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The Vascular

System
(AS Revision)

Name:
Tutor:

Clayesmore School

The Vascular
System
You should have revised the following work
before attempting these questions:

i.The effect of warming up and cooling down


ii.The mechanisms of venous return
iii.The effect of venous return on cardiac
output
iv.Blood pressure during systole/diastole and
values and the effect of exercise
v.Neural, hormonal and intrinsic control

1.

Why should a performer warm up before a training run?


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[3]

2.

Following the release of oxygen at the tissues the blood is returned to the heart
(venous return).
Identify the mechanisms that aid venous return during exercise.
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Give reasons why a good venous return helps an endurance performer.
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[4]

3.

The skeletal pump mechanism is one way of helping to maintain venous return.
Describe three other mechanisms involved in venous return.
Explain the importance of the skeletal pump mechanism during an active cool-down.
[5]

Clayesmore School

4.

Blood pressure can be described as the tension of blood within the blood vessel.
Complete the table below identifying the name and blood pressure value for an adult at
rest in both phases of the cardiac cycle.
Contraction Phase

Relaxation Phase

Name of Blood Pressure


Value of Blood Pressure
What changes would you expect to occur to blood pressure during exercise?
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[5]

5.

Increases in heart rate during physical activity are controlled by various factors in the
cardiac system.
How do neural factors regulate heart rate during physical activity and during a period of
gradual recovery?
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[5]

6.

Venous return is the transport of deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart.
Give three mechanisms which maintain venous return during exercise.
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An increase in venous return can improve performance.
Explain how the increase in blood flow affects cardiac output.
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[6]

1.

3 marks maximum:
1.

An increase in muscle temperature

2.

This allows greater stretch in the muscles/oxygen dissociates from haemoglobin


quicker

3.

Decreases risk of injury/prevents injury

4.

Nerve impulse conduction is quicker

5.

Improves muscle contraction speed/faster reaction time/improved


co-ordination of antagonistic pairs

6.

Increase in heart rate/respiratory rate/stroke volume/cardiac output

7.

This increases blood flow/increased oxygen delivery

8.

Increased enzyme activity/hormonal activity

9.

More energy available in muscles

10.

Blood vessels within the muscle dilate/pre capillary sphincters/


capillaries dilate at muscle

11.

Pre capillary sphincters/capillaries constrict at organs/


Redistribution of blood flow from organs to muscles/vascular shunt

12.

Reduces blood viscosity

Clayesmore School

[3]

2.

4 marks in total
sub max 2 marks
1.

Valves

2.

Respiratory pump

3.

(Skeletal) muscle pump

4.

Venoconstriction of veins/venomotor tone

5.

Gravity forces blood from above heart

sub max 2 marks


6.

Increase stroke volume

7.

Increase cardiac output

8.

Therefore more blood/oxygen supplied to working muscles

9.

Greater amounts of carbon dioxide removed via lungs


[4]

3.

Skeletal pump mechanism.


1 mark per point max 3:

valves in the veins allows blood to travel in one direction only - back to the heart;

respiratory pump mechanism. Pressure/volume changes in thoracic cavity during


breathing puts pressure on the abdominal veins moving blood back to the heart;

venoconstriction of veins/venomotor tone. Smooth muscle in the vessel walls


helps to move blood back to the heart;

gravity moves blood from areas of the body that are above the heart.

1 mark per point max 2 for importance of maintaining the skeletal pump
mechanism:

contracting muscles squeeze walls of blood vessels forcing blood back to the
heart;

prevents blood pooling/sudden drop in blood pressure;

helps remove waste products/carbon dioxide/lactic acid.


[5]

4.

4 marks
Contraction Phase

Relaxation
Phase

Name of Blood
Pressure

1. Systolic

2. Diastolic

Value of Blood
Pressure

3. 100 130 mm
Hg

4. 70 90 mm
Hg

Must have exact values ie mm Hg


1 mark
5.

Increases
Accept Diastolic remains the same/Systolic increase
[5]

Clayesmore School

5.

5 marks during activity in total. 1 mark per point max 5: Sub max 4 for points 1
7
During activity
1.

Chemoreceptors detect decreases in O2/ pH of the blood/increases acidity


/CO2/Lactic acid

2.

Proprioreceptors detect movement

3.

Baroreceptors detect increases in blood pressure

4.

Messages are sent to the cardiac control centre/ CCC (in the medulla oblongata)
Accept stimulate CCC

5.

S/A node stimulated / the (cardiac) accelerator nerve


Accept SA node reference only when linked to physical activity
(not recovery)

6.

The sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate

During recovery
7.

Chemoreceptors detect increases in the O2/ pH of the blood/ decreases in


acidity /co2/Lactic acid

8.

Proprioreceptors detect reduction in movement

9.

Baroreceptors detect decreases in blood pressure

10.

Messages are sent (to the S/A node) via the vagus nerve

11.

The parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate.


[5]

6.

6 marks
Mechanisms sub max 3. Mark first three answers only.
1

skeletal or muscular or muscle pump

(pocket) valves

respiratory (muscle) pump

smooth muscle

gravity from above the heart


Accept accurate descriptions
Do not accept gravity on own

Explain how the increase in blood flow affects cardiac output. sub max 3
Frank-Starlings law (of the heart)
6

more blood returning to the right atrium or heart increase in blood flow/ increased
venous return = Rep

increased stretch of the myocardium or heart wall (during ventricular diastole) /


increased end diastolic volume EDV or end diastolic volume

causing greater force of contraction (during ventricular systole) / decreased end


systolic volume ESV for end systolic volume

(as SV = EDV-ESV) stroke volume increases/more blood pumped out of the


heart per beat SV for stroke volume

10

cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume Q or CO for cardiac output

11

(therefore) cardiac output increases

12

(more blood returning to the right atrium or heart) directly stimulates or triggers
the SA node or causes increased firing rate of SA node (which increases heart
rate) pacemaker
[6]

Clayesmore School