Anda di halaman 1dari 135

Seismic Design of Steel Structures

Amit H. Varma and Judy Liu CE697R Fall 2012 MWF 2:30 3:20 PM CIVL 2123

Course Introduction
Syllabus, Course Organization CE 697R Topics Introduction Basic Principles

Syllabus

Review syllabus; make sure that you understand all course policies (e.g. grading, ethics, etc.) and procedures in event of an emergency.

https://engineering.purdue.edu/Intranet/Groups/Administration/RPM/Safety/Classroom EmergencyPlanning/CIVL

Required Book
Bruneau, M., Uang, C., Sabelli, R. Ductile Design of Steel Structures, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2011.

Errata (8/8/12 file also posted to CE697 Dropbox)


http://www.michelbruneau.com/Ductile %20Design%202nd%20Ed%20%20Errata.pdf
5

Additional References
Will be made available in shared folder on Dropbox or otherwise
Respond to e-mail with:
The e-mail address associated with your existing Dropbox account. OR E-mail address youd like for us to use in our invitation to join Dropbox and shared folder.

Please wait for e-mail invitation to join Dropbox !!


6

Some References
2010 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC 341-10 2010 Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications, with 2011 Supp. No. 1,ANSI/AISC 35810, with ANSI/AISC 358s1-11 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, ASCE/SEI 41-06 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA 450, 2003 Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame Buildings, FEMA 350, 2000 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-10
7

Course Project

Will also send e-mail requesting information to help us form teams.


10

Homework / Reading Assignments

11

Files

12

CE697R Topics
Introduction and Basic Principles Structural Steel, Properties, Plastic Behavior Moment Resisting Frames Steel Plate Shear Walls Braced Frames
Concentrically, Eccentrically Braced; Buckling-Restrained

Analysis for Performance Evaluation Special Topics / Innovative Systems


13

Acknowledgments
Michael D. Engelhardt , Ph.D.
Professor, University of Texas at Austin Eccentrically Braced Frames, with Egor Popov, U.C. Berkeley T.R. Higgins Award for Design of Reduced Beam Section Moment Connections.

AISC Educator Career Enhancement Award to develop Teaching Modules on Design of Seismic-Resistant Steel Buildings

14

Design of SeismicResistant Steel Building Structures

Prepared by: Michael D. Engelhardt University of Texas at Austin with the support of the American Institute of Steel Construction.
Version 1 - March 2007

Introduction and Basic Principles


Performance of Steel Buildings in Past
Earthquakes

Codes for Seismic Resistant Steel Buildings


Building Code Philosophy Overview of AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic General Requirements

16

Introduction and Basic Principles


Performance of Steel Buildings in Past
Earthquakes

Codes for Seismic Resistant Steel Buildings


Building Code Philosophy Overview of AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic General Requirements

17

Causes of Earthquake Fatalities: 1900 to 1990


EERI slide series entitled: "Structural and Nonstructural Failures in Past Earthquakes." 18

Recent Earthquakes
2010 Haiti Earthquake 2010 Maule, Chile Earthquake 2010 -2011 Christchurch, New Zealand 2011 Tohoku, Japan
Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) buildings - Tsunami damage industrial steel buildings and residences
http://www.aisc.org/uploadedcontent/2012 NASCCSessions/N9-1/
19

Recent Earthquakes
2010 -2011 Christchurch, New Zealand
6 damaging earthquakes Steel structures generally performed well Most steel buildings constructed from 1990s (modern seismic codes) A few EBF link fractures, CBF brace fracture (design/as-built detailing issues?)

Fractured EBF links

Intact gusset plate and endplate

20

Why the good track record for steel?


Little loss of life attributed to collapse of steel buildings in earthquakes Likely causes? Steel structures
are generally lighter than masonry or RC. Lower weight translates to lower seismic forces. typically show good ductility, even when not specifically designed or detailed for seismic resistance. have not been exposed as much to strong earthquakes. Highly destructive earthquakes around the world have generally occurred in areas where there are very few steel structures.
21

However .
modern welded steel buildings had shown an increasing number of problems in recent earthquakes.

