit, allow, 1


, : begetter, parent, 1
, -, -: least; not at all 3
: perhaps, probably; equally, likely, 5
-: to fasten; attach; accost, 1
: to bid, order, command, exhort, 4
: especially, in particular, 5
, -, -: not either, neither, 2
-: to set before, propose, 1
: into three parts, three ways, 1
, : foster-parent, one who nutures, 2

e5 : 1st pl.
: because..becausebecause
: dat. pl. pple
modifies ; is predicate
6 : dat. pl. parallel to ;
5
supply
, acc. modifying missing acc.
subject of
: fut. mid.
6
52a . . .
: althoughbut; gen. abs.
concessive in force with
: whatever; + 1st pl.
subj. in a general relative clause,
2 : one of two (options);
, crasis, neut. acc. pl. often translates
7
as one of a set or pair; dual genitive
3 : to exactly these; modifies
, charges below; dat. pl. of
compound verb
: in fact; adverbial
4 : will be liable; will be held in

fut. pass. inf.


: protasis in a emotional fut.
condition ( fut., fut.); the future ind. is
used instead of + subj. (future more
vivid) to suggest something undesired
: the least; superlative adverb
: partitive gen.
: among those; demonstrative; see
also 43c7 and below (1099)
: 1st sg. opt., protasis in a future less
vivid condition ( opt.., opt.) (should,
would)
: why exactly?; on account of
exactly what
: they would accost; i.e.
attack, but not physically; + partitive gen.;
: among those; demonstrative; see
also above and 43c7 (1099)
: partitive gen.
: nom. sg. masc. pf. act.
pple.

Crito 52a8-b8

96

.
, ,


,
, ,
, ,
,
,

, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 7
-: to another place, to elsewhere, 3
: once, once only, once for all 1
-, : being abroad, a going abroad, 1
: to please, satisfy, appease, 8
-: particularly, especially, 3
-: to go out, come out, 6
: near, at (gen.), to (acc), upon (dat.) 5
-: to live at home, be in town, 1
-, : desire, longing, yearning, 1
, : sight-seeing, view, 1
, : isthmus, a narrow passage, 1

: to take, receive, catch, grasp 5


, , : big, great, important, 1
: to know, 7
-, : agreement, 6
-: to nowhere, 1
: somewhither, to somewhere, 2
: ever, at some time, once, 3
-: ever yet, ever, 2
: march, campaign, 1
, : evidence, indication, proof, 1
: chance upon, get; meet; happen, 7
: as, just as, as if, 8

a8 : I happen; + complementary
pple and, in this instance, a cognate acc.
: 3rd pl. potential opt.
: that; one expects indirect statement
but what follows is direct speech
b1 : we have; there is to us, dat.
of possession
: (namely) that; in apposition
2 ...: bothand
4 : you would live
if (the city) were pleasing; present
contrafactual (were, would) condition ( +
impf. ind., + impf. ind.)

3
4
7

: i.e. in the city, fem.


: and neithernor
: for; expressing purpose
...: neithernor
.: desire to know; +
gen.; desire of. to know, epexegetical
(explanatory) inf. is equivalent to an
acc. of respect (desire of.in respect to
knowing); the genitives are grammatically
the object of but are logically the
object of .
: aor.

Dative of Manner (1527)


Otherwise called the adverbial dative, this dative is often translated with the preposition in or with.
in silence (silently) 43b1
in every way 46a7, 49b5
in common 48d8

in no way 49a3
... in some way 49a5

Some dative of manner constructions are adjectives with a missing noun, likely the fem. , way.
in this (way) 43d7, 47b9, 48a8, 52e2
in what (way) 49a1
in some (way) (somehow) 48d8 in some other (way) 49e1

Crito 52c1-d1

,
, .
, ,

97
c

. , , ,
,
, , ,

: to be annoyed, be irritated, 3
: to seize, take; mid. choose, 6
: to shame; mid. feel shame, 3
, , : unwilling, 2
: to please, satisfy, appease, 8
-: to run away, flee, escape, 4
: to wish, be willing, desire, 8
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 9
-: to destroy, corrupt, kill, 8
, : a slave, 2
, -, -: that, those, 9
, , : willing, intentionally, 2
-: give regard to , turn to, 1
: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
, -, -: our, ours, 6

, : death, 2
: to die, 2
, -, -: enough, sufficient; capable 3
: beautify, embellish; show off 1
: down from (+ gen.), down, down along
(+ acc.), 4
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
: to live (as a citizen), take part, 3
: before, in front; in place of (+ gen.), 3
: very, very much, exceedingly, 2
: to honour, value, esteem, 5
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
: at that time, then, 3
, -, -: trivial, petty, worthless, 2
: to flee, escape; defend in court, 2

c1 : 1st pl. impf.


