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Concept & Proposed Integrated Employee Engagement Model Presentation

Vinay Ravindran

Presentation Flow
Why Engagement is important Definition of Engagement Three Types of Employees Gallup Questionnaire Current State of Employee Engagement Types of Commitment Quote Drivers of Engagement Employees reaction towards five core job dimensions Job Demand Resource Model Behavior linked with Employees Managerial Trustworthiness Components of Transformational Leadership Perception of Fairness Trait Engagement Psychological Conditions of Engagement Drivers of Perceived organization support Psychological State Engagement Cognitions reflecting work & role Orientation Critical Information for Empowerment Characteristics of Engagement Dimensions of Organization Citizenship behavior Model of Antecedents & Consequence of employee engagement A reflection of employee engagement models and its drivers stated by different Management Gurus .

Proposed Integrated Model of Employee Engagement for my current Employer


End results of Employee Engagement

Why is Employee Engagement so important

Engaged Employees will be key to competetitive advantage with changing nature of work & diversity of workforce.

Companies that have understood the conditions that enhance the employee engagement has created a work culture which competitors will find very

difficult to imitate

Why is Employee Engagement so important

In fast changing business environment it is difficult to precisely specify roles and responsibilities and employees had to make decisions based on ambiguous situations.

Many employees are looking for environments where they can be be engaged and feel that they are contributing in a positive way to something larger than themselves

Definition of Engagement
Attitudinal & Behavioral Definition of Engagement
the illusive force that motivates employees to higher or lower levels of performance. Engagement can be characterized by energy , involvement, and efficacy.

Wellins &

Concelman

Maslach

Dvir

Defined active engagement as high levels of activity, initiative & responsibility


.

Schaufeli

Positive , fulfilling work related state of mind that is chracertrised by vigor, dedication, and absorption.

Question remains engagement is a unique concept or merely a repacking of other constructs, different researcher has have defined engagement both attitudinally and behaviorally

Say, Stay Strive

Gallup Questionnaire

Current State of Employee Engagement

Engagement

Above basic loyalty to the employer

Engagement

Beyond simple satisfaction with the employment arrangement

Commitment

Affective Commitment

Employees who want to belong to the organization.

Continuance Commitment

Employees who need to belong to the organization

Quote

Drivers of Engagement
JOB CHARACTERSTICS
Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Task Autonomy Job Feedback Job Resources Job Demands ROLE Role Clarity Role Fit COWORKERS Social Identity Support Trust MANAGEMENT Support Clear Expectations Feedback Recognization Trustworthiness Consistency Integrity Fairness LEADERSHIP Transformational Openness Vision PERCEPTION OF FAIRNESS Distributive Procedural Interactional
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF ENGAGEMENT Meaningfulness Psychological Safety Psychological Availability Perceived Organization Support Psychological Contract Fulfillment

HR SYSTEM Organization Design Job Design Staffing Rewards Training & Development Performance Management Leadership & Development Work Life Benefits

TRAITS Proactive Personality Autotelic Personality Positive Affectivity Conscientiousness Self Efficacy Self Esteem Locus of Control

PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE OF ENGAGEMENT Job Involvement Empowerment Affective Commitment Positive Affectivity

BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT Organizational Citizenship Behavior Performance;,Profienciency; adaptivity;resiliency, innovation

STRATEGIC OUTCOMES Productivity Quality Customer Satisfaction

FINANCIAL /MARKET PERFORMANCE revenue profits Market Value

Drivers of Engagement

HR System is primary driver of employee engagement

Staffing, Training and development practices contribute to the development of employee competencies that enhance competitive advantage .

Rewards, benefits and performance management practices help motivate employees to behave in a way that benefit the organization.

Organization and job designs help to create a work environment that is conducive to employees development and effective work systems.

Effective Management & Leadership development helps to ensure productive fair working environment

Drivers of Engagement

Including

EMPLOYEE REACT POSITIVELY TO FIVE CORE JOB DIMENSIONS


The Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and a number of different skills to carry out the work,

Skill Variety

Task Identity

The Degree to which the job requires completing a whole piece of work from beginning to end with a visible outcome
.

Task Significance

The degree to which the job as a substantial impact on the lives of other people in the immediate organization or external environment

Autonomy

The Degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to carry out the work.

Feedback

The degree to which the individuals obtains direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance

Job Demand Resources Model


Physical , psychological social or organizational feature s that are related psychological and or psychological costs (work over load, job insecurity, role ambiguity, role conflict.)

Job Demand

The Job demands may become stressors in situations that require high effort to sustain an expected performance level consequently eliciting negative response , including burnout

Job Resources

Physical , psychological social or organizational features of a job that help achieve work goals , reduce , job demands, and stimulates personal growth learning and development(Job control, access to information, performance feedback, and social support

Relationship of resources to Demands

High job resources relative to job demands promote engagement , whereas low job resources relative to job demands contribute to burnout and reduced engagement.