Pino Suarez Complex


1985 Mexico City Earthquake
22

1994 Northridge Earthquake

23

1994 Northridge Earthquake

24

1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake

25

1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake


Approximately 90 steel buildings collapsed Most heavily damaged steel buildings constructed before Japans current design code adopted (1981) But, even modern steel buildings showed unexpected damage, including fractures at welded beam-to-column connections
26

1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake

28

Good Track Record?


Recent earthquakes (1985 Mexico City; 1994 Northridge; 1995 HyogokenNanbu) have exposed problems with modern welded steel structures Care in the design, detailing, and construction of steel structures needed to assure satisfactory performance This has led to the development of building code regulations that specifically address seismic detailing of steel building structures.
29

Introduction and Basic Principles


Performance of Steel Buildings in Past
Earthquakes

Codes for Seismic Resistant Steel Buildings


Building Code Philosophy Overview of AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic General Requirements

30

US Seismic Code Provisions for Steel


Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) Blue Book 1988: First comprehensive detailing provisions for steel American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Seismic Provisions 1st ed. 1990 2nd ed. 1992 Northridge & Kobe 3rd ed. 1997 Supplement No. 1: February 1999 Supplement No. 2: November 2000 4th ed. 2002 5th ed. 2005 research findings 6th ed. 2010
31

Introduction and Basic Principles


Performance of Steel Buildings in Past
Earthquakes

Codes for Seismic Resistant Steel Buildings


Building Code Philosophy Overview of AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic General Requirements

32

Conventional Building Code Philosophy


Prevent loss of life Objective: Prevent collapse in the extreme earthquake likely to occur at a building site.

Objectives are not to:

- limit damage - maintain function - provide for easy repair

33

Maximum Considered Earthquake


extreme earthquake = Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE)
In the western U.S., MCE based on the largest earthquake that can be generated by known faults In the rest of the U.S., MCE defined as an earthquake with a 2-percent probability of exceedance in 50 years
recurrence interval of about 2500 years

In MCE, can expect substantial and costly damage to the structure


34

Engelhardts Car Analogy


In the event of a major collision, the design goal is to protect the occupants of the car; not to protect the car itself.

In the event of a major earthquake, a building is used in a sacrificial manner to absorb the energy of the earthquake, in order to prevent collapse and protect the occupants.

35

The key to an economical design for a building which must withstand a very strong earthquake?

HIGH STRENGTH?

DUCTILITY?
Let me know if you can find ductile burrito video clip!

Design for Ductile Behavior


36

Ductility = Inelastic Deformation

37

yield Ductility Factor =

failure failure

yield
38

H
Helastic H

3/4 *Helastic

1/2 *Helastic

Strength Required Ductility

1/4 *Helastic

MAX
39

H
Helastic

Trade-off between strength and ductility Ductility means damage

3/4 *Helastic 1/2 *Helastic 1/4 *Helastic


MAX

Strength
Required Ductility

For a structure designed to yield in an earthquake, the maximum lateral force that the structure will see during the earthquake is defined by its own lateral strength A typical code-based design uses ductility
40

Ductility in Steel Structures: Yielding


Nonductile Failure Modes: Fracture or Instability WILL NOT COLLAPSE

Ductility = Yielding Failure = Fracture or Instability

41

Developing Ductile Behavior Choose frame elements ("fuses") that will


yield in an earthquake; e.g. beams in moment resisting frames, braces in concentrically braced frames, links in eccentrically braced frames, etc.

42

Developing Ductile Behavior Detail "fuses" to sustain large inelastic


deformations prior to the onset of fracture or instability (i.e. , detail fuses for ductility).

q
43

Developing Ductile Behavior Design frame elements to be stronger than


the fuses, i.e., design all other frame elements to develop the plastic capacity of the fuses. CAPACITY DESIGN CONCEPT

44

Ductility of Steel Frames

(a)

(b)

Less Ductile Behavior

More Ductile Behavior

45

Ductility of Steel Frames Backbone Curve

46

Key Elements of Seismic-Resistant Design


H

Lateral Forces - Strength & Stiffness


ASCE-7 (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures) National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Provisions

Ductility = Inelastic Deformation

Detailing Requirements Ductility


AISC Seismic Provisions
47

Design EQ Loads Base Shear per ASCE 7-10:

Strength Required Ductility

SDS I V= W R

S D1 I W TR

response modification coefficient

What does it mean if R = 1.0? R> 1.0?