2 : -(), 2nd sg. impf. mid.;
in the middle means choose
: 2nd sg. impf.
: among us
: especially; both in other
respects and, acc. of respect
3 : i.e. in the city
: (), 2nd sg. aor. mid
: on the grounds that; i.e. since
pple expresses alleged cause
4 : trial
: 3rd sg. impf.
: to offer (the penalty)
of flight; i.e. exile, aor. inf. governs a
gen. of price; in the penalty phase of a trial
both the prosecutor and defendant offered
penalties and the jury chose
: (), 2nd sg. impf. mid

5
6

: gen. absolute
(): gen. abs., add noun
: aor. inf. supply impf.
: you showed off; i.e. put on
airs; 2nd sg. impf. mid., ()
: on the grounds that;
+ pple (nom. sg. pres. pple)
7 : it was necessary; opt. replaces
and ind. in secondary sequence
:
: -(), 2nd sg. impf. mid.;
: 2nd sg. impf.
: in place of
8 : () , 2nd sg. pres. mid.
9 : () , 2nd sg. pres. mid.
: aor inf.
d1 : whatever; opt. replaces subj. in
a general relative clause in secondary seq.

98

Crito 52d2-e3

.
,
5 , .
, ; ;
. , .
.
, ,
e ,

, ,

, -: true, 6
: to force, compel, require, 2
, : necessity, force, constraint, 5
: to cheat, trick, deceive, beguile, 1
-: to answer, reply, 5
: to deliberate, plan, take counsel, 6
: seventy, 1
: it is allowed, permitted; is possible 7
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
, -, : a year, 1
: down from (+ gen.), down, down along
(+ acc.), 4

-, -: few, little, small, 4


-, : agreement, 6
: beside, alongside, in respect to, 6
-: to transgress, offend, 4
: to live (as a citizen), take part, 3
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
-, : agreement, contract, treaty, 3
-: put together, devise, understand 1
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9
: to say, affirm, claim, 3
, : time, 3

: is it anything else than?; (2652)


: are we to agree; 1st pl.
deliberative subjunctive
7 : (it is) necessary
8 : is it anything else than?
: would say; 3rd pl. potential opt.

: between us ourselves
: out of; gen. of cause
e1 : nom. sg aor. pass. pple
2 : nom. sg aor. pass. pple
3 : dat. pl.
: in which
: 3rd sg. impf.

4
5
6

: contrary to
: according to which;
: (), 2nd sg. aor. mid.

: adverbial acc.
: aor. imperative.
: this very thing; intensive
: aor. inf.
: truth; , true things,
: pf. inf.
: in action but not in speech;
dat. of respect
: are we to say; deliberative subj.
: in reply to

Verbs Beginning with Vowels in the Perfect Tense (442)


These verbs do not have a reduplicated consonant in the pf. stem. Instead, a short vowel is lengthened or
a long vowel is augmented. - can be found with or, as below, without the lengthening.
have arrived (-) 43a1, 43c4, 49c9 having agreed 52a7
has been done (-) 43a8
having been agreed 53a6
had agreed () 50c5
having been wronged () 54b8
to have agreed 51e3, 52d4

Crito 52e4-53a7

99

,
.
, , ,

53

; ,
.
, -, -: Athenian, of Athens, 7
-, -, -: much maimed, crippled 1
: without, 1
-: to go away, depart, 7
-: to be away (from home), 4
: to please, satisfy, appease, 8
, -, -: foreign, non-Greek, 1
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
-: particularly, especially, 3
: each time, on each occasion, 3
, -: smaller, fewer, 1
, -, : Greek (fem. adj.) 1

-: to abide in, remain, 5


-: to go out, come out, 6
-: have good laws, be orderly, 3
-, -: laughable, ridiculous, 2
, : Crete, 1
, -, : Lacedaemon, 1
: and not, but not, nor, 1
-, : agreement, 6
-: seize before mid. choose, prefer, 1
, -, -: blind, 1
, -, -: lame, crippled, maimed, 1

e4 : inf. -
: did seem; + inf.
5 : --(), 2nd sg. impf.
mid.
: which very (cities);
6 : 2nd sg. pres.
53a : gen. pl.
2 : lessthan; (), adv.
accusative
: of; partitive gen.

4
5
6

: clearly; (it is) clear that


: to whom; interrogative
: would; potential opt.
: but just now; modifies
: pf. pass. pple
: fut. more vivid condition
( + subj., fut. ind.); 2nd sg. subj. and 2nd
sg. fut. deponent (())
: nom. sg. aor. pple

Synopsis Overview: , , , , ,
Active
Pres.
Impf.
Fut.

I stop X
I was stopping X
I will stop X

Middle

Aor.

I stopped X

I stopped

I have stopped
I had stopped

I have been stopped


I had been stopped

Pf.
I have stopped X
Plpf. I had stopped X

I stop
I was stopping
I will stop

Passive

I am (being) stopped
I was being stopped
I will be stopped
I was stopped

100

Crito 53a8-b8

,

b .

