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DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES AND INTERPRETATION DETERMINATION REFERENCE RANGE Hematology 1.5 9.5 min.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Bleeding Time

Prolonged in thrombocytopenia, defective platelet function and aspirin therapy Deficient in classical hemophilia Prolonged in deficiency of fibrinogen, factors II,V,VIII,IX,X,XI And XII and in Heparin therapy Prolonged by deficiency of factors I, II, V, VII and X , fat malabsorption, severe liver disease, coumarin anticoagulant therapy Used to standardize the prothrombin time and anticoagulation therapy Increased in severe diarrhea and dehydration, polycythemia, acute poisoning, pulmonary fibrosis Decreased in all anemias, in leukemia, and after hemorrhage, when blood volume has been restored Increased in tissue destruction, whether inflammatory or degenerative, during menstruation and pregnancy and in acute febrile illness Decreased in severe anemias, anemia of preganancy, acute massive blood loss Increased in erythrocytosis of any cause and in dehydration or hemoconcentration associated with shock Decreased in various anemias, pregnancy, severe or prolonged hemorrhage, with excessive fluid intake Increased in polycythemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, failure of oxygenation because of CHF and normally in people living at high altitudes Increased in various infections Neutrophils increased with acute infections, trauma or surgery,

Factor VIII assay PTT ( activated ) PTT PT

60 % - 140 % 25-45 secs. ( normal 2.5 x control ) 60 70 secs. 9 14 secs.

INR Erythrocyte count

1.0 M F 4.6 6.2 x 1012/ L 4.2 5.4 x1012/ L

ESR Westergren meth. ESR Zeta Centrifuge Hematocrit

< 15-20 mm / H < 0.40-0.60

M; 42- 52 % F; 35 47 %

Hemoglobin

M; 13 18 gm / dl F; 12 16 gm / dl

WBC / leukocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils

5,000 10,000 /cu.mm 45 % 73 %

Basophils Lymphocytes Monocytes

0%-4% 0% - 1% 20 % 40 % 2% - 8 %

leukemia, malignant disease, necrosis, decreased with viral infections, bone marrow suppression, primary bone marrow disease Eosinophils increased in allergies, parasitic disease, collagen disease, subacute infections, decreased with stress, use of some medications ( ACTH, epinephrine, thyroxine) Basophils increased with acute leukemia and following surgery or trauma, decreased with allergic reactions, stress, parasitic disease, use of corticosteroids Lymphocytes increased with infectious mononucleosis, viral and some bacterial infections, hepatitis; decreased in aplastic anemia, SLE, immunodeficiency including AIDS Monocytes increased with viral infections, parasitic disease, collagen and hemolytic disorders, decreased with use of corticosteroids, RA, HIV infection Increased in malignancy, myeloproliferative disease, rheumatoid arthritis and post operatively Decreased in thrombocytopenic purpura, acute leukemia, aplastic anemia and during cancer chemotherapy

Platelet count

150,000450,000/cu.mm