48

R factors for Selected Steel Systems (ASCE 7):


SMF IMF (Special Moment Resisting Frames): (Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames): R=8 R = 4.5

OMF

(Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames):

R = 3.5

H
Helastic

3/4 *Helastic 1/2 *Helastic

1/4 *Helastic
MAX

49

R factors for Selected Steel Systems (ASCE 7):


SMF IMF (Special Moment Resisting Frames): (Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames): R=8 R = 4.5

OMF
EBF

(Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames):


(Eccentrically Braced Frames):

R = 3.5
R=8 R=6 R = 3.25 R=8

SCBF (Special Concentrically Braced Frames): OCBF (Ordinary Concentrically Braced Frames): BRBF (Buckling Restrained Braced Frame):

SPSW (Special Plate Shear Walls):

R=7

50

R factors for Selected Steel Systems (ASCE 7): Undetailed Steel Systems in Seismic Design Categories A, or B or C with R = 3 AISC Seismic Provisions not needed; follow main AISC specification

This availability of this option reflects the view that a steel structure, even without special seismic detailing, will generally exhibit some reasonable degree of ductility.

51

R-factors
How were current R-factors determined? R-factors for new systems?
ATC-63 project

Some background:
http://peer.berkeley.edu/tbi/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Heintz_ATC-63.pdf
52

Introduction and Basic Principles


Performance of Steel Buildings in Past
Earthquakes

Codes for Seismic Resistant Steel Buildings


Building Code Philosophy Overview of AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic General Requirements

53

2010 AISC Seismic Provisions

AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings


Symbols, Glossary, Acronyms A. General Requirements B. General Design Requirements C. Analysis D. General Member and Connection Design Requirements

E. Moment-Frame Systems
F. Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems G. Composite Moment-Frame Systems H. Composite Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems

contd
55

AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, contd


I. J. K. Fabrication and Erection Quality Control and Quality Assurance Prequalification and Cyclic Qualification Testing Provisions

Commentary A-K References

56

AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings


A. General Requirements A1. Scope A2. Referenced Specifications, Codes and Standards A3. Materials A4. Structural Design Drawings and Specifications

B. General Design Requirements


B1. General Seismic Design Requirements B2. Loads and Load Combinations B3. Design Basis (Required Strength/Available Strength) B4. System Type
57

AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings


C. Analysis C1. General Requirements C2. Additional Requirements C3. Nonlinear Analysis
New chapter, more of a pointer to other sections and documents

D. General Member and Connection Design Requirements

D1. Member Requirements


D2. Connections D3. Deformation Compatibility of Non-SFRS Members and Connections D4. H-Piles
58

Introduction and Basic Principles


Performance of Steel Buildings in Past
Earthquakes

Codes for Seismic Resistant Steel Buildings


Building Code Philosophy Overview of AISC Seismic Provisions AISC Seismic General Requirements

59

2010 AISC Seismic Provisions


General Provisions Applicable to All Systems

Highlights of Glossary
and Chapters A-D

60

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Glossary - Selected Terms

Applicable Building Code (ABC) ABC = Building code under which the structure is designed (the local building code that governs the design of the structure) Where there is no local building code - use ASCE 7 We will use ASCE 7 in this course. (Intl Bldg Code (IBC), referenced by Indiana Building Code, takes seismic design requirements from ASCE 7)
61

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Glossary - Selected Terms


Seismic Force Resisting System (SFRS)

That part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the seismic forces prescribed in ASCE/SEI 7.
Assembly of structural elements in the building that resists seismic loads, including struts, collectors, chords, diaphragms and trusses

www.atcouncil.org/pdfs/bp1d.pdf

62

Risk Category classification as specified by applicable building code (ASCE 7)


Use or Occupancy of Buildings and Structures
Essential facilities (Hospitals, fire and police stations, emergency shelters, etc) Structures containing extremely hazardous materials
Structures that could pose a substantial hazard to human life, substantial economic impact, and/or mass disruption of day-to-day civilian life in the event of failure (previously defined as buildings with large assembly areas, etc., could include facilities with hazardous materials) Buildings not in Risk Categories I, III, or IV (most buildings) Buildings that represent a low risk to human life in the event of failure (agricultural facilities, temporary facilities, minor storage facilities)