,
,
, ,
,
, ,

, -, -: good, brave, capable, 8


, -, -: each of two, both, 1
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
() -, -: himself, herself,
itself, themselves 3
: to strength, confirm, establish, 1
, -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
: corrupter, 3
, , : a juror, judge, 1
: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 1
-: to fail, miss the mark utterly 1
, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
: to work, labor, do (acc) to (acc), 4
: to come or go, 6
-: have good laws, be orderly, 3
: to lead; consider, think, believe 4
: to have come, be present, 8
a8 : , sg. imperative;
emphasizes the imperative
: nom sg aor pple -,
: what good;
6 : (), 2nd sg. fut. mid.
: or; joining acc. objects
b1 : (it is) clear that; that(is)
clear
: will run the risk + inf.; or
will probably + inf.
2 ;: to be deprived; aor. pass.
inf.
: from; gen. separation, gen.
sg. of
3 : aor. inf. -
...: almost, pretty much
: (you) yourself; intensive modifies

-: to Thebes, 1
: to care about, be troubled by (gen) 2
: to risk, venture; it is likely, 3
-: to Megara, 1
: rightly, correctly, 4
, , : as many as, 1
, : property; being; substance, 2
-: to transgress, offend, 4
, -, -: hostile, of the enemy, 1
, : government, civic life, polity, 1
, -, -: first, earliest, 7
: to look at, examine, consider, 9
: to deprive, rob of, bereave (gen), 2
: nearly, almost, just about 3
-: to look askance at, 1
: to flee, escape; defend in court, 2
: so that, that, so as to, 7

5
6
7
8

the 2nd sg. subject


: adverbial accusative
,: future more vivid
condition ( + subj., fut. ind.)
: to one; acc. sg. object
: of the very
close cities; superlative adverb behaving as
an adj. in the attributive position (1096)
: 2nd aor. subj.
: as an enemy
: 2nd sg. fut.
dat. obj. of
: their own; , 3rd person
reflexive pronoun
: you (to be) corrupter
: for; dat. of interest
: so as to seem; result cl.

Crito 53c1-d2

101

c

.
;
; 5
, ; ,

; []
; .
,

-: act or behave shamelessly, 1


, , : a man, 6
-, -: foolish, unintelligent, 2
, -, -: worthy of, deserving of, 4
-: to depart; remove, 1
: truly (introduces yes/no question), 6
, : excellence, goodness, virtue, 4
-, -: misshapen, unseemly, 1
-: to converse with, discuss 2
: corrupter, 3
: give judgment, pass judgment, 4
, : justice, righteousness, 3
, : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 9
-: hither, thither, 3
-: have good laws, be orderly, 3

: to live, 7
: to have come, be present, 8
, : Thessaly, 7
, -, -: well-ordered, moderate, 1
, -, -: young; new, novel, strange, 1
, -, -: customary, lawful, 1
, , : whoever, which-, what-, 2
, -, -: most, greatest, 3
: to bring near, draw near (dat) 1
: anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 5
, : deed; matter, affair, trouble, 5
: very, very much, exceedingly, 2
, : a place, region
: to flee, escape; defend in court, 2
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8

c1 : aor. inf.
: whoever; antecedent is missing;
relative clause ends with
2 : would;aor. potential opt.
3 : inf. , is predicate
: .or? or?; leave
untranslated
: (); 2nd sg. fut. mid.
4 : partitive gen.
4 : superlative adj.
: dat. sg. pple modifies the
dat. sg.
: worthwhile; neut. sg. nom. pred.
5 : living; infinitive subject.
: fut. dep.
6 : what (sort of)

conversations
: or just as here; or (the
conversations) which (you had) here
: (namely) that; in apposition
: of very much; gen. of value with

: (are) worth; predicate of pl.


subjects; supply linking verb
8 : 2nd sg. pres.
d1 : fut. mid.
...: the business, the situation
: yes, certainly; in replies, affirmative;
cf. 54b1
2 : 2nd sg. fut. -
: fut.

102

Crito 53d3-e3
;
,
,

,
,
e , ,
, ; ,
, , , .
-, : licentiousness, intemperance 1
: to hear, listen to, 8
-, -: unworthy, not worthy of +gen 1
, , : a man, 6
-: to run away, flee, escape, 4
-, : disorderliness, lacking discipline 1
, : life, 4
, -, : old man; elder, 2
: laughably, ridiculously, 1
: greedily, graspingly; hardly, 1
, : prison, 2
-, : prepared leather, leather bag, 1
: to be accustomed, be in the habit 3
, - : likely, probably, reasonable 2
: there, in that place, 5
-: to prepare, dress up (or on) 1
-: to desire, long for, 2
: I will say or speak, 7

: to live, 7
: sweetly, pleasantly, gladly 2
: perhaps, probably; equally, likely, 5
: to take, receive, catch, grasp 5
, -, -: remaining, the rest, 1
: to cause pain or grief, offend, 1
, -, -: greatest, best, longest, 4
-: to change, alter, 1
, : guest, foreigner, stranger, 4
: beside, alongside, in respect to, 6
-: to transgress, offend, 4
-: to put or place round, 1
, -, -: most, greatest, 3
, : attire, equipment, gear, 1
, -, -: small, little, 2
, -, : form, figure, appearance 1
: to dare, undertake, endure, 1
, : time, 3

d3 : to (the side of); + place to which


: for of course, for indeed (2820, D
243), emphasizes
4 : would; 3rd pl. aor. potential
opt.
: how laughably, how
ridiculously
5 : a disguise; used elsewhere for the
costume of an actor or chorus
: aor. mid. -
relative clause ends with
6 : eitheror; in
apposition to
: nom. sg. aor. pple
: exactly which things; relative

