Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Anal og Mul ti pl i ers

Recommended Text: Gray, P.R. & Meyer. R.G.,


Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (3
rd
Edition), Wiley (1992) pp. 667-681
www.electronics.dit.ie
Introduction
Nonlinear operations on continuous-valued analog signals are
often required in instrumentation, communication, and control-
system design.
These operations include
rectification,
modulation,
demodulation,
frequency translation,
multiplication, and
division.
In this chapter we analyze the most commonly used techniques
for performing multiplication and division within a monolithic
integrated circuit
www.electronics.dit.ie
In analog-signal processing the need often arises for a circuit
that takes two analog inputs and produces an output proportional
to their product.
Such circuits are termed analog multipliers.
In the following sections we examine several analog multipliers
that depend on the exponential transfer function of bipolar
transistors.
www.electronics.dit.ie
The Emitter-Coupled Pair
as a Simple Multiplier
The emitter-coupled pair, was shown in to
produce output currents that were related
to the differential input voltage by:
This relationship is plotted =>
and shows that the emitter-
coupled pair by itself can be
used as a primitive multiplier.
) / exp( 1
1
T id
EE
c
V V
I
I
+
=
) / exp( 1
2
T id
EE
c
V V
I
I
+
=
) 2 / tanh(
2 1 T id EE c c c
V V I I I I = =
) 2 / ( , 1 ) 2 / ( assuming or
T id EE c T id
V V I I V V = <<
www.electronics.dit.ie
The current I
EE
is actually the bias
current for the emitter-coupled pair.
With the addition of more circuitry, we
can make I
EE
proportional to a second
input signal.
Thus we have
The differential output current of the
emitter-coupled pair can be calculated to
give
) (
) ( 2 on BE i o EE
V V K I
T
on BE i id o
c
V
V V V K
I
2
) (

) ( 2


www.electronics.dit.ie
Two-Quadrant restriction
Thus we have produced a circuit that functions as a
multiplier under the assumption that Vid is small, and that
Vi2is greater than V
BE(on)
.
The latter restriction means that the multiplier functions in
only two quadrants of the Vid - Vi2 plane, and this type of
circuit is termed a two-quadrant multiplier.
The restriction to two quadrants of operation is a severe one
for many communications applications, and most practical
multipliers allow four-quadrant operation.
The Gilbert multiplier cell, shown, is a modification of the
emitter-coupled cell, which allows four-quadrant
multiplication.
www.electronics.dit.ie
Gilbert multiplier cell
The Gilbert multiplier cell is
the basis for most integrated-
circuit balanced multiplier
systems.
The series connection of an
emitter-coupled pair with two
cross-coupled, emitter-
coupled pairs produces a
particularly useful transfer
characteristic,.
) / exp( 1
1
1
3
T
c
c
V V
I
I
+
=
) / exp( 1
1
1
4
T
c
c
V V
I
I
+
=
) / exp( 1
1
2
5
T
c
c
V V
I
I
+
=
) / exp( 1
1
2
6
T
c
c
V V
I
I
+
=
www.electronics.dit.ie
Gilbert cell - DC Analysis
The two currents I
c1
and I
c2
are related to V2
Substituting I
c1
and I
c2
in expressions for
I
c3
, I
c4
, I
c5
and I
c6
get :
) / exp( 1
2
1
T
EE
c
V V
I
I
+
=
) / exp( 1
2
2
T
EE
c
V V
I
I
+
=
[ ][ ] ) / exp( 1 ) / exp( 1
2 1
3
T T
EE
c
V V V V
I
I
+ +
=
[ ][ ] ) / exp( 1 ) / exp( 1
2 1
4
T T
EE
c
V V V V
I
I
+ +
=
[ ][ ] ) / exp( 1 ) / exp( 1
2 1
5
T T
EE
c
V V V V
I
I
+ +
=
[ ][ ] ) / exp( 1 ) / exp( 1
2 1
6
T T
EE
c
V V V V
I
I
+ +
=
www.electronics.dit.ie
Gilbert cell Applications
The differential output current is then given by
The dc transfer characteristic, then, is the product of the hyperbolic tangent
of the two input voltages. The are three main application of Gilbert cell
depending of the V1 an V2 range:

and it woks as multiplier


(2) If one of the inputs of a signal that is large compared to V
T
, this
effectively multiplies the applied small signal by a square wave, and acts as a
modulator.
(3) If both inputs are large compared to V
T
, and all six transistors in the
circuit behave as nonsaturating switches. This is useful for the detection of
phase differences between two amplitude-limited signals, as is required in
phase-locked loops, and is sometimes called the phase-detector mode.
( ) ( ) ( )
) 2 / tanh( ) 2 / tanh(
2 1
5 4 6 3 6 4 5 3 6 4 5 3
T T EE
c c c c c c c c c c
V V V V I
I I I I I I I I I I I
=
= = + + = =