Coworkers

BASIS FOR

Cognitive

Affective

INTERPERSONAL

TRUST

When People are working together they share beliefs and affective experiences and thus show similar motivational and behavioral patterns .

Coworkers

Coworkers may feel collective emotions, collective moods or group affective tone.

Share perceived collective efficacy

Affective Relations among group are also referred as morale, cohesion & rapport

Show high group potency and share engagement as a motivational construct.

Be involved in positive as well as negative psychological contagion process.

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Supervisors who foster a supportive work environment

Develop new skills

Categories of behavior linked with Employees perceptions of Managerial Trustworthiness

Behavioral Consistency Behaving in the same manner across time and contexts.

Behavioral Integrity Consistency between words and deeds.

Sharing and delegation of control Employee Participation in decision making.

Communication Accuracy, explanations & Openness Accurate explanations for managerial actions.

Demonstration of Concern Consideration, protecting employees interests and refraining from exploitation.

Components of Transformational Leadership

Idealized Influence
* .

Inspirational Motivation

Intellectual Stimulation
*

Individualized Consideration
*

Perception of fairness

Distributive Justice Procedural Justice Interactional Justice

The fairness of outcome distributions.

The fairness of the procedure used to determine outcome distributions.

The fairness and quality of

interpersonal treatment
employees experience.

Trait Engagement

Autotelic Personality
* A General propensity to mentally transform potential threats into enjoyable challenges

Trait Positive Affectivity


* A proclivity for active interaction with ones environment that might lead to expansive and friendly behaviors resulting in more effective relationships with coworkers and superiors Proactive Personality
* Consistently taking action and overcoming opposition to change things for the better.

Conscientiousness
* Dependability, carefullness,throughness,res ponsibility,and perseverance

Psychological Conditions of Engagement


Psychological Meaningfulness Psychological Safety Psychological Availability

A feeling that one is receiving a return on investments of ones self in a currency of physical, cognitive, or emotional energy.

The employees sense of being able to show and employ ones self without fear of negative consequence to self image , status of career.

An individuals belief that he /she has the physical , emotional , or cognitive, resources to engage the self at work.

Dimensions of Psychological Meaningfulness

Dimensions of psychological Safety

-Employees feel that they make a significant contribution towards the achievement of organizational goals. -Employees feel that the organization adequately recognizes their contributions. -Employees feel that their work is challenging and conducive to personal growth.

- Management is perceived as flexible and supportive and employees feel control over their work. - Organization roles and norms are perceived as clear. - Employees feel free to express their true feelings and core aspects of their self concept in work roles.

Dimensions of Psychological Availability

Physical Demands
Most jobs require some level of physical challenges that may result in injuries.

Emotional Demands
Some Jobs require much emotional labor the frequency , duration and intensity of emotional displays can decrease emotional resources and lead to exhaustion.

Cognitive Demands
Some roles require most information processing than in individuals can handle overwhelming their ability to think clearly with too many balls in the air.

Drivers of perceived Organization Support

Fairness

Supervisor

Support

Drivers for perceived Organization Support

Favorable Job Conditions

Organization Rewards

Association with Psychological Contract Fulfillment

Positive
Job Satisfaction

Negative
Intention to quit

Organization Commitment

Organization Citizenship Behavior

Performance

Psychological State Engagement

Supervisory Behaviors
Job Characteristics
A k l u o t n o m y s i l , i t v a e r y t a d , & s k E C i d , g i n s r a t o i i i n o e & t c p a o n

i t

Individual Differences
E i n g t n r , i t m o v a t i o n a e l

Antecedent Influences on Job Involvement

Attention
-

Role Engagement

Absorption
-

Meaning

Competence

Self Determination

Impact

Psychological Empowerment

Cognitions Reflecting work Role Orientations


Meaning Competence Self determination Impact

Critical Information for Empowerment

People wont take initiative until they understand an organizations direction. Helps to create a sense of meaning and purpose. Enhance an individuals ability to make /influence decisions aligned with the organization's goals

People need to understand how well their work units are performing in order to maintain /improve performance in the future.

Mission of the Organization

Performance Information

Commitment Types
Affective Commitment EMPLOYEE REMAIN BECAUSE THEY WANT TO
Develops due to personal involvement identification with relevant target and value congruence.

Continuance Commitment EMPLOYEE REMAIN BECAUSE THEY NEED TO


Develops as a result of accumulated investments, or side bets, that would be lost if the individuals discontinued a course of action or chose an alternative to the present course

Normative Commitment EMPLOYEE REMAIN BECAUSE THEY OUGHT TO


Develops as a function of cultural and organizational socialization and the receipt of benefits that activate a need to reciprocate.

Critical Information for Empowerment

Identification

Individuals adopt attitude and behaviors in order to be associated with a satisfying , self defining relationship with another person or group.

Internalization

Individuals adopt attitudes and behaviors because their content is congruent with their own value systems.