: 3rd pl. pf. , present in sense


7 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: that; obj. of below
8 : gen. abs., pple.
: in (respect to) life; dat. of respect
: as is likely
e1 : inf.
2 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: (there is) no one
: fut. of. ()
: if you do not bring pain to;
is an alternative to ; pres. subj. as
the protasis in a fut. more vivid condition
3 : (), 2nd sg. fut. middle

Crito 53e4-54a7

,
;
;
,
; ;
, , ;
,
;
.
: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 4
-: to be away (from home), 4
-: to enjoy, have enjoyment (gen.) 1
, : excellence, goodness, virtue, 4
, -: better, 4
: to live, 1
: to wish, be willing, desire, 8
, : the principal meal, dinner, 1
, : justice, righteousness, 3
: to be a slave, serve, be subject to 1
, -, -: that, those, 9
-: to bring up from childhood, rear 4
: for the sake of, because of, for (+gen) 2
: near, at (gen.), to (acc), upon (dat.) 5
e4 : (), 2nd sg.
5 : (other) than
: as if
...: for; expressing a goal or purpose
6 : nom. sg. pf. pple
54a : we will have; lit. are for
us dat. of possession, 3rd pl. fut.
: but actually, but in fact
2 : object of
: (), 2nd sg. pres.
: inf.
: so that; purpose governs the subj.,
here aor. ,
3 : what then?
: nom. sg. 2nd aor. pple
: from
4 : making (your children)
: see line 2; governs 3rd pl. subj. here;
the children are subject; tone is sarcastic

103

54

-: to take care, care for (+ dat.) 5


, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
: eat a feast, feast, entertain well, 1
: to live, 7
, : Thessaly, 7
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 6
, : guest, foreigner, stranger, 4
: to educate, teach 8
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
: where?
-: to be with, associate with, 1
: to bring up, raise, rear 4
-: to go secretly, creep, go under, 1
: as, just as, as if, 8
5

: also; adverbial
: (will you) not (do) this
: here; adverb
: if; gen. abs. which is
conditional in force, cf. line 6 below
: comparative adverb
: fut. pass.
...: if not..; gen. abs., suggests
the abs. is conditional in force; pple
+ dat. of compound verb or dat. of
association (1523)
: your; is in the attributive
position following the article
: them; i.e. Socrates children; the
gen. object of , which can
govern a dative or a genitive object
: .or?; introduces two
options, leave untranslated

104

Crito 54a8-b8

, ,
, ;
b , .
, ,

,
5



, ,
. ,

, : Hades or Pluto, 3
, -: better, 2
-: to go away, depart, 7
-: to be away (from home), 4
-: to defend oneself 1
: to begin; to rule, be leader of, 2
-: to come, arrive, 1
: if really (to imply doubt) 2
: there, in that place, 5
-: thither, to that place, 2
-: hither, thither, 3
-: to take care, care for (+ dat.) 5
, -, -: suitable; a close friend, 8
: to come or go, 6
: to live, 7
a8 , : future more
vivid condition ( + subj., fut. ind.);
here an aorist subj.
: to Hades (house); the gen.
with missing acc. is common
9 : not; the deictic iota lends emphasis
to the negation
: if they are good for anything;
lit. if their use is anything, is
subjective gen. of (if they profit
Socrates)
: yes, if at least; ge is both
affirmative and restrictive (D 132)
b1 : being accustomed to claim;
infix suggests that the action is habitual
: yes, certainly; in replies, affirmative;
cf. 53d1
3 : considerof
more (importance); gen. of value (1373);

, : Thessaly, 7
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 6
: to stay, remain, abide, 5
-: and not, 6
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 5
, : profit, benefit, help, advantage 2
, -, -: hallowed, sacred, ordained, 2
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 7
, -: more, greater, 4
: before, in front; in place of (+ gen.), 3
, -, -: your, yours 8
, : foster-parent, one who brings up 2
: to say, affirm, claim, 3
: it is necessary, it is fitting; must, ought, 8

4
5
6

7
8

(), pres. mid. imperative


: articular inf.
..: so thatmay...; purpose + subj.
: to Hades (house); see a8
:, nom. sg. aor. pple
: ruling; dat. pl. pple
: (it) appears
: inf.
: to anyone else; in light of
the double negative, translate positively
: of your (friends); gen. pl.
: to (anyone)...; supply a noun
: pf. pass. pple ; note
long pple even though form is a pple, in
the pf., verbs that begin with vowels
lengthen the vowel instead of duplicating
the consonant (557, 575)
: 2nd sg. fut. - (-)

Crito 54c1-d2
,
,

, ,
,
,
.
.
, ,
, : a brother, 1
, : Hades or Pluto, 3
-: to commit injustice in return, 4
-: to do wrong in return, 2
-: to go away, depart, 7
-: to destroy, kill, ruin, 7
: shamefully, disgracefully
: there, in that place, 5
-: to go out, come out, 6
: to work, labor, do (acc) to (acc), 4
, : a comrade, companion, mate, 1
: well, 5
-: kindly, favorably 1
: to live, 7
, -, -: least; not at all 3
c1 : 2nd sg. pres. subjunctive.
- (-) in a future more
vivid condition ( + subj., fut. ind.)
: by; gen. of agent governed by

2 : 2nd sg. aor. subjunctive.


