Anda di halaman 1dari 6

1.

Carbohydrates are a valuable source of energy. Why is it important for a performer to ensure that they have adequate supplies of carbohydrate? How can a performer make sure that they dont deplete their stores of carbohydrate?
[6]

2.

Explain what is meant by the term metabolic equivalent/MET. How can knowledge of METs be useful to a performer?
[4]

3.

What is meant by the term obesity and to what extent does being obese impact on the health of an individual?
[6]

4.

The Government has plans to measure the height and weight of all children in primary schools. If children are too fat then parents will get a letter with Change4Life tips and information they need to make informed decisions about their childs health. Explain how the BMI (body mass index) of an individual is calculated and examine the long term health implications of childhood obesity. To what extent would a thirty minute-a-day exercise programme help the children to lead a healthier lifestyle?
[20]

1.

6 marks in total Sub max 3 marks why are they important 1 2 3 carbohydrate is the only fuel that can be broken down anaerobically/needed for high intensity work for more than 10 secs carbohydrate can also be broken down aerobically/main fuel for first 20 mins of exercise carbohydrate is needed to ensure the efficient breakdown of fats 4 there are limited stores of carbohydrate in the body 5 carbohydrates contain 4Kcals per gram

sub max 3 marks how can stores be maintained 6 7 8 9 performer can eat a high carbohydrate diet performer can carbo-load before an event/glycogen sparing performer can eat a high carbohydrate meal before the event (low GI foods) performer can drink/eat carbohydrates during event eg banana/sports drink 10 performer can replace carbohydrates used immediately after the event (high GI foods/drink) 11 pacing during event/take opportunities to recover
[6]

Clayesmore School

2.

4 marks in total Sub max 3 marks what is meant by 1 2 3 4 5 6 MET/metabolic equivalent is a way of expressing energy cost is the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate it estimates the energy cost of an activity by amount of oxygen consumed one MET is equivalent to the resting VO2 (3.5 ml/kg/min) one MET is equal to a specific calorific amount (0.0175kcal/kg/min or 1kcl/kg/hr) sub max 2 marks how it helps the performer low intensity activity will be equivalent to small number of METS (eg walking is 2METS)/high intensity activity higher number of METS/to know how hard they are working can calculate the overall energy cost of a training session/workload can adjust diet according to the number of calories burned can use METS to estimate BMR
[4]

7 8 9

3.

6 marks in total Sub max 2 marks (def obesity) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 a condition where there is excess body weight due to an abnormal accumulation of fat/eating more calories than are used over a period of time defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more Sub max 5 marks (how obesity affects health) excess weight makes it more difficult to exercise (as the body has to work harder to carry additional weight) contributes to CHD/heart attacks/problems/angina/stroke build up of low density lipoproteins (LDL)/cholesterol this can lead to development of fatty plaques in arteries / atherosclerosis/arteriosclorosis raises risk of cancer more likely to develop (type 2) diabetes / overweight people develop insulin resistance / high blood glucose develop fatty liver disease/fat accumulates round the liver leading to inflammation increases risk of hypertension/high blood pressure/arteries become partially blocked by fatty deposits/narrows lumen of artery/greater peripheral resistance develop deep vein thrombosis develop respiratory problems, breathlessness/sleep apnoea back pain/immobility/lordosis/posture joint degeneration/osteoarthritis some athletes are considered obese because of high BMI; 16 leads to low selfesteem/psychological problems/bullying
[6]

Clayesmore School

4. L4 18-20 marks There is detailed knowledge and good understanding of the topic. The candidate demonstrates detailed knowledge and excellent understanding of factors that enable young people to be physically active. The candidate demonstrates excellent critical evaluation of current key influences affecting young peoples involvement in physical activity. There is evidence of well-argued, independent opinion and judgements supported by sound examples. Accurate technical and specialist vocabulary is used throughout. There is a high standard of written communication.

Discriminators from L3 are likely to include: Accurate calculation of BMI; Identification and description of several health conditions as a result of being obese; A full understanding of the relationship between calorific intake and calorific output; Comprehensive explanation of the benefits of aerobic activity; Identification of and reasoned account as to why some activities e.g. high impact activities would not be suitable. L3 13-17 marks There is good knowledge and clear understanding of the topic. The candidate demonstrates substantial knowledge and understanding of factors enabling young people to be physically active. The candidate demonstrates good critical evaluation of current key influences affecting young peoples involvement in physical activity. Independent opinions and judgements will be present but towards the bottom of this level, not always supported by sound examples. Technical and specialist vocabulary is used with some accuracy. Written communication is generally fluent with few errors.

Discriminators from L2 are likely to include: Know the correct method of calculation of BMI; Identification of the main health conditions as a result of being obese; An understanding of the relationship between calorific intake and calorific output; An explanation of the benefits of aerobic activity; An example of an activity e.g. high impact activity, that would not be suitable for an obese child.

L2 8-12 marks

There is basic knowledge and limited understanding of the topic The candidate demonstrates knowledge and understanding of some factors enabling young people to be physically active. The candidate demonstrates some critical evaluation of current key influences affecting young peoples involvement in physical activity. Opinion and judgement may be unsupported. Technical and specialist vocabulary is used with limited success. Written communication lacks fluency and there will be errors Discriminators from L1 are likely to include: An awareness of the height/weight ratio when calculating BMI (but not the precise calculation); Identification of a minimum of two health conditions as a result of being obese; Reference is made to the relationship between calorific intake and calorific output; Identification of aerobic activity as a means to lose weight. There is limited knowledge and little understanding of the topic. The candidate demonstrates limited and superficial knowledge and understanding of some factors enabling young people to be physically active. The candidate demonstrates little relevant critical evaluation of current key influences affecting young peoples involvement in physical activity. Opinion and judgement are almost entirely absent. Little or no attempt is made to use technical and specialist vocabulary. Errors in Written communication will be intrusive.

L1 0-7 marks

Indicative content BMI is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both men and women; it is your weight in kilograms divided by the square of your height in metres; you are obese if your BMI is 30 or above.

Clayesmore School

Childhood obesity could lead to the following conditions high blood pressure (additional strain on the CVS); high LDL - cholesterol/atherosclerosis (linked to CHD); Caused by high fat / sugar diet high blood glucose/diabetes; premature CHD (coronary heart disease)*; increase in number of fat cells; joint degeneration/osteoarthritis; lower back pain caused by additional weight and poor posture; Weight related obese children are less mobile and have reduced flexibility; obese children are less active as they have to work harder to carry; the additional weight therefore problem gets worse; certain types of cancer.

To what extent would exercise help: children will only lose weight when their calorific output is higher than their calorific intake; calorific output equals BMR (basal metabolic rate) plus additional energy used during activity so exercise can lead to weight reduction; exercise should be continuous, sub-maximal activity to result in adaptations to the CVR systems and improvement in VO2 max; exercise reduces hypertension; high intensity, high impact activity might put too much stress on joints; children will only benefit from the exercise if they dont eat more to compensate for calorie output; activity should not initially be weight bearing because of stress on joints e.g. swim, cycle; gradually increase intensity of activity as fitness levels improve (aerobic capacity/strength/flexibility) and weight is reduced (less adipose tissue).
[20]