: then and If (1)
2 1 T T
V V V V < < 2 / ) 2 / tanh(
2 , 1 2 , 1 T T
V V V V
www.electronics.dit.ie
Gilbert cell as Multiplier
Thus for small-amplitude signals,
the circuit performs an analog
multiplication. Unfortunately, the
amplitudes of the input signals
are often much larger than V
T
,
An alternate approach is to
introduce a nonlinearity that
predistorts the input signals to
compensate for the hyperbolic
tangent transfer characteristic of
the basic cell.
The required nonlinearity is an
inverse hyperbolic tangent
characteristic
x V V V V
T T
+ + = < < .... 3 / x x tanh(x) : then and If (1)
3
2 1
www.electronics.dit.ie
Pre-warping circuit -
inverse hyperbolic tangent
We assume for the time being that the circuitry within the box develops a
differential output current that is linearly related to the input voltage 7i. Thus
Here I
o1
is the dc current that flows in each output lead if V1is equal to zero,
and K1 is the transconductance of the voltage-to-current converter
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
and V K I I V K I I
o o
= + =
The differential voltage developed across the
two diode-connected transistors is
Using the identity:
We get
And finally

+
=

+
=
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ln ln - ln
V K I
V K I
V
I
V K I
V
I
V K I
V V
o
o
T
s
o
T
s
o
T
( ) /2 x) - x)/(1 (1 ln x tanh
-1
+ =

=

1
1 1
1
tanh 2
o
T
I
V K
V V

=
2
2 2
1
1 1

o o
EE
I
V K
I
V K
I I
www.electronics.dit.ie
Complete Analog Multiplier

2 1 2 1
2
2
1
1
3
1 . 0 V V V V
I
K
I
K
K I V
o o
EE out
= =
www.electronics.dit.ie
Gilbert cell as a
Balanced Modulator
In communications systems, the need frequently arises for the multiplication
of a continuously varying signal by a square wave.
This is easily accomplished with the multiplier circuit by applying a
sufficiently large signal directly to the cross-coupled pair.
t V t V
m m m
cos ) ( =
4
/
2
sin where , cos ) (
1

n n
A t n A t V
n
n
c n c

= =

=
[ ]
( ) ( ) t t n t t n
V A
K
t n t V A K t V t V K t V
n c
n
n c
m n
c
n
m m n m c o


+ =
= = =

=
cos cos
2
cos cos ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
www.electronics.dit.ie
Spectra for balanced
modulator
The spectrum has components located at frequencies
m
above and below
each of the harmonics of
c
, but no component at the carrier frequency
c
or
its harmonics. The spectrum of the input signals and the resulting output
signal is shown below.
The lack of an output component at the carrier frequency is a very useful
property of balanced modulators. The signal is usually filtered following the
modulation process so that only the components near
c
. are retained
www.electronics.dit.ie
Gilbert cell as a
phase detector
If unmodulated signals of identical frequency coo are applied to the two
inputs, the circuit behaves as a phase detector and produces an output whose
dc component is proportional to the phase difference between thetwo inputs.
www.electronics.dit.ie
The output waveform that results is shown in Fig. 10.16c and consists of a dc
component and a component at twice the incoming frequency. The dc
component is given by:
where areas A1and A2are as indicated. Thus
[ ]
2 1
2
0
1
) ( ) (
2
1
A A t d t V V
o o average

= =

=
(

= 1
2


C EE C EE C EE average
R I R I R I V
If input signals are comparable to or
smaller than V
T
, the circuit still acts as
a phase detector.
However, the output voltage then
depends both on the phase difference
andon the amplitudeof the two input
waveforms
www.electronics.dit.ie