- in a future more vivid
condition ( + subj., fut. ind.)
3 : with us; with regard to us in
the attritutive position with
4 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: neut. pl. acc. object
: governs a double accusative

105
c

, -, -: our, ours, 6
, -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 6
: more, rather, 8
, -, : a part, share, portion, 3
: to know, 7
-, : agreement, 6
-: to transgress, offend, 4
, -: fatherland, native land, 7
, -, -: your, yours 8
-, : agreement, contract, treaty, 3
: by, because of, from (gen.) under (dat.) 9
-: to receive hospitably, 1
, -, -: dear, friendly; friend, kin, 5
: be sore, angry, grievous at +dat 2

5
6
7
8

: whom; relative, acc. pl.


: superlative adv.
: impf.
: , future
: dat. sg. pres. pple
: in Hades (house)
: pple
: aor. inf. -
: on your part; acc. respect
: do not let...; prohibitive aor.
subj., 3rd sg.
: sg. imperative
: neut. pl. acc. object

106

Crito 54d3-e2
,
,

,
, , .
, .
. , , .
e
. , , ,
.

: to hear, listen to, 8


, : flute, pipe, mouthpiece, 1
: to boom with buzzing, hum, 1
: to be able, can, be capable, 3
: to permit, allow, let be, suffer, 4
: when, after, since, because, 7
: I will say or speak, 7
, : noise, cry, wail, sound, 1
, : a god, divinity, 4
: to be in a Corybantic frenzy, 1

: in vain, idly, 1
: however, nevertheless; certainly, 2
: to know, 7
: nevertheless, however, yet, 3
, -, -: as much or as; all who, 4
: beside, alongside, in respect to, 6
, -: more, greater, 4
-: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
-: to guide, lead the way, 1
: as, just as, as if, 8

d3 : gen. object of
: in me
4 : this; fem. nom. sg.
5 : make it, bring it about; 3rd sg.
: so as not to be able;
negative result clause (positive )
: gen. object of
: sg. imperative
: so far as things (are)
seeming now to me; is adverbial, and
is restrictive; cf. 46e3

: future more vivid


condition ( + subj., fut. ind.): 2nd sg.
pres. subjunctive and fut. ()
7 : 2nd sg. pres.
: (that you) will do; supply as
acc. subject
8 : I am able; as often with an infinitive
e1 : sg. imperative
: let us; hortatory subj.
: in this way

Platos Crito
Greek-only pages
for classroom review







. , ; ;
. .
. ;
. .
.
.
. , , , .
. ;
. .

St. I
p. 43
a

10

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;
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,

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,
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109

43b
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110

44b

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112

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113

46b

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114

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115

47d

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116


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48b
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10

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.

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.
117

49a

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;
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118

49d

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;
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;
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119

50b

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5 ;
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120

51a

51

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121

51d


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52
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122

52c

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124

53e


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;
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;
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d
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125

54d


,
,

,
, , .
, .
. , , .
e
. , , ,
.

126

Glossary

128

Verb Synopsis (Attic)


, , , , , : loosen, ransom
Middle/Pass.

Active

Middle

Passive

Primary Indiative

()

()

()

()

()

Secondary
Indicative

()

()

Subjunctive

()

Optative

Imp

()

Pple

FUTURE

Active

,
,

,
,

,
,

,
,

,
,

Inf.

PRESENT

2nd sg. mid/pass - is often dropped except in pf. and plpf. tenses: () , ()

Verb Synopsis (Attic)

AORIST

PERFECT
Middle

Passive

Middle

Passive

()

Primary Indiative

Active

129

()

Secondary Indiative

()

()

()

Subjunctive

,
,

,
,

,
,

Optative

()

Imp

Pple

Inf.

Adapted from a handout by Dr. Helma Dik (http://classics.uchicago.edu/faculty/dik/niftygreek)

130

Synopses: ,
, , , , , : give
Imperfect

Aorist

Active

Present

Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

, -, -

, ,

Middle

Inf.

Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

Inf.

, 64, , , , : put, place; make


Imperfect

Active

Present

Imp

Pple

, ,

Aorist

, ,

Middle

, ,

, -, -
Inf.

Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

Inf.

Synopses: ,

131

, , , , , : send, release, let go

Active

Present

Imp

Pple

, ,

Imperfect

Aorist

, ,

, ,

, ,

, epic

Middle

75

Inf.

Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

Inf.

Present

1st Aorist (transitive)

Aorist (intransitive)

Active

, 89, , , , : stand (still), stop




Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

, ,

Inf.

Middle

, ,

()

Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

Inf.

132

Synopses: , ,
: to know (pf. with pres. sense)

Active

Pluperfect

Imp

Pple

, ,

Inf.

subj/opt

Perfect

, ,




(to be)
Imperfect

Active

Present

Imp

Pple

, ,

, ,

subj/op
t

Inf.