Risk Category IV

III

II

I
63

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Glossary
Seismic Design Category (SDC): ASCE 7 Classification assigned to a building by the applicable building code based upon its risk category and the design spectral response acceleration coefficients.
64

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Glossary - Selected Terms


Seismic Design Category (SDC)

SDCs: A B C

Increasing seismic risk


and

D
E

Increasingly stringent seismic design and detailing requirements


65

To Determine the Seismic Design Category (ASCE 7-10):


Determine Risk Category

Determine SS and S1
SS = spectral response acceleration for maximum considered earthquake at short periods S1 = spectral response acceleration for maximum considered earthquake at 1-sec period Ss and S1 are read from maps

Determine Site Class


Site Class depends on soils conditions - classified according to shear wave velocity

Determine SMS and SM1


Spectral response accelerations for maximum considered earthquake adjusted for the Site Class; SMS = Fa Ss SM1 = Fv S1 Fa and Fv depend on Site Class and on Ss and S1

Determine SDS and SD1


Design spectral response accelerations SDS = 2/3 x SMS SD1 = 2/3 x SM1
66

Map for S1 (ASCE 7)

67

Seismic Hazard Maps


Interactive program available from USGS website.
Seismic design values for buildings Input longitude and latitude at site, or zip code Output SS and S1

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/design/

To Determine the Seismic Design Category (ASCE 7-10):


Evaluate Seismic Design Category according to Tables 11.6-1 and 11.6-2; The Seismic Design Category is the more severe value based on both Tables.

For sites with S1 0.75g: Seismic Design Category = E for I, II, or III Seismic Design Category = F for IV

AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings


A. General Requirements A1. Scope A2. Referenced Specifications, Codes and Standards A3. Materials A4. Structural Design Drawings and Specifications

B. General Design Requirements


B1. General Seismic Design Requirements B2. Loads and Load Combinations B3. Design Basis (Required Strength/Available Strength) B4. System Type
71

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section A1. Scope


The Seismic Provisions shall govern the design, fabrication and erection of structural steel members and connections in the seismic force resisting systems (SFRS), and splices and bases of columns in gravity framing systems of buildings and other structures with moment frames, braced frames and shear walls. The Seismic Provisions are used in conjunction with the AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

Both are in Unified LRFD-ASD format


72

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section A1. Scope (contd.)


Use of Seismic Provisions is mandatory for Seismic Design Category D, E or F.

Use of Seismic Provisions are mandatory for Seismic Design Categories B or C, when using R>3
For Seismic Design Categories B or C: can design using R=3 and provide no special detailing (just design per main AISC Specification) SDC A designed following ASCE 7 Section 1.4; AISC Seismic Provisions do not apply.
73

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section B1. General Seismic Design Requirements


Go to the Applicable Building Code for:

Seismic Design Category


Risk Categories Limits on Height and Irregularity Drift Limitations Required Strength

74

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section B2. Loads and Load Combinations


Go to the Applicable Building Code

Section B3.1 Required Strength


Greater of 1) as determined by analysis, or 2) as determined by AISC Seismic Provisions

Chapter C. Analysis
Follow requirements of Applicable Building Code, AISC Seismic Provisions, AISC Specification; nonlinear analysis per Chapter 16 of ASCE 7
75

Basic LRFD Load Combinations (ASCE-7):

1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W) 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 0.9D + 1.0W 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S 0.9D + 1.0E
Load Combinations Including E

76

Definition of E for use in basic load combinations:

For Load Combination:

1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S

E = QE + 0.2 SDS D

For Load Combination:

0.9D + 1.0E

E = QE - 0.2 SDS D

77

E = QE 0.2 SDS D
effect of horizontal forces E QE effect of vertical forces

= the effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces = effect of horizontal earthquakeinduced forces

SDS = design spectral acceleration at short periods D = dead load effect = reliability factor (depends on extent of redundancy in the seismic lateral resisting system; varies from 1.0 to 1.3)
78

Substitute E into basic load combinations: For Load Combination: 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S

substitute: E = QE + 0.2 SDS D

(1.2 + 0.2 SDS) D + 1.0 QE + L +0.2S


For Load Combination: 0.9D + 1.0E

substitute: E = QE - 0.2 SDS D

(1.2 - 0.2 SDS) D + 1.0 QE


79

AISC Seismic Provisions:

B2. Loads and Load Combinations (contd.)

