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CHAPTER 3 :BIODIVERSITY

1.

What is biodiversity?

Biodiversity is also know as biological diversity

Biodiversity refers to wide variety of organisms on earth

Observe the biodiversity in this rainforest

Where can we find biodiversity?

2. BIODIVERSITY

ANIMALS

PLANTS

1. There are two main groups of animals:


Animals

Vertebrates

Invertebrates

Animal with backbones

Animal without backbones

A. Invertebrates
a. More than 90% of animals are invertebrates b. Since invertebrates have no backbone, they are usually small in size. c. Examples:

Inserts such as ants, butterflies, flies, and cockroaches Spiders Crabs Prawns Worms Mollusks such as snails

B. Vertebrates
a. Smaller group compared to invertebrates. However, we are more familiar with this group of animals b. Since vertebrates have backbone to support their weight, many vertebrates are large in size

c. Examples:
Elephants Eagles

Whales Snakes Frogs Clown fish

Classification of vertebrates
Vertebrates

Amphibians Fish

Birds Mammals

Reptiles

Sword Fish

Lampam Banded Leaf Fish

1.Common characteristics of fish


Body covered with slimy scales for protection

Have fins and tail to swim Streamlined bodies to swim well Breathe through gills Cold-blooded (body temperature changes with the surrounding temperature)
Lay eggs

Carry out external fertilization (eggs are fertilized outside the female body)

Toad

Salamander

1. Common characteristics of amphibians Body covered with moist skin

Adults can live on land and water Adults breathe with lung on land and through moist skin when in water Cold-blooded (body temperature changes with the surrounding temperature)
Lay eggs covered with jelly-like substance Young amphibians live in water and breathe through gills Carry out external fertilization (eggs are fertilized outside the female body)

Tortoises Snake

Crocodile

1. Common characteristics of reptiles


Body covered with hard and dry scales for protection Breathe with lungs Cold-blooded (body temperature changes with surrounding temperature)

Lay eggs with leathery shells


Carry out internal fertilization (eggs are fertilized inside the female body)

Kingfisher
Hornbill

1.Common characteristics of birds


Body covered with feathers

Have wings and beak Breathe with lungs


Warm-blooded (body temperature remains constant)

Lay eggs with hard shells


Carry out internal fertilization (eggs are fertilized inside the female body)

Camel

Orangutan

Tiger

Rhinoceros

Elephant

1. Common characteristics of mammals Body covered with hair or fur Breathe with lungs Warm-blooded (body temperature remains constant) Give birth to live young

Carry out internal fertilization (eggs are fertilized inside the female body)
Young mammals feed on milk from their mothers mammary glands

Plants
Flowering Plants
Examples

Non-flowering Plants
Examples

Plants

Produce flowers

Do not produce flowers

Single blade leaves

Leaves divided Into leaflets

Needle-like leaves

Leaves divided into leaflets

Leave with Leaves with parallel veinsnetwork-like veins Leaves with parallel veins Leaves with network-like veins

Non-flowering plants
Further divided to conifers, ferns, mosses, and algae Conifers Reproduce by seeds produced in cones

Have needle-like leaves Example: casuarinas, pine


Ferns Reproduced by spores on the underside of leaves Example: Birds nest fern, stags horn fern

Mosses Reproduce by spores produced in capsules

Example: White moss


Algae Very simple plants

No proper roots, stems, leaves


Example: Seaweed

Flowering plants
Produce flower for reproduction Flower fruits and seeds new plants Based on the seeds they produce, flowering plants can be further divided into 2 groups
Flowering plants

Monocotyledons Have seeds with one cotyledon

Dicotyledons Have seeds with two cotyledon

Each seed has only one cotyledon

One cotyledon

A maize grain cut into half

Their leaves have parallel veins

Parallel veins Maize

Fibrous roots
They have fibrous roots

Mostly are herbaceous plant (plants with non-woody stems)

Examples: Grasses, sugar cane, banana, paddy, and orchid plants

Each seed has two cotyledons


Two cotyledons

A green bean (split into two)

Their leaves have network-like veins

Balsam plant

Network-like veins

Tap root
They have fibrous tap roots

They may be trees, shrubs or herbaceous Examples: Rubber and durian trees, hibiscus, morning glory and sunflower plants