(to go; pres. indicate used as the fut. of )


Imperfect

Active

Present

Imp

Pple

, ,

Inf.

subj/opt

, ,

133
Lysias and Platos Crito:
Running High Frequency Vocabulary List
Below is a running list of words in Lysias I and Platos Crito that are also high frequency
words in all of Greek literature. The original high frequency list of 529 words, which account
for about 70% of the words in an average classical Greek text, was compiled by Dr. Wilfred
Major (Louisiana State U.) and Dr. Anne Mahoney (Tufts U.) and may be found at
dcc.dickinson.edu. Lysias I contains 214 of these words; the Crito, 273; and Lysias I and the
Crito combined contain 327 of the original 529 words. The following is a running list of the
327 words that readers will encounter when they read first Lysias I and then Platos Crito.
Digital flashcards and a running list for those who are reading just the Crito are available
online. The number in the left column corresponds to the page in the commentary where the
Greek word first occurs; the number on the right, to the number of occurences in the work.

Lysias I (pp. 2-31)


02 : but, 15
02 , , : a man, 27
02 -, , -, -, -, -: give back, allow, assign 2
02 , -, -: other, one...another, 8
02 : modal adv., 21
02 , -, -: -self; he, she, it; the same, 47
02 , , --, --, , : to be able, can, be capable, 20
02 : in, on, among. (+ dat.), 16
02 : near, at (+ gen.), to, toward (+ acc), near, at (+ dat.), 15
02 , , , , , --:have, hold, possess; be able; be disposed, 13
02 : if, whether, 13
02 , : to be, exist, 161
02 : well, 2
02 : for, since, 31
02 , , , , , --: to come to be, become, 19
02 , , ,--, , : lead; consider, believe, 14
02 : and, also, even, too, 107
02 , -, -: small, little; trifle, 2
02 , -, -: alone, only, solitary, 6
02 , , : who, which, that, 20
02 , , : very one who, which, 5
02 , , : whoever, whatever, 6
02 : that; because, 17
02 , , : the
02 , , , --, --, -- : to know, 21
02 , , : this, these, 51
02 , , : not, 21
02 : in this way, thus, so, 17
02 , , , , --, -- : to suffer, experience, 2
02 , , : every, all, the whole, 18
02 : from, at, to the side of; in respect to, 9
02 : around, about, concerning (+ gen., dat., acc.), 17

134
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
02
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
03
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
04

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

, , , , , : to do, make, create, 16


, , : much, many, 7
, : deed, act; affair, trouble, 6
: to, towards (acc); near, in addition, 7
, -, -: such, 16
, , , , --, --: to chance upon, get; happen, 6
: you, 19
: O! oh! (in direct address) 25
: so that, that, so as to, 8
, : human being, person, 10
, -, -: responsible, blameworthy, 2
: but, and, on the other hand, 69
: it is necessary, must, ought (inf.), 5
, -, -: terrible; wondrous, clever, 3
-, , , , , : corrupt, lead astray, destroy 5
, : thought, intention, purpose, 1
, -, -: that, those, 27
, -, -: my, mine, 10
, -, -, -, -, -: to prove, point out, show 4
, : work, labor, deed, act, 3
: into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 21
: or (either...or); than, 18
, --, : magnitude, size, 1
: on the one hand, 34
, , , , , : believe, think, deem, 4
, : a house, home, dwelling, 10
, , , --, --, : to suppose, think, imagine, 4
: and so, then; at all events, 10
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 15
-: and not, neither...nor, 11
, , , : a child, boy, girl; slave, 4
: except, but (+ gen.), 4
: both, and, 8
: as, thus, so, that; when, since, 19
, : beginning; rule, office, 1
, , , , , :: to lead, to bring, to carry, to convey, 2
, , , , , : to seem good, think, imagine, 6
: , if (+ subj.), 7
: I, 75
, : out of, from (+ gen.), 15
: when, after, since, because, 11
(), , , , --, --: to be willing, wish, desire, 2
: for the sake of, because of (+gen.), 2
: aor., said, spoke, 8
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 9
: down, down along (acc.); down from, 5