Where amplified seismic loads are required by the AISC Seismic Provisions: The horizontal portion of the earthquake load E shall be multiplied by the overstrength factor o prescribed by the applicable building code.

80

Definition of Amplified Seismic Load (ASCE-7)

For Load Combination:

1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S

Amplified Seismic Load: E = o QE + 0.2 SDS D

For Load Combination:

0.9D + 1.0E

Amplified Seismic Load: E = o QE - 0.2 SDS D

81

Basic load combinations incorporating Amplified Seismic Load:

For Load Combination:

1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S

substitute: E = o QE + 0.2 SDS D

(1.2 + 0.2 SDS) D + o QE + L +0.2S


For Load Combination: 0.9D + 1.0E

substitute: E = o QE - 0.2 SDS D

(0.9 - 0.2 SDS) D + o QE


82

Seismic Overstrength Factor: o Per ASCE-7: System


Moment Frames (SMF, IMF, OMF)
Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF, OCBF) Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF)

o
3 2

2
2 2.5

Special Plate Shear Walls (SPSW)


Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF)

83

Amplified Seismic Load

Lateral Seismic Force

o Qe

Qe

Frame Lateral Deflection

Amplified Seismic Load, oQe, is intended to provide an estimate of a frame's plastic lateral strength
84

Amplified Seismic Load, contd


Lateral Seismic Force

Reasons for overstrength


o Qe
Qe
Frame Lateral Deflection

Use of resistance factors Actual yield stress Members sized to satisfy drift limits Members sized to simplify design and construction Increase in strength in going from 1st plastic hinge to plastic mechanism
85

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section A3.1 Material Specifications


Limits and ASTM Specifications

Section A3.2 Expected Material Strength


For determining required strength as applicable

Section A3.3 Heavy Sections


Toughness requirements

Section A3.4 Consumables for Welding


SFRS, Demand Critical welds (discuss more later)
86

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.1 Material Specifications


For members in which inelastic behavior is expected: Specified minimum Fy 50 ksi Exceptions: Columns for which only expected yielding is at the base Grade 65 can be advantageous Members in OMFs, OCBFs , C-OMFs, COBFs, C-OSWs (permitted to use up to Fy = 55 ksi) To accommodate
materials commonly used in metal building systems
87

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.1 Material Specifications


For members in which inelastic behavior is expected: Specified minimum Fy 50 ksi WHY?

Majority of experiments conducted on seismic frame elements has been for steels with specified yield stress of 50 ksi and less.
Higher strength steels tend to be more brittle.
88

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.2 Expected Material Strength

Expected Yield Strength Expected Tensile Strength

= Ry Fy = Rt Fu

Fy = minimum specified yield strength


Fu = minimum specified tensile strength Ry and Rt are based on statistical analysis of mill data.
89

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.2 Expected Material Strength

Ry Rt

Added to Seismic Provisions after 1994 Northridge Earthquake Added to Seismic Provisions more recently for checks of fracture limit states in same member for which expected yield stress is used (motivated by Braced Frame design)

connections 1.1RyFyZ connections RyFyAg


90

91

92

Example: A36 angles used for brace in an SCBF


Fy Fu = = 36 ksi 58 ksi 1.5 36 ksi = 54 ksi

Ry Fy =

Rt Fu =

1.2 58 ksi =

70 ksi

Example: A992 wide flange used for beam in an SMF


Fy Fu = = 50 ksi 65 ksi 1.1 50 ksi = 55 ksi

Ry Fy =

Rt Fu =

1.1 65 ksi =

72 ksi
93

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.2 Expected Material Strength

Where specified in the Seismic Provisions, the required strength of a member or connection shall be based on the Expected Yield Strength, Ry Fy of an adjoining member.

The Expected Tensile Strength, Rt Fu and the Expected Yield Strength, Ry Fy may be used to compute the nominal strength for rupture and yielding limit states within the same member.