Characteristics of Engagement

Vigor

High levels of energy and resilience, the willingness to invest effort in ones job the ability to not be easily fatigued, and persistence in the face of difficulties.

Dedication

A strong involvement in ones work , accompanied by feelings of enthusiasm and significance, and by a sense of pride and inspiration.

Absorption

A pleasant state of total immersion in oness work , which is characterized by time passing quickly and being able to detach oneself from the job.

Dimensions of Organizational Citizens Behavior

Altruism

Conscientiousness

Courtesy

Sportsmanship

Civic Duty

Helping others with their work, orienting new people.

Being on time , having good attendance making proper use of work time.

Notifying others before acting in a way that will affect them .

Maintaining a positive attitude and not complaining.

Attending meetings , reading organizational commitment


.

Independence Factors in Modern performance concept

Adaptivity
fulfills the prescribed or predictable requirements of the role. Copes with respond to and supports change. initiates change , is self starting and future directed.

Proficiency

Proactivity

Model of Antecedents & Consequence of Employee Engagement

A Reflection of Employee Engagement Models & Drivers studied by Different Management Gurus.

Irmer & Jorgensen

Boston Consulting

Zinger Model Engagement for Results

Employees
I M P O R T A N C E A G R E E M E N M T EMPLOYEE FRUSTRATION

Managers

VALUE CONFLICT

ORGANISATION STRAIN

DELIVERY CONFLICT

Towers Perrin

Employee Engagement Grid

c
.

3 Components of Employee Engagement

Engagement Model

Four Dimensions of Employee Engagement

Engagement Model

Engagement Model

Connection between Engagement and Well -being

Source: www.abhishekmittal.com

Engagement Model

Engagement Model

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Engagement Model

Model of Hierarchy of engagement by Penna

The CIPD model of Employee Engagement

BW Model Five Levels of Engagement

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BW Model Five Levels of Engagement

Engagement Drivers

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The Components of Engagement

Employee Engagemt APGAR : Are you a Perfect 10 ?


What is your Engagement APGAR Score ? Activity, Pulse , Grimace, Appearance, Respiration

APGAR Sign
Activity
(Getting Results )

2
I accomplish a lot every day I am full of heartfelt caring Work is grin I am happy I am fully at workfocused and present Work is inspiring

1
Okay mix of activity and rest I am still breathing I am mostly happy working I am mostly at work when I am there I am still breathing

0
Counting days to retirement I repulse work

Pulse
(caring for your work )
1 0 0

Grimace
(Happiness at Work)
g

Work is grim , I am not happy I put in an occasional appearance Work is suffocating

Appearance
(Fully Engaged at work)

Respiration
(Inspiration)

Score out of 10

Source:www.inveniamblue.com

Engagement & Depression , Anxiety

Engagement Pyramid

source : www. rob-berman.com

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AAA Model of Engagement

IME Model of Employee Engagement

Individuals: Ownership, clarity and action. Individuals need to know what they
want and what the organization needs and then take action to achieve both.

Managers: Coaching, relationships and dialogue. Managers must understand each


individuals talents, interests and needs and then match those with the organizations objectives while at the same time creating personal, trusting relationships. Furthermore, they need to discuss engagement often.

Executives: Trust, communication and culture. Executives have to demonstrate consistency in words and actions, communicate a lot (and with a lot of depth), and align all business practices and behaviors throughout the organization to drive results and engagement.

Engagement Model

House of Engagement

Research Analysis

Proposed Integrated Model of Employee Engagement

Employee Alignment towards Brand Communication & Feedback Infrastructure Display of Genuine Concern

Job Design

Managerial Leadership Display

Explanation in next Slide

Proposed Model for Current Employer


Employee Perception of Brand Alignment / Pride
-Employee Alignment towards brand -Clear understanding of Vision , Mission and Departmental Strategy .

Communication/ Feedback -Consistent communication related to employees work and role.


- Micro level Communication related to happenings in the department and macro level communication of organization

Managerial / Leadership Behavioral Display -Consistency in Behavior (Behaving the same way in all times and contexts
-Integrity of Behavior (Consistency between words and deeds & explanations of managerial actions.) -Visible behavior regarding discouraging sycophants. (encouraging zero level office politics) -Employees perception of Fairness in PMS, Training Nomination, sharing information regarding employees concern. - Concern in rewarding employees fairly on achieving Targets/ outstanding work.

Job Design
-Task Significance , Task Feedback, Job Resource, Workload Assessment -Clear Reporting Structure Understanding & Workload Assessment -Compensation fairness

Infrastructure -Organization infrasturce with all basis amenities.


-HR / Admin Support in basic maters -Platform for socializing the employees.

Genuine Concern -Genuine concern & care for employee well being .
-Genuine concern for employee development

* Need to work on devising and strengthening each drivers through HR Interventions

End Results of Employee Engagement

Positively Engaged

Negatively Engaged

Humor