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

135

04 , (), , (),, , : to say, speak 9


04 , , , , , : to cause pain or grief, 2
04 -: and not, neithernor, 2
04 , : law, custom, 19
04 , , , , , : do, accomplish, make 36
04 , : anyone, anything, someone, something, 14
04 -: well then; therefore, accordingly, 5
04 , -, : thing, money, goods, 4
04 , : time, 8
05 , -, -: good, brave, capable, 1
05 -, -, -, , --, -- : to die off, perish, 2
05 , , , , , : keep watch, guard 3
05 : already, now, at this time, 4
05 , -, -: bad, base, cowardly, evil, 7
05 , : a mother, 3
05 , : mind, thought, reason, attention, 1
05 , , , , , : to see, look, behold, 5
05 , -, -: of what sort, as, 7
05 -, , -, -, -, -:: to give over, hand over, 1
05 -, -, , , : trust, believe in, 1
05 , -, -: first, earliest, 9
05 , , , , --, --: end, complete, finish; die 2
05 : by, because of, from (gen), under (dat) 7
05 : as, just as, as if, 2
06 -, -, -, -, --, --: to destroy, kill, ruin, corrupt, 3
06 : up, above, 2
06 , -, -: equal to, the same as, like, 1
06 , : word, speech, discourse, argument 3
06 : not, lest, 12
06 : many times, often, frequently, 2
06 -, , , , , : bring to, apply, ply 1
07 -, -, -, -, --, --: to go away, depart, 6
07 , , , , , to give, offer, grant, provide, 2
07 , -, -: himself, her-, its-, them-, 4
07 , , --, --, --, -- : to have come, be present, 4
07 : with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 8
07 , : a city, 8
07 : later, 3
08 : through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 3
08 : here, there; then, at that time, 1
08 , , , (, , ): to say, claim, assert, 4
08 : at least, at any rate; indeed, 2
08 : to stop, make cease, 2
08 , -, -: before, earlier, 2
08 -, -, -, -, -, -: to put to, shut; add, 1
08 : you, 8

136
09
09
09
09
09
09
09
09
09
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

, : a brother, 1
-, -, -, -, --, --: to go out, come out. 2
: out of (+ gen.); adv. outside, 2
, , : to ask, enquire, question, 1
: then, next, and so, therefore, 2
, : day, 6
: betwixt, between, 1
, (), , , --, --,: to die, 1
, : who? which?, 4
-, , , , , : be unjust, do wrong, injure 8
, , , , --, : to hear, listen to, 9
, -, -: hated, hostile; subst. enemy, 3
: until, as long as, 1
-, -, -: no one, nothing, 8
, -, -: like, resembling, similar, 1
-: no more, no longer, no further, 1
, -, -: your, yours, 2
-, -, -, -, -, -: set free, release, 1
, , : a night, 5
, : art, skill, craft, 1
, , --, --, , : wish, be willing, desire, 6
: two, 1
, , , , --, --: to come or go, 5
, : judgment, resolve, opinion, 5
, , , , , : to set, put, place, arrange, 3
-: then, next, secondly, 3
, , -, , , : remind; mid mention, remember 1
, , , , , : to persuade; mid. obey, 6
, : trust, faith, pledge, 4
: at that time, then, 1
, : a manner, way; direction, 3
, , , , , : to deem or think worthy, 4
, -, -: visible, manifest, evident, 1
, , : big, great, important, 1
: how, in what way; in order that, that, 2
, -: four, 1
-, , , --, , --: to come, arrive, 2
-, -, -, -, --, --: to to go in, enter, 12
, -, -: friendly, dear, 4
, : the sun, 2
-, , -, , , -: to seize; find, 4
: still, besides, further, 3
, , , , , : to find out, discover, 2
, , , , , : to make stand, set up, stop, 1
-, -: to be near, be present, be at hand, 1
, -, -: most, very many, 2

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

137

17 , , , , , : to seize, take; mid. choose, 2


17 , -: smaller, fewer, 3
17 , -, , , , : to ask, question 1
17 : more, rather, 2
18 , -, -: just, right, lawful, fair, 6
18 , , , , , : bid, order, command, 13
18 : how? in what way?, 1
18 , -, -: so great, so much, 2
19 , : justice; lawsuit, trial; penalty, 6
19 , , , , , : to order; arrange, organize, 1
21 , -, -: worthy of, deserving of, 4
21 -, -, -, -, -, -: set upon; add; attack 1
21 , -, -: strong, powerful; severe, 2
21 : and yet, and indeed, and further, 3
21 : now; as it is, 3
22 , : death, 3
22 , : breath, life, spirit, soul, 1
23 , , , , , : take, receive, grasp, 12
23 : it is necessary, fitting; must, ought, 1
24 , , , , , : to fasten; mid. touch, grasp (gen) 1
24 , , , , --, -- : to rejoice, be glad, enjoy, 1
25 , , : this, this here, 1
25 , -, -: easy, ready, 1
26 -, -, -, -, -, -: to send forth, let loose, release, 1
26 , -: less, weaker, inferior, 2
26 -, -, -, -, --, -- : to leave behind, abandon, 1
26 , -: better, stronger, superior, 1
26 , (), , , -- , -- : to stay, remain, 1
26 , -, - , , -- , : to dare, undertake, endure, 1
27 , , , --, , -- : perceive, feel, realize (gen) 1
27 , -, -: one of two, other, different, 2
28 , -, -, , , : write; mid. indict, 1
28 , : indictment, 1
28 , - , -, -, -, -: attempt, try, 12
28 , -, -: one's own, peculiar, 2
28 , -, , , , : to seek, search, inquire, 1
29 , -, -: some, 1
29 , : risk, danger, venture, 1
29 -, , , , , : call to, call beside, 1
30 , -, -: beautiful, noble, fine, 1
30 : to be set, be placed, lie, 1
30 : above, on behalf of (gen); beyond (acc) 2
31 -, -, -, -, -, -: set up, appoint, establish 1
31 , : the body, 1
31 , , , --, , : use, employ, deal with1