94

Example: SCBF Brace and Brace Connection

To size brace member: Required Strength defined by code specified forces (using ASCE-7 load combinations) Design Strength of member computed using minimum specified Fy

95

Example: SCBF Brace and Brace Connection (cont)


Ry Fy Ag

Required Axial Tension Strength of brace connection is the expected yield strength of bracing member = Ry Fy Ag

Note: no 1.1 multiplier for strain hardening (used for moment connections); braces exhibit little strain hardening

96

Example: SCBF Brace and Brace Connection (cont)


Ry Fy Ag

Gusset Plate: Compute design strength using minimum specified Fy and Fu of gusset plate material

Design strength should exceed Required Axial Tension Strength of brace

97

Example: SCBF Brace and Brace Connection (cont)


Ry Fy Ag

Bolts: Compute design shear strength using minimum specified Fu of bolt

Design strength should exceed Required Axial Tension Strength of brace

98

Example: SCBF Brace and Brace Connection (cont)


Ry Fy Ag

Net Section Fracture and Block Shear Fracture of Bracing Member:

Compute design strength using expected yield strength, RyFy and expected tensile strength, Rt Fu of the brace material.

99

Example: SCBF Brace and Brace Connection (cont)


Ry Fy Ag
For example: The required design strength for limit states of net section fracture and block shear is RyFyAg. Net section fracture: AeRtFu Block shear fracture: [Ant RtFu + 0.6 AnvRtFu] [Ant RtFu + 0.6AgvRyFy] Whenever the required strength is based on the expected yield strength of an element, then the design strength of that same element can be computed using expected yield and tensile strength.
100

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section D1.3 Member Requirements: Protected Zones Section D2.1 Connections: General
Start here and then discuss D1.3

Section D2.2 Bolted Joints Section D2.3 Welded Joints


Revisit Section A3.4 here

Section D2.4 Continuity Plates and Stiffeners

Section D2.5 Column Splices


Section D2.6 Column Bases

Discuss with Members


101

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D2.1 Connections: General

Connections, joints and fasteners that are part of the seismic force resisting system (SFRS) shall comply with the AISC Specification Chapter J, and with the additional requirements in this section.

102

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D2.2 Bolted Joints


Requirements for bolted joints: All bolts must be high strength (A325 or A490)

Bolted joints may be designed as bearing type connections, but must be constructed as slip critical - bolts must be pretensioned - faying surfaces must satisfy Class A surface reqs.
Holes: standard size or short-slots perpendicular to load (exception: oversize holes are permitted for diagonal brace connections, but the connection must be designed as slipcritical and the oversize hole is permitted in one ply only) Nominal bearing strength at bolt holes shall not be taken as greater than 2.4 d t Fu
103

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D2.2 Bolted Joints Bolts and welds shall not be designed to share force in a joint, or the same force component in a connection.

Not Permitted
104

Fig. C-D2.1. Desirable details that avoid shared forces between welds and bolts.

105

Fig. C-D2.1. Desirable details that avoid shared forces between welds and bolts.

106

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D2.3 Welded Joints


Welded joints shall be designed in accordance with Chapter J of the Specification.

A3.4a Seismic Force Resisting System Welds


All welds used in members and connections in the SFRS shall be made with filler metals meeting the requirements specified in clause 6.3 of Structural Welding CodeSeismic Supplement (AWS D1.8/D1.8M).

107

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.4a Seismic Force Resisting System Welds

108

AISC Seismic Provisions:

A3.4b Demand Critical Welds


Demand Critical subjected to very high demands; specifically identified in the Provisions in section applicable to designated SFRS Must ALSO satisfy:

109

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D1.3 Protected Zone


Discontinuities specified in Section I2.1 resulting from fabrication and erection procedures and from other attachments are prohibited in the area of a member or a connection element designated as a protected zone by these Provisions or ANSI/AISC 358.
Exception: Welded steel headed stud anchors and other connections are permitted in protected zones when designated in ANSI/AISC 358, or as otherwise determined with a connection prequalification in accordance with Section K1, or as determined in a program of qualification testing in accordance with Sections K2 and K3.

Attachments in the highly strained protected zones may serve as fracture initiation sites

110

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D1.3 Protected Zone


Some examples of prohibited attachments/ discontinuities:
No welded shear studs are permitted. No decking attachments that penetrate the beam flange are permitted (no powder actuated fasteners); but, decking arc spot welds are permitted. No welded, bolted, screwed, or shot-in attachments for edge angles, exterior facades, partitions, duct work, piping, etc are permitted. Discontinuities from fabrication or erection operations (such as tack welds, erection aids, etc) shall be repaired.