138

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

Platos Crito (pp. 56-103) if you are reading only the Crito a longer list is online
56 , , : to wonder, marvel, be astonished, 4
57 : and not, but not, nor, not even, 20
57 -, -, -, -, -, : stand at hand, be present 1
57 : how? in what way?, 5
58 : indeed, surely, really, certainly, just, 32
58 , , , , , : to show; mid. appear, 10
58 , , , , , : bear, carry, bring, endure, 6
58 , : chance, luck, fortune, success, 3
58 , -, -: difficult, hard, harmful, 4
59 , : necessity, force, constraint, 5
59 : from, away from. (+ gen.), 9
59 , : life, 4
59 , -, -: clear, evident, conspicuous 8
59 : there, in that place, 5
59 : however, nevertheless; certainly, 2
59 , : a god, divinity, 4
60 : I will say or speak, 7
60 , , : a woman, wife, 1
60 , : right moment, time 1
60 , , , , , : to call, summon, invite, 1
60 , -, -: authoritative, legitimate, 2
60 , -, -: few, little, small, 4
60 : anywhere, somewhere; I suppose, 5
61 , : opinion, reputation, honor, glory, 12
61 : to be like, seem likely (pf. as pres.) 1
61 , , : one, single, alone, 10
61 : ever, at some time, once, 3
61 : separately; apart from (gen.) 1
62 , -, -: small, little, 2
63 : well, nobly, beautifully, 13 under kaloj
64 : otherwise, in another way, 4
64 , , , , , : to permit, allow, let be, suffer, 4
64 : we, 77
65 : at the same time; along with (dat.), 2
65 , -, -: enough, sufficient; capable 3
65 : quite, entirely, exceedingly, 3
65 , -, -: yourself, 12
66 , , : love, show affection, be fond of, 1
67 , : excellence, goodness, virtue, 4
67 , -- , -- , : to be accustomed, be in the habit 3
67 , -, : a part, share, portion, 3
67 , , , , , : to bring up, raise, rear, 2
67 , -, : a son, child, 1
68 , , : every, quite all, 4
68 , -, -: capable, strong, possible, 2

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

139

68 , -, -: our, ours, 6
68 , : wickedness, cowardice, 1
68 , - : action, deed; business, 1
68 , : time; season, period of time, 1
69 -, : unable incapable impossible 1
69 : always, forever, in every case, 1
69 : either...or; whether...or, 8
69 , -, -: as much or as; all who, 4
70 , -, -: which of two? whether? 10 not on list
70 , , : to honor, value, esteem, 5
71 : then, therefore, it seems, it turns out, 16
71 , -, -: common, ordinary; public, 4
71 : until, before, 4
72 , , : to be about to, intend to, 2
72 : therefore, then, accordingly, 4
72 , -, -: bad, evil; wicked, 2
73 : again, once more; further, moreover, 3
75 , , : to follow, accompany, escort 1
75 , -, : the body 4
77 , : justice, righteousness, 3
78 , : truth, 3
78 , -: true, 6
78 , -, -: opposite, contrary, 1
79 -, , : speak together, agree, 14
79 , , : to live, 7
80 , -- , : work, labor, do (acc) to (acc), 4
80 , , : to end, complete, fulfill; pay, 1
80 , : nourishment, food; upbringing 2
80 , , : favor, gratitude, thanks, 1
81 -, -, --, -- , -, -: to answer, reply, 5
81 , , , , , : to do, 2
81 : especially, in particular, 5
81 : before, in front; in place of (+ gen.), 3
82 , -, -: one another, 3
82 -: to converse with, discuss 2
82 , , , , --, -- : escape notice of, act unnoticed 2
82 , -: more, greater, 4
84 -: to differ, surpass, be superior to 2
85 -, -, -, -, -, : remove; make revolt 1
85 , , , , , : to begin; to rule, be leader of, 2
85 : to teach, instruct, 1
85 : from here, from there, 1
87 : to name, call by name, 1
88 : to choose, decide; interpret, 1
89 , , : to beget, engender, bring forth 2
89 , : a father, 6

140

Running High Frequency Vocabulary

90 , : master, lord, 3
90 , : a slave, 2
91 , -: fatherland, native land, 7
92 , , , : to bring forth, beget, be by nature, 1
92 , : war, battle, fight, 2
92 , -, : post, order, rank; battle array 4
94 : whenever, 15 not on list ????? not so many
95 , : cause, responsibility; (legal) charge 1
97 , , , , --, -- : to flee, escape; defend in court, 2
97 : very, very much, exceedingly, 2
98 , -, : a year, 1
98 -, -, -, -, -, -:: put together, understand 1
100 , -, -: each of two, both, 1
100 , : property; being; substance, 2
100 , -, -: hostile, of the enemy, 1
100 , : government, civic life, polity, 1
101 , -, -: young; new, novel, strange, 1
101 , : a place, region
102 , -, -: remaining, the rest, 1
102 , -, : form, figure, appearance 1
103 : where? 1

Notes

141

142

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Notes

143

144

Notes

Notes

145

146

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