111

Examples of Protected Zones: SMF

Protected Zones

112

Examples of Protected Zones: SCBF

Protected Zones

113

Examples of Protected Zones: EBF

Protected Zones

114

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section D1.1 Member Requirements: Classification of Sections for Ductility Section D1.1a Section Requirements for Ductile Members Section D1.1b Width-to-Thickness Limitations of Steel and Composite Sections Section D1.4 Columns
Go back to:

Section D2.5 Column Splices

Section D2.6 Column Bases


115

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section D1.1 Member Requirements: Classification of Sections for Ductility


Local buckling of members can significantly affect both strength and ductility of the member. When required for the systems defined in Chapters E, F, G, H and Section D4, members designated as moderately ductile members or highly ductile members shall comply with this section.

Plastic rotation 0.02 rad or less

Plastic rotation 0.04 rad or more


116

AISC Seismic Provisions:

Section D1.1a Section Requirements for Ductile Members


Structural steel sections for both moderately ductile members and highly ductile members shall have flanges continuously connected to the web or webs.

Section D1.1b Width-to-Thickness Limitations of Steel and Composite Sections


For members designated as moderately ductile members, the width-to-thickness ratios of compression elements shall not exceed the limiting width-to-thickness ratios, md, from Table D1.1. For members designated as highly ductile members, the width-to-thickness ratios of compression elements shall not exceed the limiting width-to-thickness ratios, hd, from Table D1.1.
117

Local buckling of a moment frame beam.....

118

Local buckling of an EBF link.....

119

Local buckling of an HSS column....

120

Local buckling of an HSS brace.....

121

Effect of Local Buckling on Flexural Strength and Ductility


q
M

M
Mp

Increasing b / t

q
122

Effect of Local Buckling on Flexural Strength and Ductility Moment Capacity


Plastic Buckling

Mp Mr

Inelastic Buckling Elastic Buckling

hd md
Ductility

r
Width-Thickness Ratio

123

124

125

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D1.4a Columns: Required Strength


The required strength of columns in the SFRS shall be determined from the following:

(1) The load effect resulting from the analysis requirements for the applicable system (2) The compressive axial strength and tensile strength as determined using the load combinations stipulated in the applicable building code including the amplified seismic load. It is permitted to neglect applied moments in this determination unless the moment results from a load applied to the column between points of lateral support. (1.2 + 0.2 SDS) D + o QE + L +0.2S (1.2 - 0.2 SDS) D + o QE
126

AISC Seismic Provisions:

D1.4a Columns: Required Strength


The required axial compressive strength and tensile strength need not exceed either of the following: (a) The maximum load transferred to the column by the system, including the effects of material overstrength and strain hardening in those members where yielding is expected. (b) The forces corresponding to the resistance of the foundation to overturning uplift.

127

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices


Column splices in any SFRS frame must satisfy requirements of Section D1.4a (Required Strength for Columns)

Additional requirements for columns splices are specified for: - Moment Frames (Chapter E) - Braced Frames and Shear Walls (Chapter F) - Composite Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems (Chapter H)

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices


The required strength determined using the load combinations stipulated in the applicable building code including the amplified seismic load.

Pu - splice

The required strength need not exceed the maximum loads that can be transferred to the splice by the system.

Mu - splice Vu - splice

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices


Welded column splices subjected to net tension when subjected to amplified seismic loads, shall satisfy both of the following requirements: 1. If partial joint penetration (PJP) groove welded joints are used, the design strength of the PJP welds shall be at least 200-percent of the required strength. And.... The design strength of each flange splice shall be at least 0.5 Ry Fy Af for the smaller flange

2.

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices


PJP Groove Weld Stress concentration: Fracture initiation point. Design PJP groove weld for 200 % of required strength

( PJP Groove welds not permitted in column splices for Special and Intermediate Moment Frames)

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices


For all building columns including those not designated as part of the SFRS, the required shear strength of column splices with respect to both orthogonal axes of the column shall be Mpc/H (LRFD), where Mpc is the lesser nominal plastic flexural strength of the column sections for the direction in question, and H is the height of the story. The required shear strength of splices of columns in the SFRS shall be the greater of the above requirement or the required shear strength determined per Section D2.5b(a) and (b).

AISC Seismic Provisions: D2.5 Column Splices

Splices made with fillet welds or PJP welds shall be located at least 4-ft. from beam-to-column connections
4 ft. min